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A SAFE _ HEALTHY WORKPLACE

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					                                   OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH DIVISION

                                   ANNUAL REPORT 2007




  Winners of the WSH Awards 2007



                                     A Shared Vision:
                                                            TOWARDS

A SAFE & HEALTHY
     WORKPLACE                                       FOR EVERYONE
                                                                                   Introduction



                                                                                      Spotlight



        Strategy 1 : Building Strong Capabilities To Better Manage Workplace Safety and Health



                                     Strategy 2 : Implementing Effective Regulatory Framework



Strategy 3 : Promoting Benefits Of Workplace Safety and Health and Recognizing Best Practices



                           Strategy 4 : Developing Strong Partnerships Locally & Internationally



                                                                        Information & Statistics



                                                                               People @ OSHD



                                                                                     Resources



                                                                                       Annexes



                                                                            Acknowledgements
                   OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                    AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                               REPORT




                                                 A Message From The Director
                                                 From the time we embarked on the reform of Singapore’s workplace safety and health
                                                 (WSH) framework in 2005; we have gone from strength to strength and achieved
                                                 significant milestones over the past two years.

       In 2006, the WSH Act was enacted to serve as the key legislative tool in the
       new framework. Our regulatory approach was revamped to target at where it
       matters, resulting in the creation of new initiatives such as the
       Programme-Based Engagement (ProBE). Singapore’s WSH climate was
       characterised by strong industry participation led by the Workplace Safety
       and Health Advisory Committee (WSHAC). Such active involvement by all
       WSH stakeholders reached its peak in the joint drafting of a ten-year
       roadmap to outline our strategic thrusts in achieving a quantum improvement in
       WSH for Singapore. Named WSH 2015 – A Strategy for Workplace Safety and
       Health in Singapore, it was the defining initiative in 2006 which made it a year of
       Shaping the Workplace Safety and Health Landscape for the Nation.

       Our work in 2007 built on the momentum gained in 2006. The WSH 2015,
       Singapore’s first National strategy for WSH, was unveiled in April 2007. As a
       National blueprint, the WSH 2015 also guided the workings of the Division.
       With its launch, all initiatives undertaken by the Division were aligned to the
       four main strategies of the WSH 2015 blueprint. In addition, we ramped up our
       efforts on all fronts to strengthen the WSH landscape for 2015.

       We embarked on the preparatory stages in implementing the second phase of
       the WSH Act which would cover six new sectors under the Act with effect from
       Mar 2008. Whilst a lot of work had focused on the prevention of accidents
       and occupational diseases, we have also not forgotten the need to protect the
       interest of employees in the unfortunate event of an accident or
       occupational disease. Thus, the Workmen’s Compensation Act was reviewed in
       2007 and in its place, a new Work Injury Compensation Act is expected to be
       enacted in 2008. In 2007, we also laid the foundation for the evolution of the
       WSHAC into a full-fledged Executive Council.

       This annual report outlines the Division’s initiatives in 2007 in implementing the
       WSH 2015 blueprint. I hope that it will provide readers with insights into our
       work in realizing our Shared Vision: Towards a Safe and Healthy
       Workplace for Everyone.

       Ho Siong Hin
       Divisional Director




Introduction



         1
Workplace Safety and Health Framework
The Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) framework was
designed to engender a paradigm shift and to ingrain good
WSH habits in all individuals at the workplace. This is enshrined
in the three key principles of the framework.



                                                                      DESIRED MINDSET CHANGE
     THREE PRINCIPLES                                                      From                                 To



  Reduce risks at source by requiring all                           Managing risks                     Identifying and
  stakeholders to eliminate or minimise                                                               eliminating risks
  the risks they create                                                                               before they are
                                                                                                          created




                                                                                                    Proactive planning
  Greater industry ownership of WSH outcomes                      Compliance with
                                                                                                  to achieve a safe and
                                                                 “Letter of the Law”
                                                                                                    healthy workplace




  Prevent accidents through higher penalties                        Accidents are                Poor safety and health
  for poor safety and health management                                costly                      management is
                                                                                                        costlier



The cornerstone of the framework is risk assessment. Through
identifying and eliminating workplace risks or mitigating residual
risks, we can create safer and healthier workplaces for everyone.



                                            On 10 March 2005, the then Minister for Manpower and Second Minister for
                                            Defence, Dr Ng Eng Hen, announced in Parliament the adoption of a new
                                            Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) framework to improve WSH standards and
                                            outcomes for Singapore. He also recognized that while the ultimate goal must
                                            be to have zero fatalities, the new framework would aim to halve the number of
                                            work-related fatalities from 4.9 per 100,000 workers in 2004 to 2.5 per 100,000
                                            workers by 2015.




                                                                                                                              Introduction



                                                                                                                              2
                      OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                       AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                  REPORT




       The Workplace Safety and Health Act
       The WSH Act is the key legal instrument of the WSH framework and is
       intended to incalculate good safety and health habits and practices in all
       individuals at workplaces. The Act is designed to protect employees as well
       as any other persons who may be affected by the work being carried out at                         The Workplace Safety and
       the workplace. In the first phase, the Act covers high risk workplaces such as                    Health Act came into effect
       construction sites, shipyards and general factories. Coverage of the Act will                     on 1 March 2006, replacing
       be progressively expanded to all workplaces.                                                      the former Factories Act.

       The Act departs from taking a prescriptive stance under the former Factories
       Act and introduces a performance-based regime. It emphasises the
       importance of managing WSH proactively by requiring stakeholders to take
       reasonably practicable measures to ensure the safety and health of
       employees and other people that are affected by the work being carried out.
       The Act also assigns liability to those who create and have management and
       control over safety and health risks. The stakeholders include the occupier,
       employer, principals, employees, manufacturers and suppliers as well as
       persons who erect, install or maintain equipment and machinery.



       WSH 2015
       – A Strategy for Workplace
       Safety & Health in Singapore
       The unveiling of the new WSH framework and the introduction of the WSH
       Act marked a new phase of development for WSH in Singapore. Making the
       change more challenging was the setting of a 10-year target to halve the
       number of work-related fatalities to 2.5 per 100,000 workers by 2015. Adding
       to this challenge was the need to achieve sustained, progressive
       improvements in WSH standards. Towards attaining this objective, a national,
       strategic and long term approach is vital for Singapore.

                                                           The Strategy to Raise Standards
               WSH2015 – A Strategy for                    The WSH2015 – A Strategy for Workplace Safety and Health was crafted after
               Workplace Safety and Health                 extensive consultation undertaken by the Ministry of Manpower, Workplace
               in Singapore was unveiled by                Safety and Health Advisory Committee (WSHAC) and other industry partners.
               Mr Gan Kim Yong, then                       Collectively, three Strategic Outcomes were drawn up to guide the achievement
               Minister of State for Manpower              of Singapore’s desired WSH 2015 landscape and vision. These outcomes set
               and Education during the                    out our national targets for a world class regime in WSH, articulate the charac-
               launch     of    the    National            teristics that Singapore must demonstrate to become a Centre of Excellence for
               Workplace Safety and Health                 WSH and describe the behaviour that stakeholders must possess for a vibrant
               Campaign in April 2007. WSH                 WSH culture to be integrated as a way of life.
               2015 was endorsed by
               Singapore              Business
               Federation, National Trade
               Union Congress and the
               Ministry of Manpower.




Introduction



        3
                                 Strategic Outcome 1: Reduction in Occupational Fatality and Injury Rates

                                 In a safe and healthy workplace, no lives should be lost and no one should be
                                 injured at work. Our intermediate goals to reduce by 2015 are:
                                     • Work-related fatality rate by 50% from 4.9 fatalities per 100,000 workers; and
                                     • Work-related injury rate by 50% from 800 injuries per 100,000 workers

                                 Strategic Outcome 2: Workplace Safety and Health is An Integral Part of
                                                      Business

                                 WSH should become an integral part of business. Companies should see the
                                 value of good WSH practices towards enhancing business competitiveness and
                                 profitability. There should be proactive assessments and control of risks at all
                                 levels during business operations. Business proposals should also recognise the
                                 importance of WSH, and tenders and contracts should incorporate WSH
                                 performance as a requirement.

Strategic Outcome 3: Singapore is renowned as a Centre of Excellence for WSH

Singapore should be renowned as a Centre of Excellence for WSH that provides a safe and healthy
workplace for everyone. Employers and employees should possess the necessary capabilities and
skills to manage WSH risks. They should be supported by a pool of competent WSH professionals and
credible WSH training facilities. Our workers and WSH professionals will thus be highly sought after
by other countries for their WSH competencies.

Four Strategies have been identified to drive the process of WSH improvements. Under each Strategy,
key work areas were identified to guide the efforts of everyone, namely the Government, employer
associations, unions, trade associations, WSH professionals, professional bodies as well as education
and training institutions.

Strategy 1: Building Strong Capability to Manage WSH
   • Includes initiatives such as developing guidelines, providing safety recommendations,
     reviewing training and development

Strategy 2: Implementing an Effective Regulatory Framework
   • Includes initiatives such as developing targeted strategic enforcement programmes and
     reviewing legislation

Strategy 3: Promoting the Benefits of Workplace Safety and Health and Recognizing
           Best Practices
   • Includes initiatives to enhance the WSH recognition framework, industry-led WSH
     outreach programmes to bring the WSH message to a wider audience, as well as
     disseminating timely information on WSH

Strategy 4: Develop Strong Partnerships both Locally and Internationally
   • Includes initiatives to enhance the capabilities of the WSHAC and establishing an International
     Advisory Panel of experts to critique on the development of WSH strategies and standards.

As Singapore’s first national strategy for WSH, WSH 2015 articulates the national vision, the strategic
outcomes and strategies over the next 10 years. It sets out the roadmap in synergising the efforts and
resources of all stakeholders to achieve the vision of “A safe and healthy workplace for everyone; and
a country renowned for best practices in workplace safety and health”.

This annual report highlights the initiatives we undertook in 2007 to support the WSH 2015 Strategy.



                                                                                                                        Introduction


                                                                                                                        4
                  OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                   AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                              REPORT




                         The WSH 2015 Strategic Roadmap
                                                                               VISION

                                                         A safe and healthy workplace for everyone
                                                      and a country renowned for best practices in WSH

                                                                    STRATEGIC OUTCOMES


                               Reduction in occupational              WSH as an integral             Singapore as a Centre of
                               fatalities and injuries rate            part of business                 Excellence for WSH


                                                                             STRATEGIES


                                     Strategy 1                Strategy 2               Strategy 3                 Strategy 4



                                                                                      Promoting the          Developing Strong
                                 Building Strong           Implementing an
                                                                                     Benefits of WSH         Partnerships both
                                  Capability to          Effective Regulatory
                                                                                     and Recognizing            Locally and
                                  Manage WSH                  Framework
                                                                                      Best Practices           Internationally



                                                                      KEY AREAS OF WORK


               • Developing Comprehensive         • Legislation Review             • Industry-led Outreach           • Workplace Safety and
                 Competency Framework                                                Programmes                        Health Advisory Committee
                                                  • Strategic Intervention
               • Developing Capability in                                          • Disseminating Information       • International
                 Risk Management                  • Resolution of Systemic           and Promoting the                 Collaborations
                                                    Lapses                           Adoption of Best Practices
               • Inspection & Investigation                                                                          • Enhancing Inter-agency
                 of Near Misses & Accidents       • Enhancing Self-Regulation
                                                                                   • Grading of Safety and             and Inter-industry
               • Compliance Assistance                                               Health Management System          Collaboration

               • Broadening the Base of                                            • WSH Recognition                 • International
                 WSH Statistics                                                    • Driving Improvements              Advisory Panel
                                                                                     through Large Organizations
               • Establishing Credible and
                 Competent WSH Training                                            • Influencing Consideration
                 Providers                                                           of WSH in Contracts

                                                                                   • Accident Cost
                                                                                     Measurement




                                              IMPLEMENTING WSH 2015 FOR THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

               • Capability Building at           • Including Designers and       • Government Taking the Lead      • Integrating the
                 Industry, Company and              Developers in the               - Integrating Assessment of       Communication of WSH
                 Individual Levels                  Regulatory Framework            WSH Performance into              Risks into Work Processes;
                                                                                    Procurement Process               Better Coordination of
                                                  • WSH Performance                                                   Work at Industry Level
                                                    Management by Companies       • Promoting a Business Case
                                                                                    - Illustrate Benefits of WSH
                                                  • Setting Industry Standards      through Case Studies and
                                                                                    Recognition Framework for
                                                                                    Pioneering Efforts




Introduction



         5
                                   Our Corporate Structure
                                    Occupational Safety & Health Division


                                                    Occupational Safety & Health Division
                                                             Divisional Director
                                                              Mr Ho Siong Hin




                                                                                      OSH Specialists Department
                                                                                               Director
                     OSH Inspectorate                                                      Dr Ho Sweet Far
                     Deputy Director
                       Mr Silas Sng                                                                         System Safety Branch
                                                                               Construction &                  Deputy Director
                                          Surveilliance                   Safety Engineering Branch           Mr Go Heng Huat
                                            Branch                             Deputy Director
          Operations                                                         Mr Chan Yew Kwong
           Branch                           Planning                                                     Occupational Medicine Branch
                                             Branch                                                            Deputy Director
          Investigation                                                 Occupational Hygiene Branch           Dr Lee Hock Siang
             Branch                                                          Deputy Director
                                                                             Mr Tan Kia Tang
                                                                                                 International
                                                                                             Collaboration Branch
                                                                                                     Head
                 OSH Corporate Services                                                       Dr Lee Hock Siang
                      Department
                       Director
                    Mrs Roslyn Ten
                                      Licensing Branch
                                   Senior Assistant Director
Work Injury Compensation Branch        Mr Ang Tick Bing
    Senior Assistant Director
      Mrs Teo-Ang Lay Heok                                                          OSH Industry Capability Building
                                                                                             Department
                 Corporate Support Branch                                                  Deputy Director
                    Assistant Director                                               Mr Goh Chye Guan (Covering)
                   Mr Christopher Koh
                                                                                                           WSH in Corporate Branch
                                                                                                           Senior Assistant Director
                                                                            WSH in SMEs Branch               Mr Hashim Mansoor
                                                                           Senior Assistant Director
                                                                               Mr Winston Yew

                                                                                              WSH Competency Branch
                                                                                              Senior Assistant Director
             OSH Policy and Information                                                           Dr Lee Kien Wah
                    Department
                      Director
               Mr Suresh Navaratnam
                                     Information Branch
                                   Senior Assistant Director
  Policy & Planning Branch           Mr Tan Cheng Seng
  Senior Assistant Director
       Mr Ismadi Mohd
                                                                           WSHAC Secretariat
                                                                           Executive Secretary
                                                                           Mr Goh Chye Guan


                                                                        Programme Management Branch
                                                                            Senior Assisant Director
                                                                              Ms Linda de Mello




                                                                                                                                   Introduction



                                                                                                                                       6
                      OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                       AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                  REPORT




       Core Functions
       The Occupational Safety and Health Division (OSHD) is structured around five departments and the Workplace
       Safety and Health Advisory Committee (WSHAC) Secretariat.

       OSH Policy & Information Department
       The department drives the divisional efforts through sound policies & strategic planning while striving for
       organization excellence, and analyses and identifies emerging WSH trends and risks by leveraging on effective
       information systems, quality resources and astute business intelligence.

       OSH Inspectorate
       The Inspectorate focuses on reducing safety and health risks at workplaces by conducting inspections and
       surveillance of workplaces to ensure that workplaces maintain an acceptable level of safety and health standards.
       The Inspectorate also investigates accidents and lessons learnt from the accidents are shared with the industry.

       OSH Specialist Department
       The department provides specialist support in the development of OSH standards and best practices, as well as
       the investigation of complex accidents and occupational diseases. The department conducts operational research,
       develops and implements strategies and targeted programmes for specific OSH hazards and industries. The
       department also collaborates with international organisations and national institutes in projects, information
       exchange, visits and training.

       Corporate Services Department
       The department assists injured workers and dependants of deceased workers to receive fair workmen’s
       compensation expeditiously for work-related injuries or deaths; processes registration of factories and pressure
       vessels & other equipment and the licensing of competent persons. The department also supports the Division in
       the areas of financial management, registry and day-to-day office administration as well as ensures continuous
       improvement in customer responsiveness through monitoring of customer service standards.

       Industry Capability Building Department
       The department works in partnership with the Workforce Development Agency and training organizations, to
       develop and implement a comprehensive competency framework and curriculum for competent WSH
       organizations / persons and workers, as well as to oversee and check the certification of workers and training
       providers. It aims to strengthen enterprise capabilities by engaging companies and actively reach out to industry
       stakeholders through various programmes and providing customized advice and solutions.

       WSHAC Secretariat
       The Secretariat works through the WSHAC, its industry and functional sub committees and other key industry
       players to understand the inner workings of industry and drive sectoral efforts in identifying sectoral gaps and
       proposing solutions with industry feedback and the Division’s support. It collaborates with industry stakeholders in
       promoting WSH messages, programmes and awards, and drives the efforts to raise industry participation as
       well as championing the recognition schemes.

        The Management Team




       Mr Suresh Navaratnam                  Dr Ho Sweet Far    Mr Silas Sng       Mrs Roslyn Ten         Mr Goh Chye Guan
              Director                           Director       Deputy Director        Director           Executive Secretary
           OSH Policy and                    OSH Specialists   OSH Inspectorate   Corporate Services    WSHAC Secretariat and
       Information Department                   Department                           Department             Deputy Director
                                                                                                       Industry Capability Building



Introduction



         7
               Spotlight
               January
               • ASEAN Policy Dialogue on National Occupational Safety and Health Frameworks – 23 to 25 January 2007


               March
               • Launch of Programme-based Engagement 2007 - 22 March 2007


               April
               • Unveiling of WSH 2015 Strategy and bizSAFE Programme at the Launch of National
                 Workplace Safety and Health Campaign 2007 - 20 April 2007


               May
               • Operation SWIFT


               July
               • Gazette of Workplace Safety and Health (WSH Officers) Regulations


               September
               • Launch of Noise-Induced Deafness Prevention Programme - 21 September 2007


               October
               • Workplace Safety and Health Award Ceremony - 12 October 2007


               November
               • Launch of Construction Safety Audit Scoring System - 16 November 2007




Introduction



         8
              OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
               AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                          REPORT



                                                    Developing A Comprehensive Centre Framework




                                     Manpower and Industrial
                                     Capability Building
           As part of the WSH 2015 Strategy, a comprehensive competency-based
           training approach was adopted for the training of all new workers and
           WSH professionals. With a better trained workforce, safety and health
           at workplaces is expected to improve. In 2007, OSHD and WSHAC,
           together with the Workforce Development Agency and industry partners,
                                            th ee
           spearheaded the development of three competency frameworks.
                                                   Employability Skills Systems
                                                   Starting from May 2007, generic WSH competency modules were
                                                   incorporated in the training of workers, supervisors and managers as part of
                                                   the Employability Skills Systems. This inclusion would ensure that WSH
                                                   practices remain one of the key elements in any skills development.

                                                   Trade-Specific Training
                                                   A similar WSH competency training approach was adopted in the conduct of
                                                   the trade-specific training. Commencing with the marine sector, 13 trades
                                                   were identified. In the first phase, three trades (forklift, metal scaffolding and
                                                   rigger & signalman) were selected for the development of training
                                                   programmes for the workers and supervisors. The training programmes for
                                                   the remaining 10 trades are expected to be developed in 2008. With the
                                                   experience gained from the marine sector, the development of 19
                                                   competency-based trade-specific training for the construction sector is
Strategy                                           expected to commence in 2008.
  1
       9
WSH Professional Framework
The development of this framework was completed in December 2007. It details
four levels of occupations in the WSH profession, namely, WSH Representative,
WSH Coordinator, WSH Officer and WSH Auditor. Encompassing the full
spectrum of the WSH profession, it supports career progression at the different
levels. Developed locally, this was the most comprehensive WSH Framework
ever embarked upon. Specifically for the WSH Officer training, graduands will
be able to assist their employers in the identification and management of risks
at the worksite as risk management is one of the key principles in the WSH 2015
Strategy.The first batch of WSH Officers will graduate in March 2008.


Worker Safety and Well-being Course
In addition to the initiatives above, the Worker Safety and Well-being Course was
introduced on 1 July 2007 for both new and existing workers in the construction
and marine sectors. The course would include modules to provide knowledge
on basic employment laws, workplace responsibilities, hazard identification and
risk management at the workplace. All new foreign workers are required to
attend the course within 14 days of their arrival and pass the test within three
months. For existing workers, they are required to sit for the test every two years
within the first six years and every four years thereafter. For these workers, the
course would provide a platform for refresher training such that it reinforces the
WSH mindset.




                                                                                       Strategy

                                                                                           1
                                                                                      10
                  OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                   AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                              REPORT


                                                       Developing Capabilities in Risk Management




                                          Effective Implementation
                                          of Risk Management
               Risk management is integral to the management of WSH. Effective
               implementation of risk management has a direct bearing on the
               WSH outcomes. A key factor to the effective implementation of risk
               management is the capability of the industry to conduct sound risk
               assessments and implement appropriate risk control measures.
                                                       In 2007, OSHD rolled out various initiatives to help the industry raise
                                                       the quality of risk management being implemented at workplaces.
           Risk assessment is an integral
           part of risk management. It is              Providing Resource Materials on Risk Management
           the process of:
                                                       •   Existing trade-specific risk compendia for the chemical and
           • Identifying and analysing                     marine sectors were updated and new ones were developed.
               safety and health hazards
               associated with work;                   •   A Quick Guide to Risk Assessment was published to provide
           • Assessing the risks                           a concise version of the existing 38-page Risk Assessment
               involved; and                               Guidelines. The guide provides an overview of risk assessment
           • Prioritising measures to                      concepts through the use of simple illustrations on how risk
               control the hazards and                     assessment can be applied.
               reduce the risks
           Risk management entails:
           • Risk assessment of any
               work activity or trade;
           • Control and monitoring
               of such risks; and
Strategy   • Communicating these risks
               to all persons involved
  1
      11
Developing a Competent Pool of Risk Management Consultants
and Course Trainers
By 2007, 32 approved risk consulting organisations with 101 Approved
Risk Consultants (ARC) and 104 Risk Management (RM) course trainers
had been accredited to support the Risk Management Assistance Fund
and the bizSAFE schemes. ARC and RMC trainers play a key role in
helping the industry establish and implement risk management.

Providing Industry-Specific Technical Advice
OSHD provides industry-specific technical advice on the implementation of
risk management through the constant review and update of existing WSH
guidelines, as well as the formulation of new guidelines for the six new
sectors to be covered under the WSH Act in 2008.



