Table of Content
CHAPTER-1: ARCHITECTURAL MANAGEMENT AND PRACTICE
Architects in a Changing Environment
Data on the Managerial Tasks and Needs of Architects
Communication and Clarification between Client and Designer
CHAPTER-2: DESIGN MANAGEMENT
The Management of Building Flexibility in the Design Process
Planning Building Design Work
The Management of the Design Process
Construction Management for Architects
CHAPTER-3: PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Development Stages
Project Management Topics
The Role of Project Manager - Design and Build
CHAPTER-4: FACILITIES MANAGEMENTS
What is Facility Management?
Technology of building automation
CHAPTER-5: VALUE ENGINEERING AND QUALITY
Value Management – Its relevance to Managing Construction Projects
CHAPTER-6: COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE
Computer Architecture Topics
Computer Systems Architecture
The Principles for Responsible Management Education
CHAPTER-8: HUMAN RESOURCES
Managing the Professional Services Firm
What is Architecture Management?
To begin, it is important to define what we mean by "architecture management". By
"architecture", we are referring to the model hierarchy and organization, i.e., its topology. By
"management", we are referring to the act of using that architecture in new ways.
Architecture as a profession is the practice of providing architectural services. The practice of
architecture includes the planning, designing and oversight of a building's construction by an
architect. Architectural services typically address both feasibility and cost for the builder, as well as
function and aesthetics for the user.
In the 1440s, the Florentine architect, Alberti, wrote his di Re Aedificatoria, published in 1485,
a year before the first edition of Vitruvius, with which he was already familiar. Alberti gives the earliest
definition of the role of the architect. The architect is to be concerned firstly with the construction. This
encompasses all the practical matters of site, of materials and their limitations and of human
capabiliity. The second concern is "articulation"; the building must work and must please and suit the
needs of those who use it. The third concern of the architect is aesthetics, both of proportion and of
The role of the architect, although constantly not evolving, has been central to the design and
implementation of the environments in which people live. Architects must have the skills and
knowledge to design, plan and oversee a diverse range of projects, from a small residence to a large
The work of an architect is an interdisciplinary field, drawing upon mathematics, science, art,
technology, social sciences, politics and history, and often governed by the architect's personal
approach or philosophy. Vitruvius, the earliest known architectural theorist, states: "Architecture is a
science, arising out of many other sciences, and adorned with much and varied learning: by the help
of which a judgment is formed of those works which are the result of other arts." He adds that an
architect should be well versed in other fields of learning such as music and astronomy.
There are seven areas of research findings in the field of architect:
1. Process innovation, driven by advances in technology and better management, is a new,
significant distinguishing characteristic of leading architecture and engineering organizations and
their clients in Europe, Asia, and the United States.
2. The architecture, engineering, and construction markets are increasingly competitive, which is
changing the fundamental tenets of the design and construction economy. Competitive
pressures are increasing productivity and changing financial benchmarks of firms in the study.
3. Intelligent and integrated buildings are becoming the norm; they require increasingly
sophisticated architecture professional service delivery.
4. Globalization is forcing increased efficiency in the construction industry and is cited as lowering
architecture professional service fees.
5. Speed-to-market is forcing new fields of collaboration in architecture, including advanced design-
build models and more sophisticated forms of Internet project management and teaming models.
6. Building information modeling (BIM) is perceived as an important tool of change and competitive
advantage in architect for organizations transforming the A/E/C industry.
7. Building lifecycle management solutions will improve process and open new service expansion
doors for entrepreneurial firms and could further disperse and diversify their current offerings in
Study participants characterized the construction industry as being fragmented with a multitude
of design firms, contractors, owners, and suppliers. This fragmentation, inefficiency, and the resulting
frustrations are driving behavioral changes, which often lead to innovation in the marketplace.
In the initial stages the architects were concerned with every aspect of construction and building,
however in the last two decades their role has been streamlined and now they are involved in the
aesthetics of building and construction, while engineers look into the technicalities of bringing a
structure into being. Though modern day architects are in-charge of the look of a building, they have
to keep one important thing in mind that they have to consider the everyday needs of people. They
need to employ technology in a way to provide a livable environment.
Commercial architects have been specifically trained to identify the aesthetic qualities of any
space, along with the type of materials and modifications that are needed to enhance it. They have a
keen eye for selecting and organizing materials, spaces and objects in a functional and visually
pleasing way. In fact architects, in the field of commercial structures and building, are known to help
you define what you need to build, presenting you with cost-saving options. It is their prime duty to
trace the accurate combination of utility, style and price; thereby saving you time and money.
Usually architects go beyond just designing a structure; they involve themselves in every stage
of construction, supervising every department, right from the exterior approach to the building to the
landscaping; the interiors furniture and fixtures; basically everything from conception of ideas to
planning and final implementation.
