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					To Kill A Mockingbird
    by Harper Lee
No, it is not a “how to” book
 How is the South different than the
         rest of the country?
► Language
► Food
► Customs
► Religion
► History
► Climate
► Race   Relations
                 The Author
► Background   info on
  Harper Lee:
► Born in 1926.
► Raised in Monroeville,
► Her father was a
► His name was Francis
Lee and Capote
       ►   Capote and Lee:
       ►   Grew up with Truman
       ►   Based character Dill on
       ►   Capote dedicated his
           most famous book, In
           Cold Blood to Harper Lee.
                    The Author
►   Lee Later in life:
►   The novel won Pulitzer
    Prize in 1961
►   Awarded honorary
►   Only published essays
    following TKAM.
►   Currently splits her time
    between New York City
    and Monroeville.
Where did she get the idea?
              ►   Where did Harper Lee
                  get the idea for her
              ►   A case in Scottsboro, AL
              ►   2 white women accused
                  an African American man
                  of raping them.
              ►   Only received lawyer the
                  day of the trial.
       Scottsboro Case Cont…

► No  physical evidence
  of a rape.
► Medical testimony
  said no rape.
► All white jury still
  convicted them.
► Setting:   In Maycomb,
► In 1930s
► During the Great
► Novel is set during
  the time of complete
              Class System
► ClassSystem:
► Land class
► Educated class
► The townspeople
► The farmers
► The poor white trash
► The African
Southern Society
        ► African  American
        ► Took care of children
        ► Cleaned
        ► Cooked
        ► Handled most of the
Southern Society
        ► Southern   Ladies: look
        ► Participate in ladies
        ► Supervise the running
          of the household.
Southern Society
        ► Small Towns:
          everyone knows you,
        ► church is the center
          of the social scene,
        ► not much
        ► everybody knows
          everybody’s business,
        ► You are judged by
          your family.
             Literary Terms
► Sub  Plot: A small plot
  within a novel/play
  that helps to support
  or build the main plot.
► Main plot: The trial
  of Tom Robinson
► Sub Plot: Mrs.
  Dubose, the fire, the
  kids and Boo, etc…
                Main Characters
►   Jean Louise “Scout”
    Finch: six years old,
►   Jeremy Atticus “Jem”
    Finch: 10 years old
►   Atticus Finch: Dad,
    widower, Lawyer
►   Dill: Friend who visit in
    the summer
►   Arthur “Boo” Radley:
    Scary guy who lives next
   ► Character
     Development Paper:
     How does Jem/Scout
     mature throughout the
   ► Immature-----mature
   ► Body1: immature
     beginning of the book
   ► Body 2: beginning to
   ► Body 3: mature-end
                       Chapter 1
►   POV: First Person-Scout
    tells the story
►   Main Characters:
     Jem: Ten years old at the
      start of the novel
     Scout: Six years old at
      the start of the novel
     Atticus: Lawyer, widower,
      nearly fifty
Chapter 1
     ► MainCharacters
        Calpurnia: The
         children’s nanny,
         African American,
         worked for the family
         for years
        Dill: Staying w/ his
         Aunt Stephanie for the
         summer, single parent
                      Chapter 1
► Main   characters cont…
   Boo Radley (according
    to Jem):
     ► Seven  feet tall
     ► Eats raw squirrels and
     ► Has fangs
     ► Is a peeping Tom
     ► Drools
Chapter 1
     ► BooRadley, the real
        Got in w/ the wrong
        Got arrested for being
        Family would not send
         him to the reform
                   Chapter 1
► Boo’s   story cont…
   Put in the courthouse
   Almost died from the
   Went and was home-
    never seen again
   Stabbed his father in
    the leg w/ scissors
Chapter 1
     ► Dillgets the idea of
       trying to get Boo to
       come out
     ► To prove his bravery,
       Jem runs up and slaps
       the house—not very
     ► 1st grade: filled with
       kids of all ages,
     ► Town kids go straight
       through school.
     ► Farming kids keep
       working at home and
       are never able to
Chapter 2
     ►   It is Scout’s and Miss
         Caroline’s first day of school
     ►   Miss Caroline’s Mistakes:
     ►   Was mad at Scout for being
         able to read and write.