Risk Management Assistance Fund
As of 31 July 2007, all of the $5 million set aside for the Risk Assessment
Assistance Fund (RMAF) was fully committed. This prompted the WSHAC
to propose a top-up of the fund.
The WSHAC cited the effectiveness and success of the RMAF in helping
Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) build in-house capabilities in
risk management (RM), as well as building a core network of RM service
providers and capabilities in providing RM-related services. In its         The Risk Management Assistance
response, the Ministry also assessed that it would be useful to make the    Fund was launched on 28 April 2006
fund available to newer workplaces subjected to the Act, such as those      as a scheme to help small and
                                                                            medium-sized enterprises defray
which will be covered with effect from 1 March 2008. This was further       the consultancy costs involved in
supported by the WSHAC, as it believed that extending eligibility for the   implementing risk management.
RMAF to such companies would sustain the momentum created by the            It is open to all workplaces covered
first tranche of the RMAF.                                                  under the WSH Act.


RMAF Top-Up and Extension of Eligibility
As of November 2007, the RMAF would receive a top-up of $2
million per financial year until 2010. For this second tranche, new
sectors which will be covered by the WSH Act with effect from
1 March 2008 will also be able to apply for funding:

•   Healthcare activities
•   Hotels and restaurants
•   Landscape care and maintenance service activities
•   Services allied to transport of goods
•   Veterinary activities
•   Water supply, sewerage and waste management

Whilst the RMAF had previously offered co-funding up to 70% of the
consultancy costs with a cap of $7,500 per company, the cap had
been lowered to $3,500 per company for the second tranche in order
to benefit more companies. The second tranche is estimated to
benefit more than 2,280 SMEs till the year 2010.




                                                                                                                    Strategy

                                                                                                                        1
                                                                                                                   12
              OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
               AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                          REPORT



                                             Inspection & Investigation of Near Misses & Accidents




                                        Inspection & Investigation
           Under the purview of the Workplace Safety & Health Act, OSHD
           carries out full investigations into all fatal workplace accidents,
           dangerous occurrences and workplace accidents that resulted in
           permanent disabilities.
                                                   For accidents of lesser severity, OSHD conducts workplace
                                                   inspections to identify any breach of standards in workplace safety
                                                   and health.

                                                   Near Misses and Accident Investigation
                                                   One of the key pillars of driving improvements in WSH management is
                                                   about learning from past experiences. In this regard, we will develop
                                                   the capabilities of businesses to draw useful lessons from near misses
                                                   and accident investigations conducted internally to identify
                                                   shortcomings so as to prevent or pre-empt other similar incidents from
                                                   happening in the future. In the long term, businesses should be able to
                                                   use the findings from these internal investigations to establish and
                                                   improve on the deficiencies identified. The industry-led WSH council
                                                   can also play a role to better understand the causes and disseminate
                                                   such information to the industry to enhance its WSH capabilities.




Strategy

  1
      13
we will develop the
capabilities of businesses
to draw useful lessons from
near misses and accident
investigations ...




                               Strategy

                                   1
                              14
                OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                 AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                            REPORT


                                                      Compliance Assistance




                                       Reaching Out to the Small and
                                       Medium Enterprises through bizSAFE
           With more big corporations outsourcing their businesses, WSH is
           becoming increasingly more important for small and medium enterprises
           (SMEs) which account for a large proportion of the outsourced market.

                                                     With the support of OSHD, bizSAFE was initiated by WSHAC to promote
                                                     and offer assistance to the SMEs in order to improve their WSH
                                                     standards. Designed for the industry, bizSAFE aims to help SMEs
                                                     improve the management of WSH in order to bring about safer, healthier
      bizSAFE was launched by                        and more competitive workplaces.
      the Minister of State for
      Manpower and Education,
      Mr Gan Kim Yong, at the Annual                 bizSAFE Objectives
      Workplace Safety and Health
      Campaign on 20 April 2007.                             To adopt a systematic           To recognise SMEs
                                                        1    process to help SMEs       2    for their efforts and
                                                             build capability to             improvements in
                                                             better manage safety            managing safety
                                                             and health at work-             and health at their
                                                             places                          workplaces




Strategy

  1
      15
                             bizSAFE Communities
    Within the bizSAFE programme, four bizSAFE communities
    will work together to improve safety and health in SMEs.




                                                              bizSAFE Mentors
         bizSAFE Service Providers                            Companies which
           Companies that provide                       demonstrated excellent WSH
       training, consultancy and audit                  performance and leadership,
           services to participating                        and are willing to guide
          bizSAFE Enterprises under                      bizSAFE Enterprises as they
               the programme.                            progress in the programme.
                                                       bizSAFE Mentors could include
                                                        the Gold Award winners from
                                                          the Annual Safety & Health
                                                             Performance Award.




                                           bizSAFE
                                         Communities




            bizSAFE Enterprises                                bizSAFE Partners
           SMEs participating in the                      Companies that support the
       bizSAFE programme which had                         programme by providing
        been recognised for putting in                      business advantages to
        place WSH measures such as                      motivate SMEs to join bizSAFE
         risk management and WSH                        and improve safety and health
            Management Systems.                            at their workplace. These
                                                         include large companies that
                                                             engage SMEs as their
                                                        contractors or sub-contractors.




bizSAFE provides a step-by-step
approach to guide small and
medium enterprises in implementing
risk management as well as safety
and health management systems at
their workplace.


                                                                                           Strategy

                                                                                               1
                                                                                          16
                 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                  AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                             REPORT




                                                      Since the Launch of bizSAFE – as at December 2007

                                                             More than 50 companies         15 bizSAFE Service
                                                         1   expressed interest to      2   Providers registered
                                                             come onboard as                as authorised training
                                                             bizSAFE Partners.              providers
           Pilot Phase - April to                            Companies come from
           October 2007                                      various industry sectors
           • Five bizSAFE Partners                           such as construction,
               bringing in some 150                          marine, manufacturing,
               bizSAFE Enterprises                           chemical/process,
           •   Two bizSAFE Mentors                           facilities management
                                                             and landscape.
           •   Three bizSAFE Service
               Providers accredited to
               assist with evaluation of
               bizSAFE implementation




Strategy

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      17
                                                    Legislation Review




                        Review of Subsidiary Legislation under
                        Factories Act
           With the enactment of the WSH Act on 1 March 2006, subsidiary legislation
           made under the Factories Act continued to remain in force by virtue of the
           transitional provision in Section 66(14) of the new Act.
                       Nonetheless, a crossover of these subsidiary legislation to the WSH Act had to be undertaken
                       to ensure that they are in-line with the new WSH framework. With active industry consultation,
                       OSHD undertook a review of the remaining subsidiary legislation, guided by the following objectives:

                       • Reviewing the original intent to establish whether it is still valid under the new regime;
                       • Updating the provisions and relevant terminologies;
                       • Clarifying the intended duty holder for the provision; and
                       • Introducing provisions for offences and penalties in case of any breach within the Regulations

                       Subsidiary Legislation under Review
                       In 2007, five draft Regulations were put up for public consultation:
                       • WSH (Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing) Regulations
                       • WSH (Scaffolds) Regulations
                       • WSH (Abrasive Blasting) Regulations
                       • WSH (Medical Examination) Regulations
                       • WSH (Noise) Regulations

                       Subsidiary Legislation and Government Gazette Enacted in 2007
                       • WSH (Approved Codes of Practice) Notification 2007
                       • WSH (WSH Officers) Regulations 2007
Strategy
                       • WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007
   2                   • WSH (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 2007

       18
        OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
         AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                    REPORT




Expansion of Coverage for the Workplace Safety and Health Act

In March 2006, the decades-old Factories Act was replaced with
the Workplace Safety and Health Act (WSH Act). This is a key
milestone in the overhaul of the WSH framework, in order to
achieve the target of halving the workplace fatality rate by 2015.
The initial coverage of the WSH Act was limited to the coverage
of the Factories Act because the immediate focus was on sectors
with the highest accident and fatality rates i.e. general factories,
construction sites and shipyards. While we continue to raise
WSH performance in such high-risk workplaces, the intention is
to ensure that workers in all workplaces are protected. Coverage
would be extended in stages over the next three to five years in
order to ensure a more sustainable build up of industry ownership.
In this regard, the Ministry decided to roll-out the next phase of
workplaces to be included under the WSH Act on 1 March 2008.
The sectors identified either have higher accident rates or where
the potential consequence of any accident can be serious. To
effect the expansion of coverage to the new workplaces, the
WSH (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 2007 was enacted
on 23 Nov 2007.

With effect from 1 March 2008, the WSH Act would apply to other
workplaces in six key sectors identified:

   •   Healthcare Activities
   •   Hotels and Restaurants
   •   Landscape Care and Maintenance Service Activities
   •   Services Allied to Transportation of Goods
   •   Veterinary Activities
   •   Water Supply, Sewerage and Waste Management




                                                                        Strategy

                                                                            2
                                                                       19
            Review of Workmen’s Compensation Act (WCA)
            The Workmen’s Compensation Act was reviewed to ensure that
            it would continue to safeguard the interests of injured employees,
            deter irresponsible employers from not paying compensation
            promptly while at the same time protect employers against fraudulent
            claims by errant employees.
                                          With effect from 1 April 2008, the Work Injury Compensation Act replaces the
                                          WCA. The new Act covers more than two million employees and allows them
                                          access to a simple and no-fault compensation system for work-related injuries.



               Key Amendments to the Workmen’s Compensation Act

                                                                               Improving                   Enhancing the
                 Extending                         Raising                  efficiency and            Ministry’s enforcement
              coverage to all                    compensation            effectiveness of the             powers against
            employees in general                    levels              compensation process           irresponsible parties


            • Coverage is extended           • Compensation limits      • Compensation                • Enhanced penalties
              to all employees                 are increased for all      process is streamlined        and new offences are
              whether they are                 employees to keep          to ensure that it is fair     put in place to deter
              manual or non-manual             pace with wage             to both employers and         abuse of the work
              workers and regardless           increases                  employees.                    injury compensation
              of their level of                                                                         system (e.g. non or
              earnings, except               • Younger employees                                        late payment of
              specified uniformed              are entitled to higher                                   compensation by
              personnel and                    multiple of his wages                                    employers, and
              domestic workers                 for computation of                                       fraudulent claims by
              employed by                      compensation                                             employees).
              household
                                             • An additional 25%
            • Employers are given              compensation amount
              the flexibility to decide        is awarded to all
              whether or not to buy            employees who suffer
              insurance for                    total and permanent
              employees who are                incapacity
              newly covered under
              the Act i.e non-manual
              employees earning
              more than $1,600
              a month.




                                                                                                                                gy
Strategy

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       20
         OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
          AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                     REPORT



                                              Strategic Intervention




                          Business under Surveillance Programme
      The main purpose of the Business under Surveillance (BUS) programme
      was to help these companies improve their WSH standards so that
      accidents or injuries to workers could be prevented.
                                              As achieving a quantum improvement in the WSH standards is an arduous
                                              task, an outcome-based approach had to be adopted. Thus, OSHD
                                              requires the top management of companies to establish their commitment
The Business under                            for improvement through a comprehensive and sustainable action plan.
Surveillance programme
was initiated in 2005 as a                    Enhanced BUS Programme
specialized tool to engage
                                              To improve the success of the BUS programme, several features were
companies which have
                                              introduced in November 2007. Companies would now be subjected to a
demonstrated poor safety
                                              more detailed assessment before being admitted into the BUS
and health performance.
                                              programme. In addition, a Safety Audit Scoring System would be
                                              incorporated in assessing the entry of certain companies.




                                                                                       2007: 45 companies made their
                                                                                       commitment to improve WSH
                                                                                       standards through BUS

                                                                                       Since 2005: 93% of engaged
                                                                                       companies maintained good
                                                                                       WSH standards; achieved zero
                                                                                       additional fatal accidents
                                                                                                                        Strategy

                                                                                                                            2
                                                                                                                       21
            Programme-based Engagement
            Aim                                                                       The Programme-based
            • To reduce the national occupational injury and fatality rates           Engagement is a key
            and improve overall WSH standards.                                        initiative of OSHD’s strategic
                                                                                      engagement framework.
            Key Approaches                                                            First launched in 2006, this
            •    Active industry engagement for the purpose of raising                nation-wide programme was
            WSH awareness and competencies to help stakeholders                       systematically developed to
            under stand what is expected of them and better manage the                raise standards in areas
            WSH risks in their own workplaces                                         identified as priority or high
            •     Consistent, firm and fair enforcement activities against            risk, in order to contribute to
            parties who are non-compliant                                             the reduction in the national
                                                                                      fatality rate to 2.5 per
            Three Key Thrusts                                                         100,000 workers by 2015.
            • Three key thrusts form the foundation and strategic support
            for ProBE.


                      Thrust 1                        Thrust 2                        Thrust 3


                                              Engaging    Stakeholders        Applying a Multi-dimensional
              Focusing where it Matters       through Partnerships and        Approach towards Raising
                                              Working Well Together           Safety Standards



              ProBE has been designed         We recognise that the           The main focus of ProBE is
              to     focus    intervention    involvement of duty-holders     to createpartnerships and
              efforts on priority areas to    is paramount to the success     foster co-operation for a
              stamp out the root causes       of ProBE and the ultimate       common outcome rather
              of safety and health            WSH improvements we             than        to       enforce
              deficiencies. This approach     seek.                           standards.Whilehigher
              allows the deployment of                                        penalties for poor WSH man-
              regulatory    efforts   and     ProBE provides a common         agement have been intro-
              resources in areas where        platform for OSHD and its       duced, OSHD will implement
              they are most needed to         various partners and stake-     outreach-based education
              bring     about     quantum     holders to work well            and promotion efforts as a
              improvements in WSH             together towards the shared     preferred initial solution.
              performance             and     goal of improving WSH in
              maximum        benefit    for   the industry. Opportunities
              workers and employers.          for knowledge-sharing will
                                              foster closer partnerships
                                              and enhance the synergy
                                              between OSHD and the
                                              industry.




Strategy

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       22
       OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
        AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                   REPORT




5 Phases of the ProBE Cycle

The key thrusts are translated into action under the five phases.

                                            This phase identifies the main causes of fatal and serious accidents by analysing
    Intel Phase                             accident statistics and data trends to arrive at the priority programmes for ProBE.



                                            This phase is aimed at raising awareness of workplace hazards and building
                                            capability to manage these hazards through various channels. A series of
   Industry                                 engagement activities will be initiated to communicate the underlying reasons for
   Engagement                               the poor performance. These engagement activities will provide the industry with
   Phase                                    opportunities to improve their WSH management systems and work processes. A
                                            combination of seminars, media events and compliance assistance resources and
                                            tool-kits are typically developed to help industry comply with standards.


                                            During this phase, OSHD’s WSH inspectors will conduct a series of workplace
   Operations                               inspections to identify non-compliances, assess for inadequacies at the systemic
                                            level, as well as work with the respective duty-holders to augment the industry’s
   Phase                                    drive to improve standards. The enforcement approach will depend on the
                                            performance level of the targeted workplaces.



                                            With the completion of the engagement and operations phases, OSHD will continue
   Monitoring                               to monitor the targeted sectors to evaluate the effectiveness of the programme. An
   Phase                                    improvement in WSH performance of the targeted sector will be an indication of the
                                            overall effectiveness of the programme.




   Closure and                              This marks the completion of the ProBE process. Findings are published
   Communications                           for the industry’s information.
   Phase




                                                                                                                                   Strategy

                                                                                                                                       2
                                                                                                                                  23
            ProBE Priority Programmes in 2007
            After two years of implementation, the Programme-based Engagement (ProBE) had
            gained tremendous industry support. Viewing ProBE as an opportunity to validate
            their WSH practices and improve the companies’ overall standards, some
            companies had even arranged for their in-house WSH events to correspond with
            the ProBE calendar. Building on the successes of the previous years, 2007 saw the
            launch of four ProBE priority programmes:



                                                                                                       38.8% of Workplace
                 Programme 1             Work @ Heights              Top Accident Type
                                                                                                       Fatalities


                                                                                                       27.4% of Workplace
                 Programme 2             Forklift                    Top Agent of Accident
                                                                                                       Fatalities


                                                                     2nd Top Agent                     17.7% of Workplace
                 Programme 3             Lifting Equipment           of Accident                       Fatalities


                                                                     Top Occupational                  81.4% of Occupational
                 Programme 4             Noise Induced Deafness
                                                                     Disease                           Diseases



                                                                                                           Falls from Height
           • Programme 1: Work @ Heights                                                                   38.8% (24)

           In 2006, 24 people or 38.8% of workplace
           fatalities were due to persons falling from
           height at their workplaces. A breakdown of
           fatal falls in the various industries shows                                                                 Figure 1: Top 3 Accident
           that the construction sector contributed to                                                                 Types for Fatal Workplace

           the majority of falling from height cases at                               Top 3                            Industry Sectors, 2006

           62.5%. These statistics affirm that falling                               Accident
           from height continues to be the most                                       Types
           common type of accident under fatal
           injuries. This trend has been observed in
           10 out of the last 11 years and thus it was
           an area which clearly requires ProBE
                                                             Caught in or
           intervention.
                                                          between Objects
                                                                11.3% (7)                                         Struck by Falling Object
                                                                                                                  21.0% (13)

                                                                            Construction
                                Other Sectors                               62.5%
                                       16.7%




                                                          Work @                    Figure 2: Fatalities caused
                                                          Heights                   by Falls from Height by
                                                                                    Industry Sectors, 2006




Strategy                                                                    Shipbuilding, Ship-Repairing
                                    Manufacturing                           8.3%
   2                                       12.5%
       24
         OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
          AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                     REPORT



Programme 2: Forklift
                                                                                             Transport
Transport equipment or vehicles and lifting                                                  Equipment
equipment have been the dominant agents                                                      or Vehicles
of fatal accidents in 2006. Together, they                                                   27.4% (17)
accounted for 45.1% of all fatal injuries in
                                                                                                                      Figure 3: Top 3 Agents
workplaces. Among accidents involving                                        Lifting                                  of Accidents for Fatal
transport      equipment      or   vehicles,                                 Equipment                                Workplace Injuries, 2006

forklift-related accidents contributed to                                    17.7% (11)
more than 50% of the fatal injuries. Nine
people have died from such accidents in
2006 and this represents a 300% increase                      Scaffolding
from 2005. In addition, data also shows an                    and Staging
upward trend in the number of non-fatal                       14.5% (9)
injuries. These statistics, coupled with the
fact that forklifts are widely used in many
operations, highlighted the need for a
targeted intervention programme.




            Fatal Injuries

            Non-Fatal Injuries
                                                                                                  9            Figure 4: Trend Showing
                                                      6                                                        Workplace Injuries
                                      1                                           3                            Resulting from Accidents
                                                                    0                                          involving Use of Forklift,
                                                                                                               2002 to 2006


                                 42              49            38            80             98



                                2002            2003          2004          2005           2006

                                                                                      11

                                                                                                      Programme 3: Lifting Equipment
   Fatal Injuries
                                                                                                      In 2006, lifting equipment was
   Non-Fatal Injuries                                                                                 second only to transport equipment
                                                          6                                           or vehicles with regard to agents of
                                                                        5                             accidents (ref Figure 3). While being
                                          8                                                           struck by falling object is the second
                          8
                                                                                                      most common accident type, further
                                                                                                      analysis showed that the use of lifting
                     86               103             148       129           342                     equipment contributed to a majority
                                                                                                      of these accidents (ref Figure 1). This
                                                                                                      reflects a strong link between lifting
                                                                                                      equipment as the second most
                    2002          2003            2004          2005          2006
                                                                                                      common agent of accidents, and
              Figure 5: Trend Showing
                                                                                                      being struck by falling objects
              Workplace Injuries Resulting                                                            (second most common accident
              from Accidents involving Use of                                                         type).Fatal injuries involving lifting
              Lifting Equipment, 2002 to 2006
                                                                                                      equipment had been on a downward
                                                                                                      trend prior to 2006 (ref Figure 6). A
                                                                                                      sharp rise was observed in 2006,
                                                                                                      thus creating the urgency to highlight
                                                                                                      the use of lifting equipment as an
                                                                                                      area for intervention.

                                                                                                                                                  Strategy

                                                                                                                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                 25
           Programme 4: Work in
           Noisy Environment                           81.4% (535)                                13.5% (89)
                                                       Noise Induced                              Industrial
           An increase in the number of noise          Deafness                                   Dermatitis
           induced deafness (NID) cases has
           been observed, with 2006 statistics
           showing a 37% increase from 2005.
           A breakdown by the types of
           occupational diseases shows that
           NID accounts for 81.4% of all
                                                     Figure 6: Two Top
           occupational diseases reported in         Occupational Diseases, 2006
           2006 (ref Figure 7). The profile of NID                                              Manufacturing
           in 2006 showed a large number of                                                     72%
           cases from the manufacturing
           sector.Notwithstanding this, other
           sectors such as the shipbuilding
           and ship repairing industry and the
           transport and storage industry also
                                                                                     NID by             Figure 7: Noise Induced
           contributed significantly to the total
           number of NID cases.                                                    Industries           Deafness by Industry
                                                                                                        Sectors, 2006

                                                              Others
                                                                12%

                                                                                                Shipbuilding, Ship-Repair
                                                                    Construction                12%
                                                                             4%



           Going forward
           OSHD will study the effectiveness of ProBE programmes by
           monitoring the accident trends of the targeted sectors. The results
           and findings of the study will be communicated to the industry to
           share valuable learning points. New priority programmes will be
           identified for the 2008 ProBE calendar based on the analysis of fatal
           and serious accidents that occurred in 2007.




Strategy

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       26
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
 AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                            REPORT




                                     Official launch of ProBE
                                     Seminar 2007 on 22
                                     March 2007 by Mr Hawazi
                                     Daipi, Senior
                                     Parliamentary Secretary,
                                     Ministry of Manpower. The
                                     seminar gave a sharing on
                                     the 2006 WSH statistics
                                     and a review of ProBE
                                     conducted in 2006. The
                                     work areas for 2007 ProBE
                                     were also announced.




                                                                 Strategy

                                                                   2
                                                           27
                                                  Strategic Intervention




            Addressing Specific Workplace Safety
            and Health Risks
            Construction Safety and Safety Engineering
            Designing Out OSH Risks at Source
            To drive the WSH2015 vision for the construction industry and reduce the fatality
            rate, designers need to be steered towards assuming their responsibility
            for WSH in the construction value chain.

            Designing Out OSH Risks At Source (DO2RAS) is a set of guidelines drafted to
            assist designers to consider safer designs so as to reduce construction and
            maintenance risks as early as possible.