The primary task of an architect is to the artistic and grandiose look of the building; today this
craft has taken on a more serious role in society. It goes beyond the appearance concentrating on the
functional aspects, safety measures and economical constraints. Basically, it is about constructing
something that is user-friendly, be it a residential complex, bungalow or a row house. Residential
architects keep these factors in mind when designing home structures for people to live in.
Once all the permissions are legalized and sanctioned, the residential architects have a firm
ground on which they can tread. With all specifications provided they begin to design the residential
complex. However, their job does not end there; they look into every aspect of construction till the
building is not complete. Apart from that incase of any repair work that is required over the years, they
are the first to be consulted so that no major damage is done.
During the learning stage, architects are taught about every areas of specialization, it is after
their graduation that they select which area or areas they would want to grow into. One such specific
branch of architecture is that of retail outlets. Basically, the retail architects take up assignments for
constructing retail structures and buildings. These could be malls, departmental stores, shopping
complexes, restaurants, hotels, coffee houses, etc.
The difference between residential and retail architecture is that the former is involved in
constructing homes with multiple rooms where people will live and the latter is about constructing
comfortable structures that should be able to entice people to visit as often as need be. So to speak,
the look of a shop, boutique or restaurant is what allures the customers and clients initially and if the
service and products are up to the mark then you have won them over.
Usually retail architects lend further services going beyond the basic construction of the
building or structure. They help in the interior designing and decoration too. Some even take up the
task of doing up the interiors instead of employing other specialists in this area. This is a better option
because when visualizing the retail outlet, the architect tends to create a picture of the interiors too.
The basic similarities between interior designers and interiors architects are:
They both are interior specialists of the constructed environment.
They both design internal spaces using a process that involves space-planning, selection of
material, services and expected use of space.
Keeping these similarities in mind there are fundamental differences between the two
professions. These being:
Interior designers tend to visualize space in terms of technical drawings and computer-aided
design; and for them color selection, material specifications and costing are of prime
importance. On the other hand an interior architect is trained to focus on space-planning,
conservation and relating the interiors with the external architectural aspects.
Interior designers take up assignments in the retail and residential sector; whereas architects
of the interiors work mainly for the commercial sector. Interiors architects are basically
specialists in the internal forms of a building. They are trained visualization and drawing skills,
which includes other aspects such as architectural drawing, rendering, model making and
computer packages such as 2D and 3D CAD, Architectural Desktop, Photoshop and 3D Studio
The fact is that of all the specialist areas in the building industry this is one of utmost
responsibility as it has an immediate impact on its users. In general the interior specialist is trained to
work on projects ranging from residences to the large commercial projects such as shopping malls,
office buildings and international hotels.
Urban Planning and Design architects
Urban planning and design architects deal with designing and constructing structures from the
municipal and metropolitan viewpoint. According to historic texts, Hippodamus of Greece is
considered the father of city planning, for his design of Miletus. According to Indian history books
urban planning and design architecture is not a new profession. In fact such architects were
responsible for the construction of the Harappan and Indus Valley Civilization, which is considered an
ideal in city construction till this date.
Apart from what is already mismanaged, urban planning and design architects have to keep in
mind the nagging issue increasing urban population. The urban planners and designers have to keep
in mind the need for homes and commercial properties, along with maintaining the natural, artistic
and historic heritage of the city. They also are involved in planning for pedestrians and other modes
of traffic, utilities and natural hazards, such as flood zones and earthquake prone areas.
Urban planning and design is not just about putting into structured order the concrete buildings
and constructions; or planning a regulated transportation system that includes the railway and
roadways. It goes further, as it also encompasses planning and creating green spots that is needed to
deal with the growing pollution hazards. Adding as much greenery into a concrete jungle will promote
better health standards of the inhabitants.
Before understanding the role of landscape architects, it is important to understand what
landscape architecture is. Basically this is the art, planning, design, management, preservation and
rehabilitation of land. The services of an architect specializing in landscaping could be used in
architectural design, site planning and development, environmental restoration, urban planning, park
and recreation planning and historic preservation.
The architects specializing in the area of landscaping take up projects and assignments that
Developing green zones in new areas
Creating aesthetic parkways and gardens for private public buildings and structures
Designing for schools, colleges, hospitals and hotels
Creating exquisite and attractive landscaping for public parks
Designing golf courses
Bringing greenery onto the highways and bridges and other transportation structures
Preservation and landscaping of historic monuments.
Those specializing in this area of architecture are not only adept with designing for the exterior
space, but also they have more or less complete knowledge of plants and the natural environment.
This helps them work in the fields of horticulture, forestry, nature conservation and agriculture.
Architecture as an Activity
When designing a building or other environment, one has to deal with a huge number of often
competing demands. These demands range from the practical needs of the people inhabiting the
space to various goals to create a beautiful, uplifting and protective environment. The patterns in this
category describe proven approaches to the task of organizing these needs and goals through the
Understanding and Using Patterns
Problem / Situation:
Architypes.net provides a public repository for architectural design "patterns".
