P.O. Box 860358
Plano, Texas 75086-0358
• Website: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us.
• Phone: (512) 834-6727, ext 2231
• Fax: (512) 834-6741 or
• via e-mail at CFM.BFDS@tdh.state.tx.us
Training in food protection management is necessary to ensure
public health and safety, to comply with state and local ordinances,
and to introduce managers to current management techniques.
This program requires that all candidates complete the course and pass a
final examination. Candidates must present a valid photo ID to take the
final examination. Passing candidates will receive a state certificate valid
for 3 years. This certificate has reciprocity in all jurisdictions of Texas.
Once you have completed this on-line course, contact the City of
Plano Health Department for Test Dates. You are allowed one
hour to complete the exam. Exam retakes can be discussed and
arranged with the instructor.
• CLEAN: free of visible soil
• CLEANED IN PLACE (CIP): a piping system of a detergent solution,
water rinse and sanitizing solution onto or over equipment surfaces
that require cleaning.
• SANITARY: equal to 99.999% reduction of disease microorganisms of
public health concern
• STERILE: free of disease-causing microorganisms
• FOODBORNE ILLNESS: any illness transmitted by food
• FOODBORNE INFECTION: caused by live bacteria on food which then
infect the gastrointestinal track. Onset of symptoms is usually slow
because bacteria need time to reproduce
• FOODBORNE INTOXICATION: caused by bacterial waste products
called toxins, usually have quick onset of symptoms since they are
quickly absorbed in the gastrointestinal track
• CONTAMINATED FOOD: any food that contains a harmful substance.
• POTABLE WATER: drinking water (fit for human consumption).
• HAZARD: an unacceptable biological, physical or chemical
• A FOODBORNE OUTBREAK: the occurrence of two or more cases of a
similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food.
• HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP): A
systematic approach to the hazard identification, evaluation, and
control of food safety hazards.
• RISK: the probability that a condition(s) will lead to a hazard.
• SEVERITY: the seriousness of the consequences of the results of a
• CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (CCP): A point or procedure in a specific
food system where loss of control may result in an unacceptable
Foodborne illness and
are caused by eating
There are 3 types of contamination hazards
Microorganisms cause the majority of foodborne illnesses. Microorganisms that cause disease/
illness are called pathogens. There are four groups of microorganisms that affect foodservice:
Requirements for Bacteria Growth:
There are six environmental requirements for the growth of bacteria.
proper temperature neutral pH
time to grow
oxygen or lack of oxygen
proper water activity
The Temperature Danger Zone is from
41*F to 135*F
Most bacteria grow fastest between 70 and 120 degrees Fahrenheit.
Food should be moved through the temperature danger zone as
quickly as possible. Many pathogenic bacteria multiply fastest at
temperatures close to human body temperature.
Do not expose food to the temperature danger
zone for more than
Water Activity (Aw)
Aw – Water activity, which is a measure of
the free moisture in a food, is the quotient
of the water vapor pressure of the
substance divided by the vapor pressure
of pure water at the same temperature,
and is indicated by the symbol “aw”.
• Most bacteria grow best in the 4.6 to
• Bacteria will not grow well at pH level
Bacteria are divided into three groups according to oxygen requirements:
Aerobic bacteria: require oxygen to
Anaerobic bacteria: do not require oxygen
Facultative bacteria: will survive with or
• Bacteria reproduce by a process called
• Some rod-shaped bacteria have the
ability to produce a special structure
called a spore as a means of protection
against unfavorable conditions such as
freezing which slows down bacterial
Potentially Hazardous Food
Bacterial Foodborne Illness
What is a potentially hazardous food?
Potentially hazardous food (PHF) means a food that requires
time and temperature control for safety (TCS) to limit pathogen
growth or toxin production. Potentially hazardous food is
defined as any food capable of supporting microorganisms.
The term includes an animal food including fresh shell eggs that are raw or heat-treated; a food
of plant origin that is heat-treated or consists of raw seed sprouts; cut melons; and garlic-in-oil
mixtures that are not modified in a way that results in mixtures that do not support bacterial
growth. Food whose pH/aw interaction is designated as PHF/TCS in one of the tables listed in
The term does not include an air-cooled hard-boiled egg with shell intact or a shell egg that is
not hard-boiled but has been treated to destroy all viable Salmonellae; a food whose pH/aw
interaction is designated as non-PHF/non-TCS; a food in an unopened hermetically sealed
container, that is commercially processed to achieve and maintain commercial sterility under
conditions of non-refrigerated storage and distribution; food for which a product assessment
demonstrates that time and temperature control for safety is not required and that may contain
a preservative, other barrier to the growth or microorganisms, or a combination of barriers that
inhibit the growth of microorganisms; food that does not support the growth of microorganisms
even though the food may contain an infectious or toxigenic microorganism or chemical or
physical contaminate level sufficient to cause illness.
3. pH between 4.6 & 9.0
Examples of potentially hazardous foods are meat, milk, poultry, shellfish, cooked or
heated vegetables and grains, cut melons, tofu, and low acid goods.
• Improper cooking • Cross contamination
• Improper cooling • Employee hygiene
• Improper re-heating • Infected employees
• Improper hot or cold holding • Food prepared 12+
hours in advance
Some toxins that cause illness are not destroyed by the cooking process. Toxins are not easily
detected because they are colorless, tasteless and odorless. Controlling bacterial growth with the
proper temperatures can prevent toxin production. Heating does not destroy toxins.
Viruses, molds, yeasts and parasites cause non-bacterial biological contaminations.
A smaller quantity of virus can cause a foodborne illness compared to bacteria. Viruses do not
require potentially hazardous food to survive. Viruses only reproduce inside living organisms.
Viruses are often found in water polluted with urine and feces. Poor personal hygiene is often a
At risk of contracting a foodborne illness or virus are the very young,
the old, and persons with a suppressed immune system.
The next few pages deal with the causes of bacterial foodborne illness:
• Bacillus cereus: Bacillus cereus is a facultative spore-former. The spores of Bacillus cereus
can survive cooking and can produce bacteria and toxins in covered products that are
time/temperature abused. It is found in soil in which vegetables and grains are grown. Foods
such as rice, potatoes, pasta, green beans, vegetable sprouts, and dry spices may contain this
microorganism or its spores. It is recommended that dry products be kept away from
moisture and avoid time/temperature abuse to reduce to possibility of contamination.