            DO2RAS guidelines was introduced to the industry through pilot projects with
            developers such as the Ministry of Education and Keppel Land. Dialogues were
            also conducted with industry partners such as Institution of
            Engineers Singapore, Real Estate Developers' Association of Singapore
            and Singapore Institute of Architects. The guidelines are currently being
            prepared for official launching to the industry in 2008.


            Health Risk Control
            Noise Induced Deafness Prevention Programme
            Noise-induced deafness (NID) is the most prevalent occupational disease in
            Singapore. To reduce the incidence of NID and to improve noise hazard
            management at workplaces, OSHD and WSHAC jointly initiated the
            Noise-Induced Deafness Prevention Programme (NIDPP). This is a five-year
            programme (2007 to 2011) targeting known noisy workplaces and at-risk
            workplaces in the construction, manufacturing, shipbuilding and ship-repairing
            sectors through a series of outreach and enforcement activities which include a
            ProBE in Work in Noisy Environment, with the aim of reducing the incidence of
            new NID cases.

            To assist the industry, OSHD developed guidance materials on the Hearing
            Conservation Programme (HCP) and a technical advisory on management of
            noise hazards. These were presented and discussed at various engagement
            events which were co-organised with the WSHAC.

            During the enforcement phase of the NIDPP which began in January 2008,
            targeted inspections were carried out at workplaces to check on compliance
            with the Factories (Noise) Regulations and to audit their HCP. All workplaces
            inspected during the enforcement phase should have implemented HCP to
            manage noise hazards. Recommendations on improvements to the HCP and on
            practical engineering noise control solutions were provided to the stakeholders
            during the inspections. Workplaces identified with noise hazards are placed
            under hygiene and medical surveillance.




Strategy

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       28
   OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
    AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                               REPORT




                                        National Asbestos Hazard Prevention and Control Programme
                                        To eliminate asbestos-related diseases over the long term, OSHD initiated
                                        the National Asbestos Control Programme (NACP). Among other things, the
                                        programme would address the health risks posed by asbestos during its
                                        removal and other work activities involving exposures to asbestos dust.
                                        Initiatives to be implemented in 2008 under the NACP include:
                                            • Reviewing existing regulatory requirements to align with the
                                                WSH Act;
                                           • Building capabilities of persons involved in asbestos removal work; and
                                           • Engaging affected stakeholders to increase industry ownership


                                        Hygiene Monitoring
To date, 261 factories have             Control of Chemical Hazards
implemented monitoring
programmes for their                    Under the Workplace Safety and Health (General Provisions) Regulations,
airborne contaminants                   regular air monitoring is required in factories where persons are exposed or
                                        liable to be exposed to toxic airborne hazardous substances. Factory
In 2007                                 occupiers must take reasonably practicable measures to ensure persons at
231 persons passed the                  work are not exposed to toxic substances in excess of their permissible
Management of Hazardous                 exposure levels specified in the Regulations. The monitoring results are
Substances course                       submitted to OSHD for evaluation.

30 persons passed the                   Under the Regulations, air monitoring and management of hazardous
Sampling and Monitoring                 substances are to be conducted by competent persons. To help the
of Airborne Contaminants                industry fulfil this requirement, training courses on Management of
course                                  Hazardous Substances and Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne
                                        Contaminants      are    jointly conducted by OSHD and the National
                                        Environment Agency.


                          OSHD conducts industrial hygiene assessments on a
                          selective basis in high-risk workplaces, such as major
                          chemical plants, microelectronics and printing factories.
                                         For 2007, OSHD continued to focus on the following priority sectors:

                                             • Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical products

                                             • Manufacture of Basic Metals, Fabricated Metal Products, Machinery
                                               & Equipment, Electrical Machinery & Apparatus

                                             • Manufacture of Transport Equipment

                                         During the year, 346 such assessments were conducted. The data from
                                         these assessments, together with regular air monitoring submissions from
                                         factories, contribute to OSHD’s National Chemical Exposure Database
                                         with a total of 16,676 assessment results.

                                         We assisted companies in evaluating chemical hazards and developing
                                         engineering control solutions to minimise exposure to such hazards.




                                                                                                                        Strategy

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                                                                                                                       29
            Control of Noise

            Since the Factories (Noise) Regulations came into effect in 1997,
                                                                                 Under the Factories (Noise)
            OSHD has established a National Database on Noise Exposure
                                                                                 Regulations 1997, competent
            which contains a total of 21,417 assessment results. The data
                                                                                 persons are required to monitor
            comprise assessment results of the Division, as well as in-plant
                                                                                 and control noise in workplaces.
            monitoring submissions from workplaces. The database has
                                                                                 Noise monitoring is conducted at
            enabled us to identify workplaces with significant noise exposure,
                                                                                 these workplaces and the results
            and to develop strategies to reduce or eliminate the noise hazard.
                                                                                 are submitted to OSHD at regular
            The nationwide Noise Induced Deafness Prevention Programme
                                                                                 intervals.
            was one strategy developed to engage industries in the control of
            noise hazard.
                                                                                 Persons appointed to conduct
                                                                                 noise monitoring and implement
            In 2007, we assisted companies in evaluating noise hazards and in
                                                                                 noise control measures under the
            developing cost-effective engineering control solutions to reduce
                                                                                 Regulations undergo training courses
            workers' exposure to noise.
                                                                                 on Noise Monitoring and Noise
                                                                                 Control which are conducted by
                                                                                 approved training providers.


                    To date
                    259 workplaces have
                    implemented in-plant noise
                    monitoring programmes.

                    853 and 391 persons have
                    attended the Noise
                    Monitoring and Noise
                    Control training courses
                    respectively




Strategy

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       30
       OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
        AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                   REPORT



Occupational Medicine

Medical Surveillance
The Medical Surveillance Programme aims to detect excessive
occupational exposure to specific health hazards so as to prevent overt       The Factories (Medical
diseases. It is an important part of our integrated surveillance strategy     Examinations) Regulations
which involves active identification of high-risk factories, evaluation and   prescribe a list of hazards
monitoring of potential health risks, monitoring of workers’ health and       requiring medical
implementation of measures to minimise such risks.                            examinations. Based on the
                                                                              findings of the prescribed
Central to the Medical Surveillance Programme is the Factories                medical examinations,
(Medical Examinations) Regulations which prescribes a list of hazards         workers who are medically
requiring medical examinations. In addition, OSHD also recommends             unfit or are excessively
the implementation of medical surveillance for non-prescribed hazard if       exposed to chemicals are
the health risk is significant and biological indicators are available.       suspended, either on a
Some of these hazards include toluene, trinitrotoluene, xylene, fluoride      temporary or permanent
and hexane.                                                                   basis. The objective is to
                                                                              ensure that they remain
                                                                              healthy and fit for work.

          Wo rke rs u n d er M ed ica l S u rveillan ce                       Under the Regulations,
                                                                              factories may be exempted
                                                                              from the prescribed medical
            90000
                                                                              examinations if effective
            80000                                                             hazard control programmes
            70000                                                             have been implemented to
            60000                                                             minimise workers’ exposure.
            50000
            40000
            30000
            20000
            10000                                                                In 2007, 89,286
                  0                                                              workers from 1,663
                        2003        2004    2005    2006        2007
                                                                                 factories were under such
   No of Workers        71106      76678    80227   84432    89286               medical surveillance.




             F acto ries u n d er M ed ica l S u rveilla n ce

              1700

              1680
                                                                                 In 2007, a total of 71
                                                                                 workers from 6 factories
              1660                                                               were exempted from the
                                                                                 medical examinations,
              1640
                                                                                 compared to 168 workers
              1620
                                                                                 in 2006. 80% of the 71
                                                                                 workers exempted
              1600                                                               carried out soldering work,
                                                                                 where exposure to lead
              1580
                         2003       2004    2005     2006       2007             was low.
   No of Factories       1661       1674    1632     1698       1663




                                                                                                                Strategy

                                                                                                                    2
                                                                                                               31
                                           Demerit Point System




                              Resolution of Systemic Lapses
                                            The Demerit Point Scheme was revised in consultation with the
                                            Construction Sub-Committee of the WSHAC to further raise WSH
                                            standards and allow companies committed to improve WSH performance
                                            sufficient opportunities to do so.

            The Demerit Point Scheme        Before its launch, building contractors and developers were consulted on
            (DPS) was introduced in 2000    the revised scheme. Key partners in the engagement were:
            to encourage construction           • Singapore Contractors Association Limited
            contractors with poor WSH           • Land Transport Authority
            records to improve their            • Jurong Town Corporation
            performance.                        • Building and Construction Authority
                                                • Public Utilities Board
            DPS was revised and the new         • Housing Development Board
            scheme was launched on 1
            April 2007.                     Construction companies that have been issued with demerit points were
                                            informed in writing by the Ministry.

                                            Under the revised scheme, both main contractors and sub-contractors will
                                            be issued with demerit points for breaches under the WSH Act and
                                            relevant subsidiary legislation depending on the severity of the
                                            infringement. The thresholds for warning and blacklisting were reduced
                                            from the previous 24 points to 18 points.

                                            A total of 149 including 16 warned companies from the former scheme,
                                            embarked on this new scheme.

                                            In 2007, a total of 10 main contractor companies were warned and 14
                                            sub-contractors had accrued points. A list of construction companies with
Strategy                                    demerit points were updated on MOM’s website fortnightly.

   2
       32
        OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
         AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                    REPORT




Operation SWIFT
A strategic inspection exercise was launched between
May to June 2007. Aptly named SWIFT, the program
aimed to intensify inspection efforts over a month long
period. Our inspectors were quick and efficient in clamping
down on workplaces with poor safety and health
standards.




                                                                              The results:
                                                                              69 workplaces inspected
                                                                              164 contraventions found
                                                                              2 Stop Work Orders issued


A second run of the SWIFT program made its round later in the year
in November 2007. This time, the program specifically targeted construction
sites on Sentosa Island. With the recent surge in development on the
tourist spot, OSHD felt the need to focus on the numerous worksites on
the island to ensure WSH improvements were met by the contractors.




                                                                              The results:
                                                                              58 workplaces inspected
                                                                              168 contraventions found
                                                                              6 Stop Work Orders issued
                                                                                                           Strategy

                                                                                                               2
                                                                                                          33
                               Enhancing Self-Regulation




            The introduction of a performance-based approach by the WSH
            Act calls for the industry to self-regulate. In place of prescriptive
            law, OSHD issues guidelines on specific issues to complement
            regulations on the subject and elaborate on the provisions to
            allow for better understanding amongst industry stakeholders
            and enhance self-regulation.
                 Guidelines on Qualification and Hiring of WSH Officers
                 The WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Regulations 2007 came into
                 operation on 1 August 2007, replacing three Factories subsidiary legislations
                 governing WSH Officers:
                    • Factories (Qualifications and Training of Safety Officers) Notification
                    • Factories (Registration and Duties of Safety Officers) Regulations
                    • Factories (Safety Officers) Order

                 With the implementation of the new regulations, a guide was developed for
                 the industry to clarify on key provisions in the regulations such as those
                 concerning the pre-requisite and training for WSH Officers.

                 Responsible Suppliers & Manufacturers Programme
                 Under the WSH Act, duties are imposed on manufacturers and suppliers of
                 equipment and machinery to ensure that their products are duly tested &
                 examined so as to be safe and without risk to health when properly used. In
                 addition, they are to provide users with the relevant information on the safe
                 use of the equipment and machinery.

                 The Responsible Supplier and Manufacturer Program is a compliance assis-
                 tance program designed to engage the manufacturers and suppliers of
                 machinery and equipment (as listed in the 5th Schedule) and co-establish the
                 necessary requirement to fulfill their duties under the Act. Two guidelines are
Strategy         being developed for forklifts and mast-climbing work platforms.
   2
       34
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
 AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                            REPORT




                                     Including Designers and Developers in the Regulatory Framework




                                     Construction Design
                                     and Management
         One of the key areas of work identified for the implementation
         of WSH 2015 for the Construction Industry is the inclusion of
         designers and developers in the regulatory framework.
                                     In addition to the Designing Out OSH Risks at Source initiative, OSHD
                                     together with the Construction Sub-Committee of the WSHAC, embarked
                                     on a study of UK’s Construction (Design and Management) Regulations to
                                     understand the roles and responsibilities of developers and designers as
                                     stipulated by law in the country.

                                     A study trip to learn the implementation of the regulations and the
                                     improvements made in construction design and management is in the
                                     pipeline for 2008.
                                                                                                                 Strategy

                                                                                                                     2
                                                                                                                35
              Industry-led Outreach Programmes




               National Workplace Safety
               and Health Campaign 2007
The National Workplace Safety and Health Campaign 2007, held
from 20 April to 24 May 2007, was a high profile, activity-filled
annual affair to promote safety and health at workplaces.
Organised by WSHAC in collaboration with OSHD, Shine@Work
- Safety and Health Involves Everyone@work, was the theme for
the campaign.
              It served as an apt reminder to employers and workers alike that safety
              and health at the workplace requires effort from each and every one of us.

              More than 30 organisations joined the campaign as partners who packed
              more than 50 events into the campaign calendar. Seminars and workshops
              organised were tailored to different stakeholders, including safety
              professionals, designers, engineers, line managers, supervisors and
              workers. The campaign was publicised through platforms such as bus stops
              and buses, billboards, print and radio ads and street lamp banners. A special
              jingle was also created for the campaign and was a hit with many, judging by
              the number of downloads.

              In addition to boasting an event-packed diary during the campaign, the
              event also produced two record-breaking successes. Led by the Ministry,
              WSHAC and industry players like the Singapore Business Federation and
              the National Trades Union Congress, the WSH 2015 Pledge Drive to
              garner support for the WSH 2015 Strategy succeeded in getting an
              astonishing 52,560 pledges from amongst the employers, WSH
              professionals, supervisors and employees, which were compiled into a
              book. The effort earned a place in the Singapore Book of Records for             Strategy

              achieving not only the highest number of pledges but for Singapore’s                 3
              largest book as well.
                                                                                              36
                  OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                   AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                              REPORT




           Engaging Employees
           Worker’s Poster Drawing Competition
           WSHAC organised the third Worker’s Poster Drawing Competition, aimed to change their
           perception and behaviour towards WSH. Sponsored by Komatsu Pte Ltd and themed
           Man+Machine, the contest was opened to all workers, both local and foreigners. More than
           200 entries were received from workers from various industries. The top three winners, Mr
           Sohel Fakir Rahman Fakir, Mr Daniel Tang Wai Kit and Mr Alexander Ronald Raterta Vidal (in
           order of merit) were honoured on 26 July 2007 at a ProBE (Lifting Equipment) Seminar.

           Worker Outreach Programme
           Foreign workers are an important target audience as they constitute a sizable portion of our
           workforce in hazardous industries such as construction, shipbuilding and ship repairing.
           Recognising this, WSHAC continued to engage workers through its Worker Outreach
           Programme in 2007. Workers were outreached through avenues such as their dormitories
           and recreational areas like Little India and Little Thailand. Efforts to increase their awareness
           on WSH as well as employment rights and responsibilities were also done through roadshows
           such as the Thai Embassy May Day Celebrations.

           Sunday Market Tamil Variety Show at Little India
           The event was held on 20 May 2007 as part of the National Workplace Safety and Health
           Campaign 2007 to particularly reach out to foreign workers on various issues such as WSH,
           employment conditions, as well as immigration and other laws.This event was jointly organised
           by Singapore Contractors Association Ltd, Rochor Neighbourhood Police Centre, Immigration
           and Checkpoint Authority, National Environment Agency, WSHAC and the Ministry. Held at
           Weld Road, the event showcased educational exhibits and game stalls, as well as a special
           variety show with a skit on WSH, along with other song and dance items. These entertainment
           activities were organised in appreciation of the workers’ contributions to society.




Strategy

  3
      37
                                                                Minister of State,
                                                                Mr Gan Kim Yong giving
                                                                an opening address
                                                                at the launch of the
                                                                Noise Induced Deafness
                                                                Prevention Programme




 Engagement Events for the Noise-
 Induced-Deafness Prevention Programme
The launch of the five-year programmme on 21 September 2007
was a joint initiative by OSHD and WSHAC. Themed Music To My
Ears, the event saw performances by home-grown international
jazz recording artist, Jacintha Abisheganaden, to underscore the
importance of protecting one’s sense of hearing.
                 The launch event was followed by a technical seminar on 3 December
                 2007 which focused on effective implementation of the Hearing
                 Conservation Programme (HCP). The five elements in HCP were
                 discussed and guidance materials developed by OSHD were
                 disseminated at the seminar.




                                                                                         Strategy

                                                                                           3
                                                                                     38
                      OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                       AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                  REPORT



           NIDPP Calendar


                   Launch of NIDPP                             Technical Seminar
                   21 September 2007                           3 December 2007

                  •    Conference attended by some         •    Attended by employers, OSH professionals
                       400 industry stakeholders                and supervisors
                  •    Topics presented:                   •    Topic presented: Implementing Hearing
                       - Health Effects of Noise                Conservation Programme (HCP) at your
                         Exposure                               Workplace
                       - Approach to Effective
                         Management
                         of Noise Hazards                      Outreach / Compliance Assistance
                  •    Highlight:
                       - Testimonies by HearSafe
                                                           •    Road shows at dormitories and workplaces to
                         Ambassadors
                                                                increase employees’ awareness of the measures
                       - Sharing of best practices
                                                                that can be taken to protect themselves from
                         on the management of noise
                                                                excessive noise
                         hazards by two recipients
                         of the WSH Best Practices         •    Guidance materials on HCP
                         Award (Noise Control              •    Technical Advisory on noise hazard management
                         Solutions) 2007                        were published and disseminated.



           Maintaining Workplace Safety and Health at Marina Bay

           The Construction Sub-Committee of the WSHAC formed a workgroup comprising
           various stakeholders involved in construction projects at the Marina Bay Area. The
           workgroup sought to enhance self-regulation in the management of WSH at the
           worksites by promoting the benefits of WSH, highlighting WSH concerns at the design
           and construction stage and sharing WSH information such as control measures for
           potential WSH hazards. The workgroup also provides regular updates to OSHD and
           WSHAC on the WSH conditions at the Marina Bay Area, as well as other developments.




Strategy

  3
      39
                                  Promoting the Adoption of Best Practices




                          Workplace Safety
                          and Health Awards 2007
                          Two new awards were introduced in 2007. The Safety and
                          Health Award Recognition for Projects (SHARP) were
                          presented to projects that achieved good safety and health
                          performance through implementation of effective workplace
                          safety and health management systems.
                                   The Workplace Safety and Health Officer Awards were presented to three WSH
                                   Officers in recognition of their exemplary performance and valuable contribution
                                   to their workplaces and helping to improve overall industry standards.
Every year, winners of the
Annual Safety and Health
Performance Awards,                A total of 108 winners clinched the WSH Awards in 2007 for achieving good
Workplace Safety and Health        WSH performance and putting in place best practices as well as innovative
Best Practices Awards,             solutions.
Workplace Safety and Health
Innovation Awards and              The Workplace Safety and Health Awards Ceremony 2007 was held on 12
Developer Awards are               October 2007 at the Grand Hyatt Hotel. Winners received their awards from the
recognised for their efforts in    Guest of Honour, Dr Ng Eng Hen, Minister for Manpower and Second Minister
ensuring safe and healthy
                                   for Defence.
workplaces at the Workplace
Safety & Health Awards
Ceremony.




                                                                                                                      Strategy

                                                                                                                        3
                                                                                                                  40
                   OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                    AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                               REPORT




                                                        Grading of Safey and Health Management System




           Contractor Audit Scoring System
           With its unique feature to profile the maturity level of each
           element of the safety and health management system, the
           Construction Safety Audit Scoring System (ConSASS) can
           help the top management to better allocate resources in order
           to raise WSH standards and improve the effectiveness of
           managing WSH risks.
           It can also be used to verify the contractors’ efforts and performance in
           managing safety and health at the worksite.

           A user guide was published to provide clear instructions on using the
           audit tool. More than 50 WSH auditors approved by OSHD have been
           trained on the use of the system. More training sessions on ConSASS will
           be conducted in 2008.

           Since its launch, many stakeholders amongst property developers,
           auditors as well as building contractors voiced support for the system
           and expressed that they would adopt ConSASS at their worksites.




               The Construction Safety
               Audit Scoring System was
               launched on 16 Nov 2007
               to provide an objective
               assessment of the safety and
               health management system
               at a construction worksite.




Strategy

  3
      41
Government Taking the Lead - Integrating Assessment of Workplace
Safety and Health Performance into Procurement Process




                         Developing Guidelines on Implementing Workplace Safety and Health
                         at Procurement Phase

                         This project was initiated as a precursor to the progressive introduction of
                         Construction Design Management concepts in Singapore, which
                         advocates the reduction of WSH risks at the upstream processes of
                         construction projects. Guidelines to introduce WSH elements that could be
                         implemented at the procurement phase were developed in 2007. The
                         guidelines are targeted to be launched in 2008.




                                                                                                        Strategy

                                                                                                          3
                                                                                                    42
      OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
       AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                  REPORT




                                           Workplace Safety and Health Advisory Committee


Formation of the Workplace
Safety and Health Council
One of the recommendations by the six-member International Advisory Panel (IAP) formed in 2006 was to evolve
the role of the WSHAC to provide leadership in raising WSH performance and standards in Singapore. Affirming
the importance of the WSHAC as the engine to drive the implementation of the WSH 2015 Strategy, the IAP
recommended that the role of the WSHAC be evolved to include setting standards, overseeing programmes to
promote and develop the WSH capabilities for the industry, and identifying programmes to tackle specific risks
which would include initiatives for the Ministry’s strategic interventions.

In 2007, OSHD and WSHAC worked closely to draw out the plan for the formation of the Council. The WSHAC
will be transformed into a full-fledged WSH Council in April 2008 to strengthen the government-industry
partnership in raising WSH standards. The new Council will take the lead in three key areas, in partnership with
OSHD:

   • Setting acceptable workplace safety and health practices
   • Building industry capabilities to manage workplace safety and health
   • Promoting a strong workplace safety and health culture


Promoting Workplace Safety                                                          To augment the National
                                                                                    effort in improving WSH, the
                                                                                    14-member Workplace
and Health and Capability                                                           Safety and Health Advisory
                                                                                    Committee (WSHAC) was
Building                                                                            appointed by the Minister of
                                                                                    Manpower on 1 September
Building Manpower and Industrial Capabilities:                                      2005. The primary role of
WSH Professional Framework, Trade-Specific Training, Worker Safety                  the WSHAC is to advise
and Well-being Course                                                               and make recommenda-
                                                                                    tions to the Ministry on
Together with OSHD and the Workforce Development Agency (WDA), the
                                                                                    issues relating to WSH.
Competency, Education and Training (CETSC) Advisory Sub-Committee of the
WSHAC and industry partners, spearheaded the development of two
competency frameworks – WSH Professional Framework and the
Trade-Specific Training. Some members of the CETSC are also members of
the Manpower Skills Training Council (MSTC) formed by WDA. MSTC played
the vital roles of soliciting industry feedback and providing guidance in the
development of competency-based WSH training frameworks.

