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• Photography is the process of recording
  pictures by means of capturing light on a light-
  sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic
• Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects
  expose a sensitive silver halide based chemical
  or electronic medium during a timed exposure,
  usually through a photographic lens in a device
  known as a camera that also stores the resulting
  information chemically or electronically.
• The word "photography" comes from the
  French photographie which is based on
  the Greek words φως phos ("light"), and
  γραφίς graphis ("stylus", "paintbrush") or
  γραφή graphê ("representation by means
  of lines" or "drawing"), together meaning
  "drawing with light."
• Photographers control the camera and lens to
  "expose" the light recording material (such as
  film) to the required amount of light to form a
  "latent image" (on film) or "raw file" (in digital
  cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is
  converted to a usable image.
• Modern digital cameras replace film with an
  electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive
  electronics such as charge-coupled device
  (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-
  semiconductor (CMOS) technology.
              Digital SLR
• Single Lens Reflex
• Uses an automatic mirror system placed
  between the lens and the image sensor to
  direct the image from the lens through the
  viewfinder where it can be viewed by the
                   Digital SLR
• The basic operation of a DSLR, having the mirror
  reflecting the image away from the image sensor except
  briefly during the exposure, precludes the ability to see
  the image in the LCD display before the picture is taken,
  a major difference from the way an ordinary digital
  camera (digicam) works.
• Some newer DSLR models feature an option generally
  known as "live preview" that does allow the image to be
  seen on the LCD display, although with certain
  limitations and with the optical viewfinder disabled.
         Parts of a Camera
• Lens: The lens is the part of the camera
  (or an attachment for the camera) that
  focuses light into the body and onto the
• The aperture is also contained within the
                  The Lens
• Aperture: The aperture is an adjustable opening
  in the lens used to allow light onto the film or
  digital surface.
• The size of the aperture is measured by the F-
  Stop setting. The larger opening of the aperture
  results in less light needed to expose the image
  and less depth of field (less in focus).
• A smaller opening of the aperture results in more
  light needed to expose the image and more
  depth of field (more in focus).
             Body - Shutter
• Shutter: An opaque piece of metal or plastic
  inside your camera that prevents light from
  reaching the film or digital sensor.
• The shutter is opened, or released, by the
  shutter release button.
• The amount of time the shutter stays open is
  controlled by the shutter speed setting.
• How to take a picture.
  Photography is full of rules and to get us started, you
  have to do two things when taking a photograph.

• Compose: This is the creative or artistic bit where you
  arrange all of the elements of your picture within the
  frame or viewfinder to produce what should hopefully be
  a pleasing composition.

• Expose: This is the scientific and mechanical bit where
  you expose your film to light through the lens of your
  camera and if you are lucky preserve the image for
• Composition is "something that is created
  by arranging several things to form a
  unified whole".
• That is exactly what it is. The composition
  of your photograph is the combination of
  elements coming together to create the
  whole image.
3 basic ways to arrange the elements within your

1. Physically move objects relative to each other. Only
   really works with still life photography.

2. Tell people to move relative to each other or other

3. Move ! Usually the most effective way to control your
   composition is to alter your viewpoint.
• What is your photograph about? Without
  knowing the answer to this question your
  image will never work. Your subject is
  what you want the viewer to see first when
  they look at your image.
Rule of Thirds
              Rule of Thirds
• The rule of thirds is a compositional rule of
  thumb in photography and other visual arts such
  as painting.
• The rule of thirds explains where to place your
  subject in the image. Imagine that your image is
  divided into nine equal squares, basically a tic-
  tac-toe board with the lines equally spaced.
• The four points formed by the intersections of
  these lines can be used to align features in the
Rule of Thirds
Rule of Thirds
      Background and Foreground

• A photograph is a 2 dimensional representation of a 3
  dimensional scene. This means that the camera
  effectively "flattens" the scene.
• Background is anything behind your subject. If there is a
  tree directly behind a person's head it will appear that the
  tree is growing out of their head. Likewise, a fence could
  seem to grow out of the side of a person.
• Foreground is anything in front of your subject.
  Foreground is just as important. If you are shooting a
  beautiful lake sunset but there is an ugly tire in the
  water's edge the photograph can be ruined.
• Will your subject be sharply focused or fuzzy? Will you
  have the foreground and the subject in focus but the
  background fuzzy? How fuzzy will the background be?
  Focus will make or break your image.
• This is where aperture, F-Stop, and depth of field come
  into play.
• Aperture is the size of the opening inside you lens that
  lets light to the film or digital surface.
• F-Stop is the measurement of the aperture.
• Depth of field is a term telling you how much of your
  scene will be in focus or blurry.
                Depth of Field
• the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of
  and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus.
• For a given subject framing, the DOF is controlled
  by the lens f-number. Increasing the f-number
  (reducing the aperture diameter) increases the DOF
F-Number Increments
Depth of Field f-number Increments

 f/22          f/4         f/2.8
• A good rule of thumb regarding your F-
  Stop is to remember that the larger the F-
  Stop number, the more of the scene will
  be in focus and the more light you need to
  record the image.
• Conversely, the smaller the F-Stop
  number, the less of the scene will be in
  focus and the less light you need to record
  the image.
• Fill the frame.
  Sometimes your mind tends to exaggerate what
  you see through the viewfinder of your camera.
  You often perceive things a bit bigger than they
  actually are and you also tend not to notice
  'slight' distractions. What you end up with is
  photographs with huge areas of wasted space
  around the edge and people with things growing
  out of their heads.
• Make sure your subject fills the frame. The best
  way to do this is to move a bit closer.
• Lighting is photography.
• Photography is the art of capturing light
  reflected from subjects onto a film or
  digital surface.
• Always be aware of your lighting.

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