     ►   Points out student w/ no lunch,
     ►   Pat with ruler
     ►   Sticks children in corner
Chapter 2
     ► SheDoesn’t
      understand her kids:
        most of them are farm
        they just don’t get the
         cat story
        the Cunningham's
         don’t take charity
Chapter 3
     ► Scout takes her
       frustration out on
       Walter Cunningham
     ► Jem invites him over
       for supper
     ► Scout, again, gets in
       trouble because of
       her big mouth
                          Chapter 3
►   Miss Caroline does not
    understand Burris!
►   The Ewells:
       Mother is dead
       Dad is a drunk
       Kids are filthy
       They live in the dump
       The kids don’t go to school
       The town looks the other
Chapter 4
     ►   Who is leaving things in
         the knothole? Why?
     ►   Jem gets Scout back for
         making fun of him
     ►   What does Scout hear in
         the house?
     ►   Playing Boo Radley in the
         front yard (mature?).
Chapter 5
     ► Miss   Maudie:
        Treats the kids with
        Loves her garden
        Widow
        Rents a room to Mr.
        Lives across the
         street from the
Chapter 5
     ► Scout is having problems
       with her fiancé. How
       does she try to solve
       them? (mature?)
     ► Miss Maudie explains a
       bit more about the
     ► Atticus catches the kids
       playing “Boo Radley”
     ► Jem’s response was very
                     Chapter 6
► What do the kids wait to
  see Mr. Avery do?
► The kids decide to look in
  Boo’s window
► Mr. Nathan fires a gun at
  the kids
► Jem gets stuck in the
► Dill is able to think on his
► Jem goes back at night
  to get his pants
Chapter 7
     ►   More things found in the
     ►   The kids decide to write
         a thank you note
     ►   What happened the night
         Jem went back to get his
     ►   Mr. Nathan fills up the
     ►   Why is Jem so upset?
Chapter 8
     ► It snows!
     ► Jem builds a
       snowman. What does
       show about Jem?
     ► What is an absolute
                    Chapter 8
►   Miss Maudie’s house
    catches fire
►   What does Atticus think
    to save?
►   Scout gets a blanket
    from who?
►   Why doesn’t Jem want to
    return it?
►   How does this show
Chapter 9
     ► Why is the town so mad
       at Atticus?
     ► Scout is told to stop
       fighting and she has
       some success
     ► Uncle Jack comes for
     ► Scout is still trying to
       get out of going to school
     ► What is the rule about
       the air rifles?
                  Chapter 9
► Aunt   Alexandra:
   Atticus’ older sister
   Believes Scout should
    behave like a “proper
   Not a “kid“ person
   She is a cold person
                   Chapter 9
► Uncle   Jimmy:
   Married to Aunt
   “Buys cotton” (does
   Has spoken to Scout
    once in her whole life
Chapter 9
     ► Francis:
        Aunt Alexandra’s
        Prissy
        Tattletale
        Mean
                      Chapter 9
►   Francis calls Atticus a
    hateful name
►   Scout responds by calling
    Francis a whorelady and
    beating him up
►   Uncle Jack sides with
    Francis until he hears the
    whole story.
Chapter 9
     ► UncleJack and
      Atticus have a talk at
      the end of the
        Why does Atticus
         want Scout to hear
         the whole thing?
        What is in store for
         the kids?
                     Chapter 10
►   The kids think Atticus is
    just too old
►   There is a mad dog
►   What do the kids learn
    about Atticus?
►   Why doesn’t Jem want
    tell everyone?
►   How does this show
Chapter 11
     ► Mrs.   Dubose:
        Really old
        Really mean
        Supposedly has a
         confederate pistol in
         her lap
        Hates Atticus for
         defending Tom
                Chapter 11
► Jem  Snaps. What
  does he do?
► How does he have to
  make amends?
► Atticus tells Jem
  that Mrs. Dubose
  teaches an important
  lesson: The meaning
  of courage.
                Chapter 11
► “I wanted you to see something about her-I
  wanted you to see what real courage is, instead
  of getting the idea that courage is a man with a
  gun in his hand.”
              Chapter 11
► “It’swhen you know you’re licked before
  you begin, but you begin anyway and you
  see it through no matter what. You
  rarely win, but sometimes you do. Mrs.
  Dubose won, all ninety eight pounds of
  her” (Lee 112)
Chapter 12
     ► Calpurnia’sChurch:
       Scout learns:
     ► Calpurnia has another
     ► Most African
       Americans in
       Maycomb can’t read.