In addition to the initiatives above, WSHAC also provided feedback and operational inputs to the Worker Safety
and Well-being Course which was introduced on 1 July 2007 for all new and existing workers in the construction
and marine sectors. Various industry sub-committees and CETSC were briefed on the progress of the program.
Issues relating to specific sectors were fed back to the relevant industry sub-committees for discussion and this
helped to ensure steps were taken to enhance the safety and health performance of the workers in the industry.

Raising Awareness in the Construction Industry
The WSHAC, in collaboration with MOM, organised a dialogue session to raise awareness of the changes
affecting the construction industry. Held on 28 March 2007, Mr Eugene Yong, Chairman of the Construction
Sub-Committee of the WSHAC, graced the event.

Information on the 10-year plan for the industry entitled Implementing WSH 2015 for the Construction Industry
was shared at the session. Modelled after the WSH 2015 Strategy, this plan aimed to help the construction
industry elevate WSH standards. Two key strategies of this plan pertain to competency and legislation.

In addition, WSHAC recommended the revised Worker Safety and Well-Being Test to the industry. The industry
was also introduced to new WSH Regulations and a revised Demerit Point Scheme, which aims to help monitor            Strategy
and guide the industry’s WSH performance. The event saw the participation of over 200 industry members.                  4
                                                                                                                    43
           Engagement for the Expansion of the Workplace Safety and Health Act

           In moving to expand the coverage of the WSH Act to six new sectors, extensive engagement was needed to increase
           WSH awareness amongst these sectors as well as to establish viable compliance assistance mechanisms in order to
           secure their participation. Taking the cue from OSHD’s initial meetings and policy consultations with the industry
           stakeholders, WSHAC organised a series of dialogue sessions with key stakeholders to seek feedback on their
           concerns and needs. This was followed by a series of Safety & Health Connect (SH Connect) sessions and Information
           Sharing Sessions (ISS). The SH Connect sessions were arranged with top-management members from amongst the
           key industry stakeholders to gain their buy-in whilst the ISS were intended to capture a larger audience in order to create
           more awareness of the impending coverage. WSHAC also worked closely with OSHD to publish educational materials
           such as basic guides, posters, flyers and pocket-size cards, in addition to the technical guidelines developed by OSHD.
           The engagement initiatives would culminate with the organisation of large scale industry-specific seminars just before
           the commencement of coverage for the new sectors on 1 March 2008.

           Cross-Industry Sharing of Experiences and Benchmarking of Standards
           Safe Community
           With the support from OSHD, WSHAC joined the National Safety Council of
           Singapore (NSCS) in setting up a working committee with the aim of initiating the                                                      A concept originally
           development of safe communities in Singapore. Formed in September 2007, the                                                            developed by the World
           committee which comprises members from Motorola, Central CDC,                                                                          Health Organisation, Safe
           grassroots organisations and strategic partners of NSCS aims to bring together                                                         Community is a community
           active participation from both public and private sectors.                                                                             where people live, work
                                                                                                                                                  and play safely and
           As a member of the working committee, WSHAC aligns the goals of a safe                                                                 healthily.
           community with the WSH 2015 Strategy and believes it would bring out WSH
           improvements in a more holistic manner.
           Speech by Dr Ng Eng Hen, Minister for Manpower at the
           Opening Ceremony of the 23rd Asia Pacific
           Occupational Safety and Health Organisation Seminar and Exhibition (APOSHO),
           31 October 2007, Suntec Convention Centre

            “Talk to safety experts and all will agree that for a workplace safety culture to root, safety consciousness and awareness must
            permeate throughout the community. It must start from the top but it must also reach the last worker, that weak link in the chain.
            Otherwise, accidents and deaths will still occur. Building a safety culture takes effort and persistence. We want to be a "Safe
            Singapore", where it becomes second nature and instinctive to adopt safe practices. I am therefore pleased to announce that
            the National Safety Council will be spearheading Singapore's efforts to be designated a "Safe Community" by the World Health
            Organisation's Collaborating Centre on Community Safety Promotion. Being designated a "Safe Community" signals a
            community's commitment and holistic approach to prevent injury and accidents. Currently, there are 127 "Safe Communities"
            across 20 countries with a similar number awaiting accreditation.


                                                                      I believe the vision of a "Safe Singapore" is an achievable one but what will it mean for Singaporeans? Let us look
                                                                      at the example of Wellington in New Zealand. Designated a safe community since last year, Wellington has
                                                                      implemented a broad -ranging programme targeting many areas such as home safety, traffic safety and
                                                                      occupational safety. For children aged 14 and below, Wellington put in place programmes to encourage the use of
                                                                      child restraints in cars and operates school patrols to provide safe road crossings near schools, among others. For
                                                                      youths aged 15 to 24, programmes focused on preventing violence, reducing alcohol and drug abuse. For adults,
                                                                      individuals are educated on how to identify and reduce risks at home, work and in sports. For senior citizens, the
                                                                      emphasis is on enhancing their accessibility, with even tai chi classes offered to improve mobility.




                Wellington's experience gives us an idea of how wide-ranging "Safe Community" initiatives can be and the benefits
                it will bring to the nation at large. To kick start the "Safe Community" initiative, the National Safety Council has
                formed a multi-agency working group - including my Ministry, the WSH Advisory Committee, the Land Transport
                Authority, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Education, the People's Association through the Central
                Singapore Community Development Council and Motorola Singapore. The working group will look into areas such
                as workplace safety, traffic safety, community safety and promoting corporate social responsibility. Pilot projects will
                be identified by early next year, with another three years expected for accreditation. I urge more organisations to join
                the National Safety Council and be part of this worthwhile effort."



            Study Visit to Korea – 19 to 20 November 2007
            In preparation for the formation of the WSH Council, the WSHAC embarked on a study mission to Korea to learn
            the developments of similar WSH organisations in developed nations. This visit served the dual purpose of
            allowing the WSHAC members to learn about what has worked overseas that may be adapted to the local
            context and to benchmark against international standards.
Strategy
            The study trip included visits to three organisations, namely the Ministry of Labour in Korea, Korea
   4        Occupational Safety and Health Agency and the Korean Industrial Safety Association. Key learning points from
       44
            the study trip would be taken into consideration for the planning of the new WSH Council.
     OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
      AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                 REPORT




                                          International Network and Collaborations

In 2007, the key highlights in the area of international and regional collaborations include the following:

    •    The adoption of the ASEAN Plan of Action for all ASEAN countries to develop their National
         Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Frameworks by 2012. This was discussed and drafted at the
         ASEAN Policy Dialogue held in Singapore in January 2007 and adopted formally at the ASEAN
         Occupational Safety and Health Network (ASEAN-OSHNET) Coordinating Board Meeting in April 2007

    •    Completion of World Health Organization (WHO) consultancy on development of Policy and Training
         Course on the Management of Chemicals in Cambodia

    •    Re-designation of OSHD as a WHO Collaborating Centre for Occupational Health in 2007

OSHD participated actively and engaged our overseas friends and contacts at various international and regional
conferences, meetings and training courses as well as during visits. The organisations included
ASEAN-OSHNET, WHO, International Labour Organization (ILO), International Association of Labour Inspection
(IALI), Industrial Accident Prevention Association (IAPA), International Commission on Occupational Health
(ICOH), European Agency for Safety and Health at Work and many others. Singapore hosted the 23rd
Asia-Pacific Occupational Safety and Health Organisation Conference in 2007. We continued to contribute to the
network of WSH information hosted by WHO and ILO as well as participated in various collaborative projects.

Looking Ahead
In 2008, we look forward to the development and implementation of National OSH Frameworks in ASEAN,
participation and strengthening of our relationships with our regional and international partners at key
conferences such as the IALI Conference in Adelaide, the World Congress on Occupational Safety and Health
in Korea and the Asian Conference on Occupational Health in Singapore. We will continue to provide training in
WSH to other countries in the region and contribute in our collaborative projects under the WHO Collaborating
Centres work plan for 2006–2010.


Collaborations in International Projects
World Health Organization

WHO Collaborating Centre Projects
OSHD was re-designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for Occupational Health in 2007. OSHD hosted a visit by
Dr Marilyn Fingerhut, Co-Coordinator, The Global Network of WHO Collaborating Centers in Occupational
Health, on 16 August 2007. She was updated on our projects under the three activity areas.




                                          Visit by Dr Marilyn Fingerhut, Co-Coordinator,
                             The Global Network of WHO Collaborating Centers in Occupational Health


                                                                                                                  Strategy

                                                                                                                      4
                                                                                                                 45
            WHO Consultancy on the Management of Chemicals, Cambodia
            – 13 to 17 August and 10 to 14 September 2007
            At the invitation of the WHO, OSHD undertook a consultative project on the management of chemicals in the
            Kingdom of Cambodia. The objective of the project was to assist Cambodia in reviewing its framework on chemical
            management and to build its capability in this area. The project was carried out in two phases and resulted in
            recommendations to Cambodia on the policies, strategies and legislation on the management of chemicals; a
            comprehensive guidebook on the management of chemicals; and a 4-day training workshop to train the trainers on
            chemical management. Topics covered included classification, labeling, risk assessment, storage, as well as the
            transport and disposal of chemicals. This project provided OSHD with unique opportunities for collaboration,
            learning and sharing with counterparts from another ASEAN country.




                                              Training of Trainers on Management of Chemicals


            WHO Meeting on Occupational Safety and Health, Kuala Lumpur – 12 to 14 November 2007
            In November 2005, the WHO introduced the Regional Framework for Action on Occupational Health: 2001-2010.
            A meeting was held in Kuala Lumpur in 2007 to review progress in implementing the Regional Framework for
            Action. Experts shared and facilitated discussions amongst member countries on the use of asbestos and related
            health problems and experiences in developing Basic Occupational Health Services. Recommended actions in the
            various areas were discussed. Countries represented were from the Western Pacific and South-East Asia Region.
            Two of our officers represented Singapore in the meeting and shared on the progress made by Singapore in WSH.




             Association of SouthEast Asian Nations
             ASEAN Policy Dialogue on National Occupational Safety and Health Frameworks,
             Singapore – 23 to 25 January 2007
             A Policy Dialogue on National OSH Frameworks was jointly organised by the Ministry and ASEAN-OSHNET.
             The participants were senior officials in WSH from the 10 ASEAN countries, China, Korea and Japan, experts
             from ILO and officials from the ASEAN-OSHNET and ASEAN Secretariat. The programme included the sharing
             of ILO's new Convention and Recommendation on the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and
Strategy     Health, as well as presentations by member countries on their National WSH programmes and profiles. A draft
             Plan of Action for ASEAN was developed to help member countries implement and strengthen their National
   4         OSH Frameworks. A list of projects was also identified for possible collaboration.
       46
   OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
    AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                               REPORT




8th Coordinating Board Meeting of the ASEAN-OSHNET, Brunei – 24 to 26 April 2007
At this meeting, the members endorsed the ASEAN Plan of Action on the National OSH Frameworks, including
the time frame for all countries to develop the profile and plan by 2012. A new programme area on National
OSH Frameworks was established with Vietnam taking the lead.

OSH Inspection Workshop, Cambodia – 25 to 29 June 2007
Under ASEAN-OSHNET, Singapore is responsible for leading in the programme area of OSH inspection. This
5-day training workshop for OSH inspectors was conducted under the Singapore Cooperation Programme of
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A similar workshop had been conducted in Lao PDR in November 2006.
Following a request from the OSH Department, Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MOLVT),
Cambodia, the workshop was conducted at the Singapore Cambodia Training Centre in Phnom Penh by two
of our inspectors. There were 37 participants comprising OSH and Labour inspectors from the MOLVT, union
representatives, employers' federation, and officials from other government agencies. The course was well
received and given wide media coverage in Cambodia.




Occupational Dermatology Project, Indonesia - June to August 2007
Training of the dermatologists and doctors for the 5th Occupational Dermatology Training Course was
conducted in June 2007. This marked the completion of the two-year project involving the Singapore
International Foundation (SIF), National University of Singapore (NUS), National Skin Centre (NSC) and
Rumah Sakit Saiful Anwar, a hospital in Malang, Indonesia. The project aimed to help develop clinical skills,
improve diagnostic skills in the management of occupational skin diseases and help in the development of
occupational and environmental dermatology services of the hospital. The team from SIF was able to impart
the necessary knowledge and skills to the dermatologist and doctors to manage occupational dermatology
cases as evidenced by the establishment of an occupational dermatology clinic. Training in Occupational
Dermatology was included in the medical course syllabus. An official closing ceremony for the project was held
in August 2007, in conjunction with the Annual Scientific Meeting for dermatologists in Indonesia. The theme
of the conference was on Occupational Dermatology and participating experts from NUS, NSC and MOM
                                                                                                                  Strategy
presented papers on this topic at the conference.
                                                                                                                      4
                                                                                                                 47
            International Conferences & Study Trips
            23rd Asia Pacific Occupational Safety & Health Organisation Conference
            – 31 October to 2 November 2007

            The 23rd annual conference of the Asia Pacific Occupational Safety & Health Organisation (APOSHO) and
            exhibition was held in Singapore from 31 October to 2 November 2007 with the theme: Working Together to Raise
            OSH Awareness. Organised by the NSCS, it was attended by 240 participants from 20 countries. The Guest of
            Honour was Dr Ng Eng Hen, the Minister for Manpower and Second Minister for Defense. Our Divisional Director,
            Mr Ho Siong Hin, presented a paper on Promoting the Benefits of WSH and Recognising Best Practices. OSHD
            sent 15 officers to participate and it was a good opportunity to engage with key representatives from ASEAN, IAPA,
            KOSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Council (Hong Kong), National Examination Board in Occupational Safety
            and Health (UK) and the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (UK).

            ILO’s Conference on Making Decent Work a Global Goal and a National Reality and the International
            Congress for Occupational Safety and Health (A+A) and Exhibition, Germany – 18 to 21 September 2007
            and Visit to the European Agency of Safety and Health at Work, Bilbao – 22 September 2007

            A five member delegation from OSHD led by our Divisional Director attended the two conferences and exhibition
            from 18 to 21 September 2007. The ILO’s conference on Making Decent Work a Global Goal and a National Reality
            brought together practitioners, consultants and regulators from various countries and OSHD was able to network
            with some members of our International Advisory Panel, ILO, WHO, IALI, ICOH and ASEAN delegates. Mr Ho
            Siong Hin presented a paper on Incentives for Safety and Health Management for Small and Medium Enterprises
            in Singapore. An inspector training workshop was also organised by ILO and IALI in conjunction with the
            conference. Mr Ho Siong Hin again shared on Singapore’s training systems for inspectors by OSHD, as well as
            Singapore’s participation in training inspectors in Cambodia and Laos under in the activities of ASEAN-OSHNET.




                Members of ASEAN OSHNET at the ILO Conference




                                                                                         Meeting with Mr Jukka Takala (IAP Member)




                                                                       The delegation met with Dr Jukka Takala and his team
                                                                       from the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
                                                                       on 22 September 2007 and learnt about their
                                                                       organisational     structure,     functions,    EU-wide
                                                                       programmes and campaigns, and the European Risk
                                                                       Observatory. The OSHD team shared our Risk
                                                                       Assessment Campaign and our database of good safety
                                                                       and health practices. Useful contacts were established
                                                                       for further exchange of information and collaboration.
Strategy

   4
               Presentation by Mr Ho Siong Hin at the ILO Conference
       48
           OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
            AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                       REPORT



                                                            Industrial Accident Prevention Association and International
                                                            Association of Labour Inspection Conferences,
                                                            Canada – 16 to 20 April 2007
                                                            OSHD sent a delegation of four officers led by the Divisional
                                                            Director to attend the IAPA and IALI conferences in Toronto,
                                                            Canada, from 16 to 20 April 2007. The delegation took the
                                                            opportunity to meet with various representatives from key
                                                            government agencies and industry associations. The conferences
                                                            provided the delegation with strategies for linking insurance to
                                                            accident prevention, addressing the under-reporting of incidents, as
                                                            well as managing safety and health in the health care industry and
                                                            best practices in WSH. The conferences also provided excellent
                                                            networking opportunities with the Ministry of Labour (Canada),
                                                            Canadian Centre for Occupational Safety and Health (CCOHS),
                                                            Ontario Safety Association for Community & Healthcare (OSACH)
                   Visit to EU-OSHA Office                  and IAPA, paving the way for future engagement and exchange.




   Presentation by Mr Ho Siong Hin at the IALI Conference              OSHD’s delegation at the IAPA and IALI conferences



First European Forum on Effective Solution for Managing Occupational Noise Risk,
France – 3 to 5 July 2007
Two officers from OSHD attended the forum organized by the Institute of Noise Control Engineering of
Europe (INCE/Europe), the French Information Centre on Noise (CIDB), and the Organization for Prevention
and Control of Industrial and Professional Risks (Association AINF). The forum aims to improve the
dissemination of information and knowledge in all sectors where occupational noise is an issue, and bring
solution providers and potential users closer together. The forum enabled our officers to gain a better
understanding of the regulatory requirements and noise programmes in different countries. It highlighted
various issues pertaining to the difficulties faced in controlling noise. This was relevant to the planning and
preparation of the nationwide Noise Induced Deafness Prevention Programme for Singapore. The forum also
provided an excellent platform for networking and interacting with counterparts from various government
agencies and professionals in the acoustics industry.


2nd Conference of Asian Occupational Safety and
Health Research Institutes,
Korea – 20 to 22 November 2007
On the invitation by Korea Occupational Safety and Health
Agency (KOSHA), OSHD presented a paper entitled
Establishing New OSH Framework and Risk Management
in Singapore at the Conference of Asian Occupational
Safety and Health Research Institutes which was attended
by 33 professionals of 17 institutes from 10 countries.

                                                                                                                               Strategy

                                                                                                                                   4
                                                                                                                             49
            American Industrial Hygiene Conference & Exposition 2007,
            United States of America – 2 to 7 June 2007
            Two officers from OSHD attended the American Industrial Hygiene Conference & Exposition (AIHce) 2007,
            which was held in Philadelphia, USA. The annual conference was jointly organised by the American
            Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
            (ACGIH®). AIHce provided a forum for industrial hygiene and OSH professionals to meet and share ideas
            on the latest technical information as well as a wide range of topics including nanomaterials and microbial
            control. The pre-conference professional development training has enhanced their capability for OSH risk
            management and effective implementation of OSH management systems, particularly in the healthcare
            sector. A wide range of OSH products and services were displayed at the exposition, including the latest
            equipment for noise and ultra-fine particles monitoring.

            45th Annual Meeting of International Occupational Safety and Health
            Information Centre National, Collaborating and Regional Centres
            The meeting on 20 September 2007 was attended by delegates from 29 National Centres, five Collaborating
            Centres and two Regional Centres. The Head of International Occupational Safety and Health Information
            Centre (ILO-CIS) referred to the theme of the previous annual Meeting, The Global Strategy on Occupational
            Safety and Health, and the recent adoption of Convention 187 concerning the Promotional Framework for
            Occupational Safety and Health by the International Labour Conference (ILC). From CIS’ point of view, this
            Convention is the most important safety and health convention of the ILO in recent years, as it expresses a
            commitment to information activities as part of the Organization’s overall strategy in the field. This is a
            positive acknowledgement for the CIS whose duty is to provide reliable and easily accessible information.
            The ILO-CIS also shared that it would be revising the ILO Encyclopedia of Occupational Safety and Health,
            as some chapters were obsolete. All CIS Centres were encouraged to contribute to the review process by
            providing suggestions and comments on the contents and presentation format of the encyclopedia.

            11 CIS Centre representatives shared on the achievements and progress made in the past year. OSHD
            shared on Singapore’s WSH framework and screened a multimedia presentation on the National Workplace
            Safety and Health Campaign 2007. Participants of the meeting were impressed by the wide range of
            outreach activities organised in Singapore to raise the awareness of the importance of WSH.

            Visit to Department of Occupational Safety and Health and National Institute of Occupational Safety
            and Health, Malaysia – 23 to 25 July 2007
            A seven-member delegation visited the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) and National
            Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Malaysia to reciprocate a visit made by the Malaysian
            counterparts in 2006 and gain updates on the latest WSH developments in Malaysia. DOSH is OSHD's direct
            counterpart in Malaysia whilst NIOSH is a company within the Ministry of Human Resources, which
            administers training and consultation services, disseminates information and conducts research in the field of
            occupational safety and health. The delegation also visited the Perodua Manufacturing Sdn Bhd, a car
            manufacturing plant, which is Malaysia's second automobile manufacturer after Proton. The trip provided
            valuable insights on Malaysia’s WSH agencies and their latest initiatives. It also helped to renew ties and
            foster rapport at senior management level between OSHD and our counterparts in Malaysia.

            Study Trip and Attachment to the Health and Safety Executives,
            United Kingdom, 10 – 21 September 2006
            Mr Philip Koh (Group Head, Surveillance Branch), Mr Marken Ang (Group Head, Field
            Operations), Mr Winson Lee (Manager, Planning & Development) and Mr Ong Swee
            Peng (Senior Investigating Officer) formed a 4-member attaché to the Health and
            Safety Executive (HSE) in the United Kingdom (UK) for a 2-week study trip and techni-
            cal attachment. Our officers also visited the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) to
            observe their specialist facilities and capabilities.
            The study trip gave the attaché insights into the HSE's operational expertise and
            experience on managing workplace safety and health, in particular, aspects pertaining
            to the conduct of risk assessment inspections, accident investigations and complaints
            management. The technical attachment also enabled our officers to observe how
            HSE Inspectors engaged the stakeholders, conduct systemic Workplace Safety and
            Health (WSH) inspections and discharge their regulatory roles and responsibilities
Strategy    The study trip and attachment provided an excellent networking platform to strengthen
   4        OSHD’s network of contacts with the HSE and also to pave the way for future engage-
            ment and collaboration.
       50
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
 AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                            REPORT




                                      Strategy

                                          4
                                     51
Strategy

   4
       52
                       OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                        AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                   REPORT


                                                                  2007 Reports



                Achievements of Strategic Outcomes

                                                                          2007             WSH 2015 TARGET

                  Strategy Outcome 1 - Reduction in workplace fatality and injury rates

                • Reduction in Workplace Fatality Rate                     2.9                 2.5

                • Reduction in Workplace Injury Rate                       460                 415

                • Reduction in Occupational Disease Incidence              27.7                24.8

                  Strategy Outcome 2 - WSH is an integral part of business

                • Percentage of Workplace Inspected that                   79%                  100%
                  have implemented Risk Management

                  Strategy Outcome 3 - Singapore is renowned as a Centre of Excellence for WSH

                • Percentage of workforce received training                26%                  40%
                  in WSH

                • Percentage of WSH Professional to                        0.6%                 1.2%
                  Employment level




                Safety Report
                Overview

                10,018 workplace injuries1 (including fatalities) were reported in 2007, an 8.2% rise over the previous year
                (Table 1). This was primarily contributed by a jump in less severe injuries (involving temporary disablements).
                Workplace fatalities went up slightly from 62 deaths in 2006 to 63 in 2007. Permanent disablements recorded a
                3% drop as compared to the same period last year.