Symptoms can appear in 1-16 hours after consumption of contaminated product and include
nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The spores of Bacillus cereus can survive cooking and can
produce bacteria and toxins in covered products held at room temperature. Reheating will
destroy the bacteria, but not the spores and the toxins.
• Clostridium botulinum: It is an anaerobic bacteria that attacks the nervous system and will
cause vomiting, double vision, and respiratory paralysis. Symptoms appear within 12-36
hours after consumption. The most common cause is improperly processed home-canned
foods, low acid foods, and vacuum packed PHF. Some foods implicated are garlic products in
oil, baked potatoes, turkey loaf and stew. The best method of prevention is to buy from an
approved source, avoid time/temperature abuse and never taste food from suspect cans.
Always throw away canned foods that are leaking, swollen, foamy or smelly.
• Clostridum perfringens: Is found everywhere; dirt, animal and human intestines, raw foods,
etc. The most common foods implicated are cooked meats, poultry, gravy, beans and rice. It
is an anaerobic spore former and the spores survive cooking. It begins to reproduce due to
time/temperature abuse. The symptoms are abdominal pain and diarrhea; vomiting and fever
are usually absent. The onset of the symptoms can be 8-22 hours after ingestion. The best
method of control is to limit time/temperature abuse.
• Staphylococcus aureus: Staphylococcus aureus is on skin. Humans are the most important
source. Some commonly implicated foods are cream-filled pastries, custards, potato salads,
meat and poultry. Re-cooking destroys the bacteria, but not the toxins. Intoxication usually
appears 1-6 hours after consumption and can last 24-48 hours. The best method of
prevention is restricting infected foodhandlers, good personal hygiene, and minimizing
foodhandling and time/temperature abuse.
• Escherichia coli 0157:H7: Is commonly found in the intestinal tract of cattle. The most
common foods affected are undercooked ground beef products. This bacteria is facultative.
The illness can be very severe in children and the aged; can cause kidney failure and death
in children. Infected people can spread the bacteria if they do not wash their hands properly
after using the bathroom. The FDA recommends cooking ground meat to 155 degrees
Fahrenheit to kill the bacteria. It can be controlled by proper hygiene and adequate cooking
• Listeria monocytogenes: Listeria can be found on raw vegetables, in wild and domestic
animal feces, dairy products, raw meats and poultry. It is a facultative bacteria which can
continue to grow even in refrigeration set at 40*F. It is spread by cross contamination and
time/temperature abuse. Symptoms include sudden onset of fever, chills, headache,
abdominal pain and diarrhea. Listeria is especially dangerous for those with suppressed
immune systems and for pregnant women since it can cause miscarriage, stillbirth and birth
• Salmonella: Salmonella is found in most common foods, especially high protein foods like
meat, poultry and shell eggs. It is a facultative bacteria that is spread by cross contamination,
inadequate handwashing and time/temperature abuse. Humans are the most common
carriers. The incubation period is 6-72 hours and lasts 1-4 days. It can be fatal. The best
control methods are proper cooking temperatures, eliminate cross contamination and proper
• Shigella: Shigella is carried in fecal matter. Human carriers are the most common source. It
can also be found in raw produce. Shigella is facultative and is spread by inadequate
handwashing after using the bathroom, cross contamination and pests. The incubation
period is 1-4 days and usually lasts 4-7 days. The best control is proper cooking and proper
• Campylobacter jejuni: Is an infection causing microorganism that prefers low oxygen. Onset
2-5 days after ingestion. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, headache, and
muscle pain. The duration is usually 7-10 days. The infective dose is considered to be small
(400 – 500 bacteria). Food implicated in outbreaks has been raw milk, poultry, eggs, non-
chlorinated, raw clams and re-contaminated ready-to-eat foods. The age groups most
frequently afflicted are children under 5 years and young adults ranging from 15-29. The best
method prevention is to cook foods properly, prevent cross contamination and proper
The next few pages discuss Viruses:
• Norovirus infection usually starts suddenly. The infected person often feels very sick with
nausea, and vomiting and watery non-bloody diarrhea with stomach cramps, headache,
muscle aches, and a general sense of tiredness.
• The symptoms of norovirus disease usually start about 24 to 48 hours after the virus is
• Noroviruses are found in the stool and the vomitus of infected people.
• People can become infected with the virus in several ways, including:
– Eating food or drinking liquids that are contaminated with norovirus;
– Touching surfaces or objects contaminated with norovirus; or
– Having direct contact with another person who is infected (for example, when caring
for someone with illness, or sharing foods or eating utensils with someone who is ill).
• Noroviruses are very highly contagious and can spread easily from person to person.
• This virus is carried on food, but does not
reproduce on food.
• Symptoms are jaundice, nausea, abdominal pain,
loss of appetite.
• Onset time is 10-50 days after infection.
• Illness can last several weeks to several months.
• Main sources are polluted water, people and
• It is found in feces and urine of infected persons,
contaminated water, and is frequently transmitted
through shellfish harvested from sewage-
• The best control measures are good personal
hygiene, use of potable water supply, and use of
certified shellfish supplier.
Parasites are small or microscopic organisms that need a living host to reproduce. The most common
parasite known to contaminate food is Trichnella spiralis, which is a roundworm found in pigs, rats
and other domestic animals. It is also found in 40 species of wild animals, including bear and wild
boar. The mode of transmission is by eating raw or insufficiently cooked flesh of animals
containing viable encysted larva, chiefly pork and pork products. Thorough cooking will usually kill
the larvae. Pork and other meats should only be bought from approved sources.
The required cooking temperatures for pork are 145*F if cooked
conventionally and 165*F if cooked in a microwave oven.
