MODULE 8TH


PERIOD:                          March –July
COORDINATOR:                     Mg. Sc. Dra. Marcia Criollo V.

                     LOJA – ECUADOR


 Cover Page

 Presentation

 Problem Statement

 Transformation Object

 Justification

 Objectives

 Professional Practices

 Research Process

 Theoretical References

 Methodology

 Accrediting Results

 Evaluation Guidelines

 Bibliography

 Matrix of the Module


The module “Organization and Management of the Teaching” has as objective to guide to the future
professionals of the teaching of the English Language in the Educative Management, giving core
knowledge about the organizational structure of the educative institutions and the management of
the teaching to promote the institutional development.

In this module, the students will get basic knowledge of the organizational structure of the educative
institutions in its different aspects such as: size, hierarchical and regulation, determining the basic
roles of the directives, teachers, headteachers, inspectors, just in case that in their work have the
necessity of developing any of these roles.

The present module is formed by three moments in which we articulate the research, the theoretical
explanation and the formulation of proposal alternatives to improve the quality of the organizational
and working roles in the educative institutions.

First Moment.- To characterize of the organizational reality of the educative institutions of Basic and
High school Curriculum levels which will enable the students to diagnose the organic and working
conditions in which the education is involved.

Second Moment. - Interpretation, analysis and theoretical contrasting of the collected information
about the organizational and management necessities which are planned in every educative

Third Moment. - At this moment the students will design a creative work which must include the
best proposal alternatives about the organizational and management of the teaching and the
efficient work of the teachers in the educational institutions.


The organizational and Management of the teaching is a problem related to the structure of the
educative institutions and the efficiency in the daily accomplishment of the roles of every member of
the educative institutions.

In this aspect there are some difficulties which are affecting the organization and management of
the teaching, they are:

       Little participation of the teachers of the English language
       Little commitment with the profession, the institution and the community
       Little knowledge of the organizational structure of the educative institutions
       Limited knowledge of the law and regulation that rule the working of the educative
       Restricted knowledge of the role that the staff should accomplish in the educative institution
        that could be as teachers, headteachers, inspectors or principal.
       The teaching is performed with an authoritarian leadership

These difficulties have many causes which are:
       Little knowledge of the additional activities that teachers must perform
       Little information about the organizational structure of the educative institutions
       Little teacher’s interest about the educative institutions regulation
       Tiny professional formation related to the organization and management of the teaching
As a consequence of these difficulties the teachers are not involved in the institutional activities
neither they participate with commitment in them.

To improve the teacher’s commitment in the institution, the professional must get knowledge and
experiences about the organization and management of the educative institutions to be involved in
directive staff and also to work in different roles into the teaching.


The limited professional formation of the English teachers in the field of organization and
management of the teaching, the little interests and concern of them to know the laws and
regulations of the educational institutions regard to their organization and functionality and the lack
of commitment of the teachers with their profession, the institution and the community, have
restricted the network of the educative institutions with the community.

Consequently the teachers do not participate with a formal commitment, they have a slight
knowledge about laws and regulations of educational institutions and most of them perform an
authoritarian leadership.

In order to, the undergraduates of the English Language career perform their profession with
commitment, efficiency and interests in the educational institutions is necessary that they count
with a good knowledge and experiences about the organization and management of the teaching
and be able to be part of the directive staff and manage an educational institution.


The module “Organization and Management of the teaching” has the purpose of enable the future
professionals of the English language career to develop knowledge, abilities and skills in the
organization and management of the teaching in the educative institutions.

The theoretical references and practice about the educative management will let the students: to
evidence, analyze critical and reflexively the organizational and management necessities of the
educative institutions, to know the roles of the directive staff and state proposals to improve the
organization and management in the educational institutions and the efficiently work as teachers.

With the knowledge of the English language and its scientific-technical application , the future
professionals will also be able to present and expose their research works in English.


   To find out and analyze the problematic of the organizational and management of the
    educational institutions of the basic and Sigh school Curriculum levels.
   To gather information about the best models of organizational and management of the
    educational institutions.
   To state proposal alternatives of improvement to organize and manage educational institutions


   They are part of the management staff of the educational institutions, language institutes and
   They propose with enough arguments changes in the organizational system of the educational
   They formulate proposals about organizational and regulations to improve the functionality of
    the educational institutions
   They manage the English language in its four skills
   They translate documents about organizational and management of the educational institutions
    from Spanish into English and vice versa.


Fist the students will analyze the problematic about organization and management of the
educational institutions of Basic and High School Curriculum levels and this will let them to diagnose
the organic functional conditions of the educational institutions.

This research will be developed in three moments:

Fist Moment.- Problematic diagnose of the organizational and management of the educational
institutions of Basic and High School Curriculum levels.

Second Moment.- Interpretation, analysis and theoretical contrasting of the information about the
organizational and management of the educational institutions of the Loja city.

Third Moment.- Determination of the alternatives to build the proposals of improvement of the
organizational and management of the educational institutions.








6.3.1.    SIZE
6.3.2.    COMPLEXITY
      Educational Law
 Entertainment

 Challenges





        Education

        Places



   Lifestyles

   Family life

To develop the research work about organization and management of the teaching we will do the
following activities:

First Moment

To find out about the causes and factors that intervene in the organization and management of the
teaching we will do the following activities:
   Checking the basic bibliography about the theme
   Elaboration of the instruments
   Group or pair work to develop the problematic and the causes and factors that are implied
   Individual and groupable presentations
   Presentation and exposition of the reports
   Discussions, role plays, panels and forums
   Practices of the English language in a communicative context

Second Moment

To develop the systematization of the information we will do the following activities:
   Analysis and interpretation of the collected information
   Contrasting of the found information with the theoretical references
   Study and analysis of the theoretical references
   Applicability of the theoretical references with the results
   Presentation and exposition of the reports
   Systematization of the information
   Writing reports
   Laboratory practices to develop the basic linguistic skills of the English Language

Third Moment
To determine the alternatives of improvement about the organization and management of the
teaching we will do the following activities:

   Systematization and discussion of the information
   Individual and group presentations
   Plenaries and panels about the theme
   Presentation and exposition of the final report
   Practice of the English language
   Use of the technology
   Writing essays in the English language


   Organization and Management of the Teaching                  (500 Hours, 31 Credits )
   Speaking Native Workshop                                     ( 50 hours, 3 credits)
   Discursive Language Practice Workshop                        (25 hours 1,5 credits)

   Tasks, lessons, homework, listening, speaking, reading and writing activities, presentations,
    students’ attendance and others.
   A report about the problematic of the theme
   A report including the contrastation of the problematic with the theoretical references.
   A report that systematizes the problematic of the organizational and management of the
    teaching in the educative institutions in Basic and High School Curriculum levels.


The evaluation: It will be permanent, that is to say daily, systematic and procedural. It will let us to
analyze critical and creatively the development of the teaching-learning process to guide and
improve the methodological, research activities and theory-conceptual activities which have been
established in the module planning.

The grading and accrediting: We will take into account all the proposed activities for each moment in
relation to the before parameters established:

   Written tasks                                   30%      3
   Individual and group participation              25%      2.5
   Knowledge and performance in presentations      25%      2.5
   Attendance tasks                                20%      2
                                          Total   100 % =   10


  1. BYRAM, Michael and FLEMING Michael, Language Learning in Intercultural Perspective.
      Cambridge. 2004

  2. CARTER, Ronald and McCARTHY. Michael, Exploring Spoken English. Cambridge. 2004

  3. CELCE-MURCIA, Marianne, and OLSHTAIN, Elite. Discourse and context in Language teaching.
      Cambridge 2004

  4. FARREL, Mark with ROSSI, Franca and CERIANI, Regina, The World of English, Longman. 2004

  5. HATCH, Evelyn. Discourse and Language Education. Cambridge 2003

  6. HINKEL, Eli. Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning Cambridge 2004

  7. O’ DELL, Felicity, English PANORAMA 2. A course for advanced learners Cambridge.

  8. RICHARDS, Jack    C. and TARRELL Thomas S. C. Professional Development for Language
      Teachers Cambridge 2005

  9. Organización y Gestión de la Docencia, Compilación de Dra. Teresa Arias, Mg. Sc. Rogelio
    Castillo y Dr. Jorge Mogrovejo

  10. Manual de funciones Administrativas, Autores: Mg Sc. Hugo Cueva, Mg. Sc. Miltón Álvarez

  11. Estructura Organizativa del Colegio Militar “Tcrn. Lauro Guerrero” Dra. Marcia Criollo

  12. Fast Track to First Certificate, Alan Stanton and Mary Stephens

  13. New educational Law, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura.

                                                           MATRIX OF THE MODULE

     PROCESS                                                          STRATEGIES                   DATES

Fist Moment           1. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL STRUCTURES Pedagogical Agreement       From March               Tasks
                                                                                        8th  to April
To Diagnose of the 2. FROM INDIVIDUAL AND PROGRAMMATIC Reading and critical analysis of 23rd                     Lessons
organizational and ACTION         TO        ORGANIZATIONAL theoretical references                                Homework
management of the
                                                           Group work                                            Listening, speaking, reading and
teaching     in the 3. ORIGINATOR OF THE ``HORIZONTAL
educational                                                                                                       writing activities
                    ORGANIZATION''                         Pair work
institutions        4. THE HORIZONTAL ORGANIZATION                                                               Presentations
                    MANAGING A HORIZONTAL REVOLUTION       Roles plays
                    6. EDUCATIVE INSTITUTIONS AS                                                                 Students´ Attendance
                      6.1. THE STRUCTURE OF AN EDUCATIVE
                                                              Field research                                     A report for the 1st moment
                                                              Processing of the information
                      6.4.      CONCEPT OF STRUCTURE
                      6.5.      DIMENSIONS OF THE STRUCTURE
                                                              Listening, speaking, Reading,
                                                              writing, grammar and vocabulary
                      6.6.     SIZE                           strategies
                      6.6.1.   COMPLEXITY
                      6.6.2.   FORMALIZATION
                                                              Laboratory practice activities
                      6.6.3.   MECHANISM OF COORDINATION

                       Entertainment
                       Challenges
Total hours of the first moment: 142 H / 9 credits
     PROCESS                                                         STRATEGIES                   DATES

Second Moment          7. MANUAL OF FUNCTIONS                Reading and critical analysis of From    April     Tasks
                                                             theoretical references           26th to June
Interpretation,                                                                                                 Lessons
                       7. 1. MANUAL OF FUNCTIONS OF THE                                       4th
analysis         and                                         Group work                                         Homework
contrastation of the   STRATEGIC SUMMIT
                                                             Pair work                                          Listening,         speaking,
information with the                                                                                             reading      and     writing
                       7.2.   MANUAL OF    FUNCTIONS OF THE Roles plays
theoretical                                                                                                      activities
                       MIDDLE LINE
references about the                                         Field research
                                                                                                                Presentations
organization     and
                       7 .3. MAMUAL   OF   FUNCTIONS OF THE Processing of the information                       Students´ Attendance
management of the
                       OPERATIVE NUCLEUS
teaching     in  the                                         Listening, speaking, Reading,                      A report for the 2nd
educational             Education                           writing, grammar and vocabulary
                        Places
institutions of the                                          strategies
Loja city.
                                                             Laboratory practice activities

Total hours of the second moment: 142 / 9 credits

     PROCESS                                                                 STRATEGIES                   DATES

Third Moment          8. THEORIES OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT      Reading and critical analysis of From June 7th          Tasks
                      8.1. DISTINGUISHING EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP theoretical references           to July 30th           Lessons
To Set up proposal
                      AND MANAGEMENT
                                                                     Group work                                          Homework
alternatives      to 8.2.   CONCEPTUALISING            EDUCATIONAL
                                                                     Pair work                                           Listening,    speaking,
improve          the MANAGEMENT
                                                                                                                          reading and writing
organization     and 8.3. THE RELEVANCE OF THEORY TO GOOD Roles plays
management of the PRACTICE
                                                                     Field research
                      8.4. FORMAL MODELS                                                                                 Presentations
                      8.5. MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP                     Processing of the information                       Students´ Attendance
                      8.6. COLLEGIAL MODELS                          Listening, speaking, Reading,                       A final report that
                      8.7. POLITICAL MODELS                          writing, grammar and vocabulary                      includes     the    three
                      8.8. SUBJECTIVE MODELS
                                                                                                                          moments       and    the
                      8.9.     AMBIGUITY MODELS                      Laboratory practice activities                       proposal alternatives
                      8.10. CULTURAL MODELS
                            Lifestyles
                            Family

Total hours of the third moment: 141 / 9 credits

Duration of the Module: 425 hours

1.   HORIZONTAL            AND       VERTICAL        STRUCTURES:           THE      DYNAMICS           OF

The ORGANIZATION of institutions of higher education has been seen as operating with ambiguous
purposes in vertically oriented structures that are only loosely connected. The rationale for this
ambiguity is twofold: (1) to allow for creative thinking, and (2) to respect “and even encourage” the
autonomy of different disciplines. But ambiguity of purpose and vertical organization are at odds
with thinking and expectations in an era of accountability and assessment, in which cross-
institutional, or horizontal, reporting and measurement of institutional performance are highly
regarded and increasingly demanded. Student affairs divisions are particularly challenged, given
their ambiguous purpose (to support holistic student learning and development); the perception
that they are support services, rather than core academic functions; and their primarily historically
and traditionally framed organizational structures. Student affairs divisions are appropriately
scrutinized to display how their ambiguous purpose is manifested in practice via organizational
effectiveness and responsiveness to institutional needs, and through documented contributions to
the development and achievement of desired student outcomes. The ability of student affairs
functional areas to document and demonstrate value provides a pertinent opportunity to reconsider
the organizational nature of student affairs programs, services, activities, and systems of support.

The frequent and increasingly predictable accusation that institutions of higher education operate in
"silos" is based on the primarily vertical organization of those institutions; their various schools,
colleges, business operations, student support services, real estate and economic development
arms, foundations, and athletic programs operate in parallel with one another, more focused on
promoting their own internal goals and objectives than on adhering to, elucidating, or accomplishing
broader institutional purposes. It is a common observation that professors in any discipline have a
greater sense of community and connection with professors in that same discipline in other
institutions than with professors in other disciplines in their own institution. Similarly, student affairs
professionals who find career contentment in residence life are more likely to collaborate locally,
regionally, and nationally with others who do the same work rather than to seek interdisciplinary
opportunities on their home campuses.

This vertical organizational structure is reinforced by centrifugal forces that create decentralization
and locate governance, responsibility, and resources peripherally, rather than centrally; funding
models in many institutions base the allocation of resources on credit hours, which drives money
into individual schools based on student enrollments in courses (Ehrenberg 2000). Schools within

larger institutions compete with each other for scarce resources and almost inevitably, and often by
necessity, promote their own interests rather than those of the university at large. Centralized
components of the institution “such as most student affairs offices, programs, and services” may
struggle for resources in this context.

In these vertically organized institutions, there are important (and essential) horizontal forces;
similarly, given the centrifugal, decentralized nature of decision making and resource allocation,
there are nonetheless certain centripetal forces that pull some decision making, governance, and
control to the center of the institution. Notable horizontal forces include, of course, central
administration, institutional accreditation, overall financial management, and certain levels of policy.
But development, alumn relations, communications and marketing, enrollment management, and
other core institutional functions are often performed to a greater or lesser extent by individual
schools as well as by the institution as a whole. Similarly, central funding and policy development are
centripetal forces -but the strength of those forces varies by institutional type, history, culture, and
perceptions of the need for public accountability.

The inherent and necessary tensions between these horizontal and vertical elements generate and
sustain complexity in institutions of higher education. Because each institution is of a particular type
and exists in its own context (i.e., public, private, rural, urban, etc.), the vertical and horizontal
structures vary in number and dimensions from institution to institution; but because they are
fundamental parts of postsecondary infrastructure, they each exist in some form at every institution

Student affairs programs have a strong centripetal pull and are, of necessity, horizontal; since they
(theoretically, at least) address the needs of all students in all schools, optimally they work across
“and have an integrative role in relation to” the vertical structures, or silos. The horizontal nature of
student services is easy to see: student health and counseling programs, recreation centers, student
health insurance plans, unions and student centers, and dining services are good examples; any
would be difficult (and inefficient and duplicative) to implement separately in individual schools.
Similarly, student policy (especially, academic and non-academic conduct) must be horizontal. First-
year experience and transition programs, general education courses, student government, and lower
division academic advising are other horizontal programs and services; providing them often
requires collaboration between academic and student affairs.

The identification of desired student learning outcomes creates a new horizontal force--
accountability for producing a group of outcomes for all students, regardless of their major, year in
school, division, or school of enrollment within the institution. This horizontal force, finding its roots

in accountability, challenges student affairs leadership to adopt a curricular approach to the
assessment, conceptualization, planning, implementation, and evaluation of programmatic and
student learning outcomes.


Student affairs efforts to function horizontally have been highlighted in actions to develop learning
communities, promote positive and developmentally sound transitions into and out of the
institution, foster academic partnerships, and respond to calls for movement away from vertical
(silo) functioning. An examination of these efforts reveals strong individual commitments to
horizontal functioning in spite of organizational constraints. Individual efforts and resource-intensive
programs illustrate the opportunities of implementing horizontally oriented functions and
developing a more horizontal institutional orientation, but do not normally instigate or sustain
organic organizational change that spurs the systematic breaking or weakening of vertical barriers
and forces. Organizationally speaking, efforts to support greater horizontal functioning are often
based upon the exercise of astute political savvy by inspired leaders and key influencers of opinion
and through the force of strong human relations, rather than through policy-driven, mission-
centered, or otherwise explicit expectations for transdivisional collaboration or systematic change in
the structure, beliefs, or culture of the organization (Schroeder 1999). While student affairs alone
cannot reasonably be expected to alter the vertical and disciplinary structure of the academy (and
cannot impose such a restructuring on academic or other divisions), much can be done through
engagement in the organic and systematic realignment of programs and services that support
student learning and success, including, but not limited to, traditional student affairs programs and
services. Such organizational realignment can be fostered by a curricular approach to supporting the
student experience through programs, services, and policy.