                On the back of strong employment gains in 20072 , both fatal and non-fatal workplace injury rates were lower as
                compared to 2006 (Table 2). The workplace fatality rate stood at 2.9 deaths per 100,000 employed persons in
                2007, showing good progress towards achieving the Ministry’s target to halve workplace fatality rate from 4.9 in
                2004 to 2.5 by 2015.



                                       Table 1: Number of Workplace Injuries, 2006 and 2007

                                                                                                       2007                   2006

                            Overall Workplace Injuries                                                 10,018                 9,261

                              Fatal                                                                      63                     62

                              Perm anent Disa blement                                                   163                    168

                              Temporary Disablement                                                    9,792                  9,031

                        1 A workplace    injury is any personal injury, disease (acute) or death resulting from a workplace accident.
                        2   Ministry of Manpower (2007): Labour Market 2007
Information
 & Statistics


         53
                    Table 2: Workplace Injury Rate, 2006 and 2007
                                                                   Per 100, 000 employed persons

                                                                           2007               2006

    Overall Workplace Injury Rate3                                          460               469

      Fatal                                                                 2.9               3.1

      Perm anent Disa blement                                               7.5               8.5

      Temporary Disablement                                                 450               458




    The Accident Frequency Rate4 (AFR) measures how often workplace accidents take place.
    For every million man-hours worked in 2007, 1.9 accidents happened at work, same as the
    year before (Table 3). There was an overall improvement in Accident Severity Rate5 (ASR) in
    2007, where for every million man-hours worked, only 116 man-days were lost due to the
    occurrence of workplace accidents as compared to 125 in 2006 (Table 4).


                    Table 3: Accident Frequency Rate, 2006 and 2007
                                                                     Per million man-hours worked

                                                                              2007             2006

All Sectors                                                                    1.9              1.9

Construction                                                                   3.0              3.5
Manufacturing (excluding SSR)                                                  2.6              2.6

Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (SSR)                                             1.3              2.2

6 New Sectors under WSHA                                                       1.7              1.7

Other Sectors                                                                  1.3              1.1



                    Table 4: Accident Severity Rate, 2006 and 2007
                                                                     Per million man-hours worked

                                                                              2007             2006

    All Sectors                                                               116              125
    Construction                                                              257              272

    Manufacturing (excluding SSR)                                             148               93

    Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (SSR)                                        180              257

    6 New Sectors under WSHA                                                   55              109

    Other Sectors                                                              60               72


3   Workplace Injury Rate = No. of Fatal and Non-Fatal Workplace Injuries x 100, 000
                            No. of Employed Persons
4Accident     Frequency Rate (AFR) = No. of Workplace Accidents Reported x 1,000, 000
                                    No. of Man-hours Worked

5Accident     Severity Rate (ASR) = No. of Mandays Lost To Workplace Accidents x 1,000, 000
                                                                                                      Information
                                    No. of Man-hours Worked                                            & Statistics


                                                                                                      54
                        OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                         AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                    REPORT




            Fatal Workplace Injuries
            By Industry
            Construction continued to post the highest number of workplace fatalities in 2007, accounting for 24 of the 63 deaths
            at work (Chart 1). Nevertheless, the number has remained the same as last year, even though work activities in
            Construction6 has picked up substantially in 2007. In terms of the fatality rate, there was an improvement in 2007 as
            compared to 2006 (Chart 2).

            Standing in 2nd place was Manufacturing which saw more than a two-fold increase in workplace fatalities, from 7
            deaths in 2006 to 16 in 2007 (Chart 1). Due to the significant increase in workplace deaths, Manufacturing was the
            only sector which saw a deterioration in the fatality rate in 2007. The sector now posted a fatality rate at 3.7 deaths per
            100,000 employed persons, exceeding the national average (Chart 2).

            Shipbuilding & Ship Repair had fewer workplace fatalities in 2007 (Chart 1). Although the sector was ranked 2nd
            highest in terms of fatality rate (next to Construction), it saw an improvement in 2006 as compared to the year before
            (Chart 2).

            For the 6 new sectors covered under WSH Act, 2 deaths were reported in 2007 as compared to 6 in 2006 (Chart 1).
            Other Sectors saw a marked reduction in workplace fatalities by one-fifth, from 15 deaths in 2006 to 12 in 2007. Corre-
            spondingly, the rate was also lower than the previous year.




                                Chart 1: Number of Workplace Fatalities by Industry, 2006 and 2007

                  2006

                  2007




                               62         63

                                                   24        24
                                                                   10       9                16                  2     15        12
                                                                                     7                 6
                              All Sectors         Construction    Shipbuilding     Manufacturing        6 New              Other
                                                                  & Ship Repair                      Sectors under        Sectors
                                                                                                        WSHA




                6Accordingto the data compiled by Building and Construction Authority (BCA), the payment of progress certified (which measures
                the amount of work completed) went up by 29%, from $12.9 billion in 2006 to $16.7 billion in 2007.



Information
 & Statistics


         55
                  Chart 2: Workplace Fatality Rates7 by Industry, 2006 and 2007




              2006

              2007



                                                      9.8        6.9

                                       9.4   8.1
                 3.1       2.9
                                                                       1.7      3.7       2.7
                                                                                                   0.8     1.5       1.1
                All Sectors         Construction      Shipbuilding     Manufacturing        6 New               Other
                                                      & Ship Repair                      Sectors under         Sectors
                                                                                            WSHA


By Type of Accident

Fall from heights and struck by falling objects continued to be the top 2 accident types in 2007, accounting for more
than one-third (37%) and around one-fifth (19%) of total workplace fatalities respectively (Table 5). As compared to
2006, there was a significant increase in workplace fatalities resulting from drowning (3 deaths), fires (5 deaths) and
exposure to/contact with harmful substances (4 deaths) in 2007.




       Table 5: Number of Workplace Fatalities by Type of Accident, 2006 and 2007
                                   Type of Accident                                      2007                      2006

     Total                                                                                63                         62

           Fall from heights                                                              23                         24

           Struck by falling objects                                                      12                         13

           Fires and Explosions8                                                           5                         3

           Caught in or between objects                                                    5                         7

           Drowning                                                                        3                         0

           Stepping on, striking against or struck by objects9                             5                         6

           Exposure/Contact with harmful substances                                        4                         1

           Electrocution                                                                   2                         1

           Exposure to heat                                                                1                         0

           Slipping and tripping                                                           2                         1

           Accident Type Not Elsewhere Classified                                          1                         6


    7The workplace fatality rate was computed using the 2007 employment statistics compiled by the Manpower Research
     and Statistics Department, Ministry of Manpower.
    8All
       fatalities reported in 2007 had occurred as a result of fire.
    9Thisexcludes struck by falling objects. All fatalities reported in 2006 and 2007 had occurred as a result of being struck by
     moving objects.


                                                                                                                                    Information
                                                                                                                                     & Statistics


                                                                                                                                    56
                            OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                             AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                        REPORT


                By Agency of Accident10
                The top few agencies contributing to the occurrence of fatal workplace accidents in 2007 were (Table 6):
                • Floors and level surfaces (11 fatalities)
                • Explosive/Flammable Substances (7 fatalities)
                • Lifting Appliance/Gear (5 fatalities)
                • Scaffolding and Staging (4 fatalities)
                • Metal Items (4 fatalities)
                • Cranes (4 fatalities)
                • Prime-movers (4 fatalities)
                • Lorries and Trucks (4 fatalities)

                Accidents associated with floors and level surfaces typically involved victims falling into floor openings or from locations
                which are not barricaded (i.e. open sides) and saw a two-fold increase in fatalities over 2006.


                                         Table 6: Number of Workplace Fatalities by Type of Accident Agency,
                                                                   2006 and 2007

                                                           Agency of Accident                                              2007                  2006

                            Total                                                                                            63                    62

                            Working Environment                                                                              21                    18

                              Floors / Level Surfaces                                                                        11                    4
                              Scaffolding and Staging                                                                         4                    9
                              Roofs and False Ceilings                                                                        3                    2

                              Others (i.e. ladders and stairs/steps)                                                          3                    3

                            Materials and Substances                                                                         14                    4

                              Explosive / Flammable Substances                                                                7                    1

                              Metal Items                                                                                     4                     -
                              Poisonous Substances                                                                            2                     -

                              Other Material & Substances (i.e. wooden, ceramic and glass items)                              1                    3

                            Lifting Equipment                                                                                11                    12

                              Lifting Appliance/Gear                                                                          5                    1

                              Cranes                                                                                          4                    8

                              Lifts & Elevators                                                                               2                     -

                            Machines                                                                                          6                    3

                              Prime-movers                                                                                    4                     -

                              Other Machines (i.e. specific to metalworking & construction industry)                          2                    3

                            Transport Equipment (including vehicles)                                                          6                    17

                              Lorries/Trucks                                                                                  4                    2

                              Forklift                                                                                        1                    9

                              Other Transport Equipment                                                                       1                    6

                            Working Equipment (i.e. welding and electrical equipment)                                         2                    2

                            Accident Agencies Not Elsewhere Classified                                                        3                    6




Information            10
 & Statistics               The agency of accident refers to any object, substance or part of working environment that leads to the occurrence of a particular type of
                            accident, owing to its hazardous nature or condition.

         57
Permanent Disablements
Permanent disablements refer to workplace injuries that do not result in death but are more severe in nature, involving
the complete loss or the loss of use of any member (or part of a member) of the injured victim’s body. Examples include
the amputation of an arm, a finger or the bone of a finger (also known as a phalange). In 2007, 163 persons suffered
from permanent disablements arising from work, down from 168 a year ago. 9 in 10 of these cases involved amputa-
tions (91%), with the rest associated with multiple injuries.

By Industry

Majority of the permanent disablements came from Manufacturing, making up a share of 44% in 2007, down from 49%
in the year before (Chart 3). These were primarily industries involved in metalworking, the manufacture of food prod-
ucts as well as furniture (Table 7). Both Construction and Ship building & Ship Repair saw more victims who were
permanently disabled in 2007, but the former recorded a more significant increase (from 27 permanent disablements
in 2006 to 35 in 2007).

For the 6 new sectors covered under WSHA, the number of permanent disablements went down from 8 in 2006
to 7 in 2007. Hotels and Restaurants, which used to contribute to the majority of cases in this sector
(i.e. 5 disablements in 2006), now only accounted for 2 cases in 2007 (Table 7).

Warehousing & Supporting Activities (excluding Services Allied To Transport) was the top contributor of
permanent disablements in Other Sectors (Table 7).




              Chart 3: Number of Permanent Disablements by Industry, 2006 and 2007


           2006

           2007




                      168      163


                                                                     82
                                                                             72

                                      27      35
                                                            18                                      35    31
                                                     16
                                                                                     8       7
                      All Sectors    Construction   Shipbuilding    Manufacturing      6 New          Other
                                                    & Ship Repair                   Sectors under    Sectors
                                                                                       WSHA


On the back of a larger employed pool and fewer permanent disablements reported in 2007, the overall permanent
disablement rate was lower as compared to 2006 (Table 8).




                                                                                                                          Information
                                                                                                                           & Statistics


                                                                                                                      58
                     OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                      AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                 REPORT



                         Table 7: Number of Permanent Disablements in Selected Industries, 2007

                                                                                                       No. of Permanent
                                                           Industry                                   Disablements in 2007

                              All Sectors                                                                     163

                              Construction                                                                    35

                              Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (SSR)                                              18

                              Manufacturing (excluding SSR)                                                   72

                                  Metalworking                                                                30

                                  Manufacture of Food Products                                                11

                                  Manufacture of Non-metallic Mineral Products                                 5

                                  Manufacture of Furniture                                                     7

                              6 New Sectors Under WSHA                                                         7

                                  Water Supply, Sewerage & Waste Management                                    3
                                  Hotels and Restaurants                                                       2

                                  Services Allied To Transport of Goods                                        1

                                  Health Activities                                                            -

                                  Landscape Care & Maintenance Service Activities                              1

                                  Veterinary Activities                                                        -

                              Other Sectors                                                                   31

                                  Warehousing & Support Activities                                             6

                                  Wholesale & Retail Trade                                                     3



                                 Table 8: Permanent Disablement Rate by Industry, 2006 and 2007
                                                                                                 Per 100, 000 employed persons

                                                                                                    2007              2006

                             All Sectors                                                             7.5               8.5

                             Construction                                                           11.8              10.6

                             Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (SSR)                                     13.7              15.6

                             Manufacturing (excluding SSR)                                          16.5              19.8

                             6 New Sectors Under WSHA                                                2.8               3.6

                             Other Sectors                                                           2.9               3.6



            By Type of Accident

            The type of accident that contributes most to Permanent disablements is caught in or between objects. Such accidents
            alone accounted for around half (51%) of total permanent disablements in both 2006 and 2007 (Table 9). In 2007,
            around one-third (36%) had arisen from situations where the victims accidentally stepped on objects, struck against
            stationary/moving objects11 or were struck by moving/sharp objects. Some 10% of the victims sustained permanent
            injuries after being struck by falling objects, down from 15% a year ago.




Information         11   This includes flying fragments/particles but excludes falling objects
 & Statistics


         59
 Table 9: Number of Permanent Disablements by Type of Accident, 2006 and 2007

                                    Type of Accident                                   2007                  2006


               Total                                                                   163                    168

                  Caught in or between objects                                          83                     85

                  Stepping on, striking against or struck by objects                    59                     51

                  Struck by falling objects                                             17                     26

                  Accident Types Not Elsewhere Classified                               4                      6


By Agency of Accident

The top 5 accident agencies resulting in permanent disablements were broadly the same in 2006 and 2007 (Table
10). These agencies accounted for around four-fifths (80%) of total permanent disablements in 2007, a smaller
share as compared to previous year’s 90%.

Among the accident agencies, machines made up the largest share, contributing to 42% of total permanent
disablements. Ranked in the distant 2nd position was metal items, which caused fewer victims to be permanently
disabled in 2007 as compared to 2006. Transport equipment saw a reduction in the number of permanent
disablements, primarily due to a drastic fall in the number of cases associated with forklifts.

       Table 10: Top 5 Accident Agencies Leading To Permanent Disablements,
                                   2006 and 2007

                                    Agency of Accident                                 2007                 2006


                Top 5 Accident Agencies                                                 131                  151

                  Machines                                                              68                    79

                  Metal Items                                                           23                    31

                  Lifting Equipment                                                     16                    16

                  Transport Equipment (including vehicles)                              13                    15

                  Electrical Equipment 12                                               11                    10


By Body Part Injured

More than 9 in 10 permanent disablements (94%) reported in 2007 involved the upper limb, predominantly hands
(including fingers) (Table 11). Around 5.5% of the victims sustained permanent injuries localized to the lower limb,
down from 7.7% as compared to a year ago.
              Table 11: Number of Permanent Disablements by Body Part Injured,
                                       2006 and 2007
                              Body Part Injured                                 2007                        2006

               Total                                                            163                          168

               Upper Limb                                                       154                          155

               Hands (including fingers)                                        150                          149

               Shoulder / Arm                                                     4                           1

               Multiple Locations                                                 -                           5

               Lower Limb                                                         9                          13

               Foot (including toes)                                              6                           8

               Leg (including ankle)                                              3                           2

                                                                                  -                           3                     Information
               Multiple Locations                                                                                                    & Statistics

      12   Electrical equipment includes electrical installations such as rotating motors, conductors and transformers as well as
                                                                                                                                    60
           electrical hand tools such as grinders, drills, saws etc.
                        OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                         AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                    REPORT




                Temporary Disablements
                Temporary disablements are often accorded lesser attention as they do not appear to be as incapacitating as fatal
                injuries or permanent disablements. Nevertheless, it should be noted that every accident has the potential of
                producing serious outcomes. At this level, unsafe acts at work, unsafe practices and systems observed must be
                addressed to prevent similar occurrences which may lead to more severe consequences.

                There were 9,792 temporary disablements in 2007, making up 98% of total workplace injuries. As compared to a
                year ago where there were 9,031 victims sustaining temporary injuries, the number has gone up by 8.4%, (Table 1).
                Temporary disablements could be further classified, based on the degree of severity. They include work injuries
                resulting in :

                • 4 to less than 7 days of medical leave
                • 7 to less than 14 days of medical leave
                • 14 to less than 21 days of medical leave
                • At least 21 days of medical leave
                • At least 24 hours of hospitalization care, even though less than 4 days of medical leave was given

                Chart 4 shows the distribution of temporary disablements based on the degree of severity. Close to half of the
                temporary disablements (47%) in 2007 were minor work injuries that resulted in medical leave of between 4 and 14
                days while less than one-fifth (17%) involved 14 to 21 days of medical leave. Both recorded a marginal dip in 2007,
                as compared to 2006. Around 3 in 10 of the temporary disablements were more severe in nature, bringing about at
                least 21 days of medical leave while 6.4% resulted in hospitalization in 2007.




                          Chart 4: Distribution of Temporary Disablements by Degree of Severity,
                                                       2006 and 2007



                      2006

                      2007



                                                                                      29.1   29.8

                                                   26.4
                                                             25.9
                  Percent       22.0      21.3

                                                                    18.4
                                                                            16.5


                                                                                                      4.2      6.4

                                 4 to less than    7 to less than   14 to less than    21 days or    Hospitalisation
                                     7 days           14 days           21 days          more       of at least 24 hrs

                By Industry

                More than 3 out of 10 temporary work injuries (32%) were from Other Sectors, up from previous year’s 28%
                (Table 11). Following next was Manufacturing (29%), which saw a marginal dip of 0.7 percentage-point in 2007.
                Similarly, Construction and Shipbuilding & Ship Repair recorded a 1-2% decline in their share of temporary
                disablements in 2007. The 6 new sectors under WSH Act contributed to a combined share of 9.7% in 2007, a slight
                increase as compared to the year before (9.4%).

Information
 & Statistics


         61
  Table 12: Distribution of Temporary Disablements by Industry, 2006 and 2007
                                                                                                     Per Cent

                                Industry                        2007                         2006


    All Sectors                                                 100.0                        100.0

    Construction                                                 24.5                         26.2

    Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (SSR)                           4.7                          6.8

    Manufacturing (excluding SSR)                                28 .7                        29.4

      Metalworking                                               13.2                         13.3

      Manufacture of Food Products                               3.2                          3.6

      Manufacture of Electronic Products & Components            2.2                          2.3

    6 New Sectors Under WSHA                                     9.7                          9.4

      Water Supply, Sewerage & Waste Management                  0.4                          0.6

      Hotels and Restaurants                                     7.1                          6.3

      Services Allied To Transport of Goods                      0.5                          0.7

      Health Activities                                          1.6                          1.6

      Landscape Care & Maintenance Service Activities            0.1                          0.1

      Veterinary Activities                                    Negligible                   Negligible

    Other Sectors                                                32.3                         28.2

      Wholesale & Retail Trade                                   4.3                          3.9

      Transport and    Storage 13                                5.5                          5.8

      Community, Social & Personal Services                      5.8                          4.2




              Table 13: Temporary Disablement Rate by Industry, 2006 and 2007
                                                                                  Per 100,000 employed persons

                                                                         2007                2006

             All Sectors                                                    450              458

             Construction                                                   811              925

             Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (SSR)                             353              597

             Manufacturing (excluding SSR)                                  645              641

             6 New Sectors Under WSHA                                       382              377

              Other Sectors                                                 297              261


By Type of Accident

The top 5 accident types contributing to temporary disablements were the same for 2006 and 2007 (Chart 5).
Together, they accounted for around three-quarters (76%) of total temporary disablements in 2007.
Temporary injuries associated with stepping on, striking against or struck by objects posted a marginal dip in 2007
while all other accident types marked an increase as compared to the previous year.




                                                                                                                      Information
                                                                                                                       & Statistics
13 This   excludes services allied to transport of goods

                                                                                                                      62
                        OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                         AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                    REPORT




                         Chart 5: Top 5 Accident Types Leading To Temporary Disablements,
                                                   2006 and 2007
                               Percent


                              2006

                              2007




                                           26.5    24.9                            14.1            13.1
                                                                    12.9                   12.6
                                                           12.2             12.2
                                                                                                          11.0      11.2




                                         Stepping on,       Struck by       Caught in or    Fall from     Slipping and
                                       striking against   falling objects    between         heights        Tripping
                                     or struck by objects                     objects
                By Agency of Accident

                Around two-thirds of the temporary disablements reported (65%) in 2007 involved the accident agencies listed in
                (Table 13). Floors and level surfaces which topped the list as the most common accident agency, was closely
                related to the issue of slips and trips. The lack of proper housekeeping is one of the factors leading to hazardous
                site conditions which increase one’s likelihood of getting injured at work.


                       Table 14: Top 10 Accident Agencies Leading To Temporary Disablements,
                                                    2006 and 2007
                                                                                                                           Per Cent

                                                  Agency of Accident                        2007             2006

                              Top 10 Accident Agencies

                              Floors and level surfaces                                     14.5                 13.2

                              Metal Items                                                   12.0                 12.1

                              Machines                                                      11.7                 10.3

                              Hand Tools                                                    6.8                  5.8

                              Transport Equipment (including vehicles)                      5.5                  5.2

                              Lifting Equipment                                             3.7                  3.7

                              Ladders and Mobile Ramps                                      3.1                  3.2

                              Electrical Equipment 14                                       3.0                  3.0

                              Stairs and Steps                                              2.6                  2.1

                              Scaffolding and Staging                                       2.4                  2.9

                         14   See Footnote 12




Information
 & Statistics


         63
Health Report
The occupational health situation in Singapore continues to be satisfactory, with 602 cases
of occupational disease confirmed in 2007, a reduction from 657 cases in 2006. The
success of the measures to ensure the health of our employees has been possible
because of the strong support from employers, unions and other partners for our various
enforcement and promotional programmes.