Another parasite of concern is Anisakiasis, a roundworm found in fish. It is usually encountered by
individuals who eat uncooked or inadequately treated saltwater fish, squid or octopus. The best
method of prevention is to only purchase meats from an approved source and cook to the required
Before service or sale in ready-to-eat form, raw, raw-marinated, partially
cooked or marinated-partially cooked fish other than molluscan shellfish
shall be frozen throughout to a temperature of:
(-20*C) or below for
168 hours (7 days) in a
-31*F (-35*C) or below for
15 hours in a blast freezer
Exclusions & Restrictions
The person in charge shall EXCLUDE a food employee from a food
establishment if the food employee is diagnosed with:
1. Salmonella typhi;
2. Shigella spp;
3. Escherichia coli 0157:H7 or other enterhemorrhagic E coli;
4. Hepatitis A virus; or
If the population served is a highly susceptible population (HSP), Exclude a
food employee who:
1. Is experiencing a symptom of acute gastrointestinal illness;
2. Is not experiencing symptoms but has a stool specimen that is
positive for Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp, or E. coli 0157:H7; or
3. Is jaundiced.
Exclusions & Restrictions
The person in charge shall RESTRICT a food employee from working with exposed food;
clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use
articles, in a food establishment if the food employee:
1. Has symptoms associated with an acute gastrointestinal illness such as
diarrhea, fever, vomiting, jaundice, sore throat with fever or a lesion
containing pus such as a boil or infected wound; or
2. Is not experiencing symptoms but has a stool specimen that is positive for
Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp, or E coli 0157:H7.
The person in charge may remove an exclusion if the person excluded provides the
person in charge with written medical documentation from a physician licensed to
practice medicine that specifies that the excluded person may work in an unrestricted
capacity in a food establishment, including an establishment that serves a highly
susceptible population, because the person is free of the infectious agent of concern.
Molds & Yeast
General Characteristics: General Characteristics:
1. Heat resistant 1. Usually helpful to
2. Grow quickly & humans
adapt to many 2. Reproduce by
3. Produce mycotoxins 3. May spoil the quality
4. Reproduce by of food.
spores. 4. Recognized by
bubbles and an
Molds & Yeast
Molds are fungi that look like hair or powder
when growing on foods. Molds affect the
appearance, texture and aroma of foods,
but rarely cause foodborne illness.
Most yeast are beneficial and do not cause
Molds and yeast are spoilage indicators.
Physical Contamination Hazards
A physical contaminant is any hard object or particle that is
not part of the food. Examples of physical contaminants are:
• Metal shavings • Plastic
• Rocks • Bugs or parts of
• Glass bugs
• Hair • Any other foreign
• Fingernails material
Chemical Contamination Hazards
A chemical contamination hazard is defined as any harmful chemical
substance in food that is not part of the food. Food additives are considered
chemical contaminants when used in excessive amounts. Examples of
chemical contamination from equipment and cleaning supplies are:
• Oil • Detergents
• Grease • Sanitizers
• Cleaning agents • Pesticides
• Excessive amounts
of food additives
Protection of Food
Cross contamination of foods should be avoided. Food shall be
protected from cross contamination by separating raw foods, such
as beef, fish, lamb, pork and poultry, during storage, preparation,
holding and display by using separate equipment for each type of
food or arranging each type of food in equipment so that cross
contamination of one type with another is prevented and by
preparing each type of food at different times or in separate areas.
Do not handle cooked products after handling raw potentially
hazardous food products unless you wash hands in between.
Except when washing whole fruits and vegetables, food employees
shall avoid contact of exposed ready-to-eat food with their bare
hands. Clean utensils such as tongs, spatulas or deli tissue are
preferred over use of hands. Additionally, single-use gloves help
avoid bare hand contact with food products.
Numerically scaled, metal stem type thermometers must be available and
used to check the internal temperatures of foods. Bi-metal stem
thermometers must be accurate to +/- 2 degrees and must be adjustable.
1. Wash, rinse, sanitize before each use.
2. Take temperatures in the thickest part
of the product.
3. Allow 15 seconds after the indicator
4. Record the temperature.
5. Re-calibrate as needed.
Metal stem thermometers should be
calibrated frequently, especially when
used to measure temperature extremes or
after being dropped. Metal stem
thermometers have a calibrating nut
beneath the temperature reading plate.
Calibration can be performed in two ways:
the ice point method and the boiling point
Ice Point Method
• The ice point method is performed by
placing the stem of the thermometer into a
container of 50% water and 50% ice.
• Adjust the calibration nut until it reads
Boiling Point Method
• The boiling point method is performed by
placing the stem of the thermometer into a
container of boiling water.
• Adjust the calibration nut until it reads
A food temperature measuring
device shall be provided where
required and readily accessible for
use in ensuring attainment and
maintenance of required food
Protection of Food at the
• The FDA regulates processed foods and shellfish
and provides guidelines for state and local
regulation of foodservice operations.
• The USDA oversees production and processing of
meat & poultry, and inspects for wholesomeness,
safety, and grading for quality.
• The Texas Department of State Health Services,
Retail Food Division, sets the state rules for food
Protection of Food at Receipt
All food shall be obtained from sources that
comply with applicable laws and are licensed by
the state regulatory authority having jurisdiction
over the processing and distribution of the food.
Foodservice managers assume the responsibility of assuring food safety the
moment food products enter the foodservice establishment. Managers
must be aware of every process step food is involved in from the time it
enters the operation until it is served to the public.
1. Arrange for delivery
during slow periods
2. Have space
3. Train employees in
inspection of food
4. Date all incoming
Signs of Food Spoilage
Always reject incoming food products that show signs of spoilage and/or contamination.
- slimy surface
- brown / green color
- sour smell
- bad odor
- sticky under wings, around joints
- soft flesh
- darkened wingtips
Signs of Spoilage
– off color
– flat yolk
– clear runny egg white
• Dairy Products
– milk with sour, bitter or off flavor
– cheese that has mold growth that is not part
of product, or dried out
– butter that smells or tastes rancid
Signs of Spoilage
– strong odor or ammonia smell
– gills that are gray, gray-green and / or dry
– sunken, cloudy eyes
– brown edges of fillet
– strong odor
– open shell that does not close when tapped.
• Shellfish should be kept in original
container in which they were received
• Shellfish shall be identified by an attached
tag that states the name and address of
the original processor, the kind and quantity of
shell stock, and the interstate certification
number issued by the state. This tag must be
kept on file for 90 days.