A curricular approach to supporting the student experience helps to generate a scope and sequence
of programmatic activities centered upon desired student learning outcomes. For example, student
affairs officers can determine the desired learning of students at different developmental levels and
connect those desired learning goals to programmatic and organizational elements. The aim would
be to have a vertical force for organizational functioning that guides the extent to which each
program should contribute to the acquisition of learning objectives, and a horizontal force that
pushes programs to best meet the evolving developmental and learning needs of students as they
progress through the institution.

A curricular approach to supporting the student experience within student affairs allows for
appropriate vertical activity while insisting on balanced horizontal functioning. The former occurs
when each department within the division is held to its respective discipline-specific standards. The
latter, however, gains durability through imposing a common set of expectations across
departments and then, through assessment of learning outcomes, accruing a body of evidence to
gauge accountability. The centrifugal forces of traditional departmental functioning, such as
budgeting and tradition, are balanced by the centripetal force of common learning objectives owned
collectively by student affairs--which, in turn, is embedded within overall institutional accountability
for desired student outcomes. A similar analysis “and approach” would, of course, apply more
generally to the institution's overall support for student success, which depends upon the
integration of learning experiences as much as depth of learning in a discipline or major.

Student affairs organizational realignment, then, is based upon the centripetal force of common
learning outcome objectives. As an example, rather than the developmental competency of ability to
manage conflict being the primary responsibility of those specially trained in conflict management,
outcomes associated with conflict management are shared across a system horizontally. Staff
members own collectively the outcome of assisting students with managing conflict. The vertically
organized units that direct service delivery must realign themselves to work together to meet the
student learning outcome of conflict management skills. In curricular thinking, the modules, or
service delivery units, must both share a common outcome and array their curriculum to be
appropriately developmental and sequential. This is not the same thing as saying that every conflict
resolution effort must be the same; instead, it says that conflict resolution programs and activities
must be conscious of one another's existence, coordinated in a sound way that demonstrates
integrity of purpose, and designed, delivered, and assessed collaboratively.

These principles suggest the need for a level of organization and horizontal integration of services
that far exceeds traditional "cooperation" or "collaboration" within divisions of student affairs--and
for similar integration among activities that support learning provided throughout the institution
(Kuh 1996). Achieving such horizontal integration is the primary functional characteristic of an
institution for which the entire campus has become a learning community (Keeling 2004); it is that
integration that permits learning to occur, as Whitt (1999) has said, in "every nook and cranny" of
the institution. Horizontal integration supports the coupling of programs, services, and activities in
time, space, and geography.

Horizontal programmatic and curricular organization is expressed in a myriad of tangible ways. The
change from focus on workforce development to lifelong career skills in community colleges over
the past thirty years offers many examples of how horizontal linkages enhance higher education

In order for universities to create a comprehensive culture of evidence that actively supports
outcome-oriented learning by the whole student, programs and systems of support must be
developed across disciplines (Braxton 2006). That practice must include and integrate services and
learning opportunities traditionally located in divisions of student affairs with courses of study
traditionally in academic affairs. No longer can "full learning" be offered only to those students who
request it or have the instincts to search it out. If institutions of higher education are to create and
provide to the public a body of evidence that documents student learning and development across
the academy, then they must intentionally develop and implement comprehensive learning
opportunities that link faculty to staff and courses to out-of-classroom learning activities. Developing
these linkages is an interdependent, energy-requiring process that results in tighter coupling; once
tighter coupling is achieved, additional energy (monitoring, assessment, leadership) is necessary to
maintain and strengthen it.

That is, institutions illustrate strategies for supporting not only student engagement with content,
but also the more comprehensive effort to create a purposeful learning environment “a topography
of learning” that expects learning to happen everywhere and all the time. That sort of learning
results in learners who know more than "what;" they know "why, when, and under what
circumstances"; they are intellectually curious and are more likely to transfer that set of
competencies across their life spans.

It is in respect to policy and culture that colleges and universities do or do not embrace the
opportunity that assessment provides to link high standards with daily practice and student
outcomes. Assessment, as a strong horizontal force and tool, both reflects and demands closer
coupling in the interest of producing and documenting desired student outcomes. Achieving such
coupling requires the exercise of significant institutional will, which in itself is a combined force of
variable capacity, will, and strength--what may be considered institutional purpose. Institutional
purpose is generated and sustained in direct proportion to elements of institutional culture and
policy. If there is focused and powerful institutional purpose, assessment can become a strong force
to bring disparate elements of the campus together in the interest of common goals; absent such
strong purpose, though, assessment can seem incidental, suspicious, and annoying. Without the

continuous application of energy and institutional will, coupling weakens, linkages dissolve, and,
through a kind of organizational entropy, the centrifugal overcomes what is centripetal and vertical
structures dominate horizontal ones.

Ensuring transformative institutional environments where learning happens everywhere and all the
time, then, requires intentionality. Intentionality can be articulated through a process of
organizational reinvigoration and strategic realignment. Organic transformation often begins with
institutional self-assessment, a process that engages practitioners' critical self-reflection as to
current practices, cultural expectations, and existing communication and collaborative pathways.
Identification of current practices is a precursor to the development, or affirmation, of commonly
held desired student learning outcomes and programs associated with those outcomes. Overall
student learning outcomes derive from the institution's mission, vision, and values--and from its
commitments to students--not from a restatement of existing programs; that is, desired outcomes
represent what should be, not necessarily what has been or what is. It focuses on the way that the
institution's work is, or is not, aligned with its vision; that examination leads inevitably to questions
of structure and organization.

The ability to do good work within one's discipline or program area must include both competence
in a specific area of knowledge or function and commitment to horizontally defined and broadly held
student outcomes. Just as a career counselor cannot focus exclusively on career content and
counseling, but must also address the development of cognitive complexity and citizenship skills, so
a physicist must devote some of her attention to supporting student engagement, understanding
and addressing student learning, and assessing the contributions of her courses to critical thinking
and problem-solving capacities.

Both because of greater internal and external scrutiny and in support of the desire of ethical
professionals to do their best work, the articulation of desired learning outcomes and the creation of
a strong rationale for how programs and services address those outcomes are essential to telling a
convincing performance story. The process of developing commonly held student learning outcomes
requires a strong centripetal force along horizontal lines. Common planning time, dialogue on
beliefs, respect for disciplinary and other differences, and a commitment to follow through a process
to identify learning outcomes are necessary components of this process. Collaboration and common
purpose are further challenged, but ultimately strengthened, when programs, services, and indeed
all vertically organized units are then asked to define how their programs specifically address the
identified learning outcomes. The process of creating common outcomes and then connecting

programs, services, and units will likely identify areas of strong coupling between current activities
and desired learning, along with areas of weak coupling. Of course not all programs, services, or
units will address each outcome in the same ways or with the same emphasis, but the collective
impact of the work in all programs, services, and units should be aimed at supporting and advancing
every desired outcome.


Ostroff is credited with originating the concept of "the horizontal organization," which is arguably
the first actionable alternative to the functional vertical hierarchy that has dominated since the
industrial revolution.

A horizontal organization is based on structuring organizations around the cross-functional
processes that deliver value to the customer. The concept has proven to dramatically improve
performance along the dimensions of speed, customer satisfaction/responsiveness, and efficiency
and is now being applied by hundreds of leading companies worldwide.

"Our clients are actively seeking ways to make their organizations more competitive through e-
business, CRM, and ERP initiatives, yet they have not aligned their organizations to function in these
new environments “a horizontal organization in many instances is the answer."

Horizontal organization has consistently been revealed as one of the most critical issues according to
numerous surveys. Companies such as Ford Motor Company, Xerox, Barclay's Bank, and American
Express have all transformed all or portions of their organizations along with hundreds of other
leading companies worldwide.

"The entire organization does not have to be designed horizontally," commented Ostroff, "but
simply those areas where this makes strategic sense, where it's competitively advantageous to
improve cross-functional performance “for example, when it's important to be quicker and more
agile, to be more customer focused or to deliver integrated solutions."


4.1. Creating the Horizontal Organization of the Future

The Horizontal Organization by Frank Ostroff discusses how effective organizations will be organized
and managed in the future. The traditional vertically controlled company is outdated and cannot
survive in today's competitive global economy. Quality is the key component for success. Customers
won't purchase products or services that do not meet their standards of high quality. Future
organizations will focus on quality, speed, customer services and integrated solutions to problems.

At first glance, it's easy to say this is nothing new. There is general agreement that vertical structures
are too rigid and slow. An excessive level of authority reduces communication and coordination of

Ostroff recognizes there is no one structure for each organization. Each organization has to evaluate
its own environment and develop an approach that fits its situation. Most organizations will have
both horizontal and vertical divisions in their organizational structure. This is where the information
provided in the book got my attention.

The transformation from a vertical organization to a horizontal one is not an overnight event; it
takes time. Obtaining the proper mix of vertical and horizontal structure within one company is no
easy task. However, case studies are used to illustrate companies that have made the transition.
Although the horizontal organization's culture emphasizes training, teamwork, employee
empowerment, loyalty and economic incentives based upon performance, the focus of the book is
the role of management.

Processes and activities that directly affect products or services are the main candidate for
horizontal structures. By identifying these core processes, the focus for structure becomes the entire
process not individual jobs. In the typical vertical organization, these core processes will be
organized through the structure. The horizontal organization attempts to bring them all together. In
other words, individual jobs and tasks are organized together as teams and made responsible for the
operation of that core process.

Ostroff identifies 12 principles to follow for the development and operation of horizontal
organizations. Among the principles that are of particular interest to human resource managers are
as follows:

       Make teams, not individuals, the cornerstone of organizational design and performance;
       Decrease hierarchy by eliminating non-value-added work and by giving team members the
        authority to make decisions directly related to their activities within the process flow;
       Emphasize multiple competencies and train people to handle issues and work in cross-
        functional areas;
       Measure for end-of-process performance objectives, as well as customer satisfaction,
        employee satisfaction and financial contribution;
       Build a corporate culture of openness, cooperation and collaboration, a culture that focuses
        on continuous performance improvement and values employee empowerment,
        responsibility and well-being.


When a company moves from a traditionally vertical organization to a more horizontal, "flattened"
entity, human resources' role is to refocus the troops - now called teams or work groups.

"Within this revolution, people across the organization are called on to assume more accountability
and exercise decision-making authority and to be trained in the application of self-managing
principles..." writes Stephen Covey in the introduction of The Horizontal Revolution: Reengineering
Your Organization Through Teams, by Morris A. Graham and Melvin J. LeBaron.

But what does that mean? For starters, it does not mean employees who are blindly following their
leader, nor does it mean renegade entrepreneurs setting out on their own.

In the best of worlds, Covey writes, corporate revolutions will yield invigorated employees who can
work "interdependently in cross-functional teams" and who are "able to generate creativity,
performance and innovation beyond the total of their individual capacities." In the worst of worlds,
traditional workplaces turned inside-out can foster mistrust, plummeting morale, and general
workforce malaise.

5.1. What´s in it for me?

Role ambiguity is a frequently cited source of frustration. An employee who once could say, "I am a
divisional vice president," and receive nods of apparent understanding, now wonders, "Who am I?
What does being a team member mean? What does it require of me? How am I attached to the
company and those around me?"

Getting employees to buy-in to the notion of a reorganized workplace and to understand and value
their recast roles and marching orders is difficult, says Zandy Leibowitz, a partner with Conceptual
Systems Inc., a consulting firm in Silver Spring, Md. She's seen many companies where "it's not
always clear" what employees are getting out of reorganization.

"The old employment contract said that if you did a good job, you'd have a job for life. The new deal
is that workers get to experience continuous learning and development," she continues. Along the
way they also may improve their portfolios and their marketability in the outside world. But in the
midst of a major transition, Leibowitz says, employees' reactions to those benefits may be "So

The harsh reality is that employees may not have a choice in whether or not they will accept the new
deal. Indeed, the first question all employees should ask is whether they still belong in the changing
organization. "They have a choice of becoming cynical and leaving the company, or taking advantage
of the offer that they are given," Leibowitz notes.

5.2. What's missing in the quest for successful change?

Authors Graham and LeBaron believe that the greatest challenge in moving to a horizontal structure
is making successful role transitions from "patriarchal caretaking to shared governance and

Organizations, they say, need to ensure that their managers and employees have:

        A clear picture of the company's future and the overall horizontal purpose.
        Clear expectations about their new roles as individuals and as team members.
        An understanding of new processes and standards.
        Training to carry out new responsibilities.
        A knowledge of and respect for others' roles and responsibilities.
        A common notion of how things are supposed to work.
        Skills to reduce potential conflict among team members.

       The realization that substantive change occurs slowly.

In addition, management must be prepared - and trained - to model the type of behavior that will
nurture social change in the organizational structure. Paying mere lip service to the "Great Team
Scheme" won't cut it, the authors write. "Some managers are like cowboy actors in an old Western
movie set, sitting on stationary wooden horses, elbows, flapping, pistols smoking, in front of the

The authors also caution that "telling middle managers that they are going to be coordinators,
facilitators, boundary managers and coaches is not giving them anything that is concrete. The more
appropriate response is that they are going to have to figure out where and for that they are
needed." Employees, with a little guidance, will have to do the same.

5.3. Defining competencies

Getting people to define and value their skills and competencies, instead of their titles and
paychecks, is critical to the change process. In her consulting work with organizations like Lever
Brothers and Merck Pharmaceutical, Leibowitz often uses a circular model that "establishes a link
between where the company is headed and what kinds of competencies people need to develop to
be a part of it." One version is designed for individuals and another for teams.

The first step of the model involves defining the business strategy. "We talk about what widgets are
going to look like three years from now," Leibowitz says. "We project what the company will look
like, what will give us added value, what the role of employees will be."

The next major step asks employees to assess themselves against a set of self- or team- or company-
defined competencies. These competencies may be a set of broad characteristics such as leadership,
adaptability and flexibility, or more finite skills, such as computer aptitude, problem-solving skills
and analytical abilities.

Using an assessment form, individuals (or team members) gauge their own competencies, then
provide one copy of the form to a boss or team leader. Additional copies are given to peers or
customers for their feedback. The answers, once scored and aggregated, give employees a picture of
where they fit in the organization.

"People need to be clear about what the organization needs more of or less of. Some people have
strengths here and weaknesses there," says. "Employees appreciate knowing their competencies

because they make clear what the playing field is. It shows that we're all playing by the same rules. It
takes us a step further and creates a common language for diverse contributors." Further, working
together with other employees and managers to define competencies helps build commitment and

Once competencies are defined, employees have a development discussion - focused on continuous
learning and career development - with the boss or team leader. It's an opportunity to ask, "How do
I put in place a plan to keep me (or my team) in line with the organization's goals?" Leibowitz says.
The idea is to find a mutually satisfying plan.

Finally, Leibowitz's model incorporates an application stage. "This means more than just sending a
person to a training program," she notes. "It's actual on-the-job training; it's working alongside
someone else or shadowing or mentoring them. It's exploring nontraditional ways to learn, because
everyone doesn't learn best in a classroom. It's about discovering how each person learns best and
then having them pick a way to achieve that type of learning."

5.4. Lever teams up

One company using Leibowitz's model to move from functional silos - such as marketing and sales -
into more focused team-based business processes is Lever Brothers.

After downsizing approximately 29 percent of its workforce, the Manhattan-based company went to
its employees and asked what it could do to help them meet their performance objectives.

The answers revealed that the company needed to explore new ways of managing change and
measuring performance. The employees wanted a process for setting team goals and measuring
their team's success.

Instead of using the word competencies, the company prefers the term success factors. Across the
business and at all levels, employees got involved in defining the factors necessary for Lever's future

Leibowitz calls Lever "the ultimate horizontal organization" because every part of the managerial
process today is tied into a team. For example, the Dove soap product line now includes teams of
people from all areas of the business. From manufacturing to developing marketing plans, to
distributing the product to stores, all team members work toward a similar goal - such as reducing

the cycle time in getting the product off the assembly line, out the door and into a customer's hands.
Teams, not individuals, set their own project and production goals.

The new team orientation also means that marketing personnel may have direct contact with an
external customer, such as the buyer for a supermarket or discount drug chain - something that
wouldn't have happened before. One benefit has been a greater opportunity for employees to
receive feedback and input from their customers and colleagues.

"It's a total company effort," says one Lever employee. Whatever the project, "sales people need to
be able to work with marketing, who need to work with accounting, who need to work with product
development. ... It's all part of learning to serve our customers better and helping employees
perform better."

Separate teams are working on other goals, such as linking rewards and compensation. Lever has
found that money doesn't drive performance; career development opportunities drive performance.

The Lever restructuring is still in process, and the company is scheduled to conduct a pilot test at a
plant in June, with a large-scale rollout slated for next January.

5.5. The Value of Communication

"At first we didn't think the merging of cultures was a big issue," York says. The organization already
excelled at the systems side of running a bank-managing customer accounts, maintaining a customer
base, acquiring smaller banks and mortgage operations, etc. - which allowed it to increase assets
while whittling its workforce.

"What we didn't have," York recalls, "was a system that communicated the organization's value
system and helped our people understand the differences in the cultures from which they came and
how to develop a comfort level in the new culture." Many employees did not have a vision of what
was important or valued in the new organization. The result was a huge philosophical rift.

5.6. The Camp David Process

To overcome the communication gap, York helped initiate various reengineering processes
throughout Integra. One of the processes designed to help people break down the functional silos
and begin to operate in a team-based format was a discussion session York calls the "Camp David

The first step involved working with management specialists at William M. Mercer Inc. Members of
Integra's HR group, for example, were asked to articulate their vision of the department's function
and their perception of the most pressing needs of the larger organization. The group asked
questions like, "What kind of HR function do we need?" "What is our vision of HR? How should
human resources be aligned with the organization?"