The purpose of these patterns is:
1. to capture knowledge and ideas of what makes for successful architectural design, and
2. to organize that information in a way to make it most useful for someone designing a building or
other type of inhabited environment.
Specifically, these patterns aim to capture:
1. The goals we should keep in mind when designing buildings and other inhabited environments.
2. The fundamental problems we face in trying to achieve these goals.
3. Proven solutions and new ideas for how to address these problems and achieve these goals.
Successful design is rooted in a deep understanding of our goals and from observing and
devising patterns for achieving those goals. While this understanding is often intuitive in nature,
patterns provide a way to make some of that understanding explicit. In so doing, we create a
"language" that allows us to better think about, share and discuss these patterns.
The notion of pattern languages originated from Christopher Alexander and the book he co-
authored in 1977, A Pattern Language. That book captured approximately 250 patterns that the
authors observed in traditional architecture.
Architypes.net takes the notion of a pattern language a step further by creating a collaborative
repository for architectural patterns. Here, anyone can contribute ideas and observations, which are
reviewed and built upon by others from around the world. The result is that rather than being relatively
static, the pattern language is continuously refined and evolves organically.
It is important to recognize that patterns are not the be-all and end-all of successful
architectural design. Just as knowledge of notes and scales gives a composor or songwriter a
language to work with, think of patterns as the designer or architect's notes. In music, the real beauty
comes from how the notes are combined. Likewise in architecture, the real beauty comes from how
skillfully the right patterns and ideas are combined. When done well, the result is far more than just
the sum of the patterns.
1. Architectural Design Process
The process of designing a building, space or structure typically consists of these design
phases. It is important to understand and remind yourself of these phases, to bear in mind exactly
what you're trying to accomplish. And it does take time.
Remember that while the information and decisions made in one of these phases / stages forms the
basis of the subsequent stages, design is seldom a linear a process. Instead, one typically moves
back and forth between the phases, allowing ideas from more detailed designs to influence and
modify the overall design direction previously established.
Programming Phase: Programming is the activity of determining the "program", or set of needs that
a building needs to fulfill.
Schematic Design Phase: After establishing the program for a project, the focus in the architectural
design process shifts from what the problems are to how to solve those problems. During schematic
design, the focus is on the "scheme", or overall high-level design. Here, minor details should be
ignored to instead focus on creating a coherent solution that encompasis the project as a whole.
Design Development Phase: During the design development phase of the architectural design
process, the scheme is refined into the final design. In previous phases, the focus has been on the
project as a whole. During Design Development, in becomes important to give individual attention to
each aspect, each space and each detail of the project.
Construction Document Phase: At this stage of the architectural design process, the focus shifts
from design to communicating the design and providing all information necessary for construction.
2. General Design Principles
Having an understanding of universal design principles in your "design toolbox" can help in
framing and responding to a wide variety of design problems. The patterns in this category can be
applied to a variety of situations, and are often form the basis of patterns in many of the other
1) Additive vs. Subtractive
Problem / Situation
Space and form can be perceived as an additive or subtractive composition.
An additive composition is one in which pieces appear to have been combined together to create the
whole, much like pieces of clay added on to one another.
A subtractive composition is one in which bits appear to have been chipped away from a
monolithic block, much like a sculptor chips away pieces until the final sculpture is visible. The eye
fills in missing parts to see a whole solid as the unity of composition.
Problem / Situation
Our perception is relative. That is, we often perceive things in how they contrast or differ from
other things. Sometimes we perceive them as similar or the same. Human perception tends to
compare and contrast, thus if we are mindful of the mechanisms of perception, design could be used
to steer or influence (but not control) perceptions.
Create contrasts in materials, sizes of adjacent spaces, proportions of details, to make those
details stand out. In particular, use contrast in places where you need to get attention - such as
directing people's attention to the entry of a building.
Examples of contrasts include: round vs. square, tall vs. short, dark vs. slight, hard vs. soft,
smooth vs. rough, concave vs. convex, many vs. few, simple vs. complex.
Problem / Situation
When designing a building, structure or other built environment, consider the ways in which it
can be perceived:
By senses - not just sight, but sound, temperature, touch, even smell
By reason and intellect
By emotions - excitement, comfort, etc.
ARCHITECTURAL MANAGEMENT AND PRACTICE
Architects in a Changing Environment
The profession of Architecture and the services which its provides have gone full circle. The
early close relationship with the building process was curtailed for about one hundred years. It has
only been during the last decade that designers and builders have been allowed (by lifting their self-
imposed constraints) to come closer together. This has encouraged the Design and Build contracts
and the Management Fee contract procedures to flourish and come into common use.
During the past 250 years the nature of demand for the products of the building industry has
changed dramatically, and that for architectural services has come almost full circle. It has come from
the master builder informed in the classical styles of architecture, or some dialect of them, to that of
the master builder capable of delivering a building at a price whose performance equates with a user-
need (which may be commercial, industrial, monumental or domestic).
