VIEWS: 29 PAGES: 25 POSTED ON: 8/26/2011
Photography Photography • Photography is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light- sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. • Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose a sensitive silver halide based chemical or electronic medium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera that also stores the resulting information chemically or electronically. Photography • The word "photography" comes from the French photographie which is based on the Greek words φως phos ("light"), and γραφίς graphis ("stylus", "paintbrush") or γραφή graphê ("representation by means of lines" or "drawing"), together meaning "drawing with light." Photography • Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or "raw file" (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. • Modern digital cameras replace film with an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Digital SLR • Single Lens Reflex • Uses an automatic mirror system placed between the lens and the image sensor to direct the image from the lens through the viewfinder where it can be viewed by the photographer. Digital SLR • The basic operation of a DSLR, having the mirror reflecting the image away from the image sensor except briefly during the exposure, precludes the ability to see the image in the LCD display before the picture is taken, a major difference from the way an ordinary digital camera (digicam) works. • Some newer DSLR models feature an option generally known as "live preview" that does allow the image to be seen on the LCD display, although with certain limitations and with the optical viewfinder disabled. Parts of a Camera • Lens: The lens is the part of the camera (or an attachment for the camera) that focuses light into the body and onto the film. • The aperture is also contained within the lens. The Lens • Aperture: The aperture is an adjustable opening in the lens used to allow light onto the film or digital surface. • The size of the aperture is measured by the F- Stop setting. The larger opening of the aperture results in less light needed to expose the image and less depth of field (less in focus). • A smaller opening of the aperture results in more light needed to expose the image and more depth of field (more in focus). Body - Shutter • Shutter: An opaque piece of metal or plastic inside your camera that prevents light from reaching the film or digital sensor. • The shutter is opened, or released, by the shutter release button. • The amount of time the shutter stays open is controlled by the shutter speed setting. Photography • How to take a picture. Photography is full of rules and to get us started, you have to do two things when taking a photograph. • Compose: This is the creative or artistic bit where you arrange all of the elements of your picture within the frame or viewfinder to produce what should hopefully be a pleasing composition. • Expose: This is the scientific and mechanical bit where you expose your film to light through the lens of your camera and if you are lucky preserve the image for posterity. Composition • Composition is "something that is created by arranging several things to form a unified whole". • That is exactly what it is. The composition of your photograph is the combination of elements coming together to create the whole image. Composition 3 basic ways to arrange the elements within your composition. 1. Physically move objects relative to each other. Only really works with still life photography. 2. Tell people to move relative to each other or other objects. 3. Move ! Usually the most effective way to control your composition is to alter your viewpoint. Subject • What is your photograph about? Without knowing the answer to this question your image will never work. Your subject is what you want the viewer to see first when they look at your image. Rule of Thirds Rule of Thirds • The rule of thirds is a compositional rule of thumb in photography and other visual arts such as painting. • The rule of thirds explains where to place your subject in the image. Imagine that your image is divided into nine equal squares, basically a tic- tac-toe board with the lines equally spaced. • The four points formed by the intersections of these lines can be used to align features in the photograph. Rule of Thirds Rule of Thirds Background and Foreground • A photograph is a 2 dimensional representation of a 3 dimensional scene. This means that the camera effectively "flattens" the scene. • Background is anything behind your subject. If there is a tree directly behind a person's head it will appear that the tree is growing out of their head. Likewise, a fence could seem to grow out of the side of a person. • Foreground is anything in front of your subject. Foreground is just as important. If you are shooting a beautiful lake sunset but there is an ugly tire in the water's edge the photograph can be ruined. Focus • Will your subject be sharply focused or fuzzy? Will you have the foreground and the subject in focus but the background fuzzy? How fuzzy will the background be? Focus will make or break your image. • This is where aperture, F-Stop, and depth of field come into play. • Aperture is the size of the opening inside you lens that lets light to the film or digital surface. • F-Stop is the measurement of the aperture. • Depth of field is a term telling you how much of your scene will be in focus or blurry. Depth of Field • the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. • For a given subject framing, the DOF is controlled by the lens f-number. Increasing the f-number (reducing the aperture diameter) increases the DOF F-Number Increments Depth of Field f-number Increments f/22 f/4 f/2.8 F-Stop • A good rule of thumb regarding your F- Stop is to remember that the larger the F- Stop number, the more of the scene will be in focus and the more light you need to record the image. • Conversely, the smaller the F-Stop number, the less of the scene will be in focus and the less light you need to record the image. Photography • Fill the frame. Sometimes your mind tends to exaggerate what you see through the viewfinder of your camera. You often perceive things a bit bigger than they actually are and you also tend not to notice 'slight' distractions. What you end up with is photographs with huge areas of wasted space around the edge and people with things growing out of their heads. • Make sure your subject fills the frame. The best way to do this is to move a bit closer. Lighting • Lighting is photography. • Photography is the art of capturing light reflected from subjects onto a film or digital surface. • Always be aware of your lighting.