Another step identified strategic trends of the core banking business. "We looked at what kinds of
human capital and capabilities the organization needed to be able to accomplish the business plan,"
York says.

York broke the employees into eight cross-functional teams organized around strategic issues, such
as performance management and streamlining the bureaucracy. Among the specific goals were
developing individuals who were customer focused, and effective external and internal
communications for the overall organization. An entire team was dedicated to dealing with

York explains that Integra distinguishes itself from some of the large "money-centered" banks in the
region by emphasizing a community focus. "Our niche is being a super community bank and
understanding the needs of our customers."

York encouraged the HR staff to talk face to face with bank customers to get "a line of sight as to
what the customers need and want, and the kinds of skills and services they want to see when they
come into oily bank."

In addition, she wanted other internal employees - those who recruit, train or develop compensation
and reward systems - to understand how the company's vision and capabilities aligned with Integra's
customer needs and expectations.

5.7. Cross-Functional Communications

Internally, the only real communication being done before the reengineering was via periodic
newsletters from the marketing department. "We felt that was not effective communication," York
recalls. The team decided to analyze all existing communication products.

"We audited every piece of communication that went out - from forms to memos to manuals," York
says, "to find out 'Are we communicating consistently? Do we present a unified image? Does it really
address our employees' needs?'" The audit showed a communication system with multiple gaps.

Today, Integra has a formal process of distilling information "sound bites" to ensure consistent
messages throughout the company. Team leaders and department heads also receive weekly
briefing sheets on key company news. A series of "devil's advocate-type" questions and answers
ensures that people who need to communicate a particular message understand it.

Another successful tool, York says, is a "performance score card" to measure financial and
nonfinancial success. "It's the glue that holds together our performance management system. It's
the way we gauge how effectively we're achieving our objectives."

5.8. Hello, Left Hand?

Getting people in a bank - notorious for its traditional, vertically siloed functions - to change their
roles was a real challenge, York says. "The benefits people didn't talk to the compensation people.
The compensation people perceived that their function was only to develop comp programs. The
people who delivered services in the field weren't integrated with the benefits folks. It was
extremely compartmentalized, and appeared that the left hand didn't know what the right hand was

York recalls that many people were skeptical of the new processes. Although some did not like being
in teams, they weren't given an option to get out. One manager kept mourning her old boss, saying,
"I wish Bill was still here and things were the old way."

Among the Integra group were some who felt they lacked high-level recognition. Although all were
at the professional level, "many had never even spoken to upper management," York says. One
breakthrough was having them present their progress reports and plans directly to executive
management - something that would have been intimidating for individuals, but became an exciting
challenge for the team.

Another group of employees that 18 months earlier had been reluctant participants in the change
process suddenly tapped into their creativity, York says. "They put together a rap song to
communicate their business results." The catchy lyrics allowed them to show they had achieved
qualitative and quantitative results with measurable cost savings.

One woman in the benefits area, though doubting at first, became a champion of the reengineering
process after reading Reengineering the Corporation by Michael Hammer and James Champy.
Undergoing process training at Mercer also helped the woman understand the "HR lingo," which
York admits is something many employees weren't familiar with.

The Camp David process brought about positive, more unified feedback which was "extremely
motivating," York says, as well as a heightened sense of esteem and a clarification of roles. "When
the lights came on, that made it all worthwhile."

"Suddenly, people who were 'diamonds in the rough' came out and became stars. They finally felt
like they were set up to succeed."

5.9. Commitment to the Cause

Graham and LeBaron believe that when people really get involved "in the nature of their changing
roles, they gradually loosen up, unfreeze their perceptions, broaden their thinking and seriously
consider effective actions."

In the long run, they say, organizational success requires all participants to accept the collective
purpose and goals as their own. Without a commitment to the cause, people tend to pursue their
own agendas or "the way it's always been done." The responsibility of each team member is to
invest emotionally in the new organization - and to live with the consequences.

The horizontal organization is intended to free employees who have long worked within the confines
of functional departments and narrow job descriptions. Ideally, they will begin to "take on additional
responsibilities such as cross-functional training, data gathering, leadership, monitoring and self-
correction. They should thrive on autonomy; develop a sense of pride, self-respect, dignity and a
strong bond among themselves."

In a Washington Post article on federal downsizing, Jane Giles, a deputy administrator with the
Agricultural Research Service, offers this advice: "Change is difficult for many folks," but workers
facing big changes in their offices should "step up to the table and be part of the process. If you've
got questions, ask rather than worry. You might be worried about something you shouldn't be."



The development of societies brings the necessity to order the activities that need to be realized,
thus appear a first organization referring to the distribution of functions. For the development and
complexity of services the specialized organizations have to complete specific tasks directed to the
accomplishment of determined aims.

Any organization is social because its origin and service place it into the social, although they acquire
specific objectives in function of the social task assumed with time, so we talk about political,
cultural, economical organizations.

According to the former arguments we can say that “to organize educative institutions is to put into
relation the different elements of a reality in order to get the best realization of an educative

According to David Isaacs, the educative organization “is a group of exact members with a division of
tasks and responsibilities according to general educative objectives”.

In this definition, the organization is clearly established as a system which subsystems and
constitutive elements are interactive and interdependent, and this means a mission, or reason for
being, common objectives, and an organizational structure, a regulation that establishes hierarchy,
functions, and specific tasks in relation to the educative object.


“When a new action is being planned or when the solution to a problem is being looked for, the
immediate organizer feels the necessity to analyze the structure. The roles of the members and the
relations between them constitute the basic core of any action, because the objectives and structure
have a total correspondence and we cannot conceive one without the other. When in a center we
discover that the hierarchical diagram is only a decorative paper because there do not exist a real
working relation between the teachers, there is more than routine work that makes that each

teacher works separately in their classrooms with their group of students. There is an obvious lack of
institutional objectives so that there is no need of a structure. Any model that is used is no more
than a defined theory, pure scheme of a dramatic piece in which it is costume to hide the
inefficiency of the organization.


Many times the hierarchy diagram reflects the structure of an organization. In each educative center
the structure will be different, because the tasks will be organized according to the objectives, taking
into account the human resources and materials that exist in a given moment, and therefore create
distinct relations between the groups or between people.
March and Simon define the structure as a gathering of the models of behavior of the organization
that are relatively stable and that change only very slowly.

Thompson, following another approach, says – “the internal difference and the models of relations
of what we call structure comes to refer to the structure as the basic mean for which the
organization establishes limits and criteria for the efficient actualization of its members – delimiting
responsibilities and establishing control over resources and other materials”.

Another definition is of Jackson Morgan, who defines the structure as –“the distribution of positions
of work and the administrative mechanisms that create a model of activities of work in interrelation
and allows the organization to direct, coordinate and control its activities of work.”

To define the constitutive elements of an organization to represent the division of work and the
relations that are established between them to determine, analyze and reach institutional
objectives, constitute a structure that can be analyzed from three basic dimensions: the size, the
complexity and the formalization.


The organizations are created and develop due to a complexity and cooperation that mean realizing
various group tasks with a major effort and with a major quality, since this organization builds itself
on a structure based on the division of tasks specializing the people rising their knowledge and
abilities, differentiating groups to respond various necessities, to coordinate each person and each
unit and integrate the interest and efforts of each member in the common march towards certain

To determine the dimensions of the structure there exist different positions, but we will better take
the one of Hall Richard that distinguishes three dimensions that, clearly delimited in the structure,
allow, whatever the unit be, make a distinction between one structure and another that are:

6.8.1.      SIZE

It is advised to begin the analysis of the school structure with the size, because this is an easy to
perceive basis and a key piece to understand how much happens in the organization and in its

The size is defined by the number of teachers, students, administrative and services staff that
intervene in the organization, but to establish a coefficient of correlation it is possible to take the
number of teachers for the total amount of students registered in the institution or the total number
of staff for the total amount of students, and it is possible to make a relation between the two
coefficient that always reflect a macro image.

To resolve the problem of part-time employees Hall and Johnson recommend adding the total time
of these people and transform it to its equivalent in full-time.

Another important aspect that the size reflects in the rationalization of staff, taking it as the scale of
operation, is the optimization of human resources and the bettering of quality in education.

The size is also in correlation with the financial resources, since they constitute a determining factor
to reduce or increase the size of the structure.

6.8.2.      COMPLEXITY

One of the first perceptions that one acquires when analyzing the structure of an organization is the
complexity that is represented by the horizontal, vertical and spatial differentiation between the
components of an organization and the interrelations or rules of the behavior of the members, in
the internal processes and with the surroundings, that require levels of coordination and
communication to achieve the efficient development of the proper activities of the institution.
When an organization is created it is easy to coordinate the functions between few people, but
whereas the organization increases in size difficulties appear, like the differentiation of tasks that is
positive, but it is necessary to connect areas and integrate efforts appreciating a new coordinating

tasks that makes new units necessary. This implies coordinators making the hierarchic differentiation
because the institution becomes more complex.

The complexity refers to the differentiation between the components of an organization, “it is
conceived as an effort of the group for the search for efficiency to achieve the objectives and this
brings differences in the behavior of the members, in the internal processes and in the relations
between the organization and its surroundings”.

We can easily identify three types of complexity: horizontal, vertical, and spatial. Horizontal Differentiation

This refers to the departmentalization in which the division of activities is represented, according to
the grade of specialization of the people responsible for the operation grouping that will exist, which
needs a grade of coordination with the other departments.
The more positions and specialties exist in the organization the more complex before the eyes of the
observer. The organizations grow horizontally when they grow in size and the doing of the tasks is
subdivided. Vertical Differentiation

This establishes hierarchy in the organization. When we realize an analysis of vertical differentiation
or design an organization we must not forget that the hierarchy is a consequence of the horizontal
organization. Whereas the organization grows, its objectives are more numerous (or the contrary),
the human dispersion and the necessity of integration, coordination and communication are bigger.
The person responsible of a department according to their specialization has determined functions
and deals with a group of subordinated people whose range of control has to be of a feasible
number and possible to deal with.

In an educative institution the vertical differentiation in successive circles reaches three levels.

The Directive Level is constituted by the people who occupy high functions inside the school system
and have the responsibility of the general structuring of teaching. This level signals the ultimate
aims, make the general action plans, supervise, tutor and apply the corrective means to reach the
institutional objectives according to the total results.

The Executive Level is constituted by the supervisors or inspectors and coordinators of the different
department, who also depend directly on the former level of which they can be tutors. Its function is
to drive and control the procedures and efficiency in the educative action and serve as a
communicative line between the former level and the operative level.

The Operative Level, in the case of an educative center it is constituted of the teacher, who has the
responsibility of planning, methodology, execution and control over the contents that are given to
the students, whose productivity depends on the efficiency of the teachers in the process.

Of the mentioned dimensions that complexity is probably what allows elaborating the structural
model or diagram with more security. It acquires a functional character if it is determined in the
dimensions that formalization determines. Spatial Differentiation

It is in relation with the specifications of the center according to the place of the departments, units,
and environmental, physical sections and others. It is a continuous quantitative variable that if not
given the value according to its place, can cause problems such as a break in the line of decision,
difficulties in the central services, lack of group interrelation, etc.

It is the grade of regulation with which the policy of the institution regulates itself and the type of
internal communication with which it works.

Formalization constitutes the variable that determines how, when and who has to realize the tasks.
It is another fundamental part of a structure that establishes the norms to regulate the operation,
the tasks and responsibilities that each department has inside an institution. It facilitates the
evaluation of the execution of the former tasks.

This way formalization is what establishes the norms and procedures to deal with situations and
conflicts created inside the organization. Even though it does not always give solutions, it serves as a
basis for making decisions.      Systems of operation of the organization

On another hand, inside the operation and formalization of an organization we can establish various
diagrams of flows of operation, coordination and communication that serve as a basis to better the
organizational structure. Between the main ones we can mention: System of formal authority,
System of regulated activity, System of informal communication, System of work group, and System
of decision ad-doc.

1. System of formal authority
The line of formal power lowering to hierarchy is represented by the diagram that serves to establish
and guide the structure and its operation according to the diagram type.

   This system can be expressed by the following figure:






2. System of Regulated Activity

“Figure (b) represents the organization as a net of regulated flows of work of production through the
operative nucleus of orders and instructions going down in the administrative hierarchy to control
the operative nucleus, of feedback information based on the results (in a system of administrative
information or MIS), and of information and advice coming from the sides to the making of decision.
This is a vision of the organization compatible with the traditional notions of authority and hierarchy,
but, different from the first one, on that it emphasizes standardization more than direct surface.


3. System of informal communication

This system is directly linked to mutual adjusting. Because the communication is informal it does not
have a hierarchic line. This implies deceiving the authority canals. It can function in simple
organizations but in complex ones this causes problems and there does not exist consistency of
communication, which very often does not involve responsibilities, it could lead to legal problems.
According to Mitzberg the following figure represents this system:


4. System of work group
This system consists of making groups or associations of work, not necessarily in order of hierarchy
but also in relation to the necessity of the organization, this system is productive when we take

advantage of it to realize different activities such as planning, organization or to interchange
experiences and mutual evaluation.


5. System of Decisions Ad Hoc
This system means that a decision of superior level is made through any member of the organization
as a process of innovation or improvement; it has to do with participation, self-criticism, and


When we talk about the structure of the organization it is fundamental to take into consideration
the mechanisms of coordination to establish a system of division of work and to coordinate it
through certain mechanisms that according to Mintzberg can be: mutual adjusting, direct

supervision, standardization of work processes, standardization of the workers’ skills and
standardization of work productions.

a)    Mutual Adjusting

“Mutual adjusting allows the coordination of work by a simple process of informal communication; it
is used in general in simple organization. When the organization grows a new mechanism of
coordination is necessary.

b) Direct Supervision

Direct supervision is a mechanism of coordination that allows watching over the activities of a group
of people to relation their work with the achievement reached. The supervision is also responsible of
efficiency and productivity of the group that controls in respect to reaching the organizational
objectives because it does not only have to control, this function also implies tutoring and feedback.

c) Standardization of Work Processes

This means that we can realize a standardization or specification of tasks, programs, planning and
systems of control to achieve predetermined organizational objectives.

    Standardization of workers’ skills

This refers to the specific training that is necessary to develop a determined work in the case the
teachers count with their professionalisation. Even though the skills and methodologies are proper
to each individual, it is possible to implement permanent training to obtain better results.

    Standardization of Productions of Work

“The productions are standardized when the result of the work, for example the dimensions of the
product or of the acting, are specified”

In an educative organization we can establish an achievement average higher than the general one
specified by the Education Law with the aim of improving the quality of the learning that implies a
bigger effort of teachers and students, but it is difficult to standardize the results in education
because we work to train and teach human beings. However the educational institutions always
work with ideal profiles.



Name of the person in charge: director / principal

APPOINTMENT: The director is the person named by the Ministry of Education and Culture. They are

of free appointment and removal.


They are the highest authority, official representative of the institution. They are part of the

Directive Council and the General Assembly of Directive and Professors, Tutoring Organisms of the

institution. They are the first administrative and executive authority of the institution.


They are responsible for the execution of the laws, plans of study, programs, regulations,

agreements and restrictions of the school that are emanated of the Law of Education and Culture.

They are responsible for the total operation of the institution.



a) They are responsible before:

    Ministry of Education and Culture
    Provincial Director of Education

b) Depend on him:

   Vice Director / Principal
   Department of Orientation and Students’ Well Being
   Humanistic Coordinator
   Technical Coordinator
   Center of Multimedia or Center of Learning Resources
   Administrative Coordinator
   Educative Unit of Production
   General Inspector

c) Relations of Coordination:

   Directive Council
   Directives and Professors council
   Institutional Planning Office
   Committee of Acquisitions
   Educative Unit of Production

d) Substitution:

In the absence of the director, the vice director substitutes him/her. In case of absence of the
director and vice director, the first person of the Directive Council will assume their responsibilities
and delegation continues in this order. The subrogation will last until the titular assume their

e) Main links:

   Ministry of Education and Culture
   Provincial Directors
   Provincial Supervisors
   Representative Elements of the Internal and External Community.
   Public and Private Entities and Productive Sectors

    The students’ parents

f)   Received Information:
    Plan of Action of the Government
    Plan of Action of the Ministry of Education and Culture
    Plan of Action of the Provincial Direction of Education.
    Law of Education and Culture
    Internal Regulation
    Organic Law of Financial Administration and Control.
    Plans and programs of study
    Book of records of the Directive Council
    General Inventory of the School
    Manual of accounting of the controllership
    Others

g) Main Emitted Information

    Elaboration of the Mission, Objectives and Institutional Politics.
    Institutional Plan
    Plan of Development
    Annual work report
    Work distribution Table
    Appointment of administrative and service staff
    Statistics of the facility
    Annual Evaluation of Administrative, Academic, Physic and Financial Activities,.


Assume the responsibilities: the planning, the coordination, the organization and the control of all
activities of the educative process.

Has wide freedom to create or implement a suitable hierarchical line with the aim of being able to
reach the objectives of the center. It is responsible for the financial execution of the institutional


The director has full authority to conduct the institution according to the orientations emanated of
the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Institutional Plan of the Educative Facilities.


