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VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 5

									TALKING to YOUNG CHILDREN - The Age Rule


Use the child’s age to guide the number of words and sentences.
Use about one sentence for each year of child’s age.

Example: Introducing yourself (Some suggestions, not literal scripts)


2 – 3 years:   Hello. I’m your Judge (DYFS worker, lawyer etc.).
               My job is to talk to kids and help them.

3 – 4 years:   Hello. I’m your DYFS worker, (lawyer)
               My job is to help kids be safe and happy.
               I talk to kids about what they want and how they’re doing.

4 – 5 years:   Hello. I’m your lawyer (DYFS worker)
               My job is to help kids, so they can be safe and happy.
               I talk to kids about what they want, how they’re doing and feeling.
               I want to know about you to help you get what you need.

6 – 7 years:   Hello. I’m your Judge.
               My job is to decide what is best for children and their families.
               I talk to kids about their lives, what’s been happening, how
                  they’re doing, feeling and what they want.
               I also hear from grown-ups who are interested in kids, like
                  DYFS workers, lawyers, doctors and parents.
               I want to know about you to help me decide what will be good
                   for you.

8 – 10 years: Hello. I’m your lawyer.
              All kids who have DYFS workers and don’t live with their parents have
                  their own lawyers.
              My job is to I talk with kids about how they’re doing and their ideas
                 and feelings about what’s been happening.
              I want to talk with you about your life and especially what you want for
                  yourself and your family.
              You can tell me whatever you want and it can be just between you
                  and me because lawyers can keep things private.
               Private means I don’t have to tell anyone unless you
                  want me to tell, as long as you are not being hurt.
              I need to know about you so I can represent you.
              Represent means I can tell the people who are working to help you,
                 and especially your Judge, what you want and what you think about
                 things.
         STAGES of NORMAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Age        Stage              Primary Tasks                             Erikson
0–1        Infancy           Physical – Birth weight triples;       Basic Trust
                              Body control – reaches, grasps, rolls    vs.
                              Sits, stands, crawls, walks           Mistrust
                              Psychological - cries, rages, smiles,
                               laughs, mimics, plays peekaboo;
                               Recognizes primary caregivers,
                               Shows separation distress (9 months)
                              Language - coos, babbles, a few words
                                 Understands simple language

1–3        Toddlerhood       Phys. – Walks well, runs, jumps, climbs; Autonomy
                               Feeds self, builds, scribbles, colors      vs.
                             Psych. Explores, asserts, demands        Shame/Doubt
                               refuses, plays simple games;
                               Increased emotional range, confuses
                               reality & fantasy
                             Lang. – Uses phrases, short sentences
                               Understands simple instructions, questions
                               Uses verbs, knows body parts
                               Won’t always answer questions even
                                 when understands, often not logical

3–5        Pre-School         Phys.- Hops, skips, throws, draws,         Initiative
                                prints, constructs, feeds & toilets self   vs.
                              Psych. – Enjoys new adults, shares,         Guilt
                                takes turns, waits, early self-control
                                parallel and mutual play, frequent
                               make-believe, uncertain reality
                              Lang. – Uses full sentences;
                                Names objects, animals, colors
                                Recognizes some numbers, letters, words
                                Uses adverbs, adjectives. Can follow
                                3 step commands. Literal and concrete

6 – 10   Elementary School    Phys.- Steady growth, throws, catches     Industry
                              writes, reads, dresses self, academic      vs.
                               & athletic skills, games, team sports   Inferiority
                              Psych. Makes friends, values rules
                                Learning right/wrong & good/bad;
                                Knows today, yesterday, tomorrow,
                                Only at 9 years understands permanent,
                                never, death, real/not real
         STAGES of NORMAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Age        Stage             Primary Tasks                            Erikson
6 – 10   Elementary School   Lang.- Relates complex events;
                              Uses compound sentences;
                              Understands similarities, opposites,
                              Uses polite terms, social amenities;
                              By 10 accurately uses time & numbers

11 – 13 Pre-Adolescence      Phys. Begins physical/hormonal           Identity
                              changes of puberty; growth spurts;        vs.
                             Psych. Beg. Separation from family;      Role Confusion
                               Loyalty to peers; Questions authority;
                               Volatile, impulsive; Experiments with
                                forbidden; Organized problem-solving;
                               Knows truth/lies
                             Lang. Beg.abstract thought, formal
                               logic; Beg. to generate & assess
                               hypotheses; Beg. understand
                               ambivalence

13 –16   Early Adolescence   Phys. Advances through puberty;          Intimacy
                                hormonal disequilibrium;                  vs.
                                Increased strength, speed, skills      Isolation
                              Psych. Greater separation from family;
                                Increased loyalty to friends; Follows
                                peer codes/values; Romantic/sexual
                                relationships; Impulsive/impatient
                              Lang. Greater abstract thought; Beg.
                                 logical systems; Can use language to
                                 explain, clarify, expound; also to
                                 confuse, deceive, manipulate

16 – 19 Late Adolescence     Phys. Ending puberty; greater hormonal
                                balance; more adult appearance
                             Psych. Wants independence/freedom;
                                Feels equal to adults; Cocky/not
                                confident; More serious romantic choices;
                                More serious vocational/educational
                                planning
                             Lang. Can abstract, conceptualize,
                                understand moral dilemmas;
                                Can debate, refute, rationalize;
                                 Uses language like an adult
BARRIERS to OBTAINING RELIABLE INFORMATION

  AGE                  BARRIER

3 – 4 years             Fear: of strange interviewer; of getting into trouble;
                              of making parent(s)/other adults angry, upset.

                        Suggestibility: influences/instructions prior to interview;
                             wanting to give “right” answer; wanting to please.

                        Confusion about reality/fantasy:

                            Language weakness:

        *     *   *    *      *   *   *    *   *   *    *   *   *   *    *   *   *    *      *

5 – 6 years                 Fear: of getting into trouble; of getting another into trouble;
                                  of making parent(s)/other adults angry, upset.

                            Shame: feeling at fault, implicated in wrong-doing.

                        Suggestibility: influences/instructions prior to interview;
                                Wanting to give “right” answer.

                        Uncertainty about reality/fantasy.

        *     *   *    *      *   *   *    *   *   *    *   *   *   *    *   *   *    *      *

7 – 8 years             Fear: of getting into trouble; of getting another into trouble;
                               of making parent(s)/other adults angry, upset.

                            Shame: feeling at fault, implicated in wrong-doing.

                            Suggestibility: influences/instructions prior to interview;
                                   Wanting to give “right” answer.

                            Uncertainty about permanence, forever, never.

        *     *   *    *      *   *    *   *   *    *   *   *   *    *   *   *    *      *

9 – 10 years                Fear: of getting into trouble; of getting another into trouble;
                                  of making parent(s)/other adults angry, upset.

                            Shame: feeling at fault, implicated in wrong-doing.
                            External pressure: influences/instructions prior to interview.
BARRIERS to OBTAINING RELIABLE INFORMATION

   AGE              BARRIER

11 – 13 years       Fear:   of getting into trouble; of getting another into trouble;
                            of making parent(s)/other adults angry, upset.

                    Embarrassment: discomfort about nature of information.

                    Loyalty: code of secrecy; protecting others.

                    External pressure: influences/instructions prior to interview.

       *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *    *   *   *     *   *   *   *   *   *

14 – 16 years       Fear:   of getting another into trouble.

                    Embarrassment: discomfort about nature of information.

                    Loyalty: code of secrecy; protecting others.

                    Self-interest: consideration of cost/benefit of disclosure.

								
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