Chapter 12
     ► Church   is strong and
     ► No white people will
       hire Helen Robinson,
     ► Atticus is well
       respected w/in the
       African American
                    Chapter 13
►   Aunt Alexandra’s
    definition of a proper
    Lady and Gentleman:
►   Dress nicely
►   Come from a land owning
►   Hire people to work your
►   Own land on the river
►   Have good manners,
►   It’s about how you look
    not who you are
Chapter 13
     ► What  do you think
       Atticus’ definition
       would be?
     ► Why does Atticus tell
       Scout that it is not
       time to worry yet?
Chapter 14
     ► How  has Jem
       separated himself
       from the younger
     ► What is under
       Scout’s bed?
     ► Why doesn’t Boo run
                  Chapter 14
► Atticus   as a parent:
   Gives his children
   Makes them feel
    needed and important.
                 Chapter 15
► Mob   Scene:
   Violent tradition of
    lynching African Amer.
    Without a trial.
   Who is in the mob?
   Why does a mob
    operate differently
    from individuals?
   How does Scout stop
                 Chapter 15
   Jem mature in this
► Is
   Goes to protect his
   Refuses to leave when
    told to
  Why does Atticus muss
    Jem’s hair at the end
    of the chapter?
Chapter 16
     ► Maycomb   county
       values conformity: be
       like everyone else,
       follow the social
     ► Dolphus Raymond
        His white fiancé killed
        Lives with African
                  Chapter 16
 Drinks out of a paper sack
 Has “mixed children”
 Is wealthy
• Why does Jem think the
  Raymond kids are sad?
• Where do the Jem, Scout
  and Dill sit to watch the
• What does this tell us
  about them and Atticus?
Chapter 17
     ►   Important Testimony
         from Heck Tate (the
          No doctor was called
          Mayella was beaten on the
           right side of her face
          She had hand marks all the
           way around her neck
          There were no other
           witnesses besides Mayella,
           her father and Tom
Chapter 17
     ► Bob’s   Testimony:
        He starts by insulting
         his dead wife.
        He refers to his
         daughter as a farm
        He is disrespectful to
         the judge and to
Chapter 17
     ► Who   plants the
       flowers at the Ewell
       House? Who does
       this remind you of?
     ► Why did Atticus have
       Bob sign his name?
     ► Why does Bob get so
                      Chapter 18
►   Mayella’s testimony:
     Tom raped her.
     Asked Tom to fix door
     Tom beat her with both
     Dad said Tom ran out door
     Claims Tom has been over 1
      or 2 times
Chapter 18
     ►   What Atticus shows us
         about Mayella
          She doesn’t even know
           what a friend is
          She doesn’t even
           understand how a child
           could love her parent
          Her father beats her
          No one has ever addressed
           and “Miss”
                    Chapter 18
► Mayella   Cont…
   Only two of the family
    members can read
   Mayella refuses to
    change her story
   Why does she yell at
    the end?
Chapter 19
     ► What   we know about
        He is a family man
        He is a religious man
        His left hand does not
        He had helped Mayella
                       Chapter 19
►   Tom’s testimony:
     Mayella kissed him
     Tom said nothing was
      wrong with the door
     Tom can only use his right
     Said he jumped out the
     Says he helps Mayella
Chapter 19
     ►   Tom’s story cont…
          The kids went to get ice
           cream-Mayella saved the
          Mayella wanted to kiss a
           man because what her
           father does to her doesn’t
         Who do you believe?
         Why would Mayella lie?
                 Chapter 20
► Why  does Dill become
  so upset?
► Dolphus Raymond
  offers him a drink
► Dolphus really drinks
  Coca Cola, not alcohol.
► Why does Dolphus
Chapter 20
     ► What  mistake does
       Tom make?
     ► Atticus’ final
       statement forces the
       town to look at itself
     ► Calpurnia comes to
                    Chapter 21
►   The kids are in trouble
►   Why does Atticus let
    them go back?
►   Jem believes Atticus will
►   The jury finds Tom guilty
►   Why do all the African
    Americans Stand when
    Atticus passes?
                    Chapter 22
►   Jem is crushed by the
►   He learns that life isn’t
►   How does the African
    American Community
    thank Atticus?
►   What did Bob Ewell do to
                    Chapter 23
►   How does Atticus
    respond to Bob Ewell’s
►   Miss Maudie tries to
    comfort Jem—he gets a
    piece of the big cake
►   Jem tries to understand
    why the jury did what it
Chapter 23
     ► Who   was the holdout
       on the jury?
     ► Why can’t Scout
       invite Walter
       Cunningham over?
     ► Why does Jem think
       Boo stays inside?