The industrial revolution expanded the building market. It introduced new clients—developers,
industrialists, the investors in docks, harbors and railways, public corporations and many more. At
first the work called only for the traditional craft skills with which architects were familiar, but as new
techniques and materials came into use and called for engineering design skills in order to fit them for
construction, new professional associates entered the field.
Occupations which were formerly the province of the upper streams of society began to
expand to meet burgeoning opportunity. Professional institutions and new centres of learning
expanded the scope for those with, ability to serve society. Architects faced a situation in which the
demand-led expansion created scope for exploitation by unscrupulous developers and builders. In an
attempt to maintain their image as a profession they debated whether to retain in their number the
measurers, developers, contractors and others, some of whom also offered design services. They
decided on exclusion. The role of the architect as the independent, educated, gentleman designer
became the model of the 19th century. It eschewed speculation and fee competition, and claimed the
independent status permitting action as an impartial arbitor between client and contractor.
There were consequences. Associated professions, which also had concern for status,
identified their own professional role and the standards to fulfill. Their expertise developed in isolation.
Its exploitation was their justification as a practice. The pace and pressure of technology,
spurred by concern for economy, exacerbated the process of fragmentation. Undergraduate studies
were later to reflect the patterns of professionalism.
It was Philibert De l‘Orme in the 16th century who felt that during his time the profession of
architecture was becoming more specialised, that it was more clearly defining its responsibilities and
privileges (A. Blunt). It is interesting that De l‘Orme criticised the patrons of his time for choosing
master masons and carpenters and even painters to design their buildings, rather than architects.
It took such people as Paladio, Michelangelo and Bramante to create awareness of the
distinction between designers and craftsmen/ constructors so that, by the end of the 16th century,
Alberti was able to write ―the craftsman is merely an instrument of the architect.‖ (Campbell).
No clear pattern had emerged by the 18th century. In 1747 Campbell wrote of architects as
either agreeing with the client to build for a fixed price or to be paid for supervising tradesmen who
were to be selected by the architect. In both cases, the architect (who may have been a master
tradesman) was responsible for the employment and dismissal of the workforce.
It seems that during the 19th century also, the role and definition of an architect was
undefined. Many architects acted as developers and designed, constructed and financed vast areas
of new housing in the industrial cities. Men such as Cubitt (1785-1861) in London, and Watson
Fothergill (1844-1928) in Nottingham, proved that the architect could retain his stature as a designer
whilst involving himself in the business of construction. Many fine examples of their work exist to this
Being at the sharp end of the construction process must have allowed the contemporary 19th
century architect to observe at first hand the activities of the construction operatives. They would
have seen the individual craft lodges develop into united single-trade unions, and in 1831 or 1832
(Place MSS) the formation of a General Union (Houldsworth). The formation of The Builders‘ Society
in 1834 must have further isolated the architects from the rest of the construction industry, and in
1835 the RIBA was founded.
Whilst the early builders‘ associations were essentially ‗reactive‘ institutions which were formed
in hurried response to crises in industrial relations, the RIBA appears from the outset to have had
crusading motivations. It imposed constraints on the professional standing of the Institute.
Restrictions from practicing all activities outside the confines of the design and supervision of that
design were imposed. No more the Master Builder; no more the Developer; no longer a natural
involvement in the construction process. In short, architects isolated the design function from the very
products of their own efforts—buildings.
The early RIBA addressed itself to the full comforts of protectionism. A mandatory fee system
was imposed on the members. The numbers of young men and women entering the profession were
monitored and controlled through the Institute‘s entry procedures. Codes of conduct of the members
and conditions of engagement were cheerfully accepted by the architectural fraternity. The architect‘s
unique position within standard building contracts was established, which allowed him to be an agent
of the employer whilst at the same time he could be the arbitrator of disputes between the contractor
and the employer.
The pattern was set for architects to devote their energies to the production of fine
architecture. Work was plentiful, particularly between the wars. All of this amounted to a situation
where British architects did not have to concern themselves with commercial matters, with finance,
organisation and management. Their profits were assured and their future appeared healthy.
There was an error in the reasoning. In the 20th century the centres of largely labour-intensive
industry extended to accommodate a larger and more mobile population. The distribution of electricity
and the availability of the motor car gave flexibility for the development of land which had, hitherto,
not commended itself. The road network grew and did not suffer the limitations of the rail systems and
canals that preceded it as the principal arteries. Again, the architect allowed other parts of the
industry to exploit the opportunity, and the acres of semi-detached houses, the council house estates
and much industrial and commercial development proceeded without their influence.
Ribbon development, the control of which abuse led to the creation of housing estates, was the
only planning constraint on the random development of urban facilities to accommodate the new
communities. The product has been much criticised. At the end of the Second World War the need
was expressed to introduce a system of town planning. In the event the nature of the legislation was
bureaucratic, it gave little if any scope for a creative approach to the architectural treatment of towns
and cities. Its structures were dictated more by the traffic pattern and the client‘s return on investment
than future townscapes. Yet another profession (that of Town Planning) emerged.