If an animal food such as beef, eggs, fish,
lamb, milk, pork, poultry, or shellfish is
served or sold raw, undercooked, or
without otherwise being processed to
eliminate pathogens, the permit holder
shall inform consumers of the significantly
increased risk of consuming such foods
by way of a disclosure using brochures,
deli case or menu advisories, label
statements, table tents, placards, or other
written means. TFER 229.164(s)(1) page 68
Protection of Food during
1. Rotate stock using FIFO system (First In First Out).
2. Containers must be labeled with the common name of product.
3. Store only in approved areas.
4. Keep storage areas clean.
5. Store in clean wrappers or containers.
6. Keep potentially hazardous foods out of the Temperature Danger
7. Keep items 6” off the floor.
8. May not store food under unprotected sewer or water lines.
9. Do not store raw foods above cooked foods.
10. Keep food covered.
Food shall be protected from contamination by storing food in (1) a
clean, dry location; (2) where it is not exposed to splash, dust or
other contamination; and (3) at least six inches above the floor.
Pressurized beverage containers, cased foods in waterproof containers
such as bottles or cans, and milk containers in plastic crates may be
stored on a floor that is clean and not exposed to floor moisture.
Food in packages and working containers may be stored less than six inches above the
floor on case lot handling equipment such as dollies, pallets, racks, and skids and shall be
designed to be moved by hand or by conveniently available equipment such as hand
trucks and forklifts.
PROHIBITED STORAGE AREAS:
The storage of food or food equipment in locker rooms, toilet rooms, dressing
rooms, garbage rooms, mechanical rooms, under sewer lines that are not
shielded to intercept potential drips, under leaking water lines, including
leaking automatic fire sprinkler heads or under lines on which water has
condensed, under open stairwells or under other sources of contamination is
1. Maintain food temperature at 41*F or below.
2. Thermometers must be located in the warmest part of
3. Gaskets and seals on doors should be checked
periodically for proper maintenance.
4. Label and date all products.
5. Always keep food covered.
6. Do not restrict airflow by lining or overstocking
7. Do not store food under condensate lines.
8. PHF’s must be rapidly cooled to an internal temperature
of 41*F or below.
Frozen Food Storage
1. Maintain freezer at 0*F or below.
2. Place frozen foods in freezer immediately upon delivery.
3. When a frozen product is thawed it cannot be re-frozen.
4. Ice intended for human consumption
cannot be used for cooling foods,
storing foods, food containers
or food utensils.
Vacuum packaged foods must be kept out of the
temperature danger zone and stored according to the
• The maximum shelf life at 41*F may be 7
days or less. The maximum shelf life at 45*F
may be 4 days or less.
• TFER allows 7 calendar days or less after the
original container is opened if the food is
maintained at 41*F or less.
• TFER allows 4 calendar days or less after the
original container is opened if the food is
maintained at 45*F or less.
Refrigerated ready-to-eat potentially
hazardous foods prepared in a food
establishment and dispensed through a
vending machine with an automatic shut-
off control which is activated by
temperature shall be discarded if not sold
within 4 days if held at 45*F or within 7
days if held at 41*F.
Alternative date marking systems must
receive prior approval from the regulatory
FOODS WHICH ARE NOT CONSUMED BY
THESE GUIDELINES MUST BE
– New subparagraph that exempts certain cheeses
from the date marking provisions.
– This paragraph does not apply to cheeses that are
maintained under refrigeration:
• Hard cheeses such as cheddar, gruyere, parmesan
reggiano and romano
• Soft cheese such as blue, edam, gorgonzola, gouda
and monterey jack
• Or pasteurized cheese with acidifying agents
Protection of Food during
• Food must be prepared with the least possible
• During preparation, unpackaged food shall be
protected from environmental sources of
• Food contact surfaces must be cleaned and
• Fruits and vegetables must be washed before
cooking or serving.
Microwave oven as
In a cooler at 41*F part of the
In a container with cool
overflowing into sink.
As part of the conventional
• Ground meats • Fish
• Injected Meats • Other PHF’s
• Ratites 145*F
• Food products cooked in a microwave
• Rare Roast Beef
• Stuffing & stuffed meats
Apple juice, apple cider, and other beverages containing apple juice served to a
highly susceptible population shall be obtained pasteurized or in a
commercially sterile shelf-stable form in a hermetically sealed container.
Pasteurized shell eggs or pasteurized liquid, frozen or dry eggs or egg
products shall be substituted for raw shell eggs in the preparation of
hollandaise, béarnaise, mayonnaise, Caesar salad dressing, egg- nog, ice
cream meringue, and egg fortified beverages.
Pasteurized shell eggs or pasteurized liquid, frozen, or dry eggs, or egg
products shall be substituted for raw shell eggs for a highly susceptible
population if the eggs are broken, combined in a container, and not cooked
immediately or if the eggs are held before service following cooking.
Also, when serving a highly susceptible population, raw animal food such as
raw or raw-marinated fish, raw shellfish, steak tartare, rare meat, soft cooked
eggs or partially cooked food such as lightly cooked fish may not be served or
offered for sale in a ready-to-eat form.
Time as a Public Health Control
If time only, rather than time in conjunction with temperature, is
used as a public health control for a working supply of
potentially hazardous food before cooking, or for ready-to-eat
potentially hazardous food that is held for service for
immediate consumption, the food shall be unmistakably
marked to indicate the time four hours past the point when the
food was removed from temperature control. Unmarked
containers of food or marked to exceed a four hour limit shall
be discarded. Written procedures shall be maintained in the
food establishment and made available to the regulatory
authority upon request to ensure compliance with the
provisions set for time as a public health control.
Food Protection During Cooling
Foods prepared in large quantities or
volumes must be rapidly cooled from
within a total of
Food Protection During Cooling
Approved cooling methods:
Quick Chiller (Blast Chiller)
Food Protection During Cooling
• After use as a cooling medium, ice may not be used as
• PHF’s that have been cooked and then refrigerated must
be reheated to 165*F or higher with 2 hours.