Occupational diseases

Notification of occupational diseases by doctors and employers is required under the
Workplace Safety and Health (Incident Reporting) Regulations. There are 31 notifiable
diseases (Annex D Table 1). To facilitate such notifications, OSHD partnered the National
Healthcare Group and SingHealth to provide joint specialist clinics in various hospitals and
polyclinics. All notifications are investigated to confirm the work-relatedness of the cases,
as well as to identify any other employees who may be similarly affected. Appropriate
control measures are then recommended to the industry, company and employees
concerned.

The occupational disease incidence in 2007 was 27.7 per 100,000 employed persons, a
reduction from 33.3 in 2006. The highest incidence was from the Manufacturing sector,
with 82.4 cases per 100,000 employed persons. This was followed by the Shipbuilding and
Ship Repair (25.2 cases per 100,000 employed persons), and the Construction sectors
(15.2 cases per 100,000 employed persons).

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES BY INDUSTRY, 2007

                                     No of                  OD
                Industry             Cases               Incidence
   Total                                 602              27.7
   Construction                          45               15.2
   Shipbuilding & Ship
                                         33               25.2
   Repair (SSR)
   Manufacturing
                                         359              82.4
   (excluding SSR)

   6 New Sectors Under
                                         39               15.7
   WSHA

   Other Sectors                         126              11.8




                                                              490, 81.4%
                                                                           OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES, 2007

                                                                               Noise Induced Deafness

                                                                               Occupational Skin Diseases

                                                                               Work-related Muscubskeletal Disorder

                                                                               Barotrauma

3, 0.5%                                                                        Excessive Absorption of Chemicals

                                                                               Occupational Lung Diseases
2, 0.3%                                       59, 9.8%
                                                                               Compressed Air Illness                 Information
  3, 0.5%                     25, 4.2%                                                                                 & Statistics
                   17, 2.8%                                                    Others
      3, 0.5%
                                                                                                                      64
                     OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                      AND HEALTH DIVISION       2007 ANNUAL
                                                     REPORT




                Noise Induced Deafness
                Noise-induced deafness (NID) continued to be the leading occupational disease in 2007,
                with 490 cases, or 81.4% of all confirmed occupational disease cases. Most of the NID
                cases were in the early stages of the disease. Only five employees (1.0%) had severe
                hearing loss requiring compensation under the Workmen’s Compensation Act. The major-
                ity of the NID cases (64%) were from the manufacturing sector.



                                                              Noise Induced Deafness

                                                 800
                                 No. of cases




                                                 600


                                                 400


                                                 200


                                                  0

                                                       1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
                             Total NID Cases           674    659   366   359    339   300   251    391    535     490
                             NID Advanced               11    13    12    14     16    6      4      7      8       5
                             NID Early                 663    646   354   345    323   294   247    384    527     485
                                                                                Year




                 NOISE INDUCED DEAFNESS BY INDUSTRY, 2007

                                                                                                          No of Cases
                   Industry                                                                                Confirmed

                   All Sectors                                                                                    490
                   Construction                                                                                   17

                   Shipbuilding & Ship Repair (SSR)                                                               30

                   Manufacturing (excluding SSR)                                                                  314

                   6 New Sectors Under WSHA---------------------------------------------------------              25
                   • Water Supply, Sewerage & Water Management-------------------------------                     16
                   • Hotels and Restaurants---------------------------------------------------------------        -
                   • Services Allied to Transport of Goods---------------------------------------------           9
                   • Health Activities-------------------------------------------------------------------------   -
                   • Landscape Care & Maintenance Service Activites-----------------------------                  -
                   • Veterinary Activities--------------------------------------------------------------------    -

                   Other Sectors                                                                                  104
                   • Transport and Storage (excludes services allied to transport----------------- 70
                     of goods)
                   • Repair and Maintenance of Vehicles------------------------------------------------ 21
                   • Others--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13




Information
 & Statistics


         65
                   NOISE INDUCED DEAFNESS IN MANUFACTURING SECTOR, 2007
                                               6, 1.9%   6, 1.9%
                         8, 2.5%
                                                                   9, 2.9%
                  10, 3.2%
      23, 7.3%

25, 8.0%
                                                                                                         167, 53.2%




      60, 19.1%



   Metalworking

   Manufacture of Transport Equipment

   Manufacture of Electronic Products & Components

   Manufacture of Food, Beverages & Tobacco Products

   Manufacture of Paper Products & Printing

   Manfacture of Non-metallic Mineral Products

   Manufacture of Pharmaceutical & Biological Products

   Manufacture of Rubber & Plastic Products

   Others




Occupational Skin Diseases
Occupational Skin Diseases continued to be the second most common occupational
disease, with 59 cases in 2007. The most common causative agents were wet
work/detergents, oils and cement. The manufacturing sector contributed the most number
of cases (35.6%).



                                              Occupational Skin Diseases

                                         140
                                         120
                          No. of cases




                                         100
                                         80
                                         60
                                         40
                                         20
                                                1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
                  No. of Occupational 132 116                93    118   99     67   81   84   89   59
                  Skin Disease Cases

                                                                         Year


                                                                                                                      Information
                                                                                                                       & Statistics


                                                                                                                      66
                OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                 AND HEALTH DIVISION       2007 ANNUAL
                                                REPORT




                                            OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASES BY CAUSATIVE AGENT, 2007


                                 3, 5.1%                                      8, 13.6%

                                                                                                                 12, 20.3%                Wet Work / Detergents
                       2, 3.4%
                                                                                                                                          Oils

                                                                                                                                          Cement
                    2, 3.4%
                                                                                                                                          Coolants

                                                                                                                                          Acids & Alkalis
                   2, 3.4%                                                                                                                Epoxy Resins

                                                                                                                                          Friction
                       2, 3.4%
                                                                                                                                          Occlusion
                                                                                                                             12, 20.3%    Rubber
                              4, 6.8%
                                                                                                                                          Solvent
                                            4, 6.8%                         8, 13.6%
                                                                                                                                          Others




                                              OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASES BY INDUSTRY, 2007




                                    Other Sectors

                                    • Hairdressing, Other Beauty Treatment and ---------------------------------------- 4
                                      Other Service Activites
                                    • Transport & Storage ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
                                    • Others --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12




Information
 & Statistics


         67
                      OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASES IN MANUFACTURING SECTOR, 2007

                       4, 19.0%




3, 14.3%
                                                                                 11, 52.4%


                                                                                         Metalworking

                                                                                         Manufacture of Food, Beverages &
                                                                                         Tobacco Products

                                                                                         Manufacture of Electronic Products &
                                                                                         Components
           3, 14.3%
                                                                                         Others



A Case of severe allergic reaction from turpentine contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE)

The first case in Singapore of Steven Johnson Syndrome / Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN) secondary to
contamination of turpentine by TCE was diagnosed in a 23 year-old welder who presented with a 3-day history of
fever with worsening eye pain and eye redness. On the 4th day, he developed a generalized maculo-papular rash,
which later progressed to widespread blisters and erosions on the eyelids and lips.

The worker had worked for 2 years in an engineering firm which manufactures large metal parts. Open trays of
turpentine were used for degreasing metal pieces on the workbench. TCE was not used in the work processes.
Batch sampling of turpentine revealed that it was contaminated with TCE, containing 0.74% TCE. TCE-in-air levels
were detectable at the workbench where he worked (TCE-in-air levels = 0.1mg/m ³ or 0.02ppm) and at the nearby
machining section (personal TCE exposure=0.4mg/m³ or 0.07ppm).

This rare severe allergic reaction following very low exposures to TCE demonstrates that there should be a high
index of suspicion for anyone presenting with SJS and/or TEN. The worker was advised to exercise extreme care
to avoid any future exposure to TCE.




 Widespread hemorrhagic blisters                                   Erosions on the eyelids and lips




                                                                                                                            Information
                                                                                                                             & Statistics


                                                                                                                            68
                        OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                         AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                    REPORT




                      Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders
                                    WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS BY INDUSTRY, 2007




                            Other Service Activities

                            Total                                                         25




                A Cluster of work-related musculoskeletal disorder cases from a factory manufacturing medical implants

                Seventeen employees were diagnosed to have work-related musculoskeletal disorder from a single factory. Of
                these, 5 employees were diagnosed with de Quervain’s tendinitis, while the rest had work-related musculoskeletal
                complaints in the neck, upper back, forearm, wrist and hands. The risk factors identified included prolonged,
                awkward, static neck flexion; wrist twist with ulnar deviation and forceful pinch grip from holding of scissors and
                needles during sewing. The company has since scheduled workers to take micro-rest breaks, trained workers to
                adopt good postures and implemented a surveillance programme for early recognition, reporting and management
                of employees with such condition.

                A case of bilateral ulnar neuropathy in a carpenter

                A 63-year-old carpenter with more than 10 years of experience in a company which manufactures luxury yachts
                developed progressive right hand numbness and weakness which affected his activities of daily living.
                Neurophysiological studies confirmed a diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the level of the elbow. The
                worker’s main task was wood shearing to make door frames and modules. Based on the Rapid Upper Limb
                Assessment tool, wood shearing is a high-risk activity as it involves repetitive flexion/extension at the elbow joint,
                causing compression of the ulnar nerves. An evaluation of his hand-held tools revealed that he was not excessively
                exposed to vibration.

                The company has since encouraged the carpenters to rotate job tasks, take regular rest breaks after each cycle of
                shearing and to don anti-vibration gloves when handling vibratory tools. An in-house monitoring programme for the
                early notification of symptoms (pain, numbness or weakness) was also implemented.




Information
 & Statistics
                 Wasting of the small muscles of his hands            Wood Shearing
         69
 Barotrauma


                                30


                                25
                 No. of cases


                                20


                                15


                                10


                                5


                                0

                                     1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007

      COMPRESSED AIR ILLNESS          0      0      1      0      20     8      4      5      3      2

      BAROTRAUMA                      1      2      28     0      10     8      6      5      5      17


                                                          Year


There were 17 cases of barotrauma in 2007. 16 were workers from a tunneling project where compressed air was
used to prevent ground water from entering the working chamber and one was a scientific officer.

The 16 workers had to enter the compressed air environment to change the cutter heads. The risk factors identified
in some cases were the presence of upper respiratory tract infection and the failure to report promptly to the
man-lock attendant when they developed symptoms during compression and de-compression. Refresher training
on the procedures to follow for compressed air works was conducted, emphasizing the importance of reporting if
they feel unwell.

The scientific officer developed aural barotrauma when she continued to dive even though she was unable to clear
her ears. She was advised on the importance of following dive protocol.




                            TBM cutter head




                                                                                                           Working in cutter head chamber




                                                                                                                                            Information
                                                                                                                                             & Statistics
          Briefing workers before compressed air work

                                                                                                                                            70
                    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                     AND HEALTH DIVISION         2007 ANNUAL
                                                      REPORT




                Excessive Absorption Of Chemicals

                                  Poisoning and Excessive Absorption of Chemicals

                                                 60

                                                 50
                                  No. of cases

                                                 40

                                                 30

                                                 20

                                                 10
                                                 0

                                                      1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
                     Excessive absorption 47                48   22   36     12    20     6   24      5     3
                     of chemicals
                     Poisoning                         6    0    1    0      11    0      0   0       0     0

                                                                           Year


                                                                                  No of
                 Agent                                                            Cases            Distribution (%)
                Toluene                                                             1                      33.3
                Cadmium                                                             1                      33.3
                Trichloroethylene (TCE)                                             1                      33.3
                 Total                                                              3                     100.0




Information
 & Statistics


         71
Occupational Lung Diseases
                                Silicosis, Asbestosis, Occupational Asthma

                 No. of Cases         6


                                      4


                                      2


                                      0


                                                1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
     Silicosis                                   1      5          2         3          0        1       1        1         0          1
     Asbestosis                                  0      3          0         1          0        0       0        2         0          0
     Occupational Asthma                         3      2          3         4          3        0       1        1         2          2

                                                                                 Year


A case of latex-induced occupational asthma
A nurse presented with rhinitis, hand itch and shortness of breath during gowning and
de-gowning for operative procedures. Powdered latex gloves were worn during operative
procedures. Prick testing showed she was allergic to latex.

She has since changed to an administrative job with no exposure to latex. The manage-
ment provided staff with reduced protein or powder-free gloves and they were advised to
use them as far as possible. They were also informed of the hazards of latex allergy and
to report to management if they have suspected symptoms of allergy.

Compressed Air Illness
There were two incidents of compressed air illness in 2007, both involving the same worker.
He developed two episodes of skin bends on separate occasions after compressed air work
while working in a tunneling project. He was suspended from further exposure to com-
pressed air in view of his increased susceptibility to develop bends.



                                                Compressed Air Illness/ Barotrauma

                                                  30


                                                  25
                                 No. of cases




                                                  20


                                                  15


                                                  10


                                                  5


                                                  0

                                                       1998   1999     2000      2001   2002     2003    2004   2005   2006     2007

            COMPRESSED AIR ILLNESS                      0      0        1         0         20       8    4      5      3        2

            BAROTRAUMA                                  1      2        28        0         10       8    6      5      5        17


                                                                                  Year



                                                                                                                                           Information
                                                                                                                                            & Statistics


                                                                                                                                           72
                    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                     AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                REPORT




                Others
                A construction worker who died from heat stroke
                A 38 year-old worker employed to work as a carpenter in a construction site developed heat stroke on the
                second day of starting work. He was tasked to dismantle the timber formwork at the mid-basement level,
                about 4m below ground level. At lunchtime, he complained of dizziness but resumed work after lunch at
                1pm. His work was to loosen the wedges of the tie-rod (formwork accessories) with a chisel and hammer.
                By 3.25pm, he was found unconscious on the hot concrete ground and was admitted to hospital. He had
                a body temperature of 43ºC (normal = 36.9 ºC). Despite aggressive resuscitation, he died from circulatory
                collapse. Investigations revealed that the average Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) where the
                deceased had worked was 32 ºC, exceeding the ACGIH permissible level of 25ºC.

                The construction industry was informed of this potential hazard for workers who are working in a hot and
                humid environment. The industry was advised to implement an acclimatization programme for all new
                workers and to put in place emergency measures for first aid treatment of heat disorders.




Information
 & Statistics


         73
Monitoring Conditions At Work
Workplaces with hazards listed in the First Schedule of the WSH (General Provisions) Regulations are
required to have regular industrial hygiene monitoring. Workplaces with specific hazards require medical
monitoring for exposed workers. Data from this medical and industrial hygiene monitoring activities
indicate that noise and chemical exposure levels in workplaces remain satisfactory in 2007.

Exposure levels of specific workplace hazards provide a good indicator of the conditions in the work
environment. Hygiene monitoring is usually conducted once every three years for noise and annually for
chemicals. Medical monitoring is conducted once every six months for lead and organophosphate, and
annually for all other hazards. The results of both industrial hygiene and medical monitoring are submitted
to OSHD. The division also conducts detailed industrial hygiene assessments on a selective basis in
high-risk workplaces.
Industrial hygiene data from our selective assessments, as well as from companies with in-plant monitor-
ing, is maintained within a National Database for Noise and Chemical Exposure. This enables us to iden-
tify high-risk workplaces, evaluate trends in exposure levels and advise employers regarding control mea-
sures and appropriate monitoring programmes.

Workers’ health status
In terms of new work-related abnormal medical results, there was a decrease from 7.3 per 1,000 workers
examined in 2006 to 5.4 in 2007.

Detection of work-related abnormal results among workers examined for exposure to noise came mainly
from the metal working industries, and shipbuilding and ship repair industries. For exposure to chemicals,
a total of 17 workers had biological levels exceeding 80% of the recommended biological threshold limit
values (BTLV). This included six workers who were exposed to arsenic in a factory handling industrial
waste and five who were exposed to inorganic lead in a lead stabilizer manufacturing factory.




                                                    Work-Related Abnormal Medical Results

                                     25.0    22.0
             No. per 1,000 workers




                                     20.0
                                                       17.0
                   examined




                                     15.0

                                     10.0                     6.9                                   7.3
                                                                    6.0           5.7         6.5         5.4
                                                                            4.4
                                      5.0                                               2.9

                                      0.0
                                            1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
                                                                          Year




                                                                                                                Information
                                                                                                                 & Statistics


                                                                                                                74
                OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                 AND HEALTH DIVISION       2007 ANNUAL
                                                REPORT




                                                                                            EXPOSURE TO NOISE



                                                                 Results of Medical Monitoring for Noise Exposure, 2003-2007




                                                                 2007 (80,547)
                                   (No. of workers examined)




                                                                 2006 (74,568)
                                              Year




                                                                 2005 (72,730)



                                                                 2004 (68,878)




                                                                 2003 (64,169)


                                                                                 0%       10%     20%      30%   40%   50%   60%     70%    80% 90% 100%


                                                                                                           % of workers examined

                                                      Normal results              Abnormal results - Non Work-related        Abnormal results - Work-related




                                                                      Results of Medical Monitoring for Noise Exposure, 2007

                                                                                 All industries (80,547)

                                                                          Manufacturing of Rubber &
                                                                            Plastic Products (1,724)

                                                                 Manufacturing of Food, Beverages &
                                                                           Tobacco Products (2,365)
                                     (No. of workers examined)




                                                                              Manufacture of Paper
                                                                          Products & Printing (4476)

                                                                          Manufacture of Chemical &
                                                                     Petrolchemical Products (4,975)
                                              Industry




                                                                         Transport & Storage (3,857)

                                                                         Manufacturing of Electronic
                                                                                    Products(7,856)

                                                                           Manufacture of Transport
                                                                                Equipment^ (9,099)

                                                                             Building & Repairing of
                                                                             Ships & Boats (16,234)

                                                                                 Metalworking (20,999)


                                                                                        Others* (8,962)

                                                                                                           0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

                                                                                                            % of workers examined
                                                           Normal results           Abnormal results - Non Work-related       Abnormal results - Work-related


                                          * Others: include manufacturing of textiles/wood/pharmaceutical and biological products/non-metallic
                                            mineral products/medical, precision and optical instruments/furniture, utilities, construction, wholesale
                                            trade and other business activities.
Information                               ^ Manufacture of Transport Equipment excludes Building & Repairing of Ships & Boats.
 & Statistics


         75
                                                      EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS


                             Results of Biological Monitoring for Chemical Exposure, 2003-2007




                              2007(4,616)
(No. of workers examined)




                              2006 (3,155)



                              2005 (2,018)
           Year




                              2004 (2,994)



                              2003 (3,779)


                                             0%    10%    20%    30%    40%    50%    60%   70%    80%   90%   100%

                                                                % of workers examined^

                                                    < 20% BTLV         20- 80% BTLV     > 80% BTLV


            ^Excludes medical examinations where biological monitoring is not applicable, viz., chest x ray, lung
            function and skin examinations for asbestos, silica, raw cotton, tar, pitch and bitumen exposure.




                              Results of Biological Monitoring for Chemical Exposure, 2007



                            Research & Development
                                              (142)
(No. of workers examined)




                                      Metalworking
                                              (534)
         Industry




                                  Sewage & Refuse
                                Disposal, Sanitation
                                               (762)

                                  Manufacturing of
                             Chemical and Chemical
                                    Products (769)


                                      Others* (2,409)


                                                         0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

                                                  < 20% BTLV       20- 80% BTLV       > 80% BTLV


       * Others: include manufacturing of food/beverages/tobacco/wearing apparel/wood/paper and paper
         products/printing/coke and refined petroleum products/pharmaceutical and biological products/rubber
         and plastic products/non-metallic mineral products/medical, precision and optical instruments/electronic
         products and components//transport equipment/furniture, other service activities, other business
         activities and construction.
       ^ Excludes medical examinations where biological monitoring is not applicable, viz., chest x ray, lung
         function and skin examinations for asbestos, silica, raw cotton, tar, pitch and bitumen exposure.



                                                                                                                      Information
                                                                                                                       & Statistics


                                                                                                                      76
                OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                 AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                            REPORT




                                       RECOMMENDED BIOLOGICAL THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES (BTLV)

                 Hazard                                  Type of examination          BTLV
                 Arsenic & its compounds                 Urine inorganic arsenic      300 mcg/L
                                                         Urine s-phenylmercapturic    45 mcg/g creat
                                                         acid (spma)
                 Benzene
                                                         Urine tt-muconic             1.6 mcg/g creat
                                                         acid (ttma)
                 Cadmium & its compounds                 Blood cadmium                5 mcg/L

                                                                                      50 mcg/dl (male)
                 Lead (inorganic)& its compounds         Blood lead
                                                                                      30 mcg/dl (female)

                 Lead (organic) & its compounds          Urine lead                   150 mcg/L
                 Manganese & its compounds               Urine manganese              50 mcg/L
                 Mercury & its compounds                 Urine mercury                50 mcg/L

                 Perchloroethylene                       Urine trichloroacetic acid   7 mg/L
                 Perchloroethylene/Trichloroethylene     Urine trichloroacetic acid   50 mg/L
                 mixture
                 Sodium silicofluoride                   Urine fluoride               10 mg/L

                 Toluene                                 Blood toluene                0.05 mg/L

                 Trichloroethylene                       Urine trichloroacetic acid   100 mg/L

                 Xylene                                  Urine methylhippuric acid    1.5 g/g creat




Information
 & Statistics


         77
Chemical exposure levels

Overall, chemical exposure levels remained satisfactory. The percentage of high-risk workplaces
which had excessive chemical exposure increased from 18% in 2006 to 20% in 2007. Efforts are
ongoing to reduce chemical exposure in high-risk workplaces.

                                     % High Risk Workplaces* Exceeding PEL for Chemical Hazards
                          25.0


                                                                                                  18.0
 % High Risk Workplaces




                          20.0
                                                                                                                     20.0
                                             14.9                                 15.3
                          15.0


                          10.0

                                                                     8.1
                           5.0


                           0.0
                                           2003                  2004             2005              2006         2007
                                                                                  Year
                                   * Where any exposure level in the high risk workplace exceeds the
                                                    PEL for any chemical monitored



Our surveillance data indicate that workplaces with significant chemical exposure levels (of over 50% PEL),
were largely from the following industries:

    (1) Manufacturing of Chemicals and Chemical Products,
    (2) Manufacturing of Basic Metals, Fabricated Metal Products, Machinery & Equipment,
        Electrical Machinery & Apparatus
    (3) Manufacturing of Transport Equipment.