In addition to the ones established by the Art. 96 of the Regulation of the Law of Education, their
functions are the following:

 To be concerned about maintaining and consolidating the prestige of the institution on the basis
    of its links with the community.
 To resolve all petitions that will be presented on matters that are of their competence according
    to the annual planning presented by each one of the departments of the institution.
 To request to the Ministry of Education and Culture the designation of the teachers, technical
    and administrative staff, submitted to the determined norms in the effective laws and
 To give possession of the staff in their charges, before the legal promise to the teachers and
    employees of the institution.
 To take responsibility of the good investment and collection of the economical resources,
    submitted to the actual laws and regulations.
 To elaborate economic, organizational and work plans of the new school year and subject them
    to consideration of the Directive Council.
 To elaborate the annual report of administrative, technical and pedagogical activities in
    association with the vice director and present it to the Directive Council and the teachers.
 To control the good work of all dependences of the institution requesting the due care and
    delegating responsibilities to the different organisms, according to the norms of the Law of
    Administration and Control of the goods of the State.
 To order the renovation of the inventories according to the effective law and regulations.
 To request to the Controller Organisms, the inspection of the institution or of any dependence
    of the latter when they would consider it convenient or by petition of the Directive Council.
 To order in writing to the Collector to realize the discounts for fines caused by nonattendance or
    no fulfillment of their obligations to the teachers, administrative and service staff.

 To review permanently the mission, objectives and politics of the institution.
 To maintain constant links with the representatives of the social, political, productive,
    economical, ecological, cultural and educational sectors.
 To propitiate moments of dialogue and good relations with all the staff of the institution.
 To authorize the financing office the investment in monthly dividends.
 To impulse educative innovations, in accordance with the institutional change that drive the
    socio-economical development of the area.
 To promote and coordinate the institutional evaluation.
 To watch over the departmental programming and the educative activities.
 To watch over the handling of the financial and material resources and to take pertinent actions
    when economical prejudices are caused to the institution.
 To stimulate and sanction the staff that develops financial and administrative functions in
    conformity with the legal dispositions, of regulation and other types.
 To veil by an adequate administrative and financial organization is maintained.
 To authorize the reposition of the previewed funds.
 To dispose that the commission participate in drops, transfers, finish offs and legalize with his
    signature the respective acts
 To participate in the elaboration of the budget Invoice of the Institution and watch over its
 To legalize the payments that the institution requires together with the Collector.
 To require the opportune handing in of the financial reports that will include the respective
    states, for his analysis and legalization.
 To revise and make known the financial reports to the Directive Council.
 To negotiate the opportune reception of the transferences together with the Collector.
 To authorize the impression of the valued species of the institution.
 To designate the commission so that it realizes periodic economical polls.
 To complete with the other functions assigned by the laws and regulations.



   Law of Education and Culture and Regulations.


In the diagram, the General Meeting of Directives and Professors is an organism advisory of the
director which objective is to veil to the faithful accomplishment of the Institutional Plan, prepared
by the Directive Council.


   The general meeting of directives and professors will be constituted of the following members:
    the Director, Vice Director, General Inspector, teachers and Inspectors who work in the


Strategic summit.


The secretary titular of the institution will act as secretary.

The General Meeting of Directives and Professors will meet ordinarily at the beginning and at the
end of the school year. The convocation will be done in written way at least forty days beforehand.


The ordinary and extraordinary sessions will be realized before convocation of the Director, for itself
or by petition of the two thirds of its members, and during which the constant matters in the
convocation will be treated.

Its main functions are the ones established in the Art. 109 of the Regulation of the Law of Education
and moreover the following:

 To suggest to the Directive Council and to the Director about how they must drive the
    pedagogical areas, discipline, administration and the productive activity.
 To fix and coordinate criteria on the work of evaluation and catch up of the students.
 To promote initiatives in the environment of experimentation and pedagogical research.
 To contribute to the productive process that develops in the Educative Production Units.

 To designate in the first session of the school year his representative before the Committee of
 To attend compulsorily to the meetings of the general meeting of directives and professors,
    ordinary and extraordinary, previously summoned by the Director.
 To resolve in the last instance the administrative, disciplinary problems and of any other order if
    not expressively assigned to other authorities.



The General Meeting of Directives and Professors


The Directive Council is an advisory organism of the Director.

It is the most important organism functioning in the Institution.

It is the natural cause of participation of all the educative establishments in the management and
control tasks.

It is the main governmental and legislative organism.


The Directive Council will be constituted of:

The Director, who presides over it.

The Vice Director or Vice Directors according to the case;

Three main vowels with their respective substitutes, elected by the General Meeting of Directives
and Professors in the public schools. In semi-private schools the Educative Community designates
the first vowels and substitutes of the Directive Council, and the three main vowels and substitutes
are elected by the General Meeting of Directors and Professors. It will behave as Secretary the
principal of the institution. The secretary will inform but not vote.

The vowels of the Directive Council will be elected in the last ordinary session of the General
Meeting of Directives and Professors, thirty days after its election, before ratification of the
Provincial Direction. It will last two years in its functions and will be reelected after a period, unless

the number of teachers makes it impossible to complete this disposition.
To be elected, as vowel of the Directive Council requires: to be an full time teacher working as such;
to have worked in the institution for a minimum of two years, except in the schools of recent
creation; and not having been sanctioned with the suspension of teaching exercise.


Strategic Summit.


The Directive Council will meet ordinarily at least once a month; and extraordinarily when the
Director summons it, for itself or by petition of three of its members. It will meet in the presence of
at least four of its members.

In the case of temporal absence of one or more vowels, the substitutes will be summoned in the
order indicated. If the absence of the vowels or the substitutes is definitive the Director will summon
the General Meeting of Directives and Professors for the election of the main vowles and
substitutes, who will enter in function after ratification of the Provincial Direction and will act until
the end of the period.


In addition to the functions of the Art. 107 of the Regulation of the Law of Education, They have
these ones:

 To define the mission, objectives and institutional politics, to which will have to assist the
    activities of the institution.
 To advise permanently the Director in the decisions that will be taken in the: economic,
    administrative, academic and productive.
 To maintain an adequate coordination, with all authorities and organisms that conform the
 To motivate the execution of activities of teaching and administrative improvement.
 To approve the plans, programs and Project presented by the Technical-pedagogical
 To take care of the exact collection of benefits of its legal inversion and all that refers to the
    economic drive.
 To control and take care of the correct administration of resources dedicated and coming from

   the productive activity.
 To study and resolve the causes and motives for the legal sanctions according to the effective
   Laws and Regulations.
 To request to the Ministry of Education and Culture the creation, restructuration or suppression
   of specialties.
 To foment and protect the edition of texts, pamphlets, and books of scientific and educative
 To regulate the benefit and/or rent of the workshops, sports fields, use of multiple use rooms
   and bars.
 To conform the permanent Commissions: of discipline, sports, culture, etc., and the ones they
   will believe convenient.
 To elaborate a Special Regulation for each one of the Permanent Commissions and of the others
   that conform it.
 To evaluate periodically the Institutional Plan and realize the necessary readjustments.
 To stimulate the directive staff, teachers, administrative and of service for the faithful
   accomplishment of duties and obligations with the institution and the community.
 To elaborate the budget invoice, on the basis of the information given by the Accountant and

 To authorize to the Director the expenses or investments superior to the three minimum vital
   salary according to the legal dispositions.
 To know and approve the reports presented by the people responsible of the Departments and
 To designate the two servers who will do the physical verifications and updating of the
   belongings of the institution.
 To authorize the auction, drops and donations of the belongings of the institution.
 To approve the annual plan of acquisitions and designate commissions for the execution of
   acquisitions in the cases those require the integration of themselves.
 To analyze the financial reports and make decisions to achieve the correct management of the
   material and financial resources
 To approve the budget Invoice of the institution and to remit it to the Ministry of Education with
   the aim of definitive approval.


This part is the organization that serves as connection between the Strategic Summit and the
Operative Nucleus and to a minor degree with the Techno structure and Support Staff; the specific
function is the one of Control-Tutoring-Evaluation of the educative processes of the institution. It
also organizes the productive, academic and administrative processes. In this part of the
organization we find:




They are of free appointment and removal from the part of the Ministry of Education and Culture,
subject to the dispositions of the Law of Scale and wages of the National Magisterial
In the institutions of middle education with more than two thousand students and two periods of
daily work there will be two vice directors. In this case each vice director will attend the one the
academic function and the other the administrative function.


It is the second authority in the institution. It presides over the Meeting of Directors of Area, the
Meeting of Professors of Courses and the COBE. It coordinates the Permanent Commissions and the
Technical Pedagogical Commission.

It is responsible for coordinating and supervising the accomplishment of plans and programs of

Middle line.

a. It is responsible before:
The Director /Principal

b. Depend on him:
Humanistic Coordinator
Technical Coordinator
CEME's o CRA (Center of learning Resources)
Administrative Coordinator
General Inspector

c. Relations of coordination:
Director / Principal
Orientation Council and Students’ Well Being
Meeting of Directors of Area
Permanent Commissions
Meeting of Professors of Courses
d. Substitution:
In the absence of the Vice Director the member of the Directive Council substitute him
e. Main links:
Vice Director of other schools
Civil servants of the Direction of Education
Meeting of Professors of Courses

f. Received information:
Law of Education and Culture
Plans and Programs of study

Book of Records of Meeting of Directors of Area
Book of Records of the Technical Pedagogical Commission
Chronogram of activities by selection of work
Productive Didactic Plan
Records of evaluation
Sheets of Pedagogic tutoring

g. Main Emitted information:
Annual work report and evaluation
School statistics
Academic activities evaluation
Table of distribution of activities
Advance of the Institutional Plan
Quarterly report of the accomplishment of work,

Of the organization of the activities of the institution
Of the development of the school day
Of the organization of the technical pedagogical meetings

They have full authority to make accomplish the objectives of the institution, the same that will be
achieved by the students with the help and direct orientation of the teachers.

Apart from the ones established in the Art. 98 of the Law of Education and Culture, the following:
     To advise and help the Director in all aspects of school politics and administrative
     To have the academic, social, cultural and sports programming accomplished
     To preside over the permanent commissions and the ones that are created according to the
     To know and resolve problems such as: plans and programs of courses, before the report of
        the Technical-pedagogical Commission and other propositions.
     To review and orient the planning of work of the teachers in an opportune way.

     To supervise the maintenance of discipline of the students and to control the good working
        of the dependences and the attendance of the teachers.
     To take care of the activities that are developed in the workshops, laboratories, farms that
        constitute practical applications and favorable to the development of the community.
     To veil permanently the work and development of the Educative Production Unit.

The General Inspector will be named by the Ministry of Education and Culture

The General Inspector is the immediate collaborator of the Director, Vice Director and responsible
for the driving and discipline of the institution.
He will incline to form habits of good behavior through the conscious exercise of auto-discipline.

His main objective is to participate in the execution of the Institutional Plan; accomplish and make
accomplish the laws, regulations and other dispositions taken by the authorities of the facility.
Middle line.
These functions will be exercised by professionals in psychology in conformity with the Law of
Education and Culture.

a. He is responsible before:
Vice Director and/or Director

b. Depend on him:
The General Subinspector, the Inspectors of courses o cycles, teachers and students.

c. Relations of coordination:
Committee of Discipline
Council of Orientation and Students’ Well Being
Occasional Commissions

General Meeting of Directives and Professors.
d. Substitution;
In the absence of the General Inspectors, the General Subinspector or the Inspectors of courses or
cycle will substitute him.
e. Main links:
Director and/or Vice Director
Administrative Coordinator
Humanistic Coordinator
Technical Coordinator.
Department of Orientation and Students’ Well Being.
Chief of Production.

f. Main Received Information:
Institutional Educative Plan
Programs of work of Area of Physical Education
Work timetable of the teachers
Records of marks
Report of students behavior
Activities Calendar
Internal Regulation

g. Main emitted information:
To motivate the staff that has problems of nonattendance
To control the attendance of the teachers
To control the attendance of administrative staff
To control the attendance and punctuality of the students
News report
Dispositions imparted by the superior authorities of the facility.

Emanate from the Director through the Vice Director, maintain hierarchical authority and of prestige
to be a competent professional.


To create and instrument mechanisms that allow him maintain the best interpersonal relationships
and a good environment between all the staff of the institution.
To motivate permanently the students, activities and values that are in his benefit of them during
the formative process.
To dialogue with the teachers, students and family parents about personal and institutional
problems with the aim to achieve adequate solutions.

The facilities like institutions of middle education will have a General Inspectors, designated by the

In addition to the ones established in the Art. 101 of the Regulation of the Law of Education and
Culture, the following:

   To direct and make responsible of the driving of the unit with the aim of maintaining in order
    and harmony the operation of the school, in the teaching, administrative, student fields; and of
   To accomplish the work inherent to his appointment and the others that are originated inside
    the process of formative development.
   To present monthly in writing the reports of attendance of the teachers, administrative and
    service staff and of the one that would be required by the corresponding authorities.
   To inform daily about the disciplinary matters and summit them for the approval to the Vice
   To notify the parents or students representatives, the nonattendance or the lack of punctuality
    to class and the academic development of the students.
   To qualify the discipline of the students, subject to psycho-pedagogical criteria with participation
    of his collaborators.
   To confer certificates of behavior and attendance before authorization of the Director.
   To make responsible of the courses personally or through the Courses Inspectors for a better
    presentation of the school in parades, public, sports, social, cultural and scientific acts.
   To get to the institution at least fifteen minutes before the beginning of classes and to leave
    when the work period finishes.


The Operative Nucleus is found in the inferior part of the structural diagram, it connects with the
Middle Line and Strategic Summit mainly and to a minor degree with the Techno structural staff of
In this part of the organization they accomplish specific functions like the academic, research and
production ones with the desire to better the educative process of the institution. There we find:
Operative Nucleus
The teachers of middle level are
a. TITULARS: The ones who have appointment for the institution in which they work;
b. SUBSTITUTS: Those who replace titular teachers who are found in service commission or enjoying
a license;
c. ACCIDENTALS: The teachers designated to cover a vacancy that presents itself in the course of the
school year until a titular teacher is named, It won´t be for more than a school year time;
d.   TEAHCER BY CONTRACT: Those teachers who accomplish specific functions for a determined
time and are paid with funds of special wages activities of the institution.


The teachers will work twenty two hours of weekly class, distributed in the five work days; of which
twenty will be dedicated to teaching and two to the didactic planning, sessions of Meeting of Area,
Meeting of Course, Permanent Commissions and thesis tutoring.

The teachers of Arts, technological, workshop practice and field practice activities will have twenty-
four hours of class; the orientators twenty-six of which they will dedicate six to teaching and twenty
to work in the Orientation Department. The teachers who exercise medical or dentist functions will

work a weekly time equivalent to twenty-two hours of class, of which they can dedicate until six
periods for teaching, conforming to the dispositions of the Law of Scale and Wages of the National
Magisterial. The teacher with functions of doctor will be responsible for the health education
programs. The teachers with functions of laboratory and social work will work the time
corresponding to thirty periods weekly class.
The Directive Council will consider, inside the distribution of work, the periods necessary for the
development of special activities such as: course guides, extra-scholar activities, student
recuperation activities and team sports preparation.
The social workers without teaching appointment, nurses, auxiliaries and workshop masters will
summit themselves to the dispositions of the Law of Civil Service and Administrative career.

In addition to the ones established in the Art. 139 of the Regulation of the Law of Education and
Culture, the following:

In the practice of teaching the teacher has to be in accordance with the mission, objective and
politics of the institution.
   To maintain good relations with the directives, administrative staff, parents and students.
   To consign in the report book the facts required in it immediately finished the class. In notable
    cases notes of misbehavior, nonattendance or lack of care in the other duties of the students,
    communicate to the Inspection.
   To use the didactic resources in adequate form, in such a way that the direction of learning be
   To dictate conferences when the authorities dispose it.
   To collaborate with the corps of Inspection in the maintenance of discipline inside and outside
    the institution.
   To put in practice the technical-pedagogical suggestions given by the authorities and organisms
    of the institution.
   He is authorized to demand the presence of the parent or representative if he believes
    convenient to inform on discipline and approval of their representatives.
   To suggest to the Directive Council stimuli for the students to get noticed in the didactic
    activities programmed during the school year.
   To give an example of good relations and cordial treatment between co-workers in front of the
    students and parents

   To update professional documents each year, or when the case would be required at the
    secretary and at financing office
   Presence of the teachers is compulsory during the school or civic acts that the school organizes
    or during acts in which it participates.
   To converge with the necessary elements and punctually to the Meetings of Superiors and
    Professors and to the Meetings of Courses.
   In necessary cases the school will require the presence of the teachers outside work time. When
    they are named members of a commission the teachers have to serve with all effectiveness that
    their capacity allows them, and to conclude, the mission commended will have to be presented
    in a report.
   The teachers who take training-students are assigned for the accomplishment of regulation or
    auxiliary practices have the responsibility of orientating and evaluating them.
   The teachers will have to be aware constantly by announcements or existing dispositions in the
    school, because its omission will not be justified in any way.
   The relations with other members of the administrative and teaching staff have to be based on
    considerations and mutual respect.
   Before receiving their corresponding duties in July in the Sierra and in January on the Coast, the
    teachers have to present to the Collector and to the Secretary a form of discharge of the
    inventory of the belongings that he has used during the year. Certification is conferred by the
    person in charge of the library and hold.
   When terminating the year he has to present a course plan and the micro-planning with the
    respective readjustments and will have validity of two years to do the tutoring and respective
   To communicate with the due anticipation any missed class, in case of not giving notice, the
    missed class will not be justified.
   The technical teachers will execute actions of diffusion and cultural extension in the community.
   To receive the writing contributions in dates and times notified in common in accordance with
    the students.
   The new system of quarter and annual evaluation will be realized in accordance with the
    regulations established for the effect of the institution.
   The technical teachers, in addition to the academic work, will be in charge of other functions like
    the execution of projects in relation with his area.
   The permanence in the institution is compulsory during the whole work day.
   The teachers have to impulse and propitiate permanent approaches with the community.



The head teacher will be designated at the beginning of the school year by the Director of the
institution and will last in their functions until the beginning of the next school year.