The manner in which architects dealt with the individual commissions, particularly in the
building boom of the late ‗60s and early ‗70s, gained few plaudits. Failure to establish their influence
at the pinnacle of public need led to its decline to the point when associated professions believed that
their training and experience was more nearly aligned to the principal components of client demand.
The aesthetics of building had become subsidiary to its site occupancy and its technical
economy. Much of the investment was public. Concern led to criticism.
This concern about the construction industry in general and the design professions in
particular, has been shown by a number of British governments. The Emmerson Report was the first
to notice the gap between those who design and those who actually build and who recommended, in
order to improve efficiency, that ways should be found which might bring the two processes closer
In 1964 a further Government committee under the chairmanship of Sir Harold Banwell stated:
As the complexity of construction work increases, the need for a design team at the outset,
with all those participating in the design as full members, is vital.
Restrictions on the activities of members of the professional institutions needs to be re-
The use of unorthodox methods of contract procedures has advantages which should not be
lost to members of the Public Sector through rigid adherence to outmoded procedures.
It appears that the RIBA (which was the main target of the Banwell Report, found little cause to
pursue the recommendations. In an act of further concern the UK Government published a follow-up
report in 1967 misfiled ‗Action on Banwell. This spelt out the inaction arising from the 1964
Change, nevertheless, was inevitable. During the following twenty years local authorities (such
as Nottinghamshire, which pioneered the CLASP system) experimented with new techniques and
management systems. Contractors undertook Design and Build responsibilities. Project Management
was applied to major construction processes. Management of works for a fee by a management
contractor became acceptable; indeed, it was welcomed by the large chain stores, commercialists
and industrial clients. The architect‘s role consequently shifted with each new opportunity.
The architects began not only to lose their traditional position as leader of the construction
team, but to find that they were faced with competition from outside as well as from within their ranks.
Building surveyors, construction technicians and many others offered design skills to the public for a
low fee. The RIBA could no longer impose its recommended scale of fees and the cold wind of
competition began to erode the vestiges of comfort and security.
The decline of the economy in the late 1970s and the accession to power of a government with
a harsher view of social responsibility and practices in restriction of trade led to a severe building
slump. The industry sought new fields. The oil-rich countries had little patience with the idea of client
participation in the minutiae of the building process; they wanted a satisfactory functioning building at
a price and on time. The architect and patron model was dismissed for that of the designer and
supplier of a product. The climate was ripe for the development of project management extending
from inception to completion.
It has only been during the past few years that social and economic pressures have created a
climate in which Banwell could flourish. In an act of unprecedented courage, the RIBA abolished, in
1983, the scale of mandatory fees. This, it must be said, followed a criticism from the Office of Fair
Trading and also a Monopolies Commission Report on advertising by solicitors, vets and
The fee scale was not the only thing to go; restrictions on advertising were lifted; the ‗directors
rule‘ was also abolished. Architects could again practice the art of building as well as the skill of
design. Architecture as a profession had returned (if it wanted) to the status of a Master Builder and
could, after a lapse of one hundred years, be totally involved in the full production of buildings.
During 1983 two important publications were produced: ‗Faster Buildings‘ and the ‗Manual of
the BPF System‘, both illustrating the degree of experimentation which was taking place at that time.
The former analysed the differing management techniques on five thousand industrial contracts with
a variety of roles for the architect. The latter suggested an unorthodox approach to the management
of both the design and construction processes.
Not only were dramatic changes taking place in the UK, but other countries were also involved
in this revolution. The main conclusion of the 1984 Conference of Architects in the Commonwealth
Countries was that architects were performing management functions which were beyond their basic
architectural education and experience Architectural education was, and still is, design-centred with
little regard for the management of the design process. Furthermore, few schools of architecture take
seriously the whole subject of ‗Architectural Management. ‘
John Carter in the Architects Journal, was one of the first commentators on the new roles of
architects—he said ―that the new-found (1981) freedom of architects to initiate speculation or to direct
building or component companies, must be used to broaden and deepen the profession‘s educational
base.‖ Regrettably the RIBA, whilst allowing the practitioners to have freedom of operations, has not
yet revised its traditional thinking on educational parameters for future architects.
The full circle therefore has been turned—practice and educational training need to rethink the
traditional values and look towards a new and vital industry. Alan Meikle, the former County Architect
of Hereford and Worcester County Council, in supporting the then proposed Code of Conduct said,
―So, if we are to retain the initiative in our affairs, we must react to these changes in our work, the
building industry and the society in which we live.‖
Data on the Managerial Tasks and Needs of Architects
A survey of members of the Royal Institute of British Architects carried out in 1986 indicated
that architects of all ages recognized that they had a great need for managerial knowledge and skills.
In this survey data was obtained by sending a questionnaire to 1 in 20 members in the UK, and some
were also interviewed.