                 Chapter 24
► AuntAlexandra has a
 missionary tea:
   Mrs. Merriweather
    makes rude comments
    about Atticus
   Miss Maudie puts her
    in her place
   Scout joins the party
Chapter 24
     ► Itis ironic that the
       woman want to help
       Africans in Africa
       but are so cruel to
       African Americans in
       their own town.
     ► Tom Robinson is
       dead—shot 17 times
Chapter 24
     ► Atticus asks Cal to go
       with him to tell Helen
     ► Scout gains new
       respect for Aunt
                Chapter 25
► Why   doesn’t Jem let
  Scout kill the roly
► How does Dill
  describe Helen when
  she learned of Tom’s
► What is Bob Ewell’s
                   Chapter 26
►   Scout feels remorse for
    how they treated Boo
►   It is ironic that Mrs.
    Gates hates Hitler for
    how he treats the Jews
    but treats the African
    Americans in her own
    town terribly.
Chapter 26
     ► What  is Jem so upset
     ► What is Jem trying
       to forget?
                Chapter 27
► It’s Halloween
► Because of the
  incident with Miss
  Tutti and Miss Frutti,
  there will be a
► Mrs. Merriweather is
  in charge (yuk!)
                  Chapter 27
►   What happened at Judge
    Taylor’s house?
►   What does that say
    about Bob Ewell?
►   What did Bob say about
    the loss of his job?
►   What does Bob do to
    Helen Robinson?
Chapter 27
     ►   What part does Scout
     ►   How was her costume
     ►   Who is taking her to the
     ►   Why does Lee end the
         chapter the way she
               Chapter 28
► Jem  and Scout take a
  short cut to get to
► Cecil Jacobs scares
► Poor Scout misses
  her cue during the
Chapter 28
     ►   They wait until everyone
         is gone to leave.
     ►   Scout is still wearing her
     ►   They are attacked
     ►   Who attacked them?
     ►   Who saved them?
     ►   What is Jem’s injury?
Chapter 29
     ► How   was Bob killed?
     ► Who do we meet for
       the first time?
     ► What saved Scout’s
     ► What outfit does
       Aunt Alexandra give
       Scout to wear?
                Chapter 30
► Scout  treats Boo like
  a proper lady should
  treat a visitor in her
► Who killed Bob Ewell?
► Why does Heck Tate
  say Bob fell on his
Chapter 30
     ► Why  would it be like
      killing a mockingbird
      to tell the town what
                     Chapter 31
►   What does Scout do
    when it is time for Boo to
    go home?
►   What is her mature
►   How is the lesson of The
    Grey Ghost connected to
    the theme of the novel?
►   Why is the last image of
    the novel so powerful?
Major Symbols
       ►   Symbols:
       ►   Tom Robinson is the
           mockingbird. All he does
           is help others and create
           “beautiful music”
       ►   Then he was killed which
           makes it a sin.
       ►   The roly-poly =
           mockingbird also.
            Symbols cont…
► Symbols  Cont’d:
► Boo represents the
  mockingbird. He has
  done no wrong and
  saves the kids from
  Bob Ewell.
► The   Journey:
   Growing up
   The journey Scout and
    Jem took to school
    that night
   The journey from
    innocence to
► Themes:
► In  Harper Lee’s novel TKAM, she illustrates
  it is a sin to destroy those who seek only to
  do good in the world
► … it is a painful and difficult process
  growing up in this world.
► …we live in a world which is often unjust.
► Hook   Examples:
► Immaturity, we’ve all
  experienced it.
► When did you start
► What in the Same
  Hill are you doing?
   ► Transition: Scout
     struggles in her effort to
     grow up.
   ► Jem matures
     dramatically through one
     painful summer.
   ► In her effort to get out
     of going to school by
     cussing, Scout shows her
   ► My experience mirrors
     Scout’s painful
     experience to mature.
               The Essay
► Thesis:  Scout is a character who painfully
  and humorously demonstrates that
  maturing is no easy task. Harper Lee
  illustrates this in To Kill A Mockingbird.
► Transition: At the beginning of the novel,
  Scout is incredibly immature.
                 The Essay
► Conclusion: Trans: Scout/Jem has been on an
  incredible journey. Thesis: In an unjust and
  unfair world, growing up is never an easy
  process. Clincher: With her new found maturity,
  the dinner table will clearly be a safer and more
  appropriate place to be.
► Framing: Connecting the hook and the clincher

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