Operational nucleus

According to the Art. 117 of the Law of Education and Culture, the following:
   Preside compulsorily the Course Meetings;
   To coordinate the work of the teachers and students of the course, to participate in the
    Orientation, Inspection staff and Parents Councils, to reach the best results in the educative
   To plan, exercise and evaluate their work in collaboration with the Orientation Department and
    Students’ Well Being and Inspection;
   To cooperate with the development of the association activities of class and to stimulate
    participation of the students in academic, sports and social activities
   To collaborate with the solution of students’ problems.
   To establish mechanisms of communication with the parents to treat matters in relation to
    discipline and progress of the students.
   To plan, organize and participate in the students’ trips, according to the norms and regulations
   To accomplish the other functions that were noted by the authorities of the institution and the
    ones determined in the internal regulation.

The students who have obtained registration attend the educative institution.

Operative nucleus

According to the Art. 141 of the Regulation of the Law of Education and Culture, the following:
   To participate punctually in the process of training.
   To attend punctually to classes and to the different civil, cultural, sports and social acts
    organized by the course or the institution.
   To keep due consideration and respect to the superiors, teachers and classmates inside and
    outside of the institution.
   To participate, under the direction of designated teachers, in the students’ cultural, social,
    sports, environmental and health education activities, using their aptitudes and special skills.
   To take the evaluation tests honestly and subject to the time determined by the authorities;
   To observe in all their acts, inside and outside the facility a correct behavior;
   To take care of their good presentation in clothes and personal hygiene;
   To contribute to the good conservation of the building, annexes, furniture, didactic material and
    other belongings of the institution. To assume the responsibility for the deterioration of any
    good occasioned by them and pay the cost of its reparation or reposition;
   To stay in the institution during the whole day of work.

According to the Art. 142 of the Regulation of the Law of Education and Culture, the following:
   To receive a complete and integral education, according to their aptitudes and aspiration;
   To receive efficient attention of their teachers, on pedagogical and formation aspects.
   To interact in an environment of comprehension, security and tranquility;
   To be respected in their dignity and integrity;
   To present their aspirations and claims to the teachers and authorities of the institution in a
    respectful way and to receive from the latter the corresponding answer in an opportune way;
   To be evaluated in a fair way, considering their work and efforts, and noted with the results in
    regulatory terms;
   To receive orientation and stimulus in their activities to overcome the problems that would
    present themselves in their study or in their relationship with the other members of the
   To participate with educative aims in clubs, cooperatives, and other forms of student association
    under the guidance of the teachers and in conformity with the pertinent regulations;
   To use the services and facilities that the institution counts with according to the internal

   To request tutoring from their teachers on academic aspects;
   To participate, through their associations, in the plan and execution of the social and cultural
    activities in which the institution intervenes.
   To be treated without discrimination of any type;
   To receive opportune attention to their requirements of certificates, marks, solicitudes and
    other processes in relation to their student life; and
   Not be sanctioned without proof of their responsibility or offer of the opportunity of being
    listened to and to defend themselves.




In the diagram, the Meeting of directors of area is a tutoring organism at the level of the vice
Director; its main objective is to promote a permanent process of the education, and a continuous
and integrated coordinated educational work.


The Meeting of Directors of Area is constituted of all the directors of area designated by the
Directive Council and by the Chiefs of Orientation Department. It will be presided over by the Vice
Director. It will meet ordinarily once a month, and extraordinarily when needed.

Techno structure.


In addition to the ones described in the Art. 113 of the Regulation of Education,
   To know the diagram of specific activities for each term, presented by the Vice Director to have
    it accomplished in the respective areas.
   To maintain permanent control over the techno-pedagogical development of the teachers of the

   To observe the teachers who do not complete with the techno-pedagogical dispositions before
    informing the director of the respective area.
   To establish the economical necessities in the educative productive field, realizing a plan of
    goods necessary for the school year.
   To promote the relations of technical cultural scientific interchange through the realization of
    seminars, panels, symposium, courses, etc., as much for the teachers as for the students.
   To study the indexes of suspension, repetition and desertions in each course and subject and to
    adopt the appropriate pedagogical means.
   To request to the Director and Directive Council stimuli for the teachers that would have been
    noticed in any relevant fact beneficiary to the institution.




Inside the diagram the Meeting of Professors of Area is a tutoring organism at the level of the Vice
Director and is in charge of the productive didactics planning of its specialty.


The Meeting of Professor of Area will be constituted of the teachers of the subjects corresponding to
an academic area. The Director of this meeting will be designated by the Directive Council. The
meeting will elect the secretary among its members.

Techno structure
In addition to the ones mentioned in the Art. 115 of the Regulation of the Law of Education, the
   To meet once a month or when necessary to analyze the planning and execution of the technical

   To review the existing didactic material and make the same, corresponding to each area to
    present it in the Meeting of Directors of Area and work on the consecution of the didactic
    material and team of the different areas.
   To realize control of advance of the educative units of production in the environment of its
   To inform terminally the Vice Director about the application and accomplishment of the




Inside the diagram the Meeting of Course Professors is a tutoring organism at the level of the Vice
Director, responsible for the technical-pedagogical work, the discipline matters and behaviors of the
course in collaboration with the Techno-Pedagogical Commission.


The Meeting of Course Professors will be constituted of the professors that work in a course or
group, the inspector of the course and the representative of the Department of Orientation and
Student’s Well Being. The teacher designated by the meeting will act as secretary during one year.
It will meet ordinarily after the exams of each term and to decide the promotion of the students;
and extraordinarily when the Director, Vice Director or the guide teacher orders it.

Techno structure
In addition to the ones mentioned in the Regulation of the Law of Education Art. 111, the following:
   The Meeting of Course teachers will be presided over by the head teacher that will be
    responsible of how it develops and the resolutions to it reaches.
   The secretary is elected by the Meeting of the Course and will be directly responsible for the

    elaboration of the act and the handing in of the same to the Director before 24 hours after the
    end of the meeting.
   To study and resolve all the cases of students that require special treatment, in sanctions as well
    as in the stimulus and communicate it to the competent authorities.
   To know and study the problems that the teachers are confronted to in the exercise of teaching,
    suggest solutions that allow improving the relation teacher-student.
   To mark the discipline of the students to which the General Inspector or the course will inform
    about the discipline according to the life sheet of the student.
   To know the claims about marks presented in writing from the students’ part, to resolve and
    solution before correspondingly consulting the authorities if the case is necessary.
   The resolutions of the Meeting of Professors of Course will enter in validity after having been
    approved by the Director, who has a term of 18 hours to submit their criteria, if they don’t do it
    during this time it is considered approved.



Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of
educational organizations. The present author has argued consistently that educational
management has to be centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education.

These purposes or goals provide the crucial sense of direction to underpin the management of
educational institutions. Unless this link between purpose and management is clear and close, there
is a danger of managerialism . . . a stress on procedures at the expense of educational purpose and
values_ (Bush, 1999). “Management possesses no super-ordinate goals or values of its own. The
pursuit of efficiency may be the mission statement of management” but this is efficiency in the
achievement of objectives which others define.

The process of deciding on the aims of the organization is at the heart of educational management.
In some settings, aims are decided by the principal, often working in association with senior
colleagues and perhaps a small group of lay stakeholders. In many schools, however, goal setting is a
corporate activity undertaken by formal bodies or informal groups.

School aims are strongly influenced by pressures from the external environment. Many countries
have a national curriculum and these often leave little scope for schools to decide their own
educational aims.

Institutions may be left with the residual task of interpreting external imperatives rather than
determining aims on the basis of their own assessment of student need. The key issue here is the
extent to which school managers are able to modify government policy and develop alternative
approaches based on school-level values and vision.


The concept of management overlaps with two similar terms, leadership and administration.
“Management” is widely used in Britain, Europe, and Africa, for example, while “administration” is
preferred in the United States, Canada, and Australia. “Leadership” is of great contemporary interest

in most countries in the developed World. Dimmock (1999) differentiates these concepts whilst also
acknowledging that there are competing definitions:

School leaders [experience] tensions between competing elements of leadership, management and
administration. Irrespective of how these terms are defined, school leaders experience difficulty in
deciding the balance between higher order tasks designed to improve staff, student and school
performance (leadership), routine maintenance of present operations (management) and lower
order duties (administration).

Administration is not associated with “lower order duties” in the U.S. but may be seen as the
overarching term, which embraces both leadership and management. Cuban (1988) provides one of
the clearest distinctions between leadership and management.

By leadership, I mean influencing others actions in achieving desirable ends . . . . Managing is
maintaining efficiently and effectively current organisational arrangements . . . . I prize both
managing and leading and attach no special value to either since different settings and times call for
varied responses.

Leadership and management need to be given equal prominence if schools are to operate effectively
and achieve their objectives. “Leading and managing are distinct, but both are important . . . . The
challenge of modern organisations requires the objective perspective of the manager as well as the
flashes of vision and commitment wise leadership provides”.

The English National College for School Leadership
The contemporary emphasis on leadership rather than management is illustrated starkly by the
opening of the English National College for School Leadership (NCSL) in November 2000. (NCSL)
stress on leadership has led to a neglect of management. Visionary and inspirational leadership are
advocated but much less attention is given to the structures and processes required to implement
these ideas successfully.

8.1.1. The Significance of the Educational Context
The Significance of the Educational Context Educational management as a field of study and practice
was derived from management principles first applied to industry and commerce, mainly in the
United States. Theory development largely involved the application of industrial models to

educational settings. As the subject became established as an academic field in its own right, its
theorists and practitioners began to develop alternative models based on their observation of, and
experience in, schools and colleges. By the 21st century the main theories, featured in this chapter,
have either been developed in the educational context or have been adapted from industrial models
to meet the specific requirements of schools and colleges. Educational management has progressed
from being a new field dependent upon ideas developed in other settings to become an established
field with its own theories and research.


Leadership and management are often regarded as essentially practical activities. Practitioners and
policy-makers tend to be dismissive of theories and concepts for their alleged remoteness from the
“real” school situation. Willower (1980), for example, asserts that the application of theories by
practicing administrators [is] a difficult and problematic undertaking. Indeed, it is clear that theories
are simply not used very much in the realm of practice. This comment suggests that theory and
practice are regarded as separate aspects of educational leadership and management. Academics
develop and refine theory while managers engage in practice. In short, there is a theory/ practice
divide, or “gap” (English, 2002): The theory-practice gap stands as the Gordian Knot of educational
administration. Rather than be cut, it has become a permanent fixture of the landscape because it is
embedded in the way we construct theories for use . . . The theory-practice gap will be removed
when we construct different and better theories that predict the effects of practice.


If practitioners shun theory then they must rely on experience as a guide to action. In deciding on
their response to a problem they draw on a range of options suggested by previous experience with
that type of issue. However, “it is wishful thinking to assume that experience alone will teach leaders
everything they need to know”.

Teachers sometimes explain their decisions as just “common sense.” However, such apparently
pragmatic decisions are often based on implicit theories. When a teacher or a manager takes a
decision it reflects in part that person's view of the organization. Such views or preconceptions are
coloured by experience and by the attitudes engendered by that experience. These attitudes take on
the character of frames of reference or theories, which inevitably influence the decision-making


Theory serves to provide a rationale for decision-making. Managerial activity is enhanced by an
explicit awareness of the theoretical framework underpinning practice in educational institutions.
There are three main arguments to support the view that managers have much to learn from an
appreciation of theory, providing that it is grounded firmly (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in the realities of

Reliance on facts as the sole guide to action is unsatisfactory because all evidence requires

Theory provides “mental models” (Leithwood 1999) to help in understanding the nature and effects
of practice.

Dependence on personal experience in interpreting facts and making decisions is narrow because it
discards the knowledge of others. Familiarity with the arguments and insights of theorists enables
the practitioner to deploy a wide range of experience and understanding in resolving the problems
of today. An understanding of theory also helps reduces the likelihood of mistakes occurring while
experience is being acquired.
Experience may be particularly unhelpful as the sole guide to action when the practitioner begins to
operate in a different context. Organizational variables may mean that practice in one school or
college has little relevance in the new environment. A broader awareness of theory and practice
may be valuable as the manager attempts to interpret behaviour in the fresh situation.

Of course, theory is useful only so long as it has relevance to practice in education. Hoyle (1986)
distinguishes between theory-for-understanding and theory-for-practice. While both are potentially
valuable, the latter is more significant for managers in education. The relevance of theory should be
judged by the extent to which it informs managerial action and contributes to the resolution of
practical problems in schools and colleges.

8.3.1. The Nature of Theory

There is no single all-embracing theory of educational management. In part this reflects the
astonishing diversity of educational institutions, ranging from small rural elementary schools to very

large universities and colleges. It relates also to the varied nature of the problems encountered in
schools and colleges, which require different approaches and solutions. Above all, it reflects the
multifaceted nature of theory in education and the social sciences: “Students of educational
management who turn to organizational theory for guidance in their attempt to understand and
manage educational institutions will not find a single, universally applicable theory but a multiplicity
of theoretical approaches each jealously guarded by a particular epistemic community”.

The existence of several different perspectives creates what Bolman and Deal (1997) describe as
“conceptual pluralism: a jangling discord of multiple voices. “ Each theory has something to offer in
explaining behaviour and events in educational institutions. The perspectives favoured by managers,
explicitly or implicitly, inevitably influence or determine decision-making.

Griffiths (1997) provides strong arguments to underpin his advocacy of “theoretical pluralism.” The
basic idea is that all problems cannot be studied fruitfully using a single theory. Some problems are
large and complex and no single theory is capable of encompassing them, while others, although
seemingly simple and straightforward, can be better understood through the use of multiple
theories . . . particular theories are appropriate to certain problems, but not others”

8.3.2. The Characteristics of Theory

Most theories of educational leadership and management possess three major characteristics:
Theories tend to be normative in that they reflect beliefs about the nature of educational
institutions and the behaviour of individuals within them. Simkins (1999) stresses the importance of
distinguishing between descriptive and normative uses of theory. “This is a distinction which is often
not clearly made. The former are those which attempt to describe the nature of organisations and
how they work and, sometimes, to explain why they are as they are. The latter, in contrast, attempt
to prescribe how organisations should or might be managed to achieve particular outcomes more
Theories tend to be selective or partial in that they emphasize certain aspects of the institution at
the expense of other elements. The espousal of one theoretical model leads to the neglect of other
Schools and colleges are arguably too complex to be capable of analysis through a single dimension.
Theories of educational management are often based on, or supported by, observation of practice in
educational institutions. English (2002, p. 1) says that observation may be used in two ways. First,

observation may be followed by the development of concepts, which then become theoretical
frames. Such perspectives based on data from systematic observation are sometimes called
“grounded theory”. Because such approaches are derived from empirical inquiry in schools and
colleges, they are more likely to be perceived as relevant by practitioners. Secondly, researchers may
use a specific theoretical frame to select concepts to be tested through observation. The research is
then used to “prove” or “verify” the efficacy of the theory.

Models of Educational Management: An Introduction

Several writers have chosen to present theories in distinct groups or bundles but they differ in the
models chosen, the emphasis given to particular approaches and the terminology used to describe
them. Two of the best known frameworks are those by Bolman and Deal (1997) and Morgan (1997).
The main theories are classified into six major models of educational management. All these models
are given significant attention in the literature of educational management and have been subject to
a degree of empirical verification. Table 1 shows the six models and links them to parallel leadership
models. The links between management and leadership models are given extended treatment in
Bush (2003).

Management model                                    Leadership model
Formal                                              managerial
Collegial                                           Participative
Political                                           Transactional
subjective                                          Post-modern
Ambiguity                                           Contingency
Cultural                                            Moral


Formal model is an umbrella term used to embrace a number of similar but not identical
approaches. The title “formal” is used because these theories emphasize the official and structural
elements of organizations:
Formal models assume that organisations are hierarchical systems in which managers use rational
means to pursue agreed goals. Heads possess authority legitimised by their formal positions within
the organization and are accountable to sponsoring bodies for the activities of their organisation.

This model has seven major features:
They tend to treat organizations as systems. A system comprises elements that have clear
organizational links with each other. Within schools, for example, departments and other sub -units
are systemically related to each other and to the institution itself.
Formal models give prominence to the official structure of the organization. Formal structures are
often represented by organization charts, which show the authorized pattern of relationships
between members of the institution.
In formal models the official structures of the organization tend to be hierarchical. Teachers are
responsible to department chairs who, in turn, are answerable to principals for the activities of their
departments. The hierarchy thus represents a means of control for leaders over their staff.
All formal approaches typify schools as goal-seeking organizations. The institution is thought to have
official purposes, which are accepted and pursued by members of the organization. Increasingly,
goals are set within a broader vision of a preferred future for the school.
Formal models assume that managerial decisions are made through a rational process. Typically, all
the options are considered and evaluated in terms of the goals of the organization. The most
suitable alternative is then selected to enable those objectives to be pursued.
Formal approaches present the authority of leaders as a product of their official positions within the
organization. Principals’ power is positional and is sustained only while they continue to hold their
In formal models there is an emphasis on the accountability of the organization to its sponsoring
body. Most schools remain responsible to the school district. In many centralised systems, school
principals are accountable to national or state governments. In decentralised systems, principals are
answerable to their governing boards.

These seven basic features are present to a greater or lesser degree in each of the individual
theories, which together comprise the formal models. These are:
structural models;
systems models;
bureaucratic models;
rational models;
hierarchical models.


The type of leadership most closely associated with formal models is “managerial.”
Managerial leadership assumes that the focus of leaders ought to be on functions, tasks and
behaviours and that if these functions are carried out competently the work of others in the
organisation will be facilitated.

Most approaches to managerial leadership also assume that the behaviour of organisational
members is largely rational. Authority and influence are allocated to formal positions in proportion
to the status of those positions in the organisational hierarchy.

Dressler's (2001) review of leadership in Charter schools in the United States shows the significance
of managerial leadership:           “Traditionally, the principal’s role has been clearly focused on
management responsibilities. Managerial leadership is focused on managing existing activities
successfully rather than visioning a better future for the school.