                                                                   Chemical Exposure* in High Risk Workplaces



                                    All Industries (196)




                                   Mfg of Transport
                                    Equipment (60)




                          Mfg of Chemicals & Chemical
                                  Products (66)



                    Mfg of Basic Metals, Fabricated
                     Metal Products, Machinery &
                         Equipment, Electrical
                     Machinery & Apparatus (56)




                                  Other Industries^ (14)




                                                           0%               25%               50%            75%                 100%

                                                                              % High Risk Workplaces Monitored

                                 < 10% PEL                  10% - 50% PEL           > 50% PEL - < 100% PEL          ≥ 100% PEL


                          * The % derived are based on the highest exposure level from the latest assessment results.
                          ^ Include: Mfg of rubber & plastic products, Mfg of electronic products & components, Wholesale & retail trade.



Air levels for benzene, toluene and xylene were lower in 2007 as compared to 2006. This was
following our effort in assisting printing factories to implement engineering controls to reduce
solvent exposure.

Significant increase in solvent levels was noted in factories that manufactured chemicals and
chemical products, and transport equipment. The companies concerned were advised on the
implementation of engineering controls, including local exhaust ventilation, and general                                                    Information
                                                                                                                                             & Statistics
ventilation improvements.

                                                                                                                                            78
                                 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                                  AND HEALTH DIVISION     2007 ANNUAL
                                                               REPORT



                Noise exposure levels

                Under the Factories (Noise) Regulations, companies with 10 or more workers exposed to excessive noise are
                required to monitor the noise exposure at least once every three years.

                The average noise levels in high-risk workplaces showed a slight decrease in 2007. This was mainly due to the
                reduction in noise exposure in the manufacture of transport equipment industry, following the successful implementa-
                tion of engineering controls in workplaces involved in aircraft repair and aircraft components manufacture.


                                      % High Risk Workplaces* with Noise Levels Exceeding
                                                                                                                                        Our surveillance data indicate that workplaces
                               90.0                                   85dBA                                                             with very high noise levels (90dBA and above)
                                                              82.1                                                                      were largely from the following industries:
                                             79.0
                               80.0                                          76.0            76.2                                       • Manufacturing of Electronic Products &
                                                                                                                                          Components
                % Workplaces




                                                                                                                                        • Manufacturing of Rubber & Plastic Products
                               70.0                                                                              70.5
                                                                                                                                        • Manufacturing of Paper Products & Printing
                                                                                                                                        • Manufacturing of Petrochemical & Chemical
                               60.0                                                                                                       Products
                                                                                                                                        • Manufacturing of Basic Metals, Fabricated
                                                                                                                                          Metal Products, Machinery & Equipment,
                               50.0
                                                                                                                                          Electrical Machinery
                                           2003            2004            2005            2006             2007
                                                                          Year
                                                                                                                                        • Other industries such as Manufacturing of
                                        * Where any Leq, 8hr in the high risk workplace exceeds 85 dBA.                                   Transport Equipment


                                                       Noise Exposure* in High Risk Workplaces

                                               All Industries (225)
                       Mfg of Basic Metals, Fabricated Metals
                          Products, Machinery & Equipment,
                                    Electrical Machinery (86)
                                         Mfg of Petrolchemical &
                                         Chemical Products (33)

                          Mfg of Paper Products & Printing (22)


                      Mfg of Rubber & Plastics Products (18)

                                       Mfg of Electronic Products
                                              & Components (18)

                                            Other Industries^ (48)


                                                                     0%            25%            50%            75%             100%

                                                                       % High Risk Workplaces Monitored




                               * The % derived are based on the highest exposure level from the latest assessment results.
                               ^ Other industries include: manufacture of food products, beverages, textile, wearing
                               apparel, wood and wood products, non- metallic mineral products, medical and precision
                               products, transport equipment, utilities, warehousing, architectural and engineering activities
                               and other service activities.




                         Work Injury Compensation Report
                         In year 2007, OSHD received a total of 16,991 accident notifications under the Workmen’s
                         Compensation Act, an increase of 3.7% compared to 16,389 notifications in the preceding year.

                         The number of cases with compensation payable, including temporary incapacity assessed, in the same year
                         was 14,927 with the total sum amounting to $71 million. This was a 2.7% decrease from $73 million in the previ-
Information              ous year.
 & Statistics

                         Chart 1 to 3 below show the number of accidents, number of cases with compensation payable and total amount
         79              of compensation assessed in the past 5 years.
CHART 1: NUMBER OF ACCIDENT NOTIFICATIONS UNDER WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT,
                                  2003 -2007
                                                        16,991


                                             16,389

                                   15,533
                         15,274

                14,304




                2003     2004     2005      2006       2007




       CHART 2: NUMBER OF CASES WITH COMPENSATION PAYABLE, 2003 – 2007


                                              15,817
                                   15,042               14,927
                         13,735
                12,624




                 2003     2004     2005     2006       2007




         CHART 3: TOTAL AMOUNT OF COMPENSATION ASSESSED, 2003 – 2007


                                               73         71

                                     69

                   62
                           59




                                                                              Information
                 2003    2004      2005     2006       2007                    & Statistics


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                        OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
                         AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                                    REPORT




                Enforcement Action
                Workplace Safety and Health Act

                The repealed Factories Act and the Workplace Safety & Health Act, which was effected on 1 March 2006, provide
                legislature for enforcement and prosecution of offenders in breach of standards in health and safety in the
                workplace.

                In 2007, 59 companies and 8 individuals were prosecuted for contraventions under the Factories Act. They were
                fined a total of S$1,437,000.00 and S$129,000.00 respectively.

                15 companies were also prosecuted for contraventions under the Workplace Safety & Health Act, and were fined a
                total of S$1,058,500.00. 6 individuals were fined a total of S$95,000.00 and 1 was sentenced to 3 months
                imprisonment.

                In terms of composition fines, a total of 4273 (offered under the Workplace Safety & Health Act) and 1 (offered under
                the Factories Act) were issued in 2007.

                Workmen’s Compensation Act

                • OSHD had stepped up enforcement to deter abuse of the workmen's compensation system. In 2007, nine
                  workers were convicted for making fraudulent claims under the Workmen’s Compensation Act. They were
                  jailed ranging from four to six weeks. Prosecution action was also taken against 7 employers for failure to
                  cover workers with valid insurance and failure to report an accident, resulting in the employers being fined
                  between $1,200 and $5,000.




Information
 & Statistics


         81
                                                 Developments

Meeting Information Needs
OSHD publishes reports and statistical findings on the internet in order to provide the public with an overview of WSH
performance at the industry and company levels.

OSH Alert

OSH Alert is an application that timely disseminates and broadcasts WSH-related
messages to its e-mail subscribers in order to create “top of the mind” awareness
and motivate a desired change in behavior towards WSH. The system enables the
profiling of subscribers, the generation of subscriber information reports and the
utilisation of multi-media content.

E-mail alerts are sent out twice a week on Mondays and Thursdays to nearly 11,000
subscribers to inform them of learning points from selected accident case studies,
new changes to the legislation, WSH guidelines, conferences, seminars and courses
and other relevant WSH information. Its subscribers include employers, occupiers,
WSH professionals, unions, industry organisations and other professionals.


  110 OSH Alerts were sent in 2007.


Engagement with Industry

Learning from Past Accidents

In the event of major incidents, it is necessary to engage affected companies to gain a first-hand understanding of the
accidents, as well as to show their support for the companies to improve the WSH management. Dialogue sessions
are often conducted with companies which had recently experienced major incidents, and learning points were then
shared with the industry.

Noting a spike in accidents in May 2007, WSHAC, with the support of OSHD, organised an Information Sharing
Session on 24 May 2007 for more than 200 participants. The seminar gave the audience an insight into the recent
accidents and offered some learning points to prevent such incidents from occurring at their workplaces.

Evaluating Trends & Seeking Solutions
World Health Organization Global Web Portal

OSHD maintains a database of WSH good practices, safety solutions and health hazards which is made available
through the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Web Portal. Most of these case studies were documented from
the recipients of the annual WSH Best Practices Award. The indexed database has a search function for retrieval by
industry, hazard or keywords, with digital images of control measures, as well as information on cost of implementation.
OSHD will continue to contribute to the WHO Global Web Portal to share good WSH practices and control solutions. The
current database has 81 case studies comprising noise and chemical control, as well as ergonomic and safety solutions.

Safety Data Sheet Knowledge Workbench

The Safety Data Sheet (SDS) Knowledge Workbench searches and extracts key information from digital documents and
verifies the content of the document according to the MSDS domain knowledge base. This web-based tool will enable
chemical manufacturers, suppliers and users to check the conformance of SDSs to the Globally Harmonised System
(GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals Standard. OSHD plans to adopt the GHS standard as well as
establish a national repository of good quality SDS which is searchable by chemical users and WSH professionals.

In collaboration with the Institute for Infocomm and Research, the following enhancements have been made to
improve the function and operability of the tool:

• Improved extraction of information in table format and sections that break across pages
• Refined rules for extraction & verification of information
• Improved user interface to facilitate updates of chemical databases and extraction patterns                       Information
                                                                                                                     & Statistics


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                OSH Performance Measurement Tool

                The OSH Performance Measurement Tool is based on the Universal Assessment Instrument (UAI) developed by
                Professor Steven P. Levine from the University of Michigan Ann-Arbor. Comprising a checklist and questionnaire for
                employees, this tool would enable companies to conduct self-assessments of their workplace OSH performance based
                on five driving factors:

                • Management Commitment
                • Employee Participation and Training
                • OSH Systems and Practices
                • OSH Expertise
                • Line Ownership of OSH

                In Singapore, the tool was tried out by a number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Generally, the SMEs found
                the tool useful in helping them assess their WSH performance. They have requested, however, that the tool be
                enhanced so that it can be used by personnel with varying levels of knowledge on the OSH Management System
                (OSHMS).

                Moving forward, enhancements would be made to the checklist by adding descriptors for the various measurement
                criteria. This would facilitate its usage by companies and personnel who may be unfamiliar with the standards for
                OSHMS. The revised checklist would once again be tested to ensure it is practical for use by the SMEs.

                Workplace Intervention Net-Cost Calculator

                In collaboration with Professor Supriya Lahiri and her team from the Department of Economics, University of
                Massachusetts Lowell, a Workplace Intervention Net-Cost (WIN) Calculator was developed.

                The WIN Calculator evaluates the cost effectiveness of interventions by addressing the net costs of such interventions
                and adjusts the investment costs of the interventions by including changes in productivity and cost savings due to the
                prevention of ill-health. To enhance usability, scenario case examples of common engineering noise controls will be
                introduced. Users will then be able to customise these scenarios by replacing known cost factors with their own data.

                If successful, the tool will help create greater awareness of the economic benefits a company could gain through the
                implementation of hazard control measures. This will effectively promote best practices by making the case that WSH
                is good for business.




Information
 & Statistics


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                                              REPORT




           Building Strong Internal Capabilities
           Training and Development
           With the launch of a new WSH framework in 2007, OSHD reviewed and
           restructured its internal Competency Framework to align and equip its officers
           with new capabilities needed to perform their roles and responsibilities. With
           a clear training roadmap, officers can identify the learning and development
           activities available in order to meet their training needs. The Competency
           Framework also serves as a foundation to align internal staff capability with
           OSHD’s business strategy.

           A summary of the key learning and development initiatives for 2007 are as
           follows:

           Training on Risk Management
           Risk Management (RM) continues to be a key competency area of OSHD’s
           training and development efforts. New officers in OSHD will attend a basic RM
           training module designed to equip them with the basic RM methodology and
           techniques to conduct risk assessments effectively. The training incorporates
           interactive group discussions while case studies are used to facilitate analysis
           on the causal factors of incidents and their correlations to RM concepts and
           principles.

           An intermediate module on RM, delivered by our in-house RM specialists, is
           available for more experienced officers. This training enables officers to apply
           the knowledge gained from the basic training module to evaluate and
           appraise the risk assessments undertaken by companies.
                                                       Preparatory Training for Programme-based Engagement
                                                       In preparation for the launch of every priority programmes for the
                                                       Programme-based Engagement (ProBE), training will be conducted for
                                                       OSHD officers to equip them with the relevant knowledge and latest
                                                       information on the topic. For the year 2007, modules on Work at
                                                       Heights, Lifting Equipment, Work in Noisy Environment, Precast
                                                       Concrete Technology and Forklift were specially conducted to be
                                                       in-line with the ProBE priority programmes. To optimise the learning
                                                       process, both classroom-based and experiential-based approaches
                                                       were utilised for training purposes.

                                                       Workshop by Ms Carolyn Merritt, US Chemical Safety & Hazard
                                                       Investigation Board

                                                       Ms Carolyn Merritt, the former Chief Execu-
                                                       tive Officer and Chairman of the Chemical
                                                       Safety & Hazard Investigation Board,
                                                       conducted a one-day workshop on 18 April
                                                       2007 for OSHD officers. At the workshop, Ms
                                                       Merritt shared her knowledge and experi-
                                                       ences on chemical safety and investigations
                                                       into chemical-related explosions. The attend-
                                                       ees of the workshop were also presented with
                                                       a case study of the high profile explosion of
                                                       BP Refinery at Texas City.




People @
 OSHD


      84
                                     Ventilation Engineering Course
                                     A course on Ventilation Engineering was organized to help raise the
                                     technical competency of OSHD officers. Officers were provided with an
                                     understanding of the principles and applications of industrial ventilation in
                                     controlling emissions and exposures to airborne contaminants. To enhance
                                     the learning experience, visual demonstrations on the use of ventilation
                                     equipments as well as case illustrations were showcased.

                                     Successful Project Management: Technical and People Skills
                                     An in-house run on Successful Project Management was organized for
                                     OSHD officers, particularly for those involved in leading departmental
                                     projects. The course entailed an understanding of the basic principles and
                                     practices of project management. Officers were also equipped with skills
                                     on establishing effective working relationships with team members and
                                     customers.

                                     Performance Management for Supervisors
                                     Supervisors and Supervisors to-be attended the Performance
                                     Management course to gain a better understanding of the Civil Service’s
                                     performance management system. The course incorporated the essentials
                                     of the performance management process as well as performance
                                     management skills such as goal setting, listening techniques and
                                     performance review.


Team Building Activities
OSHD’s 2nd Anniversary
On 3 August 2007, OSHD celebrated its 2nd anniversary at Club CSC @ Bukit Batok.
In his opening address, Divisional Director Mr Ho Siong Hin spoke about the
Division’s achievements since its formation and how it had forged ahead of
challenges to be what it is today. He reminded however, that OSHD still has much to
do as is strives for the
WSH2015 vision.

A video clip encapsulating the Division’s key achievements were featured at the
event.

LocomOSHion
LocomOSHion is a platform for sharing and interaction aimed at facilitating team
learning and team building. It brings OSHD officers together and this is especially
important since OSHDians are working at three different locations – MOM’s Head-
quarters at Havelock Road, MND Complex at Maxwell Road, as well as the building
at Kim Seng Road. These sessions have been very effective in providing everyone in
OSHD with updates on key initiatives.




                                                                                                                      People @
                                                                                                                       OSHD


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                                           REPORT




           Achievements
           Ministry of Manpower Awards 2007
           On 1 February 2007, MOMers were honoured at the MOM Awards Night 2007. Held at Swissotel Stamford
           Ballroom, this annual event saw many fellow OSHD officers receiving accolades for their exemplary
           and outstanding contributions to OSHD and the Ministry. The awards and recipients from OSHD are as follows:
           National Day Award - Long Service Award (25 Years)
           1. Chan Yew Kwong
           2. Gan Siok Lin
           3. Go Heng Huat
           4. Ho Siong Hin
           5. Hor Moon Hean
           6. Tan Tee Tiong
           7. Yee Chin Fen

           Minister for Manpower Award
           Project Title: Formulation and Implementation of WSH2015 Strategy
           To spur industry efforts to raise WSH standards in Singapore, OSHD and WSHAC consulted more than 1,500
           stakeholders in formulating the national WSH 2015 Strategy to halve workplace fatalities to 2.5 per 100.000
           workers by 2015. The Strategy was endorsed by the Singapore Business Federation and the National
           Trades Union Congress at the first month-long National Workplace Safety and Health Campaign in
           May 2007. Support for the WSH 2015 Strategy has been mobilised, creating a new Singapore Record
           for the largest number of pledges, 53.000 that resulted in the largest book in Singapore.
           Besides engagement efforts, OSHD also moved new legislation and enhanced enforcement efforts, especially in
           the area of risk management. A key legislation moved on 1 August 2007 on WSH Officers helps to clearly define
           the role of the WSH Officers and enhanced their role. To further elevate their professionalism and capabilities,
           OSHD and WSHAC also co-developed a national WSH Professional Competency framework together with the
           Singapore Workforce Development Agency.
           Deliberate efforts were undertaken to garner industry buy-in, evident in the Workplace Safety and Health Awards
           2007, where 108 winners celebrated their exemplary performance in WSH.
           Based on a perception survey conducted by the WSHAC in May and June 2007 with more than 1,000 stakeholders
           from the Construction, Shipbuilding and Ship-repair and Manufacturing sectors:

            • 84% have heard of WSH 2015
            • 81% have heard of National WSH Campaign 2007
            • WSH Awards was ranked first as the most important and relevant programme to the industry, with the National
              WSH Campaign in third spot




People @
 OSHD


      86
 Audrina Chua                  Lim Cheong                  Sarjit Singh

 Cheryl Seah                   Lim Ee Hwe                  Sheila Koh

 Cheryl Wang                   Linda De Mello              Shermaine Teo

 Christopher Leow              Lynn Chng                   Silas Sng

 Colleen Low Chin Hong         Marken Ang                  Tan Shi Hao

 Evelyn Koh                    Mohd Ismadi                 Tan Soo Hoon

 Goh Chye Guan                 Ng Foo Weng                 Umadevi

 Jaspal Bal                    Pang Sing San               Wang Chin Sian

 Joanna Mak                    Pang Suh Ju                 Wang Huijuan

 Kalsum Harun                  Patricia Chen Metcalfe      Yeo Siew Liang

 Kathrin Asenkerschbaumer      Philip Koh                  Yeong Chark Sung

 Koh Li Peng                   Priscilla Tan               Yoong Chi Meng

 Lee Kah Bee                   Richard Wong

 Lee Kien Wah                  Rosman Abdul Halek




Project Title: New Service Initiatives

Three new e-Services were designed and developed to
meet customers' needs, improving accessibility and
responsiveness.

MOM have harnessed mobile technology and designed
new services to reach out to customers. Six new SMS
services have been developed; ranging from providing
timely information to customers on the status of their
applications, as well as alerting customers of their turn 15
minutes before their queue numbers are called at MOM
counters.

MOM’s service lobbies were reviewed and re-designed,
integrating functions to provide one stop services and
enhancing the service experience for
customers.

These achievements would not be possible without the
customer-centric mindset and professionalism of all
MOMers.

1. Ang Tick Bing
2. Lee Yok Chon
3. Tan Che Wei
4. Tan Tee Tiong


                                                                               People @
                                                                                OSHD


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                                              REPORT




           PS Commendation Award
           Project Title: QuIPS 4-in-1 Certification Exercise

           MOMers were made aware of Quality, Innovation, People and Service (QuIPS) through a series of
           communication sessions and quizzes; an Organisational Excellence (OE) Handbook highlighting OE
           achievements was produced and there were designated Learning Days to educate and prepare MOMers
           for the assessment. There is now a better understanding of OE in the Ministry and MOMers are more
           aware of the role of OE in their work.

           MOM is also the first Ministry HQ to attempt and be certified with the Singapore Quality Class, People
           Developer, Singapore Innovation Class and the Singapore Service Class.

           1. Christopher Koh
           2. Nicole Eng

           Project Title: ERIKA

           ERIKA is the first effort of its kind in MOM to amalgamate data residing in 11 systems across the MOM
           operational divisions of Work Pass Division, Foreign Manpower Management Division, Labour Relations
           and Workplace Division and OSHD, providing the One MOM view that enables teamwork across MOM.

           One key feature is its Customer Account Management System (CAMS) that provides MOMers the tool to
           be more customer-centric in the delivery of services.

           Since its implementation, CAMS has become the system for managing customer relationships for MOM.
           Tapping on the integrated data provided by ERIKA, it presents frontline officers with comprehensive and
           holistic information of customers - the past interactions and outstanding cases across MOM business
           functions. This enables the officers to deliver better service and advice to customers and enhances MOM's
           overall operational effectiveness.

           1. Lim Ee Hwe
           2. Nicole Eng

           Project Title: Successful Prosecution for Fraudulent Claims under the
           Workmen’s Compensation Act

           In a bid to prevent fraudulent claims, the team studied the past claims and complaints to identify potential
           areas of abuse. Strategies including standard operating procedures were formulated to achieve effective
           investigations and successful convictions. Officers gave their full commitment to building their capabilities
           by attending specialized courses to improve their investigation techniques such as interrogation and
           evidence collection.

           The officers achieved nine successful convictions in 2007. The offenders were imprisoned and
           repatriated upon their release. They are also blacklisted from returning to work in Singapore. The team
           also capitalised on the publicity on the conviction cases to send out a strong signal to all workers that they
           would he punished for unlawful behaviour.

           These efforts have been successful in deterring workers from seeking money and gaining a stay extension
           through illegal mean’s thus posing fewer social problems for society.


                       Arthur Lim Eu Lin               Lee Bang Wei

                       Bernard Yeo                     Tan Che Wei

                       Chua Choon Mei Brenda           Un Eng Huat

                       Goh Chin Keong                  Vic Choe Kuan Jin

People @               Jasmine Foo Wei Ling            Woon Hwee Buay Gigi
 OSHD


      88
Project Title: eRegistry Project

The e-Registry project set out to address the limitations of information management
practices in MOM. Introducing a common shared repository based on a set of e-filing
principles and guidelines.

Implementing the change in phases, the team first started with the setting up of
e-cabinets and filing structures. This was followed by the review of work processes and
the introduction of workflow capability. The conversion of hardcopy documents to reduce
physical filing space also meant over 12,000 documents had to be uploaded.

The key challenges of this project were in addressing the varied modes of storing
information which resulted in inconsistent filing practices, and incomplete sets of
information even within the same department. Given the tight timeframe to rollout the
system, the team was able to carry out the project successfully - all the while engaging
MOMers and their respective Heads of Department through change management efforts.
The team's commitment, drive and efforts on this project to ensure a successful rollout has
resulted in the ability to upload, browse, search, share and retrieve information online.