The data obtained indicated that architects of all ages have a great need for managerial
knowledge and skills, and that most of them believe they have been insufficiently prepared, by way of
formal education and training, in many of these, particularly in the human relations, financial,
organization and contractual skills.
The detailed results indicated the relative importance of expertise in estimating, planning,
marketing, organization, contrast, law, safety, work study and other managerial subjects. The data
showed how the use and need of this expertise varied with age, level of responsibility, type of
employer and size of organization, and whether the members sampled had received any training in
the subjects needed, what training they saw as needed, and what were their problems in construction
management. The survey provided a basis for policies on how much tuition and guidance on
managerial subjects should be included in courses and training at various stages in architects
The 1986 survey was carried out by the Technological Management Unit of the University of
Bradford with assistance and advice from senior members and staff of the RIBA.
The costs of employing research staff to prepare the questionnaire, supervise its distribution,
prepare the answered questionnaires for data processing, analyze the results, interview some
respondents and help draft this report were met by a grant from the Science and Engineering
Research Council under their specially promoted programmed for research in construction
management. The RIBA undertook the work of selecting a sample of their members, provided postal
labels addressed to them, and gave comments on the results and drafts for this report. The University
met the costs of coordinating the survey and of the data processing.
The survey was designed to obtain data on:
1. The relative importance of expertise in estimating, planning, marketing, motivating,
organizational and contractual relationship, law, safety, work study and other managerial
2. How these needs very with age, level of responsibility, type of employer and size of organization.
3. Whether training had been obtained in the subjects needed, either initially or later in careers, and
what training was needed for future responsibilities.
4. What were their problems in construction management
5. What were their comments on such a survey?
Posting a questionnaire to a random sample of the RIBA members was chosen as the main
method of obtaining data, followed by interviewing of a few respondents. This choice of method was
based upon experience gained by us in a series of surveys of the managerial needs of engineer and
The use of a postal questionnaire enabled us to obtain a large amount of data in a relatively
short period of time. This method has limitations in producing qualitative information and certainty
about the meaning of word used, but the interviews though few in number had the value of indicating
that the results obtained from the questionnaire were not misleading.
From an inspection of the data obtained we have no reason to doubt that the sample of RIBA
Members was representative, and many of the answers accord with what would be expected. One
might conjecture that the members with more managerial jobs or aspirations might tend to be those
who answered the questionnaire. The few respondents who were interviewed did not confirm this. We
hope therefore that the high rate of response achieved may mean that the membership was
represented sufficiently well for the purpose, although the possibilities of error or bias should be borne
in mind when using these results.
Need for Managerial Professionalism
The data indicated that the work of the majority of RIBA members requires expertise in
personal skills, negotiating and many other aspects of job, project and office management for which
they were not trained formally and are thus expected to learn by experience.
Although data obtained from current employment should not be taken as entirely relevant to
future needs, it does provide a start to discussing what may be needed. The data obtained in this
survey may be most relevant in indicating what is needed by the youngest members. In discussing
the actions needed in the qualifications of architects, a distinction can therefore be made between the
instruction initially required in these managerial subjects and the further training required as a
The data obtained indicated that most training for management needs to be completed by
about the age of 40, if it is to be most use. The detail indicated that many of the subjects listed were
required, but we think that the content of skills and experience required in them will be different from
those required early in careers. The data obtained also indicated that the needs which respondents
thought they required varied with size and type of employment, but it should be noted that those
interviewed in private and public offices stated that the needs were now broader than the traditional
ones and demanded that personal skills and business expertise should be gained faster and better
than by experience alone.
Repeating the Survey
A repeat of the survey would produce up-to-date data on architects to provide a guide to their
needs in their jobs and careers. If repeated it would also indicate trends, and so help make
predictions. We do not have the resources to undertake another survey, but we could be willing to
assist with planning any further work. The questionnaire is freely available for re-use and all the data
obtained is accessible for further analysis.
Communication and Clarification between Designer and Client
The benefits of clarification of the design brief are examined. It is concluded that such
clarification constitutes good practices. It is further contended that it is part of the legal obligation
normally undertaken between architect and client where the former is the principal designer and the
latter the building owner.
Dispute arising from building failure derive wholly or partly from a mismatch of knowledge and
expectation between building owner/client and professional designer. Even the term building failure is
a loaded one, since the perception of non-performance or under-performance may not be shared.
The mismatch may derive from a number of factors. There may be disparate degrees of experience
and expertise between client and designer. The mismatch could be the converse, although it is
suggested that this would be comparatively rare, viz. an expert client and an incompetent designer.
Related to but not always co-extensive with, the question of knowledge is that of expectation. Client
from expectations which are either inconsistent with those of the designer or even inconsistent with
what any designer might accept as realistic. Some of them expectations are formed in good faith but
grounded in ignorance. This may be ignorance of what this designer can do, ignorance of what any
designer can do ignorance of the relationship between cost and quality, ignorance of the properties
and life of materials. Other expectations may be grounded in greed or self-deception; a belief that
something can be had for nothing or very little, or that designer can be expected to find miracle
solutions to insoluble problems.