• PHF’s reheated in a microwave shall be stirred, rotated
and allowed to stand covered for two minutes after
• Steam tables, warmers and other similar hot food
holding equipment are prohibited for the rapid reheating
of potentially hazardous foods.
• Equipment for cooling, heating and holding hot and cold
food shall be sufficient in number and capacity to provide
proper temperatures for food.
• Fresh batters and breading must be prepared in small
batches and replaced frequently. Leftover amounts must
Protection of Food During Service
Hot holding foods during display or
service must be maintained at 135*F or
above, must be stirred frequently,
covered or protected and the utensils
must be properly stored .
• In the food with the handle extending out of the food.
• Clean dry location.
• In running water.
• In a running water dipper well.
• In standing water if the temperature is 135*F or
Employees must be trained to avoid touching parts of dishes or utensils that will
contact the customer’s mouth, handling clean place settings, and serving food
without washing hands after bussing tables.
Self-service foods should be protected with sneeze guards. Single-use and single-
service articles must be discarded after use.
Portions of food, which are left by consumer, cannot be re-used or re-served in
The re-use of soiled tableware by self-service consumers returning to the service
area for additional food is prohibited.
Only wrapped or unopened non-potentially hazardous items may be re-used.
Ice bins must be self-draining; the scoop must be stored on a clean surface or in
the ice with the handle extending out of the ice.
When handling leftovers, a thermometer must be used to determine internal
temperatures. Food must be reheated to 135*F or higher in less than 2 hours.
Leftovers cannot be reheated more than once.
• Mobile Food Establishments
• Temporary Food Establishments
• Bed & Breakfast Establishments
• Vending Machines
Food and food utensils must be kept in covered containers; completely wrapped; or packages
to protect against contamination. During transportation, food must be kept in containers or
vehicles designed for transporting food.
Mobile food establishments must comply with the requirements of the Texas Food
Establishment Rules. The regulatory authority may impose additional requirements and
may prohibit the sale of some or all potentially hazardous foods to protect against public
health hazards. Mobile food establishments shall provide only single-service articles for
use by the consumer.
If liquid waste results from the operation of the mobile food establishment, the waste shall be
stored in a permanently installed retention tank. A sewage holding tank in a mobile food
establishment shall be sized 15 percent larger in capacity than the water supply tank and
equipped with a shut-off valve. Liquid waste shall not be discharged from the retention
tank in motion. Sewage and other liquid wastes shall be removed at an approved waste
A temporary food establishment must comply with the requirements of the Texas Food
Establishment Rules. The regulatory authority may impose additional requirements and may
prohibit the sale or some or all potentially hazardous foods to protect against public health
hazards related to the conduct of the temporary food establishment. Where necessary to
prevent contamination, effective shields shall be provided. All food temperature
requirements must be met. A temporary food establishment shall provide only single-service
articles for use by the consumer.
Packaged food may not be stored in direct contact with ice or water if it is possible for water to
enter the package due to the nature of the packaging material or the positioning in the ice or
Water from an approved source must be available for food preparation, handwashing, and for
cleaning and sanitizing utensils and equipment. Handwashing facilities with water, soap and
individual disposable towels shall be provided for employee handwashing.
Bed & breakfast establishments must comply with all the Texas Food Establishment Rules.
Outfitters – The regulatory authority may impose additional requirements to protect against health
hazards, which may be specific to these operations. Food supplies, including ice, must be
obtained from approved sources. No home-prepared products shall be offered. All food
temperature requirements shall be met. Ice that is used for cooling food may not be used for
human consumption. Potable water shall be sued on excursions for food preparation,
handwashing, and for cleaning and sanitizing equipment.
Vending Machines – A machine vending potentially hazardous food shall have an automatic
control that prevents the machine from vending food if there is a power failure, mechanical
failure or other condition that results in an internal machine temperature above 41*F for cold
foods and below 135*F for hot foods. A refrigerated vending machine must reach 41*F within
30 minutes after the machine is filled, serviced or restocked. A hot holding vending machine
must reach 135*F within 120 minutes after the machine is filled, serviced or restocked.
• Potable water must be under pressure,
from an approved source and must meet
all temperature requirements.
• Hot water at handwash sinks must reach
Sewage and wastewaters are reservoirs of dangerous pathogens in a foodservice
operation. In addition to pathogens, wastewater can contain physical and chemical
contamination. Sewage and wastewater back-ups in a foodservice operation pose
an imminent health hazard and can result in immediate closure of the facility. In the
event of sewage or wastewater back-up, the person in charge must immediately
contact the regulatory authority.
Mop water and similar liquid wastes must
be disposed of in a utility sink, floor drain
or a curbed area with a drain.
Food preparation sinks, handwashing
lavatories and warewashing equipment
may not be used for cleaning or
maintenance tools, the preparation or
holding of maintenance materials, or
the disposal of mop water and other
• An Air Gap is the only completely reliable method of preventing backflow.
Backflow can also be prevented by use of vacuum breakers and backflow
• Cross connection: Any physical link between the potable water supply and
non-potable supply or any source of pollution through which the potable
water supply might become contaminated.
• Back flow: Occurs when the pressure in the non-potable water line
becomes greater than the pressure in the potable water line.
• Back siphonage: Occurs when there is a pressure loss on the potable water
line causing the non-potable water to be drawn into the potable water
• Drains: There can be no direct connection between sewage systems and
drains originating from equipment.
Toilets and Handwash Stations
A restroom shall be available for use by
Toilet facilities must be accessible to employees at all times, kept clean, in good
repair, and supplied with toilet paper, soap, and hand drying devices. Facilities
used by women must have at least one covered waste receptacle.
Handwashing sinks must be accessible to
employees at all times.
Handwash stations must be accessible to employees at all times, installed
according to law, provided with hot and cold running water, soap and sanitary
towels and waste receptacles. Sinks used for food preparation or for washing
equipment or utensils cannot be used for handwashing. Common towels are
prohibited for hand drying. If the handwash station has an automatic shut-off, it
must allow the water to run for a minimum of 15 seconds.
1. Be insect/rodent resistant, leak-proof, and non-absorbent;
2. On or above smooth surface if stored outside;
3. In areas with proper floor and wall coverings if stored inside;
4. Easily cleanable;
5. Have tight-fitting lids;
6. Kept covered when not in actual use.
Remove garbage from preparation areas frequently.
