The Levels of Communication by pptfiles

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									 The Levels of
Communication


 Adapted from Mastering Public Speaking,
  by George L. Grice and John F. Skinner
To Communicate . . .

   The Latin verb communicare means “to
    make common to many, share, impart,
    divide.”
Simply stated . . .
 When you communicate you share, or
  make common, your knowledge and
  ideas with someone else.
 Communication, then, is the sharing of
  meaning by
  sending
  and receiving
  symbolic cues.
Charles Ogen & I. A. Richard’s
Triangle of Meaning
   The interpreter
    – The person who is communicating, with
      words or symbols
   The symbol
    – Anything to which people attach or assign
      a meaning
   The referent
    – The object or idea for which the symbol
      stands
    The Triangle of Meaning
             Interpreter
         (Speaker or Listener)




Symbol   ………                     Referent
Five Levels of Public Speaking:
Five Levels of Public Speaking:

 1)   intrapersonal
Intrapersonal Communication

   The type of communication a person
    has with himself, thus the prefix “intra-”
    which means within.

   As soon as a human being awakens, he
    begins an internal thought process and
    dialogue, almost always silent, but
    sometimes aloud.
Five Levels of Public Speaking:

 2)   interpersonal
Interpersonal Communication

   Interpersonal communication takes
    place between two people.

   This type of communication varies
    depending on the relationship between
    the two individuals.
Five Levels of Public Speaking:

 3)   group
       Group Communication

   Group communication occurs when
    three or more individuals, who have a
    common goal, interact either formally or
    informally.
Five Levels of Public Speaking:

 4)   public
       Public Communication

   Public communication takes place when
    one or more individuals communicate
    with a large group in a more “one-
    directional” approach.
Five Levels of Public Speaking:

 5)   mass communication
       Mass Communication

   Mass communication occurs when
    extremely large groups receive
    information, like a television audience
    watching a news broadcast, as well as
    the intermittent commercial advertising.
Five Levels of Public Speaking:

 1) intrapersonal
 2) interpersonal
 3) group
 4) public
 5) mass communication
Linear Model of Communication
    Linear Model of Communication

   The speaker—the sender, the encoder,
    or source of the message.




  The
Speaker
    Linear Model of Communication

   Encoding—the process of putting ideas
    into symbols to carry a message.

          The Speech
             Text



  The
Speaker
 Linear Model of Communication

   Message—ideas communicated
    verbally and nonverbally.




                  The Message
  The
Speaker
          A speaker sends a message to a listener.
    Linear Model of Communication

   Listener—the receiver or decoder of
    the message



                   The Message
  The
Speaker
           A speaker sends a message to a listener.
    Linear Model of Communication

   Decoding—the process of attaching
    meanings to symbols received.
                                                 Decoding



                   The Message
  The
Speaker
           A speaker sends a message to a listener.
    Linear Model of Communication

   The speaker—the sender, the encoder, or
    source of the message.
   Encoding—the process of putting ideas into
    symbols to carry a message.
   Message—ideas communicated verbally and
    nonverbally.
   Listener—the receiver or decoder of the
    message
   Decoding—the process of attaching
    meanings to symbols received.
 Linear Model of Communication




  The             The Message                          The
Speaker                                              Listener
          A speaker sends a message to a listener.
Problems with Linear Model
    of Communication
 #1—The assumption that a person is
  either the sender or a receiver of
  messages.
 Actually, we perform both of these roles
  simultaneously.
Problems with Linear Model
    of Communication
 #2—The suggestion that
  communication involves only one
  message.
 Actually, there are as many messages
  as there are communicators involved,
  and the message the sender intends is
  never identical to the one received.
    Interactive Model of Communication


   When scholars began to see the
    limitations of the linear model of
    communication, they added other
    components to the speaker, message,
    and listener making a total of 7
    components:
    channel, feedback, environment, and
    noise
    Interactive Model of Communication


   Channel—the medium, or the way the
    message is sent.
    Interactive Model of Communication


   Feedback—includes all messages,
    verbal and nonverbal, sent by listeners
    to speakers.
    Interactive Model of Communication


   Environment—the physical setting and
    the occasion for communication.
    Interactive Model of Communication


   Noise—anything that distracts from
    effective communication; some form of
    noise is always present.
    Interactive Model of Communication

 Channel—the medium, or the way the
  message is sent.
 Feedback—includes all messages, verbal
  and nonverbal, sent by listeners to speakers.
 Environment—the physical setting and the
  occasion for communication.
 Noise—anything that distracts from effective
  communication; some form of noise is always
  present.
                   Noise

   Physical noise—distractions
    originating in the communication
    environment.
                  Noise

   Physiological noise—distractions
    originating in the bodies of
    communicators—cold, headache,
    hunger, fatigue.
                 Noise

   Psychological noise—distractions
    originating in the thoughts of
    communicators—anxiety, daydreaming,
    worry.
                  Noise

 Physical noise—distractions originating in
  the communication environment.
 Physiological noise—distractions originating
  in the bodies of communicators—cold,
  headache, hunger, fatigue.
 Psychological noise—distractions
  originating in the thoughts of
  communicators—anxiety, daydreaming,
  worry.
                 CHANNEL


                 Message
SPEAKER                              LISTENER

                                   Decoder
   Encoder



       Decoder                 Encoder



                  Feedback


                             Interactive Model of
                 CHANNEL         Communication
 The Levels of
Communication


 Adapted from Mastering Public Speaking,
  by George L. Grice and John F. Skinner

								
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