8.5.1. The Limitations of Formal Models
The various formal models pervade much of the literature on educational management.They are
normative approaches in that they present ideas about how people in organizations ought to
behave. Levacic et al (1999) argue that these assumptions underpin the educational reforms of the
1990s, notably in England:
A major development in educational management in the last decade has been much greater
emphasis on defining effective leadership by individuals in management posts in terms of the
effectiveness of their organisation, which is increasingly judged in relation to measurable outcomes
for students . . . This is argued to require a rational-technicist approach to the structuring of

There are five specific weaknesses associated with formal models:
1. It may be unrealistic to characterize schools and colleges as goal-oriented organizations. It is
    often difficult to ascertain the goals of educational institutions. Formal objectives may have little
    operational relevance because they are often vague and general, because there may be many
    different goals competing for resources, and because goals may emanate from individuals and
    groups as well as from the leaders of the organisation.

    Even where the purposes of schools and colleges have been clarified, there are further problems
    in judging whether objectives have been achieved. Policy-makers and practitioners often rely on

     examination performance to assess schools but this is only one dimension of the educational

2. The portrayal of decision-making as a rational process is fraught with difficulties. The belief that
     managerial action is preceded by a process of evaluation of alternatives and a considered choice
     of the most appropriate option is rarely substantiated. Much human behaviour is irrational and
     this inevitably influences the nature of decision-making in education, for example, asserts that
     rational practice is the exception rather than the norm.

3. Formal models focus on the organization as an entity and ignore or underestimate the
     contribution of individuals. They assume that people occupy preordained positions in the
     structure and that their be-haviour reflects their organizational positions rather than their
     individual qualities and experience. Green-field (1973) has been particularly critical of this view.
     Samier (2002) adopts a similar approach, expressing concern “about the role technical
     rationality plays in crippling the personality of the bureaucrat, reducing him [sic] to a cog in a

4. A central assumption of formal models is that power resides at the apex of the pyramid.
     Principals possess authority by virtue of their positions as the appointed leaders of their
     institutions. This focus on official authority leads to a view of institutional management which is
     essentially top down. Policy is laid down by senior managers and implemented by staff lower
     down the hierarchy. Their acceptance of managerial decisions is regarded as unproblematic.
     Organizations with large numbers of professional staff tend to exhibit signs of tension between
     the conflicting demands of professionalism and the hierarchy. Formal models assume that
     leaders, because they are appointed on merit, have the competence to issue appropriate
     instructions to subordinates. Professional organizations have a differerent ethos with expertise
     distributed widely within the institution. This may come into conflict with professional authority.

5.   Formal approaches are based on the implicit assumption that organizations are relatively stable.
     Individuals may come and go but they slot into predetermined positions in a static structure.
     “Organisations operating in simpler and more stable environments are likely to employ less
     complex and more centralised structures, with authority, rules and policies as the primary
     vehicles for coordinating the work”
         Assumptions of stability are unrealistic in contemporary schools. March and Olsen (1976,

    p.21) are right to claim that “Individuals find themselves in a more complex, less stable and less
    understood world than that described by standard theories of organisational choice.”

8.5.2. Are Formal Models Still Valid?
These criticisms of formal models suggest that they have serious limitations. The dominance of the
hierarchy is compromised by the expertise possessed by professional staff. The supposed rationality
of the decision-making process requires modification to allow for the pace and complexity of
change. The concept of organizational goals is challenged by those who point to the existence of
multiple objectives in education and the possible conflict between goals held at individual,
departmental and institutional levels. “Rationalistic- bureaucratic notions . . . have largely proven to
be sterile and to have little application to administrative practice in the “real world”
Despite these limitations, it would be inappropriate to dismiss formal approaches as irrelevant to
schools and colleges. The other models discussed in this chapter were all developed as a reaction to
the perceived weaknesses of formal theories. However, these alternative perspectives have not
succeeded in dislodging the formal models, which remain valid as partial descriptions of organization
and management in education.
Owens and Shakeshaft (1992) refer to a reduction of confidence in bureaucratic models, and a
“paradigm shift” to a more sophisticated analysis, but formal models still have much to contribute to
our understanding of schools as organisations.

Collegial models include all those theories that emphasize that power and decision-making should
be shared among some or all members of the organization. Collegial models assume that
organizations determine policy and make decisions through a process of discussion leading to
consensus. Power is shared among some or all members of the organization who are thought to
have a shared understanding about the aims of the institution.
Brundrett (1998) says that “collegiality can broadly be defined as teachers conferring and
collaborating with other teachers.” Little (1990) explains that “the reason to pursue the study and
practice of collegiality is that, presumably, something is gained when teachers work together and
something is lost when they do not.”

Collegial models have the following major features:
1. They are strongly normative in orientation. “The advocacy of collegiality is made more on the
    basis of prescription than on research-based studies of school practice”

2. Collegial models seem to be particularly appropriate for organizations such as schools and
   colleges that have significant numbers of professional staff. Teachers have an authority of
   expertise that contrasts with the positional authority associated with formal models. Teachers
   require a measure of autonomy in the classroom but also need to collaborate to ensure a
   coherent approach to teaching and learning. Collegial models assume that professionals also
   have a right to share in the wider decision-making process. Shared decisions are likely to be
   better informed and are also much more likely to be implemented effectively.

3. Collegial models assume a common set of values held by members of the organization. These
   common values guide the managerial activities of the organization and are thought to lead to
   shared educational objectives. The common values of professionals form part of the justification
   for the optimistic assumption that it is always possible to reach agreement about goals and
   policies. Brundrett (1998) goes further in referring to the importance of “shared vision” as a
   basis for collegial decision-making.

4. The size of decision-making groups is an important element in collegial management. They have
   to be sufficiently small to enable everyone to be heard. This may mean that collegiality works
   better in elementary schools, or in sub-units, than at the institutional level in secondary schools.
   Meetings of the whole staff may operate collegially in small schools but may be suitable only for
   information exchange in larger institutions.
   The collegial model deals with this problem of scale by building-in the assumption that teachers
   have formal representation within the various decision-making bodies. The democratic element
   of formal representation rests on the allegiance owed by participants to their constituencies.

5. Collegial models assume that decisions are reached by consensus. The belief that there are
   common values and shared objectives leads to the view that it is both desirable and possible to
   resolve problems by agreement. The decision-making process may be elongated by the search
   for compromise but this is regarded as an acceptable price to pay to maintain the aura of shared
   values and beliefs. The case for consensual decision-making rests in part on the ethical
   dimension of collegiality. Imposing decisions on staff is considered morally repugnant, and
   inconsistent with the notion of consent.

8.6.1. Participative Leadership.
    Because policy is determined within a participative framework, the principal is expected to

     adopt participative leadership strategies. Heroic models of leadership are inappropriate when
     influence and power are widely distributed within the institution. “The collegial leader is at
     most a “first among equals” in an academic organisation supposedly run by professional
     experts . . . the collegial leader is not so much a star standing alone as the developer of
     consensus among the professionals who must share the burden of the decision.”

    While transformational leadership is consistent with the collegial model, in that it assumes that
    leaders and staff have shared values and common interests, the leadership model most relevant
    to collegiality is “participative leadership,” which “assumes that the decision-making processes
    of the group ought to be the central focus of the group. This is a normative model, underpinned
    by three criteria:

    Participation will increase school effectiveness.
    Participation is justified by democratic principles.
    Leadership is potentially available to any legitimate stakeholder.
    Sergiovanni (1984) claims that a participative approach succeeds in “bonding” staff together
    and in easing the pressures on school principals. “The burdens of leadership will be less if
    leadership functions and roles are shared and if the concept of leadership density were to
    emerge as a viable replacement for principal leadership.”

8.6.2. Limitations of Collegial Models
       Collegial models have been popular in the academic and official literature on educational
       management since the 1980s.
       However, their critics point to a number of limitations:
   1. Collegial models are so strongly normative that they tend to obscure rather than portray
       reality. Precepts about the most appropriate ways of managing educational institutions
       mingle with descriptions of behaviour. While collegiality is increasingly advocated, the
       evidence of its presence in schools and colleges tends to be sketchy and incomplete. “The
       collegial literature often confuses descriptive and normative enterprises . . . The collegial
       idea of round table decision making does not accurately reflect the actual processes in most
   2. Collegial approaches to decision-making tend to be slow and cumbersome. When policy
       proposals require the approval of a series of committees, the process is often tortuous and
       time consuming. Participants may have to endure many lengthy meetings before issues are

   resolved. This requires patience and a considerable investment of time. Several English
   primary school heads interviewed by Webb and Vulliamy (1996) refer to the time-consuming
   nature of meetings where “the discussion phase seemed to go on and on” and “I felt we
   weren't getting anywhere.”
3. A fundamental assumption of democratic models is that decisions are reached by consensus.
   It is believed that the outcome of debate should be agreement based on the shared values
   of participants. In practice, though, teachers have their own views and may also represent
   constituencies within the school or college. Inevitably these sectional interests have a
   significant influence on committees' processes. The participatory framework may become
   the focal point for disagreement between factions.
4. Collegial models have to be evaluated in relation to the special features of educational
   The participative aspects of decision-making exist alongside the structural and bureaucratic
   components of schools and colleges. Often there is tension between these rather different
   modes of management. The participative element rests on the authority of expertise
   possessed by professional staff but this rarely trumps the positional authority of official
   leaders or the formal power of external bodies. Brundrett (1998) claims that “collegiality is
   inevitably the handmaiden of an ever increasingly centralised bureaucracy.”

5. Collegial approaches to school and college decision-making may be difficult to sustain
   because principals remain accountable to various external groups. They may experience
   considerable difficulty in defending policies that have emerged from a collegial process but
   do not enjoy their personal support. Brundrett (1998) is right to argue that “heads need to
   be genuinely brave to lend power to a democratic forum which may make decisions with
   which the headteacher may not themselves agree”.

6. The effectiveness of a collegial system depends in part on the attitudes of staff. If they
   actively support participation then it may succeed. If they display apathy or hostility, it
   seems certain to fail. Wallace (1989) argues that teachers may not welcome collegiality
   because they are disinclined to accept any authority intermediate between themselves and
   the principal.

7. Collegial processes in schools depend even more on the attitudes of principals than on the
   support of teachers. Participative machinery can be established only with the support of the

       principal, who has the legal authority to manage the school. Hoyle (1986) concludes that its
       dependence on the principal's support limits the validity of the collegiality model. Contrived Collegiality
       Hargreaves (1994) makes a more fundamental criticism of collegiality, arguing that it is being
       espoused or “contrived” by official groups in order to secure the implementation of national
       or state policy. Contrived collegiality has the following features (Hargreaves, 1994):
            Administratively regulated rather than spontaneous.
            Compulsory rather than discretionary.
            Geared to the implementation of the mandates of government or the principal.
            Fixed in time and place.
            Designed to have predictable outcomes.

       Webb and Vulliamy (1996) argue that collegial frameworks may be used for essentially
       political activity, the focus of the next section of this chapter (Webb & Vulliamy, 1996):
       The current climate encourages headteachers to be powerful and, if necessary, manipulative
       leaders in order to ensure that policies and practices agreed upon are ones that they can
       wholeheartedly support and defend.

8.6.3. Is Collegiality an Unattainable Ideal?
       Collegial models contribute several important concepts to the theory of educational
       management. Participative approaches are a necessary antidote to the rigid hierarchical
       assumptions of the formal models. However, collegial perspectives underestimate the
       official authority of the principal and present bland assumptions of consensus, which often
       cannot be substantiated. Little (1990) following substantial research in the United States,
       concludes that collegiality "turns out to be rare” . Collegiality is an elusive ideal but a
       measure of participation is essential if schools are to be harmonious and creative

8.7.1. Central Features of Political Models
       Political models embrace those theories that characterize decision-making as a bargaining
       process. Analysis focuses on the distribution of power and influence in organizations and on
       the bargaining and negotiation between interest groups. Conflict is regarded as endemic

   within organizations and management is directed towards the regulation of political
   behaviour (Bush, 2003):
   Political models assume that in organizations policy and decisions emerge through a process
   of negotiation and bargaining. Interest groups develop and form alliances in pursuit of
   particular policy objectives. Conflict is viewed as a natural phenomenon and power accrues
   to dominant coalitions rather than being the preserve of formal leaders.
   Baldridge's (1971) research in universities in the U.S. led him to conclude that the political
   model, rather than the formal or collegial perspectives, best captured the realities of life in
   higher education.
   Political models have the following major features:

1. They tend to focus on group activity rather than the institution as a whole. Ball (1987) refers
    to “baronial politics” and discusses the nature of conflict between the leaders of subgroups.
    He adds that conflict between “barons” is primarily about resources and power.

2. Political models are concerned with interests and interest groups. Individuals are thought to
    have a variety of interests that they pursue within the organization. In talking about “
    interests”,   we are talking about pre-dispositions embracing goals, values, desires,
    expectations, and other orientations and inclinations that lead a person to act in one way
    rather than another (Morgan, 1997.

3. Political models stress the prevalence of conflict in organizations. Interest groups pursue
    their independent objectives, which may contrast sharply with the aims of other subunits
    within the institution and lead to conflict between them. “Conflict will always be present in
    organisations . . . its source rests in some perceived or real divergence of interests”

4. Political models assume that the goals of organizations are unstable, ambiguous and
    contested. Individuals, interest groups and coalitions have their own purposes and act
    towards their achievement. Goals may be disputed and then become a significant element in
    the conflict between groups (Bolman & Deal, 1991):
   The political frame . . . insists that organisational goals are set through negotiations among
   the members of coalitions. Different individuals and groups have different objectives and
   resources, and each attempt to bargain with other members or coalitions to influence goals
   and decision-making process.

   5. As noted above, decisions within political arenas emerge after a complex process of
       bargaining and negotiation. “Organisational goals and decisions emerge from ongoing
       processes of bargaining, negotiation, and jockeying for position among members of different
   6. The concept of power is central to all political theories. The outcomes of the complex
       decision-making process are likely to be determined according to the relative power of the
       individuals and interest groups involved in the debate. “Power is the medium through which
       conflicts of interest are ultimately resolved.
       Power influences who gets what, when and how . . . the sources of power are rich and

8.7.2. Sources of Power in Education
       Power may be regarded as the ability to determine the behaviour of others or to decide the
       outcome of conflict. Where there is disagreement it is likely to be resolved according to the
       relative resources of power available to the participants. There are many sources of power
       but in broad terms a distinction can be made between authority and influence. Authority is
       legitimate power, which is vested in leaders within formal organizations. Influence depends
       on personal characteristics and expertise.
       There are six significant forms of power relevant to schools and colleges:

   1. Positional power. A major source of power in any organization is that accruing to individuals
       who hold an official position in the institution. Handy says that positional power is “legal” o
       “legitimate” power. In schools, the principal is regarded as the legitimate leader and
       possesses legal authority.

   2. Authority of expertise. In professional organizations there is a significant reservoir of power
       available to those who possess appropriate expertise. Teachers, for example, have specialist
       knowledge of aspects of the curriculum. “The expert . . . often carries an aura of authority
       and power that can add considerable weight to a decision that rests in the balance”

   3. Personal power. Individuals who are charismatic or possess verbal skills or certain other
       characteristics may be able to exercise personal power. These personal skills are
       independent of the power accruing to individuals by virtue of their position in the

   4. Control of rewards. Power is likely to be possessed to a significant degree by individuals who
       have control of rewards. In education, rewards may include promotion, good references,
       and allocation to favoured classes or groups. Individuals who control or influence the
       allocation of these benefits may be able to determine the behaviour of teachers who seek
       one or more of the rewards.

   5. Coercive power. The mirror image of the control of rewards may be coercive power. This
       implies the ability to enforce compliance, backed by the threat of sanctions. “Coercive
       power rests on the ability to constrain, to block, to interfere, or to punish”.

    Control of resources. Control of the distribution of resources may be an important source of
       power in educational institutions, particularly in self-managing schools. Decisions about the
       allocation of resources are likely to be among the most significant aspects of the policy
       process in such organisations.
       Control of these resources may give power over those people who wish to acquire them.
       Consideration of all these sources of power leads to the conclusion that principals possess
       substantial resources of authority and influence. However, they do not have absolute power.
       Other leaders and teachers also have power, arising principally from their personal qualities
       and expertise. These other sources of power may act as a counter-balance to the principal's
       positional authority and control of rewards.

8.7.3. Transactional Leadership

       The leadership model most closely aligned with political models is that of transactional
       leadership. “Transactional leadership is leadership in which relationships with teachers are
       based upon an exchange for some valued resource. To the teacher, interaction between
       administrators and teachers is usually episodic, shortlived and limited to the exchange
       This exchange process is an established political strategy. As we noted earlier, principals hold
       power in the form of key rewards such as promotion and references. However, they require
       the co-operation of staff to secure the effective management of the school. An exchange
       may secure benefits for both parties to the arrangement. The major limitation of such a
       process is that it does not engage staff beyond the immediate gains arising from the

        transaction. Transactional leadership does not produce long-term commitment to the values
        and vision promoted by school leaders.

8.7.4. The Limitations of Political Models
        Political models are primarily descriptive and analytical. The focus on interests, conflict
        between groups, and power provides a valid and persuasive interpretation of the decision-
        making process in schools. However, these theories do have four major limitations:

    1. Political models are immersed so strongly in the language of power, conflict and
        manipulation that they neglect other standard aspects of organizations. There is little
        recognition that most organizations operate for much of the time according to routine
        bureaucratic procedures. The focus is heavily on policy formulation while the
        implementation of policy receives little attention. The outcomes of bargaining and
        negotiation are endorsed, or may falter, within the formal authority structure of the school
        or college.