The location of
units for refuse,
returnables may not
create a public
health nuisance or
interfere with the
cleaning of adjacent
• Tableware must be washed, rinsed, and sanitized after
• If tableware is pre-set it shall be protected from
contamination by being wrapped, covered, or inverted.
Settings that are not protected shall be removed
when the consumer is seated and shall be cleaned
and sanitized before further use.
Where equipment and utensils are used for preparation of PHF’s on a continuous
basis, utensils and food contact surfaces should be washed, rinsed, and sanitized
throughout the day at least every four hours.
1. Free of seams
2. Non-toxic and non-absorbent
3. Food-grade, hard rubber or acrylic
boards are preferred.
If wooden boards are used they must be HARD MAPLE. Separate cutting boards
must be used for raw and cooked foods.
4. Must be cleaned after each use.
Cutting boards are a major cause of
cross contamination to foods.
• Wiping cloths must be clean, rinsed
frequently and stored in a chemical
sanitizing solution when not in use.
• Separate cloths must be used for food
contact and non-food contact surfaces.
FIVE STEPS IN MANUAL
CLEANING AND SANITIZING:
5. Air dry
Heat sanitizing is carried out by
immersion in water not less than
170*F for at least 30 seconds or
in contact with additive free steam
Sanitizer Concentration Temp. Range Immersion Time
Chlorine 50 ppm 75*F – 120*F 1 minute
Quaternary Ammonia 200 ppm 75*F – 120*F 1 minute
Iodine 12.5 ppm 75*F – 120*F 1 minute
The chemical sanitizers listed above are approved by the Texas Department of State
Health Services. Please note that scented bleach is NOT an approved sanitizer.
Test strips or other device shall be used to measure the concentration of chemical
sanitizer. Never use less than the prescribed amount of sanitizer, and test the
temperature of the water.
MECHANICAL DISH MACHINES
Heat sanitizing dish machines:
Wash water temperature 160*F Rinse water temperature 180*F
Chemical sanitizing dish machines:
Wash water temperature 120*F Rinse water temperature 140*F
Heat sanitizing is carried out by immersion in water not less than
170*F for at least 30 seconds or in contact with additive free steam
at 200*F. Temperatures must be checked.
After sanitizing, all equipment and utensils
must be air-dried.
Cleaning & Sanitizing
• When cleaning stationary equipment, it should
be unplugged, disassembled, sanitized with a
solution twice the strength used in immersion
sanitizing and allowed to air dry before
• Cleaned and sanitized equipment must be
stored 6 inches above the floor in a clean, dry
location, and in a manner that protects it from
• Single service knives, forks and spoons
packaged in bulk must be inserted into holders
or wrapped and must be presented to the
consumer handle first.
• Materials used in the construction of equipment
and utensils must not impart colors, odors or
taste to food. Utensils and equipment must be
safe, durable, and capable of withstanding
repeated washings, resistant to chipping,
crazing, scratching, scoring, distorting and
Chemicals or toxic materials must be stored so they cannot contaminate food,
equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles. This can
be done by spacing or partitioning. Storage must be in a locked cabinet when
possible, and aerosols must be kept away from heat. Only those toxic materials
that are required for the operation and maintenance of the establishment shall
be allowed in the establishment. Chemicals and toxic items must be used
according to the manufacturer’s instructions, used only in the areas specified by
the manufacturer, and applied so that contamination will not result.
Original containers must have a legible
manufacture’s label. Working containers used for
storing toxic materials, such as cleaners and
sanitizers, must be clearly and individually marked
with the common name of the product.
Rodent bait shall be contained in a covered,
tamper-proof bait station. Tracking
powder pesticide may not be used in a
food establishment. If used, non-toxic
tracking powder such as talcum or flour
may not contaminate food, equipment,
utensils, linens, and single-service or
A container previously used to store
poisonous or toxic materials may not be
used to store, transport, or dispense food.
Dispose of containers as recommended by
A plan review is necessary so that correction can be made before
construction. The layout is the arrangement of the equipment in each of
The physical facilities shall be maintained in good repair and cleaned as
often as necessary to keep them clean. Cleaning should take place
during periods when the least amount of food is exposed. This
requirement does not apply to cleaning that is necessary due to a spill or
Walls and ceiling must be nonabsorbent,
smooth, and easily cleanable. The floors in
Floors and floor coverings of all food preparation,
food storage, and utensil washing areas, and a food establishment in which water flush
floors of all walk-in refrigeration units, cleaning methods are used shall be
dressing rooms, locker rooms, toilet rooms provided with drains and graded to drain
and vestibules must be constructed of and the floor and wall junctures shall be
smooth durable materials such as:
covered and sealed. Floor mounted
equipment must be 6 inches off the floor
• Sealed concrete
and on a sealed masonry base.
• Ceramic tile Wall mounted equipment must be six
• Durable grade of linoleum inches off the floor and sealed to the wall.
• Tight wood impregnated with plastic
Counter mounted equipment must be on 4
inch legs and sealed to the counter top.
and maintained in good repair.
Sealant must be food grade and non-toxic.
Exhaust ventilation Lighting must be
systems shall be designed shielded to
to prevent grease or protect against
condensation from broken glass.
draining or dripping onto Ventilation is necessary to keep
food, equipment, utensils, preparation area free of excessive
linens, and single-service heat, steam, condensation, vapors,
or single-use articles. obnoxious odors, smoke, and
fumes. It reduces or eliminates the
Intake and exhaust air ducts possibility of fires, food contamination,
shall be cleaned and filters odors, mold growth, and insect
changed so they are not a infestations. Vapors or fumes must be
source of contamination by mechanically vented to the outside.
dust, dirt, and other Ventilation hood systems shall be
materials. sufficient in number and size to
prevent grease or condensation from
collecting on walls and ceilings.
Premises must be kept free of litter. The walking and driving surfaces of all
exterior areas must be surfaced with concrete, asphalt, gravel, or a similar
Lockers or other suitable facilities may be located only in the designated dressing
rooms or in food storage rooms or areas containing only completely packaged
food or packaged single-service articles. Dressing rooms and locker rooms
cannot be used for food preparation, storage or service, or utensil washing or
storage. Suitable facilities must be provided and used for the orderly storage
of employee clothing and other belongings.