Designer too, on the other side of the equation form expectations. They may expect too much
of clients, especially inexpert clients. This is particularly so when it comes to limitations of products or
design solutions. Where the design is severely constrained by the client‘s budget, it may be self-
evident to the designer that lower standards of performance and or life are the natural sequitur. The
architect has a better chance than most clients of making an accurate prediction of the life of any
product or building. The same is true of risk. Architects, while they are not building scientists or
chemists, are still better placed than most clients to advise of the degree of risk in specifying a
There is nothing inherently wrong in the existence of such a mismatch. Initially, at least, it must
be a common phenomenon. But it is the role of communication to reduce the disparity in knowledge
by diffusion, i.e. from where there is more to where there is less. It is the role of communication to
bring closer together the expectations of the parties, so that the designer better understands the
client‘s aspirations and beliefs and can respond to them in what he produces or can seek to modify
them if they cannot be met. If that communication does not take place, or is significantly imperfect,
the mismatch of expectations, of purpose, even, is likely to persist through and after the project.
It is important that the designer takes the client with him in the sense of explaining the degree
of risk in alternative options and advising on choice. In Victoria University of Manchester, the design
called for a reinforced concrete extension to be clad in red brick and ceramic tiles, to achieve
aesthetic consistency with the existing University building. The tilling adhesive failed and the clients
sued the architects. Judge Newy, giving judgment against the architects emphasized that ―Architects
who are venturing into the untried or little tried would be wise to warn their clients specifically of what
they are doing and to obtain their express approval‖. It needs only to be added that the warning and
approval should be written, as in exchange of correspondence. This will remind both parties of what
was said and help to avoid a dispute arising from what has been called euphemistically selective
There is authority for the proposition that there are general legal obligations upon designer to
take the initiative in clarifying the client‘s objectives and thus the design brief. The duty to be positive
and pro-active in informing the client was examined in the important decision of Richard Roberts
Holdings and Douglas Smith Stimson Partnership where an architect was held liable in negligence in
failing to advise of the unsuitability of the material used for the lining of an effluent cooling tank. Again
there was the feature of reticence in expressing a lack of expertise. As the judge commented ―If the
architects felt that they could not form a reliable judgment about the lining for the tank, they should
have informed (the clients) of that fact and advised them to take other advice, possibly from a
chemist‖. The value of this case, though, particularly lies in the court‘s perception of a pro-active and
interpretative function of the architect. The defense was that the architects had forwarded much trade
information was given without analysis and virtually without comment.
The most powerful exposition of the obligation to clarify the design brief is to be found in
Stormont main Working Men‘s Club and Roscoe Milne Partnership. The Stormont Main case should
dispel any doubt as to the existence of a positive duty on the part of designers to clarify the design
brief. The factual background of the case is explored by the author in his 1989 Architect‘s Liability
article. The nub of the dispute between client and the architect was whether a games room was
intended to be for recreational games only or to be suitable for top-class competitive and exhibition
snooker, which proved impossible in the finished building because of space constrains. Judge
Bowsher was unequivocal in his view of the architect‘s duty.
The designer who is unclear as to the client‘s objectives as they appear from the brief can only
protect his interests and those of the client by seeking and obtaining written clarification. The
Stormont Main litigation could also have been avoided by greater adherence to this point. It is
submitted in conclusion that good practice and legal obligation converge to demand greater attention
to positive communication as between designer and client.
At the time we enter into architectural service relationships, we seldom envision how we would
conduct ourselves if the assignment should come to a premature end. We also do not think about
how the client might act in the circumstances.
Most client relationships begin in an environment of cheerful optimism and confidence in the
future. Both client and architect are hopeful, trusting, and enthusiastic. The last thing either would
want to think about at this time would be how to end the relationship. Thus, the termination provisions
of the typical architectural contract are seldom, if ever, negotiated to any great extent or even
Letter Agreements or No Agreement
Architects who proceed with a brief letter agreement, or no written agreement at all, will have
no behavioral guidelines for themselves or their clients. Often, severe disappointment in the
temporary or permanent collapse of the project or the relationship will cause the parties to act in
bizarre, unwarranted, or hasty manners.
In some cases, the winding up of the business part of the relationship falls into irresolvable
disagreement and becomes a formidable legal matter to be settled by lawyers and, possibly, the court
The more efficient and economical arbitration process is usually not available to those without
a written agreement, and most letter agreements do not contain an arbitration clause. Mediation or
arbitration is only possible if both parties agree to it in writing, and this may not be possible when
relations are strained.
Even though suspension or termination happens infrequently, well thought-out architectural
service agreements will always have appropriate provisions for the occasional need. The AIA
standard form of owner-architect contract, B141- 1997, has a practical approach to the various types
of suspension or termination. Most of us will never study, or even look at, these few paragraphs
unless a termination or suspension is imminent.
