• Photography is the process of recording
pictures by means of capturing light on a light-
sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic
• Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects
expose a sensitive silver halide based chemical
or electronic medium during a timed exposure,
usually through a photographic lens in a device
known as a camera that also stores the resulting
information chemically or electronically.
• The word "photography" comes from the
French photographie which is based on
the Greek words φως phos ("light"), and
γραφίς graphis ("stylus", "paintbrush") or
γραφή graphê ("representation by means
of lines" or "drawing"), together meaning
"drawing with light."
• Photographers control the camera and lens to
"expose" the light recording material (such as
film) to the required amount of light to form a
"latent image" (on film) or "raw file" (in digital
cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is
converted to a usable image.
• Modern digital cameras replace film with an
electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive
electronics such as charge-coupled device
(CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-
semiconductor (CMOS) technology.
• Single Lens Reflex
• Uses an automatic mirror system placed
between the lens and the image sensor to
direct the image from the lens through the
viewfinder where it can be viewed by the
• The basic operation of a DSLR, having the mirror
reflecting the image away from the image sensor except
briefly during the exposure, precludes the ability to see
the image in the LCD display before the picture is taken,
a major difference from the way an ordinary digital
camera (digicam) works.
• Some newer DSLR models feature an option generally
known as "live preview" that does allow the image to be
seen on the LCD display, although with certain
limitations and with the optical viewfinder disabled.
Parts of a Camera
• Lens: The lens is the part of the camera
(or an attachment for the camera) that
focuses light into the body and onto the
• The aperture is also contained within the
• Aperture: The aperture is an adjustable opening
in the lens used to allow light onto the film or
• The size of the aperture is measured by the F-
Stop setting. The larger opening of the aperture
results in less light needed to expose the image
and less depth of field (less in focus).
• A smaller opening of the aperture results in more
light needed to expose the image and more
depth of field (more in focus).
Body - Shutter
• Shutter: An opaque piece of metal or plastic
inside your camera that prevents light from
reaching the film or digital sensor.
• The shutter is opened, or released, by the
shutter release button.
• The amount of time the shutter stays open is
controlled by the shutter speed setting.
• How to take a picture.
Photography is full of rules and to get us started, you
have to do two things when taking a photograph.
• Compose: This is the creative or artistic bit where you
arrange all of the elements of your picture within the
frame or viewfinder to produce what should hopefully be
a pleasing composition.
• Expose: This is the scientific and mechanical bit where
you expose your film to light through the lens of your
camera and if you are lucky preserve the image for
• Composition is "something that is created
by arranging several things to form a
• That is exactly what it is. The composition
of your photograph is the combination of
elements coming together to create the
3 basic ways to arrange the elements within your
1. Physically move objects relative to each other. Only
really works with still life photography.
2. Tell people to move relative to each other or other
3. Move ! Usually the most effective way to control your
composition is to alter your viewpoint.
• What is your photograph about? Without
knowing the answer to this question your
image will never work. Your subject is
what you want the viewer to see first when
they look at your image.
Rule of Thirds
Rule of Thirds
• The rule of thirds is a compositional rule of
thumb in photography and other visual arts such
• The rule of thirds explains where to place your
subject in the image. Imagine that your image is
divided into nine equal squares, basically a tic-
tac-toe board with the lines equally spaced.
• The four points formed by the intersections of
these lines can be used to align features in the
Rule of Thirds
Rule of Thirds
Background and Foreground
• A photograph is a 2 dimensional representation of a 3
dimensional scene. This means that the camera
effectively "flattens" the scene.
• Background is anything behind your subject. If there is a
tree directly behind a person's head it will appear that the
tree is growing out of their head. Likewise, a fence could
seem to grow out of the side of a person.
• Foreground is anything in front of your subject.
Foreground is just as important. If you are shooting a
beautiful lake sunset but there is an ugly tire in the
water's edge the photograph can be ruined.
• Will your subject be sharply focused or fuzzy? Will you
have the foreground and the subject in focus but the
background fuzzy? How fuzzy will the background be?
Focus will make or break your image.
• This is where aperture, F-Stop, and depth of field come
• Aperture is the size of the opening inside you lens that
lets light to the film or digital surface.
• F-Stop is the measurement of the aperture.
• Depth of field is a term telling you how much of your
scene will be in focus or blurry.
Depth of Field
• the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of
and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus.
• For a given subject framing, the DOF is controlled
by the lens f-number. Increasing the f-number
(reducing the aperture diameter) increases the DOF
Depth of Field f-number Increments
f/22 f/4 f/2.8
• A good rule of thumb regarding your F-
Stop is to remember that the larger the F-
Stop number, the more of the scene will
be in focus and the more light you need to
record the image.
• Conversely, the smaller the F-Stop
number, the less of the scene will be in
focus and the less light you need to record
• Fill the frame.
Sometimes your mind tends to exaggerate what
you see through the viewfinder of your camera.
You often perceive things a bit bigger than they
actually are and you also tend not to notice
'slight' distractions. What you end up with is
photographs with huge areas of wasted space
around the edge and people with things growing
out of their heads.
• Make sure your subject fills the frame. The best
way to do this is to move a bit closer.
• Lighting is photography.
• Photography is the art of capturing light
reflected from subjects onto a film or
• Always be aware of your lighting.