Medicines and first aid supplies for employee use shall be labeled and located to
prevent the contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-
service or single-use articles.
Linen & Clothes Storage:
• Clean place protected from contamination.
• Soiled clothes and linens must be separate from
• Stored in non-absorbent containers or washable
Pests carry disease microorganisms, destroy and contaminate food, and disgust customers.
The three components of a good pest control program are:
1. Maintain proper sanitation and good
2. Maintaining facility in good repair.
3. Contracting a licensed professional
pest control operator.
Live animals may not be allowed on the premises with the exception of assistance animals,
assistance animals in-training, patrol dogs, decorative fish in an aquarium, and shellfish
and crustacea in a display tank system.
and other pests
The presence of insects, rodents and
other pests shall be controlled by routinely
inspecting incoming shipments of food and
supplies, routinely inspecting the premises
for evidence of pests, using methods such
as trapping devices or other means of pest
controls, and eliminating harborage
Dead or trapped birds, insects, rodents
and other pests shall be removed from
control devices and the premises at a
frequency that prevents their
accumulation, decomposition or the
attraction of other pests
• Openings to the outside must be protected
against the entrance of rodents and insects by
tight-fitting, self-closing doors, closed windows,
screening, or controlled air currents.
• Outer openings of a food establishment shall be
protected against the entry of insects and
rodents by filling or closing holes or other gaps
along floors, walls, and ceilings.
• Screen doors must be self-closing, and the
screening material must be less than 16 mesh to
Cockroach detecting :
• strong oily odor;
• feces look like grains of sand;
• hide and lay eggs in dark, warm, moist, hard to clean places.
Signs of rodent infestation:
• soft, dark droppings;
• gnaw marks;
• nesting materials.
To prevent rodent infestations, insure that the building is tightly sealed, destroy their hiding places, and
control should be left to a licensed professional.
Use only pesticides approved for use in food establishments, and contract a licensed professional pest
control operator. Increased effectiveness of pesticides can be achieved by maintaining a clean facility.
Housekeeping Procedures &
To maintain a clean and sanitary food service, a
comprehensive cleaning schedule should be designed.
The cleaning schedule should include:
1. What is to be cleaned.
2. When is it to be cleaned.
3. Who is responsible for the cleaning.
4. The equipment necessary to
perform the cleaning.
Humans are the most common source of food contamination. Infected
employees can contaminate foods with bacteria from infected cuts on
hands, sneezing, coughing, and failure to wash hands after using the
• Handwash sink shall be
maintained so that it is
accessible at all times for
• A handwash sink shall be
located to allow convenient
use by employees in food
preparation, food dispensing
and ware washing areas and
in/or immediately adjacent to
At least one handwashing lavatory, and not fewer than the number
of lavatories required by law, shall be provided in food preparation,
food dispensing, and warewashing areas.
Each handwashing lavatory or group of adjacent lavatories shall be
– Individual, disposable towels;
– A continuous towel system that supplies the user a clean towel;
– A heated air hand drying device.
Toilet rooms shall be conveniently located
and accessible to employees during all
hours of operation. A supply of toilet tissue
shall be available at each toilet
No person while infected with or
carrying a disease in a communicable
form that can be transmitted to foods, or
afflicted with a boil, infected wound, or
acute respiratory infection can work in a
foodservice establishment in a capacity
with food or food contact surfaces.
• Fingernails should be clean, trimmed, filed,
and maintained so the edges and surfaces
are cleanable and not rough.
• Unless wearing intact gloves in good repair, a
food employee may not wear fingernail polish or
artificial fingernails when working with exposed
• Employees must remove jewelry.
Employees shall keep their hands and exposed portions of their arms clean.
Employees must thoroughly wash their
hands and exposed areas of their arms
with soap and warm water before
starting work, during work as often as
necessary to keep them clean, and after
eating, drinking, smoking, or using the
1. Use warm water
2. Apply soap
3. Rub hands together for 10 – 15 seconds
4. Clean the areas underneath the fingernails and
between the fingers
5. Rinse thoroughly
6. Dry hand on single use towel
Use of automated handwashing equipment
acceptable to the regulatory authority can be
substituted provided the equipment is installed and
operated per the manufactures instructions.
Frequent handwashing is effective for the
prevention of fecal/oral transmitted diseases
– Hepatitis A
Employees’ clothing must be clean.
Hair restraints must be used to prevent the contamination of food.
Employees shall wear hair restraints such as hat, hair coverings or
nets, beard restraints, and clothing that covers body hair.
Hair restraints are not required for counter staff who only serve
beverages and wrapped or packaged food; host and hostesses; and
wait staff if they present a minimal risk of contaminating exposed
food, clean equipment, utensils, linens and unwrapped single-use or
Daily bathing and use of anti-perspirants or deodorant and frequent hair
washing to keep hair free from oil and dirt is recommended.
Employees must handle tableware in a way that minimizes
contamination of food, equipment, utensils or other
items. Soiled tableware must be handled in a way to
minimize contamination to hands.
TFER states that a food employee may drink from a non-
spillable, closed beverage container if the container is
handled to prevent contamination of the employee’s
hands; the container and exposed food; clean
equipment; utensils; linens; and unwrapped single-
service and single-use articles.
City of Plano Food code requires that employees must
consume food only in designated dining areas.
• Employees cannot use tobacco in any
form while engaged in food
preparation, while cleaning
equipment, or utensil washing.
1. Using a wiping cloth to remove sweat.
2. Stacking plates on food during service.
3. Storing soiled cloths or clothes in a food
4. Smoking in food preparation area.
5. Chewing gum.
6. Spitting on the floor or into sinks.
7. Unprotected coughing or sneezing in food
• Food must be prepared with the least
possible manual contact.
• Use tongs, scoops, or ladles to minimize
food contact whenever possible.