   2. Political models stress the influence of interest groups on decision-making. The assumption
        is that organizations are fragmented into groups, which pursue their own independent goals.
        This aspect of political models may be inappropriate for elementary schools, which may not
        have the apparatus for political activity.The institutional level may be the center of attention
        for staff in these schools, invalidating the political model's emphasis on interest group

    3. In political models there is too much emphasis on conflict and a neglect of the possibility of
        professional collaboration leading to agreed outcomes. The assumption that teachers are
        engaged in a calculated pursuit of their own interests underestimates the capacity of
        teachers to work in harmony with colleagues for the benefit of their pupils and students.

    4. Political models are regarded primarily as descriptive or explanatory theories. Their
        advocates claim that these approaches are realistic portrayals of the decision-making
        process in schools and colleges. There is no suggestion that teachers should pursue their
        own self-interest, simply an assessment, based on observation, that their behaviour is
        consistent with apolitical perspective. Nevertheless, the less attractive aspects of political
        models may make them unacceptable to many educationists for ethical reasons.

8.7.5. Are Political Models Valid?
       Political models provide rich descriptions and persuasive analysis of events and behaviour in
       schools and colleges. The explicit recognition of interests as prime motivators for action is
       valid, as are the concepts of conflict and power. For many teachers and school leaders,
       political models “their experience of day-to-day reality in schools. Lindle (1999), a school
       administrator in the United States, argues that it is a pervasive feature of schools.


8.8.1. Central Features of Subjective Models
       Subjective models focus on individuals within organizations rather than the total institution
       or its subunits. These perspectives suggest that each person has a subjective and selective
       perception of the organization.
       Events and situations have different meanings for the various participants in institutions.
       Organizations are portrayed as complex units, which reflect the numerous meanings and
       perceptions of all the people within them. Organizations are social constructions in the sense
       that they emerge from the interaction of their participants. They are manifestations of the
       values and beliefs of individuals rather than the concrete realities presented in formal

       Subjective models assume that organizations are the creations of the people within them.
       Participants are thought to interpret situations in different ways and these individual
       perceptions are derived from their background and values. Organizations have different the
       experience of those members.
       Subjective models became prominent in educational management as a result of the work of
       Thomas Greenfield in the 1970s and 1980s. Greenfield was concerned about several aspects
       of systems theory, which he regarded as the dominant model of educational organizations.
       He argues that systems theory is “bad theory” and criticizes its focus on the institution as a
       concrete reality:
       Most theories of organisation grossly simplify the nature of the reality with which they deal.
       The drive to see the organisation as a single kind of entity with a life of its own apart from
       the perceptions and beliefs of those involved in it blinds us to its complexity and the variety
       of organisations people create around themselves.

   Subjective models have the following major features:

1. They focus on the beliefs and perceptions of individual members of organizations rather
   than the institutional level or interest groups. The focus on individuals rather than the
   organization is a fundamental difference between subjective and formal models, and creates
   what Hodgkinson (1993) regards as an unbridgeable divide. “A fact can never entail a value,
   and an individual can never become a collective”

2. Subjective models are concerned with the meanings placed on events by people within
   The focus is on the individual interpretation of behaviour rather than the situations and
   actions themselves. “Events and meanings are loosely coupled: the same events can have
   very different meanings for different people because of differences in the schema that they
   use to interpret their experience”

3. The different meanings placed on situations by the various participants are products of their
   values, background and experience. So the interpretation of events depends on the beliefs
   held by each member of the organization. Greenfield (1979) asserts that formal theories
   make the mistake of treating the meanings of leaders as if they were the objective realities
   of the organization. “Too frequently in the past, organisation and administrative theory has .
   . . taken sides in the ideological battles of social process and presented as `theory', the views
   of a dominating set of values, the views of rulers, elites, and their administrators.

4. Subjective models treat structure as a product of human interaction rather than something
   that is fixed or predetermined. The organization charts, which are characteristic of formal
   models, are regarded as fictions in that they cannot predict the behaviour of individuals.
   Subjective approaches move the emphasis away from structure towards a consideration of
   behaviour and process. Individual behaviour is thought to reflect the personal qualities and
   aspirations of the participants rather than the formal roles they occupy. “Organisations exist
   to serve human needs, rather than the reverse”.

5. Subjective approaches emphasize the significance of individual purposes and deny the
   existence of organizational goals. Greenfield (1973) asks “What is an organisation that it can
   have such a thing as a goal?” The view that organizations are simply the product of the

       interaction of their members leads naturally to the assumption that objectives are
       individual, not organizational .

8.8.2. Subjective Models and Qualitative Research

      The theoretical dialectic between formal and subjective models is reflected in the debate
      about positivism and interpretivism in educational research. Subjective models relate to a
      mode of research that is predominantly interpretive or qualitative. This approach to enquiry
      is based on the subjective experience of individuals.
      The main aim is to seek understanding of the ways in which individuals create, modify and
      interpret the social world which they inhabit.
      The main features of interpretive, or qualitative, research echo those of the subjective
   1. They focus on the perceptions of individuals rather than the whole organisation. The
       subject's individual perspective is central to qualitative research.

   2. Interpretive research is concerned with the meanings, or interpretations, placed on events
       by participants. “All human life is experienced and constructed from a subjective

   3. Research findings are interpreted using “grounded” theory. “Theory is emergent and must
       arise from particular situations; it should be “grounded” on data generated by the research
       act. Theory should not proceed research but follow it”

8.8.3. Postmodern Leadership
      Subjective theorists prefer to stress the personal qualities of individuals rather than their
      official positions in the organization. The subjective view is that leadership is a product of
      personal qualities and skills and not simply an automatic outcome of official authority.
      The notion of post-modern leadership aligns closely with the principles of subjective models.
      Keough and Tobin say that “current postmodern culture celebrates the multiplicity of
      subjective truths as defined by experience and revels in the loss of absolute authority.” They
      identify several key features of postmodernism:
       Language does not reflect reality.
       Reality does not exist; there are multiple realities.

         Any situation is open to multiple interpretations.
         Situations must be understood at local level with particular attention to diversity.

Sackney and Mitchell (2001) stress the centrality of individual interpretation of events while also
criticising visionary leadership. “Leaders must pay attention to the cultural and symbolic structure of
meaning construed by individuals and groups . . . postmodern theories of leadership take the focus
of vision and place it squarely on voice” Instead of a compelling vision articulated by leaders, there
are multiple voices, and diverse cultural meanings.

8.8.4. The Limitations of Subjective Models

        Subjective models are prescriptive approaches in that they reflect beliefs about the nature of
        They can be regarded as “anti-theories” in that they emerged as a reaction to the perceived
        limitations of he formal models. Although subjective models introduce several important
        concepts into the theory of educational management, they have four significant weaknesses,
        which serve to limit their validity:

    1. Subjective models are strongly normative in that they reflect the attitudes and beliefs of
        their supporters. Willower (1980) goes further to describe them as “ideological.”
        [Phenomenological] perspectives feature major ideological components and their partisans
        tend to be true believers when promulgating their positions rather than offering them for
        critical examination and test”.
        Subjective models comprise a series of principles rather than a coherent body of theory:
        “Greenfield sets out to destroy the central principles of conventional theory but consistently
        rejects the idea of proposing a precisely formulated alternative”

    2. Subjective models seem to assume the existence of an organization within which individual
        behaviour and interpretation occur but there is no clear indication of the nature of the
        organization. Organizations are perceived to be nothing more than a product of the
        meanings of their participants. In emphasizing the interpretations of individuals, subjective
        theorists neglect the institutions within which individuals behave, interact and derive
    3. Subjective theorists imply that meanings are so individual that there may be as many

          interpretations as people. In practice, though, these meanings tend to cluster into patterns,
          which do enable participants and observers to make valid generalizations about
          organizations. “By focussing exclusively on the individual” as a theoretical . . . entity,
          [Greenfield] precludes analyses of collective enterprises. Social phenomena cannot be
          reduced solely to `the individual”

       4. Subjective models they provide few guidelines for managerial action. Leaders are expected
          to acknowledge the individual meanings placed on events by members of organizations. This
          stance is much less secure than the precepts of the formal model.

8.8.5. The Importance of the Individual
          The subjective perspective offers some valuable insights, which act as a corrective to the
          more rigid features of formal models. The focus on individual interpretations of events is a
          useful antidote to the uniformity of systems and structural theories. Similarly, the emphasis
          on individual aims, rather than organizational objectives, is an important contribution to our
          understanding of schools and colleges.
          Subjective models have close links with the emerging, but still weakly defined, notion of
          post-modern leadership. Leaders need to attend to the multiple voices in their organisations
          and to develop a “power to,” not a “power over,” model of leadership. However, as Sackney
          and Mitchell (2001) note, “we do not see how postmodern leadership . . . can be undertaken
          without the active engagement of the school principal”
           In other words, the subjective approach works only if leaders wish it to work, a fragile basis
          for any approach to educational leadership.
          Greenfield's work has broadened our understanding of educational institutions and exposed
          the weaknesses of the formal models. However, it is evident that subjective models have
          supplemented, rather than supplanted, the formal theories Greenfield set out to attack.

8.9.1. Central Features of Ambiguity Models

          Ambiguity models stress uncertainty and unpredictability in organizations. These theories
          assume that organizational objectives are problematic and that institutions experience
          difficulty in ordering their priorities.
          Sub-units are portrayed as relatively autonomous groups, which are connected only loosely

   with one another and with the institution itself. Decision-making occurs within formal and
   informal settings where participation is fluid. Ambiguity is a prevalent feature of complex
   organizations such as schools and is likely to be particularly acute during periods of rapid
   change (Bush, 2003):
   Ambiguity models assume that turbulence and unpredictability are dominant features of
   There is no clarity over the objectives of institutions and their processes are not properly
   Participation in policy making is fluid as members opt in or out of decision opportunities.
   Ambiguity models are associated with a group of theorists, mostly from the United States,
   who developed their ideas in the 1970s. They were dissatisfied with the formal models,
   which they regarded as inadequate for many organizations, particularly during phases of
   instability. The most celebrated of the ambiguity perspectives is the “garbage can” model
   developed by Cohen and March (1986). March (1982) points to the jumbled reality in certain
   kinds of organization:
   Theories of choice underestimate the confusion and complexity surrounding actual decision
   making. Many things are happening at once; technologies are changing and poorly
   understood; alliances, preferences, and perceptions are changing; problems, solutions,
   opportunities, ideas, people, and outcomes are mixed together in a way that makes their
   interpretation uncertain and their connections unclear.
   The data supporting ambiguity models have been drawn largely from educational settings,
   leading March and Olsen (1976) to assert that “ambiguity is a major feature of decision
   making in most public and educational organizations”
   Ambiguity models have the following major features:

1. There is a lack of clarity about the goals of the organization. Many institutions are thought to
    have inconsistent and opaque objectives. It may be argued that aims become clear only
    through the behaviour of members of the organization
   The organization appears to operate on a variety of inconsistent and ill-defined preferences.
   It can be described better as a loose collection of changing ideas than as a coherent
   structure. It discovers preferences through action more often than it acts on the basis of
   Educational institutions are regarded as typical in having no clearly defined objectives.
   Because teachers work independently for much of their time, they may experience little

   difficulty in pursuing their own interests. As a result schools and colleges are thought to have
   no coherent pattern of aims.

2. Ambiguity models assume that organizations have a problematic technology in that their
   processes are not properly understood. In education it is not clear how students acquire
   knowledge and skills so the processes of teaching are clouded with doubt and uncertainty.
   Bell (1980) claims that ambiguity infuses the central functions of schools.

3. Ambiguity theorists argue that organizations are characterized by fragmentation. Schools are
   divided into groups which have internal coherence based on common values and goals. Links
   between the groups are more tenuous and unpredictable. Weick (1976) uses the term
   “loose coupling” to describe relationships between sub-units. “Loose coupling . . . carries
   connotations of impermanence, dissolvability, and tacitness all of which are potentially
   crucial properties of the `glue” that holds organizations together.
   Client-serving bodies, such as schools, fit the loose coupling metaphor much better than,
   say, car assembly plants where operations are regimented and predictable. The degree of
   integration required in education is markedly less than in many other settings, allowing
   fragmentation to develop and persist.

4. Within ambiguity models organizational structure is regarded as problematic. Committees
   and other formal bodies have rights and responsibilities, which overlap with each other and
   with the authority assigned to individual managers. The effective power of each element
   within the structure varies with the issue and according to the level of participation of
   committee members.

5. Ambiguity models tend to be particularly appropriate for professional client-serving
   organizations. The requirement that professionals make individual judgments, rather than
   acting in accordance with managerial prescriptions, leads to the view that the larger schools
   and colleges operate in a climate of ambiguity.

6. Ambiguity theorists emphasize that there is fluid participation in the management of
   “The participants in the organization vary among themselves in the amount of time and
   effort they devote to the organization; individual participants vary from one time to another.

       As a result standard theories of power and choice seem to be inadequate”

   7. A further source of ambiguity is provided by the signals emanating from the organization's
       In an era of rapid change, schools may experience difficulties in interpreting the various
       messages being transmitted from the environment and in dealing with conflicting signals.
       The uncertainty arising from the external context adds to the ambiguity of the decision-
       making process within the institution.

   8. Ambiguity theorists emphasize the prevalence of unplanned decisions. The lack of agreed
       goals means that decisions have no clear focus. Problems, solutions and participants interact
       and choices somehow emerge from the confusion.
       The rational model is undermined by ambiguity, since it is so heavily dependent on the
       availability of information about relationships between inputs and outputs..between means
       and ends. If ambiguity prevails, then it is not possible for organizations to have clear aims
       and objectives.

   9. Ambiguity models stress the advantages of decentralization. Given the complexity and
       unpredictability of organizations, it is thought that many decisions should be devolved to
       subunits and individuals. Weick (1976) argues that devolution enables organizations to
       survive while particular subunits are threatened (Bush, 2003):
       If there is a breakdown in one portion of a loosely coupled system then this breakdown is
       sealed of and does not affect other portions of the organization . . . A loosely coupled system
       can isolate its trouble spots and prevent the trouble from spreading.
       The major contribution of the ambiguity model is that it uncouples problems and choices.
       The notion of decision-making as a rational process for finding solutions to problems is
       supplanted by an uneasy mix of problems, solutions and participants from which decisions
       may eventually emerge. “In the garbage can model, there is no clear distinction between
       means and ends, no articulation of organizational goals, no evaluation of alternatives in
       relation to organizational goals and no selection of the best means”

8.9.2. Contingent Leadership
       In a climate of ambiguity, traditional notions of leadership require modification. The
       contingent model provides an alternative approach, recognizing the diverse nature of school

       contexts and the advantages of adapting leadership styles to the particular situation, rather
       than adopting a “one size fits all” stance. Yukl (2002) claims that “the managerial job is too
       complex and unpredictable to rely on a set of standardised responses to events. Effective
       leaders are continuously reading the situation and evaluating how to adapt their behaviour
       to it” Contingent leadership depends on managers “mastering a large repertoire of
       leadership practices”

8.9.3. The Limitations of Ambiguity Models
       Ambiguity models add some important dimensions to the theory of educational
       management. The concept of problematic goals, unclear technology and fluid participation
       are significant contributions to organizational analysis. Most schools and colleges possess
       these features to a greater or lesser extent, so ambiguity models should be regarded
       primarily as analytical or descriptive approaches rather than normative theories. The
       ambiguity model appears to be increasingly plausible but it does have four significant

       1. It is difficult to reconcile ambiguity perspectives with the customary structures and
           processes of schools and colleges. Participants may move in and out of decision-making
           situations but the policy framework remains intact and has a continuing influence on the
           outcome of discussions. Specific goals may be unclear but teachers usually understand
           and accept the broad aims of education.

       2. Ambiguity models exaggerate the degree of uncertainty in educational institutions.
           Schools and colleges have a number of predictable features, which serve to clarify the
           responsibilities of their members. Students and staff are expected to behave in
           accordance with standard rules and procedures. The timetable regulates the location
           and movement of all participants. There are usually clear plans to guide the classroom
           activities of teachers and pupils. Staff are aware of the accountability patterns, with
           teachers responsible ultimately to principals who, in turn, are answerable to local or
           State government.

           Educational institutions are rather more stable and predictable than the ambiguity
           perspective suggests:
           “The term organised anarchy may seem overly colourful, suggesting more confusion,

            disarray, and conflict than is really present”

       3.   Ambiguity models are less appropriate for stable organizations or for any institutions
            during periods of stability. The degree of predictability in schools depends on the nature
            of relationships with the external environment. Where institutions are able to maintain
            relatively impervious boundaries, they can exert strong control over their own
            processes. Popular schools, for example, may be able to insulate their activities from
            external pressures.

       4.   Ambiguity models offer little practical guidance to leaders in educational institutions.
            While formal models emphasize the head's leading role in policy-making and collegial
            models stress the importance of team-work, ambiguity models can offer nothing more
            tangible than contingent leadership.

8.9.4. Ambiguity or Rationality?
       Ambiguity models make a valuable contribution to the theory of educational management.
       The emphasis on the unpredictability of organizations is a significant counter to the view
       that problems can be solved through a rational process. The notion of leaders making a
       considered choice from a range of alternatives depends crucially on their ability to predict
       the consequences of a particular action. The edifice of the formal models is shaken by the
       recognition that conditions in schools may be too uncertain to allow an informed choice
       among alternatives.