1. Muttu Ponnusamy
2. Lee Chin Choo
3. Lai-Yu Sew Lian
4. Low Chiang Sek
5. Normalah Hanawi

Star Service Award (Silver)




Rohana Mohd Yassin


Exemplary MOMer Award




Leong Sai Chue




                                                                                               People @
                                                                                                OSHD


                                                                                              89
OSHD in the News
2 Worksite Deaths: Firm Fined $30k - The Straits Times, 13 January 2007

“A stalwart in the construction industry here, Obayashi Corporation, was fined $30,000 yesterday in court for
failing to keep its worksite at One Raffles Quay safe…Workplace safety has been a rising cause of concern in
recent years with major industrial accidents at the Circle Line MRT site in Nicoll Highway and at Fusionpolis. The
MOM overhauled the safety regulations and put in place harsher penalties, including jail terms, for contractors
who flout the safety rules.”

Number of Worksite Mishaps, Deaths Takes Slight Dip - The Straits Times, 23 March 2007

“There were fewer workplace accidents and deaths in Singapore last year, a sign that the recent push to improve
health and safety is starting to show results…MOM treats each death very seriously and is committed to investi-
gate each death thoroughly.”

Firm Fined Under New Safety Law - The Straits Times, 5 April 2007

“The court treats every death seriously. No price can ever be placed on the value of a life lost nor can any
sentence passed ever lessen the pain and loss of the deceased's family…Every worker deserves to go home
safely every day.”

Big Push to Drive Home Workplace Safety Message - The Straits Times, 21 April 2007

“This year’s National Workplace Safety and Health Campaign will run for an entire month instead of a week…The
committee’s 10-year-strategic plan, WSH 2015 was also unveiled.”

MOM's Safety Plan for SMEs - The New Paper, 21 April 2007

”The Ministry of Manpower has launched bizSAFE, a 10-year plan to improve workplace safety and health in
130,000 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).”

Taking a Pledge - The Straits Times, 21 April 2007

“The Workplace Safety and Health Advisory Committee is aiming to gather more than 30,000 personal pledges
to workplace safety and health as national support for the pledge drive.”

Manager Jailed for Role in Fatal Work Accident - The Straits Times, 26 April 2007

“He was sentenced to three months in jail by a district court in connection with an incident on March 6 last year
in which a fellow worker died.”

Construction Firms to Get Safety Rankings - The Straits Times, 5 May 2007

“The ranking, to be developed by the workplace safety and health construction sub- committee, will provide a
benchmark potential clients can use to evaluate a company's safety performance…All worksites will need to
have a safety management system. Currently this rule applies only to companies handling projects worth at least
$10 million.”

Over 52,000 Pledges Collected in Workplace Safety Drive - The Straits Times, 25 May 2007

“The pledges were collated and placed in a large book weighing 93kg, which will be displayed at the Ministry of
Manpower headquarters.”




                                                                                                                     Resources


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            Workplace Injuries Cover for All Employees proposed - The Straits Times, 8 June 2007

            “The Ministry of Manpower (MOM) is also proposing to make hefty increases in the maximum payout levels for
            those seriously injured or killed on the job…The risks faced by manual workers and some non-manual workers,
            such as engineers working on construction sites, are similar.”

            Putting a Lid on Excessive Noise at Work - The Straits Times, 22 Sept 2007

            “Called the NID Prevention Programme, it will first target workplaces that have contributed to most of the
            cases…MOM is revising the Factories (Noise) Regulations in December to define duties of stakeholders and to
            beef up penalties.”

            Move to Cover All Employess for Work Injuries - The Straits Times, 13 November 2007

            “About one million more employees are expected to be covered for work injuries in a propose amendment to the
            Workmen's Compensation Act…The maximum payout levels for those suffering permanent disablement or killed
            on the job will also be raised.”




Resources


      91
          Annex A: Legislation Review – Summary of Changes

             Workplace Safety and Health
                                                       Replaced                                  Key Features
             (WSH) Subsidiary Legislation


             WSH (Approved Codes of         •   Nil                               •   The approved codes of practice are
             Practice) Notification 2007        (Note: Under Section 39 of            intended to be used as a yardstick
                                                WSH Act, the Commissioner             to assess whether reasonably
             Enacted: 24 Apr 07                                                       practicable measures have been
                                                for Workplace Safety and
             Effective: 1 May 2007              Health may approve Codes              taken with regard to the upkeep of
                                                of Practice for the purposes          WSH standards at the workplace.
                                                of providing practical guidance   •   Based on the recommendation of the
                                                on safety and health to the           WSHAC, 23 Codes of Practice were
                                                industry.)                            approved by the Commissioner.




            WSH (WSH Officers)              •   Factories (Qualifications         •   Adopting an outcome-based
            Regulations 2007                    and Training of Safety                approach e.g. occupiers to decide
                                                Officers) Notification                on extent of appointment for WSH
            Enacted: 12 Jul 07                                                        officers i.e. part-time or full-time
                                            •   Factories (Registration
            Effective: 1 Aug 07                 and Duties of Safety              •   Removing the distinction between
                                                Officers) Regulations                 a full-time and part-time WSH officer
                                            •   Factories (Safety Officers)       •   Requiring workplaces stipulated in
                                                Order                                 the Second Schedule of the
                                                                                      Regulations to appoint a WSH Officer




            WSH (Construction)              •   Factories (Building Operations    •   Requiring all worksites to implement
            Regulations 2007                    and Works of Engineering              a safety and health management
                                                Construction) Regulations             system
            Enacted: 28 Nov 07                                                    •   Requiring the appointment of a WSH
            Effective: 1 Jan 08                                                       coordinator for worksites with
                                                                                      contract sum of less than $10 million
                                                                                  •   Implementing the recommendations
                                                                                      of the MOM-MND joint review
                                                                                      committee, which includes:
                                                                                      (i) imposing statutory duties on
                                                                                            Professional Engineers (PEs)
                                                                                            undertaking temporary works;
                                                                                      (ii) requiring safety and health training
                                                                                            for all supervisors;
                                                                                      (iii) instituting regular site coordinating
                                                                                            meetings; and
                                                                                  •   Implementing a permit-to-work
                                                                                      system for selected hazardous work




Annexes



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      OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
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                                  REPORT




 Workplace Safety and Health
                                                     Replaced                                  Key Features
 (WSH) Subsidiary Legislation

                                           •   The First Schedule of the WSH    •   Extends coverage of the WSH Act to:
WSH (Amendment of First                        Act had limited coverage to          - Any hotel, lodging house, dormitory,
Schedule) Order 2007                           construction sites, shipyards,          service apartment, chalet, camping
                                               general factories, etc. Hence,          site or other premises where the
Enacted: 23 Nov 07                             the amendment was to extend             provision of short-stay
Effective: 1 Mar 08                            coverage of the Act to other            accommodation is carried out by
                                               workplaces in the six key               way of trade or for purposes of gain;
                                               sectors identified.
                                                                                    - Any restaurant, bar, canteen or other
                                                                                       premises where food or drinks are
                                                                                       sold or catered for consumption
                                                                                       within those premises or elsewhere;
                                                                                    - Any hospital, hospice, nursing home
                                                                                       or medical or dental clinic or other
                                                                                       premises providing nursing and
                                                                                       rehabilitation services;
                                                                                    - Any veterinary centre providing any
                                                                                       of the following services:
                                                                                       (i) diagnosis of disease in, and injuries
                                                                                           to, animals or birds, including tests
                                                                                           performed for diagnostic purposes;
                                                                                           and
                                                                                       (ii) the treatment, vaccination or
                                                                                            inoculation of animals or birds;
                                                                                    - Any premises where landscaping or
                                                                                       garden maintenance is carried out;
                                                                                    - Any premises where the collection,
                                                                                       purification or distribution of water is
                                                                                       carried out;
                                                                                    - Any premises where the disposal or
                                                                                       treatment of sewage or refuse is
                                                                                       carried out;
                                                                                    - Any premises where the recycling of
                                                                                       metal or non-metal waste or scrap is
                                                                                       carried out;
                                                                                    - Any premises where:
                                                                                       (i) freight forwarding, packing or
                                                                                           crating services;
                                                                                       (ii) cargo surveying services;
                                                                                       (iii) container services; or
                                                                                       (iv) crane services,
                                                                                    are carried out by way of trade or for
                                                                                    purposes of gain or incidentally to
                                                                                    another business so carried out




                                                                                                                                   Annexes



                                                                                                                               93
          Annex B: Strategic Intervention
          Control of Chemical Hazards - Examples of Engineering Control Solutions

          Portable Local Exhaust Ventilation for Printing Machine

          Workers in printing companies are potentially exposed to toluene vapours
          during printing. Printing inks and cleaners consist of a variety of solvents,
          including toluene. Solvent vapours are emitted during the printing process as
          inks and cleaners are applied across large surface areas.

          In one printing company, workers’ exposure to toluene was significantly
          reduced following the purchase of a low-cost portable local exhaust ventilation
          (LEV) system. The LEV was designed and custom-built to maximise its
          efficiency. The LEV consisted of:
            (i) a hood that is designed in accordance with the dimensions of the
                  printing rollers;
            (ii) a flexible duct to allow repositioning of the hood;
            (iii) a fan to provide the required air flow to adequately remove the solvent
                  vapours released
            (iv) a disposable activated carbon filter to remove the solvent vapours

          Control of Noise - Examples of Engineering Control Solutions

          Redesign of Superalloy Welding at Elevated Temperature box

          Superalloy Welding at Elevated Temperature (SWET) is a process in the repair of blades. To minimize oxidation, a
          constant flow of argon gas has to be maintained. Excessive noise was generated from the high rate of argon gas flow
          through the SWET box.

          The SWET box was redesigned in-house by a project team comprising of engineers and welders, to reduce the noise
          generated. Modification was made to the SWET weld box to reduce the noise level from 86.4dBA to 75dBA.
          The following are the modifications made:

                 (i) Reducing the depth of the welding box, thus reducing the argon flow rate.
                 (ii) Repositioning the argon outlets to face upwards and reducing the number of outlets used. This decreased
                      the hissing and high pitch noise generated.
                 (iii) Custom fitting the copper diffuser so as to prevent noise from emitting from the argon outlets.

          With the modification, a noise reduction of 11.4dBA was achieved at each SWET weld booth.




              Modified SWET box                  Modified argon outlet            Custom fit copper diffuser



Annexes



     94
       OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
        AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                   REPORT




Substitution of manual hacking with the use of Qui-Cutter

Conventional method of removing the overcast top portion of diaphragm wall is by manual hacking using breakers.
Workers operating the breaker are exposed to noise levels above 90 dBA and hand-transmitted vibrations.

The use of Qui Cutter to replace the hacking process successfully reduced the workers’ noise exposure and
eliminated the vibration they experienced. Qui Cutters are installed onto the reinforcement bars along the line where
the portion of the wall is to be removed. The Qui cutter will expand upon contact with the water in the cement. When
it reaches full expansion, the Qui Cutter weakens the cement structure around it and cracks will developed. This
allows for easy extraction of the top portion of the wall above where the cracks develop.

With the use of Qui Cutter, a noise reduction of approximately 14 dBA was achieved.




                      Installation of Qui Cutters               Lowering setup into trench




                     Visible cracks formed                          Extraction process




                                                                                                                        Annexes



                                                                                                                   95
          Annex C: Enhancing Self - Regulation
          Pre-requisite of a WSH Officer

          The Regulations stipulate that “A person may be granted approval to act as a WSH officer if he satisfies the
          Commissioner that he is sufficiently competent and is, in all other respects, a fit and proper person, to be entrusted
          to carry out the work of a WSH officer”.
          The guide recommends one to have the following criteria in order to be a registered WSH officer:

                (i) Possessed at least a degree or diploma in engineering, occupational safety, occupational health,
                      occupational hygiene, ergonomics, psychology, physics, chemistry, biochemistry or other topics relevant
                      to occupational safety and health; and
                (ii) Have successfully completed a course in relation to WSH officer; and
                (iii) Possessed at least 2 years of practical work experience in the field of occupational safety and health.

          Continuous Training and Development for WSH Officers

          It is imperative that practicing WSH Officers continue to keep themselves updated and relevant in the field of WSH.
          This was the broad intention behind regulation 5 which provides the Commissioner power to require the WSH
          Officers to attend training courses. In practice, this is manifested through the Safety Professional Units (SDU)
          scheme where WSH Officers can accumulate SDU points after attending seminars, conferences or workshops on
          relevant WSH topics in order to qualify for renewal of their certificate.




Annexes



     96
         OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
          AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                     REPORT



Annex D: Health Report

Notifiable Occupational Diseases

Occupational Diseases Reportable Under the Workplace Safety and Health
(Incident Reporting) Regulations

  1.    Aniline Poisoning
  2.    Anthrax
  3.    Arsenical Poisoning
  4.    Asbestosis
  5.    Barotrauma
  6.    Beryllium Poisoning
  7.    Byssinosis
  8.    Cadmium Poisoning
  9.    Carbamate Poisoning
  10.   Carbon bisulphide Poisoning
  11.   Chrome Ulceration
  12.   Chronic Benzene Poisoning
  13.   Compressed Air Illness
  14.   Cyanide Poisoning
  15.   Epitheliomatous Ulceration (due to tar, pitch, bitumen, mineral oil or
        paraffin or any compound product or residue of any such substance)
  16.   Hydrogen sulphide Poisoning
  17.   Lead Poisoning
  18.   Liver Angiosarcoma
  19.   Manganese Poisoning
  20.   Mercurial Poisoning
  21.   Mesothelioma
  22.   Noise Induced Deafness
  23.   Occupational Asthma
  24.   Occupational Skin Diseases
  25.   Organophosphate Poisoning
  26.   Phosphorus Poisoning
  27.   Poisoning From Halogen Derivatives of Hydrocarbons
  28.   Repetitive Strain Disorder Of The Upper Limb
  29.   Silicosis
  30.   Toxic Anaemia
  31.   Toxic Hepatitis


Prescribed Hazards Requiring Medical Examinations

Workers exposed to these hazards are required to undergo compulsory medical examinations under the
Factories (Medical Examinations) Regulations

   1.     Arsenic & its compounds                           11.   Mercury & its compounds
   2.     Asbestos                                          12.   Excessive Noise
   3.     Benzene                                           13.   Organophosphates
   4.     Bitumen                                           14.   Perchloroethylene
   5.     Cadmium & its compounds                           15.   Pitch
   6.     Work in a Compressed air environment              16.   Silica
   7.     Raw Cotton                                        17.   Tar
   8.     Creosote                                          18.   Trichloroethylene
   9.     Lead & its compounds                              19.   Vinyl chloride monomer
   10.    Manganese & its compounds




                                                                                                      Annexes



                                                                                                     97
          Annex E: : Papers/Presentations at Seminars and Conferences

          International Seminars/Conferences

                 NAME OF                                                                      TITLE OF PAPER /
           S/n                                             VENUE           DATE
                 CONFERENCE / SEMINAR                                                          PRESENTATION
                 OSH Seminar for Construction            Kuala Lumpur,   29 Jan 2007         “Improving OSH in the
            1                                                                                Construction Industry -
                 Industries, Malaysia Department of        Malaysia
                 OSH                                                                       Singapore Experience” by
                                                                                                Goh Chye Guan
                 Industrial Accident Prevention                           16 - 20 Apr
            2                                               Toronto,                       "Targeted Enforcement &
                 Association and International                               2007
                                                            Canada                        Inspection - The Singapore
                 Association of Labour Inspection                                        Experience" by Ho Siong Hin
                 Conferences

            3    Commemorative Labour Day, Brunei            Brunei      5 May 2007     “OSH - Singapore's Experience”
                 Labour Department                                                            by Goh Chye Guan

                 National Conference for Occupational                                    “WSH 2015 – A Strategy for
                                                           Malaysia       18 – 22 Jul
            4                                                                           Workplace Safety and Health in
                 Safety and Health                                           2007
                                                                                         Singapore” by Ho Siong Hin
                 Occupational Dermatology Project in      Surubaya,       1 - 3 Aug      "Investigation of Occupational
            5
                 Malang, Indonesia cum Annual             Indonesia         2007        Dermatoses" by Lee Hock Siang
                 Scientific Dermatology Conference
            6    ILO’s Conference on Making Decent        Dusseldorf,                   "Incentives for Safety and Health
                                                                         18 - 20 Sep
                 Work a Global Goal and a National         Germany                         Management for Small and
                                                                            2007
                 Reality                                                                Medium Enterprises in Singapore"
                                                                                                 by Ho Siong Hin

                 WHO Meeting on Occupational             Kuala Lumpur,   12 - 14 Nov    "Country Paper on Singapore's
            7
                 Safety and Health                         Malaysia         2007        WSH Profile" by Lee Hock Siang


            8    2nd International Meeting of Asian        Incheon,       20 - 23 Nov      "Establishment of New OSH
                 Occupational Health and Safety              Korea           2007       Framework and Risk Management
                 Research Institutions and Workshop                                      in Singapore" by Go Heng Huat

                 3rd Annual Hong Kong and China Safe       Hong Kong     26 Nov 2007       “Nurturing Safety Culture”
            9    Community Conference                                                         by Goh Chye Guan

                 International Occupational Safety and   Tokyo, Japan     29 Nov – 4     “Country Paper on Singapore’s
            10   Health Seminar, Japan International                       Dec 2007             WSH Profile” by
                 Safety and Health Association                                                Lam Kiang Hoong

                 ASEAN + 3 Policy Dialogue on            Kuala Lumpur,                  “Occupational Safety and Health
            11                                                             4 - 6 Dec
                 Occupational Safety and Health            Malaysia                       Management System – the
                                                                             2007
                 Management System                                                           Singapore Journey”
                                                                                            by Yeong Chark Sung




Annexes



     98
     OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
      AND HEALTH DIVISION   2007 ANNUAL
                                 REPORT



Local Seminars/Conferences
          NAME OF                                                DATE         TITLE OF PAPER /
S/n                                               VENUE
          CONFERENCE / SEMINAR                                                PRESENTATION
                                                                              1. "ProBE Priority Programmes
 1        Launch of Programme-based              Singapore   22 Mar 2007
                                                                             2007: Building Safer Workplaces
          Engagement (ProBE) 2007
                                                                                 Together" by Ismadi Mohd

 2        ProBE Priority Programme 1 -           Singapore   22 Mar 2007     1. "Case Study - Fall From Height
          Work @ Heights                                                        Accidents" by Sebastian Tan

                                                                              1. "Overview of WSH Accident
 3        ProBE Priority Programme 2 –           Singapore   22 Mar 2007      Statistics and Trends Involving
          Forklift                                                               Forklifts" by Tan Chor Yik.
                                                                                2. "Case Study of Accidents
                                                                               involving Forklift Operations"
                                                                                      by Teo Han Ping
                                                                              3. "Forklift Safety" by Alvin Yeo

 4        WSH Officers Conference 2007: The      Singapore    10 May 2007           1. Keynote Address
          OSH Professional & the Evolving                                              by Ho Siong Hi
          Framework                                                           2. "bizSAFE - Building Safety
                                                                              and Health in Your Business"
                                                                                      by Donovan Loh

 5        Seminar on the Launch of SS 532 :      Singapore   29 Jun 2007     1. "Workplace Safety & Health -
          2007 - The Storage of Flammable                                    Storage of Flammable Liquids"
          Liquids                                                                 by Yeong Chark Sung

                                                                             1. “Health Hazards in Healthcare
 6        41st Singapore – Malaysia Congress     Singapore     18 – 22 Jul
                                                                                  Sector” by Lucy Leong
          of Medicine                                             2007
                                                                             2. “Health Hazards in Hotel and
                                                                                   Restaurant Industry”
                                                                                       by Sylvia Teo
                                                                                 1. "Overview of Accident
 7        ProBE Priority Programme 3 - Lifting   Singapore    26 Jul 2007     Statistics and Trends Involving
          Equipment
                                                                                     Lifting Equipment"
                                                                                       by Thomas Teo
                                                                               2. "Case study on Accidents
                                                                               involving Lifting Equipment"
                                                                                  by Dr Goh Yang Miang
                                                                                3. "bizSAFE" by Henry Yeo

         Presentation to Visitors from Suzhou                                    "WSH 2015 and OSHD
 8                                               Singapore   24 Aug 2007
         Industrial Park                                                        Engagement Framework"
                                                                                   by Goh Chye Guan

 9       Presentation to Visitors from                                       "WSH 2015 and OSHD Engage-
                                                 Singapore   19 Sep 2007
         Shenzhen                                                                  ment Framework"
                                                                                  by Goh Chye Guan

 10      ProBE Priority Programme 4 - Work       Singapore   21 Sep 2007      1. "ProBE on Work in Noisy
         in Noisy Environment                                                Environment" by Yong Li Ching
                                                                                1. "Health Effects of Noise
 11      Noise Induced Deafness Prevention       Singapore   21 Sep 2007
                                                                              Exposure" by Dr Lucy Leong
         Programme
                                                                             2. "Overview of NID Prevention
                                                                              Programme" by Lui Hon Kee

 12      Business under Surveillance Seminar     Singapore   26 Sep 2007      "The OSH Culture Revolution"
                                                                                   by Hashim Mansoor

                                                                              1. "Promoting the Benefits of
         23rd Asia Pacific Occupational Safety   Singapore     31 Oct - 2
 13                                                                               WSH and Recognising
         & Health Organisation Conference &                    Nov 2007
                                                                             Best Practices" by Ho Siong Hin
         Exhibition                                                             2. "At-Risk Behaviour and
                                                                               Can-Do Attitude: Barriers in
                                                                                Developing a Sustainable           Annexes
                                                                                      Safety Culture"
                                                                                    by Sanjeev Baliyan
                                                                                                                  99
Acknowledgements
2007 OSHD Annual Report Production Team

Production Coordinators:

Kalsum Harun, Sean Chung, Sazali Pakpong

Segment Coordinators:

Goh Chin Keong, Priscilla Tan, Aw Kai Ren, Alvian Tan, Dr. Gan Siok Lin, Lim Su Ling, Kathrin Asenkerschbaumer,
Donovan Loh, Siti Syabanun, Ronald Cai, Dorothy Teng, Carol Yip

Picture Sponsors

Sembawang Shipyard Pte Ltd

PSA International Pte Ltd

Woh Hup Pte Ltd

Barotrauma pictures:

TBM cutter head, Working in cutter head chamber and Briefing workers before compressed air work

– courtesy of Taisei Corporation MRT Contract 854 and with assistance from WSH Manager, Ivan D'Souza,
  and Tunnel Engineer, Mike Boardman




                                                                                                                  Acknowledge -
                                                                                                                      ment



                                                                                                                  100
Ministry of Manpower
Occupational Safety and Health Division
18 Havelock Road
Singapore 059764
Tel (65) 64385122 Fax (65) 63171261
www.mom.gov.sg
mom_oshd@mom.gov.sg

				
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