• Keep food covered unless being served
• Salad bars and buffets must have sneeze
How to handle an Outbreak of Foodborne Illness:
• Deal with complainant and
• Be polite and do not pressure
• Allow complainant to express
• DO NOT introduce symptoms
• Record information
When did they become ill
What did they eat
List of food from each person in party
Symptom for each person and on-set
How many people in the party
How many in party got sick
Did they see a physician
• Tests done
The primary motivation for developing a
management plan to meet sanitary guidelines is to
provide the public with safe, wholesome food.
Managers and supervisors shall be a good role
model for their employees and lead by example. To
ensure workplace safety, the facility should inspect
periodically for safety hazards, review work
procedures and areas for safety hazards, maintain
records on accidents, and develop a safety program
to reduce safety hazards.
Person in Charge
The permit holder shall be the person
in charge or shall designate the
person in charge and shall ensure
that a person in charge is present
at the food establishment during all
hours of operation.
The person in charge is defined as
the individual present at a food
establishment who is responsible
for the operation at the time of
• The person in charge shall ensure that
– Food is not prepared in a home or living quarters;
– Persons unnecessary to the food establishment are not allowed
in the preparation, storage, and warewashing areas;
– Employees are effectively washing their hands;
– Foods are received from approved sources, delivered at proper
temperatures, protected from contamination, and unadulterated;
– PHF’s properly cooked;
– PHF’s properly cooled;
– Consumers are informed of consumer advisories;
– Employees are properly sanitizing;
– Consumers are notified that clean tableware must be used when
returning to self-service area;
– Employees are preventing cross-contamination; AND
– Employees are trained in basic food safety principles
• Prepare trainee
• Present the task or skill
– Allow for questions and repeat
• Have the trainee repeat the task
Heimlich Maneuver Sign
A foodservice establishment that
provides space for eating must post a
sign depicting the Heimlich Maneuver
for dislodging food from a choking
person. The sign must be located so
that it is conspicuous to employees or
customers. The poster shall be in
English and Spanish, and in at least
two conspicuous contrasting colors.
Self-Inspections & Logs
A self-inspection program should be
developed for a periodic assessment of
the operation overall and as a tool for
– Retail Food Establishment Inspection Form
– time & temperature logs for PHF’s
– temperature logs for equipment
The regulatory authority should inspect each food
establishment at least once very six months.
The food establishment shall, at the time of the inspection, implement immediate corrective actions of all
food (PHF) temperature violations; personnel/handling/source requirement violations; facility and
equipment requirement violations; any HACCP plan provision that is not in compliance with its critical
limit; and all other critical violations noted.
The food establishment shall correct all other violations as soon as possible, and in any event, by the
time of the next routine inspection, but no later than 90 calendar days after the inspection. The regulatory
authority must verify corrections.
When the total cumulative demerit value of an establishment exceeds 30 demerits, the establishment
shall initiate immediate corrective action on all critical violations and initiate corrective action on all other
violations within 48 hours. One or more re-inspections shall be conducted at reasonable time intervals to
In the case of temporary food establishments, all critical violations must be corrected immediately and
other violations must be corrected within 24 hours or sooner if required by the regulatory authority. If
violations are not corrected, the establishment shall immediately cease food operations until authorized to
resume by the regulatory authority.
A food establishment shall immediately
discontinue operations and notify the
regulatory authority if an imminent health
hazard may exist such as:
– sewage back-up,;
– misuse of toxic or poisonous materials;
– extended interruption of electrical or water
– onset of apparent foodborne illness
– gross insanitary occurrence; or
– other circumstance that may endanger
Confirmed or suspected cases of the following
diseases, including but not limited to the following
– E. coli 0157:H7
– Hepatitis A
– Vibrio infections
Reporting of communicable diseases shall be done in accordance with 25 Texas
Administrative Code, Chapter 97, Sec. 97.4 to the local health authority. Where there is no
local health authority the report shall be made to the Texas Department of State health
Services Regional Director.
MONITORING THE FLOW OF FOOD THROUGH
AN OPERATION TO INSURE FOOD SAFETY
The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system is designed to be used to maximize
food safety. HACCP for the food industry was developed in the 1960’s by Pillsbury for NASA
to assure that food prepared for astronauts was safe.
HACCP is a food safety assurance system. It classifies potentially hazardous food, monitors
time/ temperature and preparation steps the food goes through and identifies points in the
preparation process which allow operators to reduce or eliminate conditions which create
The HACCP concept combines the principles of food microbiology, quality control, and risk
assessment to obtain as nearly as possible a fail-safe system. This approach has been
recommended as a method to promote food safety by industry quality assurance personnel,
government food safety officials, and international expert committees for over 20 years.
The traditional inspection program focuses on construction details and aesthetic appearances.
A facility could receive a high score on the traditional inspection for clean walls, floors and
ceilings, and still have dangerous defects in food handling. It identifies deficiencies present
at the time of the inspection, but does not track total time and temperature parameters of
food items. HACCP monitors time and temperature, and identifies critical control points.
Benefits of a HACCP Plan
1. It identifies the areas and
procedures of greatest risk.
2. It can help improve efficiency
and produce a safer, high-
In introducing a HACCP program into your establishment, it is
important that the managers, supervisors and employees understand
why, what, and how procedures are to be followed. HACCP is an
organized system that requires planning, implementation and ongoing
7 Principals of HACCP
• Assess Hazards
– examine menu, establishment, staff,
time/temperature abuse, personal hygiene
• Identifying Critical Control Points
– identify procedures to prevent, reduce, or
eliminate a hazard (cooking, cooling,
• Setting up Procedures for CCP’s
– must be observed and measurable
• Monitoring CCP’s
– use flow charts
– take temperatures
– keep logs
• Taking Corrective Action
– upgrade procedures
• Setting up record keeping system
– manager verifies written logs & charts
• Verifying the system is working
– study logs and charts
• Properties of the food.
• Food processing or preparation
steps of menu items.
• Volume of food as it relates to
cooking, cooling, holding, and
• Health status of your customers.
Once you have completed this on-line course, contact
the City of Plano Health Department for Test Dates. You
are allowed one hour to complete the exam. Exam
retakes can be discussed and arranged with the
City of Plano Health Department
1520 Ave K, Ste 210
Plano, TX 75074