       In practice, however, educational institutions operate with a mix of rational and anarchic
       processes. The more unpredictable the internal and external environment, the more
       applicable is the ambiguity metaphor:
       “Organizations . . . are probably more rational than they are adventitious and the quest for
       rational procedures is not misplaced. However . . . rationalistic approaches will always be
       blown of course by the contingent, the unexpected and the irrational Cultural Models

8.9.5. What Do We Mean By Culture?
       Cultural models emphasize the informal aspects of organizations rather then their official
       elements. They focus on the values, beliefs and norms of individuals in the organization and

       how these individual perceptions coalesce into shared organizational meanings. Cultural
       models are manifested by symbols and rituals rather than through the formal structure of
       the organization (Bush, 2003):
       Cultural models assume that beliefs, values and ideology are at the heart of organizations.
       Individuals hold certain idea and vale-preferences, which influence how they behave and
       how they view the behaviour of other members. These norms become shared traditions,
       which are communicated within the group and are reinforced by symbols and ritual.
       Beare, Caldwell, and Millikan (1992) claim that culture serves to define the unique qualities
       of individual organizations: “An increasing number of . . . writers . . . have adopted the term
       "culture" to define that social and phenomenological uniqueness of a particular
       organisational community . . . We have finally acknowledged publicly that uniqueness is a
       virtue, that values are important and that they should be fostered” .

8.9.6. Societal Culture
       Most of the literature on culture in education relates to organizational culture and that is
       also the main focus of this section. However, there is also an emerging literature on the
       broader theme of national or societal culture. Walker and Dimmock (2002) refer to issues of
       context and stress the need to avoid “decontextualized paradigms” in researching and
       analyzing educational systems and institutions.
       Dimmock and Walker (2002) provide a helpful distinction between societal and
       organizational culture:
       Societal cultures differ mostly at the level of basic values, while organizational cultures differ
       mostly at the level of more superficial practices, as reflected in the recognition of particular
       symbols, heroes and rituals.
       This allows organizational cultures to be deliberately managed and changed, whereas
       societal or national cultures are more enduring and change only gradually over longer time
       Societal culture is one important aspect of the context within which school leaders must
       operate. They must also contend with organizational culture, which provides a more
       immediate framework for leadership action. Central Features of Organizational Culture

    1. It focuses on the values and beliefs of members of organizations. “Shared values, shared

       beliefs, shared meaning, shared understanding, and shared sensemaking are all different
       ways of describing culture . . . These patterns of understanding also provide a basis for
       making one's own behaviour sensible and meaningful”
   2. The cultural model focuses on the notion of a single or dominant culture in organizations but
       this does not necessarily mean that individual values are always in harmony with one
       another. “There may be different and competing value systems that create a mosaic of
       organizational realities rather than a uniform corporate culture” Large, multipurpose
       organizations, in particular, are likely to have more than one culture.
   3. Organizational culture emphasizes the development of shared norms and meanings. The
       assumption is that interaction between members of the organization, or its subgroups,
       eventually leads to behavioural norms that gradually become cultural features of the school
       or college.
   4. These group norms sometimes allow the development of a monoculture in a school with
       meanings shared throughout the staff – “the way we do things around here.” We have
       already noted, however, that there may be several subcultures based on the professional
       and personal interests of different groups. These typically have internal coherence but
       experience difficulty in relationships with other groups whose behavioural norms are
   5. Culture is typically expressed through rituals and ceremonies, which are used to support and
       celebrate beliefs and norms. Schools are rich in such symbols as assemblies, prize-givings
       and corporate worship. “Symbols are central to the process of constructing meaning.” 6.
       Organizational culture assumes the existence of heroes and heroines who embody the
       values and beliefs of the organization. These honoured members typify the behaviours
       associated with the culture of the institution. Campbell-Evans stresses that heroes or
       heroines are those whose achievements match the culture: “Choice and recognition of
       heroes . . . occurs within the cultural boundaries identified through the value filter . . . The
       accomplishments of those individuals who come to be regarded as heroes are compatible
       with the cultural emphases”

8.9.7. Moral Leadership
       Leaders have the main responsibility for generating and sustaining culture and
       communicating core values and beliefs both within the organization and to external
       stakeholders (Bush, 1998). Principals have their own values and beliefs arising from many
       years of successful professional practice. They are also expected to embody the culture of

       the school or college. Schein (1997) argues that cultures spring primarily from the beliefs,
       values and assumptions of founders of organizations. However, it should be noted that
       cultural change is difficult and problematic. Hargreaves (1999) claims that “most people’s
       beliefs, attitudes and values are far more resistant to change than leaders typically allow”.

       The leadership model most closely linked to organizational culture is that of moral
       leadership. This model assumes that the critical focus of leadership ought to be on the
       values, beliefs and ethics of leaders themselves. Authority and influence are to be derived
       from defensible conceptions of what is right or good.

       Sergiovanni (1984) says that “excellent schools have central zones composed of values and
       beliefs that take on sacred or cultural characteristics”. The moral dimension of leadership is
       based on “normative rationality; rationality based on what we believe and what we consider
       to be good” Moral leadership is consistent with organizational culture in that it is based on
       the values, beliefs and attitudes of principals and other educational leaders. It focuses on the
       moral purpose of education and on the behaviours to be expected of leaders operating
       within the moral domain. It also assumes that these values and beliefs coalesce into shared
       norms and meanings that either shape or reinforce culture. The rituals and symbols
       associated with moral leadership support these values and underpin school culture.

8.9.8. Limitations of Organizational Culture
       Cultural models add several useful elements to the analysis of school and college leadership
       and management.
       The focus on the informal dimension is a valuable counter to the rigid and official
       components of the formal models. By stressing the values and beliefs of participants,
       cultural models reinforce the human aspects of management rather than their structural
       elements. The emphasis on the symbols of the organization is also a valuable contribution to
       management theory while the moral leadership model provides a useful way of
       understanding what constitutes a values-based approach to leadership. However, cultural
       models do have three significant weaknesses:
   1. There may be ethical dilemmas because cultural leadership may be regarded as the
       imposition of a culture by leaders on other members of the organization. The search for a
       monoculture may mean subordinating the values and beliefs of some participants to those
       of leaders or the dominant group. (Morgan, 1997) refers to “a process of ideological control”

       and warns of the risk of manipulation.
   2. The cultural model may be unduly mechanistic, assuming that leaders can determine the
       culture of the organization (Morgan, 1997). While they have influence over the evolution of
       culture by espousing desired values, they cannot ensure the emergence of a monoculture.
       As we have seen, secondary schools and colleges may have several subcultures operating in
       departments and other sections. This is not necessarily dysfunctional because successful
       subunits are vital components of thriving institutions.
   3. The cultural model's focus on symbols such as rituals and ceremonies may mean that other
       elements of organizations are underestimated. The symbols may misrepresent the reality of
       the school or college. Hoyle (1986) refers to “innovation without change”. Schools may go
       through the appearance of change but the reality continues as before.

8.9.9. Values and Action

       The cultural model is a valuable addition to our understanding of organizations. The
       recognition that school and college development needs to be preceded by attitudinal change
       is salutary, and consistent with the maxim that teachers must feel “ownership” of change if
       it is to be implemented effectively. “Since organization ultimately resides in the heads of the
       people involved, effective organizational change always implies cultural change” (Morgan,
       Cultural models also provide a focus for organizational action, a dimension that is largely
       absent from the subjective perspective. Leaders may adopt a moral approach and focus on
       influencing values so that they become closer to, if not identical with, their own beliefs. In
       this way, they hope to achieve widespread support for or “ownership” of new policies. By
       working through this informal domain, rather than imposing change through positional
       authority or political processes, heads and principals are more likely to gain support for
       innovation. An appreciation of organizational culture is an important element in the
       leadership and management of schools and colleges.

8.9.10. Comparing the Management Models

       The six management models discussed in this chapter represent different ways of looking at
       educational institutions. Each screen offers valuable insights into the nature of management

in education but none provides a complete picture. The six approaches are all valid analyses
but their relevance varies according to the context. Each event, situation or problem may be
understood by using one or more of these models but no organization can be explained by
using only a single approach. There is no single perspective capable of presenting a total
framework for our understanding of educational institutions. “The search for an all-
encompassing model is simplistic, for no one model can delineate the intricacies of decision
processes in complex organizations such as universities and colleges” (Baldridge 1978 ).

The formal models dominated the early stages of theory development in educational
management. Formal structure, rational decision-making and “top-down” leadership were
regarded as the central concepts of effective management and attention was given to
refining these processes to increase efficiency. Since the 1970s, however, there has been a
gradual realization that formal models are “at best partial and at worst grossly deficient”
(Chapman, 1993).

The other five models featured in this volume all developed in response to the perceived
weaknesses of what was then regarded as “conventional theory.” They have demonstrated
the limitations of the formal models and put in place alternative conceptualizations of school
management. While these more recent models are all valid, they are just as partial as the
dominant perspective their advocates seek to replace.

There is more theory and, by exploring different dimensions of management, its total
explanatory power is greater than that provided by any single model.

Collegial models are attractive because they advocate teacher participation in decision-
making. Many principals aspire to collegiality, a claim that rarely survives rigorous scrutiny.
The collegial framework all too often provides the setting for political activity or “top-down”
decision-making (Bush, 2003).

The cultural model's stress on values and beliefs, and the subjective theorists' emphasis on
the significance of individual meanings, also appear to be both plausible and ethical. In
practice, however, these may lead to manipulation as leaders seek to impose their own
values on schools and colleges.

       The increasing complexity of the educational context may appear to lend support to the
       ambiguity model with its emphasis on turbulence and anarchy. However, this approach
       provides few guidelines for managerial action and leads to the view that “there has to be a
       better way.”

       The six models differ along crucial dimensions but taken together they do provide a
       comprehensive picture of the nature of management in educational institutions. Figure 2
       compares the main features of the six models.

Elements of       Formal        Collegial       Political   Subjective   Ambiguity      Cultural
Levels      at    Institutional Institutional   Sub.-unit   Individual   Unclear        Institutional
which goals                                                                             or Sub.-unit
Process why       Set       by Agreement          Problematic
                                                Conflict                 Unpredictable Based      on
goals     are     leaders                         may        be                        collective
determined                                        imposed by                           value
Relationship Decisions Decisions     Decisions    Individual             Decisions      Decisions
between       based on based      on based     on behaviour              unrelated to based         on
goals     and goals    agreed goals goals      of based     on           goals          goals       of
decisions                            dominant … personal                                organisation
                                                  goals                                 of its sub-
Nature       of   Rational     Collegial      Political    Personal      Garbage can Rational
decision                                                                                within       a
process                                                                                 framework of
Nature of the     Objective    Objective      Setting for Constructed Problematic       Physical
structure         reality      reality        subunits     through                      manifestation
                  Hierarchical lateral        activity     human                        of culture
links   with      May       be Accountability Unstable     Source of Source          of Sources     of
environments      closed or blurred       by external      individual    uncertainty    values     and
                  open         shared         bodies       meanings                     beliefs
                  Principal    decision       portrayed as
                  accountable making          interest
Style      of     Principal    Principal      Principal is Problematic May           be Symbolic
leadership        establishes seeks        to both         may        be tactical    or
                  goals and promote           participant  perceived     unobtrusive
                  initiates    consensus      and          as a form of
                  policy                      mediator     control
Related           Managerial Participative Transactional Postmodern Contingent          Moral

8.9.11. Attempts at Synthesis
       Each of the models discussed in this volume offers valid insights into the nature of leadership
       and management in schools and colleges. Yet all the perspectives are limited in that they do
       not give a complete picture of educational institutions. “Organizations are many things at
       once! They are complex and multifaceted. They are paradoxical. That's why the challenges
       facing management are so difficult. In any given situation there may be many different
       tendencies and dimensions, all of which have an impact on effective management” (Morgan,
       The inadequacies of each theory, taken singly, have led to a search for a comprehensive
       model that integrates concepts to provide a coherent analytical framework. Chapman (1993)
       stresses the need for leaders to develop this broader perspective in order to enhance
       organizational effectiveness: “Visionary and creative leadership and effective management
       in education require a deliberate and conscious attempt at integration, enmeshment and

       Enderud (1980), and Davies and Morgan (1983), have developed integrative models
       incorporating ambiguity, political, collegial and formal perspectives. These syntheses are
       based on the assumption that policy formation proceeds through four distinct phases which
       all require adequate time if the decision is to be successful. These authors assume an initial
       period of high ambiguity as problems; solutions and participants interact at appropriate
       choice opportunities. This anarchic phase serves to identify the issues and acts as a
       preliminary sifting mechanism. If conducted properly it should lead to an initial coupling of
       problems with potential solutions.

       The output of the ambiguous period is regarded as the input to the political phase. This stage
       is characterized by bargaining and negotiations and usually involves relatively few
       participants in small, closed committees. The outcome is likely to be a broad measure of
       agreement on possible solutions.

       In the third collegial phase, the participants committed to the proposed solution attempt to
       persuade less active members to accept the compromise reached during the political stage.
       The solutions are tested against criteria of acceptability and feasibility and may result in
       minor changes. Eventually this process should lead to agreed policy outcomes and a degree
       of commitment to the decision.

       The final phase is the formal or bureaucratic stage during which agreed policy may be
       subject to modification in the light of administrative considerations. The outcome of this
       period is a policy which is both legitimate and operationally satisfactory (Bush, 2003).

       Theodossin (1983) links the subjective to the formal or systems model using an analytical
       continuum. He argues that a systems perspective is the most appropriate way of explaining
       national developments while individual and subunit activities may be understood best by
       utilizing the individual meanings of participants:
       Theodossin's analysis is interesting and plausible. It helps to delineate the contribution of
       the formal and subjective models to educational management theory. In focusing on these
       two perspectives, however, it necessarily ignores the contribution of other approaches,
       including the cultural model, which has not been incorporated into any of the syntheses
       applied to education.
       The Enderud (1980), and Davies and Morgan (1983), models are valuable in suggesting a
       plausible sequential link between four of the major theories. However, it is certainly possible
       to postulate different sets of relationships between the models. For example, a collegial
       approach may become political as participants engage in conflict instead of seeking to
       achieve consensus. It is perhaps significant that there have been few attempts to integrate
       the management models since the 1980s.

8.9.12. Using Theory to Improve Practice
       The six models present different approaches to the management of education and the
       syntheses indicate a few of the possible relationships between them. However, the ultimate
       test of theory is whether it improves practice. There should be little doubt about the
       potential for theory to inform practice. School managers generally engage in a process of
       implicit theorising in deciding how to formulate policy or respond to events.
       Facts cannot be left to speak for themselves. They require the explanatory framework of
       theory in order to ascertain their real meaning.
       The multiplicity of competing models means that no single theory is sufficient to guide
       practice. Rather, managers need to develop “conceptual pluralism” (Bolman & Deal, 1984) to
       be able to select the most appropriate approach to particular issues and avoid a
       unidimensional stance: “Managers in all organizations can increase their effectiveness and
       their freedom through the use of multiple vantage points. To be locked into a single path is

     likely to produce error and self-imprisonment”.

     Conceptual pluralism is similar to the notion of contingent leadership. Both recognize the
     diverse nature of educational contexts and the advantages of adapting leadership styles to
     the particular situation rather than adopting a “one size fits all” stance. Appreciation of the
     various models is the starting point for effective action. It provides a “conceptual tool-kit”
     for the manager to deploy as appropriate in addressing problems and developing strategy.
     Morgan (1997) argues that organizational analysis based on these multiple perspectives
     comprises two elements:
     A diagnostic reading of the situation being investigated, using different metaphors to
     identify or highlight key aspects of the situation.
     A critical evaluation of the significance of the different interpretations resulting from the

     These skills are consistent with the concept of the “reflective practitioner” whose managerial
     approach incorporates both good experience and a distillation of theoretical models based
     on wide reading and discussion with both academics and fellow practitioners. This
     combination of theory and practice enables the leader to acquire the overview required for
     strategic management.
     While it is widely recognized that appreciation of theory is likely to enhance practice, there
     remain relatively few published accounts of how the various models have been tested in
     school or college-based research. More empirical work is needed to enable judgments on
     the validity of the models to be made with confidence. The objectives of such a research
     programme would be to test the validity of the models presented in this volume and to
     develop an overarching conceptual framework. It is a tough task but if awareness of theory
     helps to improve practice, as we have sought to demonstrate, then more rigorous theory
     should produce more effective practitioners and better schools.




4.1. Creating the Horizontal Organization of the Future


5.1. What´s in it for Me?

5.2. What's missing in the quest for successful change?

5.3. Defining competencies

5.4. Lever teams up

5.5. The Value of Communication

5.6. The Camp David Process

5.7. Cross-Functional Communications

5.8. Hello, Left Hand?

5.9. Commitment to the Cause




6.10.1.         SIZE
6.10.2.         COMPLEXITY
6.10.3.         FORMALIZATION       Horizontal Differentiation     Vertical Differentiation     Spatial Differentiation        Systems of operation of the organization
       1.   System of formal authority
       2. System of Regulated Activity

    3. System of informal communication
    4. System of work group
    5. System of Decisions Ad Hoc





8.1.1. The Significance of the Educational Context
8.3.1. The Nature of Theory
8.3.2. The Characteristics of Theory
8.5.1. The Limitations of Formal Models
8.5.2. Are Formal Models Still Valid?
8.6.1. Participative Leadership.
8.6.2. Limitations of Collegial Models Contrived Collegiality
8.6.3. Is Collegiality an Unattainable Ideal?
8.7.1. Central Features of Political Models
8.7.2. Sources of Power in Education
8.7.3. Transactional Leadership
8.7.4. The Limitations of Political Models

8.7.5. Are Political Models Valid?
8.8.1. Central Features of Subjective Models
8.8.2. Subjective Models and Qualitative Research
8.8.3. Postmodern Leadership
8.8.4. The Limitations of Subjective Models
8.8.5. The Importance of the Individual
8.9.1. Central Features of Ambiguity Models
8.9.2. Contingent Leadership
8.9.3. The Limitations of Ambiguity Models
8.9.4. Ambiguity or Rationality?
8.9.5. What Do We Mean By Culture?
8.9.6. Societal Culture Central Features of Organizational Culture
8.9.7. Moral Leadership
8.9.8. Limitations of Organizational Culture
8.9.9. Values and Action
8.9.10. Comparing the Management Models
8.9.11. Attempts at Synthesis
8.9.12. Using Theory to Improve Practice


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