Suspension or Termination by the Client
For the Client’s Convenience and Without Cause: The client may suspend or terminate the project
or the architect‘s services at any time for convenience and without cause, upon written notice.
Architect’s Substantial Nonperformance: The client may terminate the agreement at any time,
upon written notice, if the architect fails substantially to perform any of the requirements of the
agreement through no fault of the client. Examples of an architect‘s substantial nonperformance are
not given in the agreement. Some that readily come to mind are missing important deadlines, failing
to follow the program or other client instructions, failure to meet the client‘s budget, or failure to keep
the client informed of important matters.
Suspension or Termination by the Architect
Client’s Failure to Pay: The architect may terminate the contract or suspend the services, upon
written notice, if the client fails to make payments in accordance with the agreement. Nonpayment of
the architect‘s fee is the only example of substantial nonperformance specifically mentioned in the
Client’s Substantial Nonperformance: The architect is also entitled to terminate the agreement if
there is any other substantial nonperformance by the client. Other examples that could be included
are failure to provide program and site information when needed or failure to provide reviews,
decisions, and approvals in a timely manner.
Client’s Suspension Over 90 Days: The agreement may be terminated by the architect, upon
written notice, when the client has suspended the project or the architect‘s services for more than 90
Architect’s Liability for Delay: The agreement provides that the architect has no liability to the client
for any delay or damage to the client caused by the suspension of services.
Payment to the Architect: Before resuming services after over 30 consecutive days of suspension
ordered by the client, or after an architect‘s suspension of services on account of nonpayment, the
client must pay all sums due prior to suspension and all expenses incurred in the interruption and
resumption of services. The fees for remaining services and the time schedule must be equitably
When a termination is not the fault of the architect, the client must pay for all services
performed before the termination, all reimbursable expenses then due, and all termination expenses.
Personality Conflict: Occasionally, an architect or client finds that they are temperamentally
unsuited to continue dealing with each other for various personal or personality reasons. Some
people seem or appear arrogant, impolite, irresponsible, pompous, condescending, or, in some way
When this happens, B141 allows the client to opt out at any time by invocation of the privilege
of termination for convenience or without cause.
However, this escape clause is not available to the architect, who must stick it out, regardless
of personal aversions. The only way out is if the client and architect are mutually willing to call it quits.
In this case they must agree on acceptable terms for termination of the agreement.
Written Notice: All required notices must be given by the architect to the client or by the client to the
architect, in writing and must be given at least seven days in advance of the action that will be taken.
Any notices to be given should be carefully drawn.
The Client’s Continuing Use of the Documents: The AIA agreement grants the client a
nonexclusive license to reproduce the architect‘s drawings, specifications, and other instruments of
service solely for the purposes of constructing the building and maintaining it thereafter. This license
is valid only if the client has paid for the architect‘s services and has otherwise complied with the
This license is terminated when the agreement is terminated. The client is obligated, within
seven days of the termination, to return all originals and copies of instruments of service to the
However, if the architect is adjudged in default under the agreement, then the client has the
right to hire other similarly qualified design professionals to reproduce and use the instruments of
service to complete and maintain the building.
What to Do: In the event that you are considering a suspension or termination, or if you have been
suspended or terminated by your client, read your agreement carefully to determine your rights and
obligations. Considering that this is usually an important and costly move for all concerned, all
requirements and procedures of the agreement should be carried out exactly as specified. It would be
wise to confer with your lawyer before taking any irrevocable actions.
Design management is an approach whereby organizations make design-relevant decisions in
a market and customer-oriented way as well as optimizing design-relevant (enterprise-) processes. It
is a long-continuous comprehensive activity on all levels of business performance. Design
management acts in the interface of management and design and functions as link between the
platforms of technology, design, design thinking, management and marketing at internal and external
interfaces of the enterprise.
Views on Design Management
Different views on design management
Design management is no model that can be projected on any enterprise, no application with
linear functionalities and no specific way that leads to success. Rather design management
processes are accomplished by humans with different authorities and trainings, who work in different
fields of enterprises with different sizes, traditions and industries and they have very different target
groups and markets to serve. Design management is multifarious and like that are their different
opinions about design management. The design management topics show an overview of the
spectrum what design managers deal with. Many agencies are limited to sub ranges and supplement
thereby their classical applied design range.
Design management and marketing
Design management and marketing have many common intersections. In the marketing, which
was developed in the 1960s, design became ever more important. In the beginning, design was
understood as a marketing instrument, it further developed itself and today it can be seen on the
same level as management. Today's management theories speak of an equal partnership between
marketing management, product management and design management.
Design management versus design leadership
In the every-day-business design managers often operate in the area of design leadership. But
design management and design leadership are not interchangeable. Like the differences between
management and leadership they differ in their objectives, achievements of objective accomplishment
and outcomes. Design leadership is pro-active it leads from a vision, over the communication, the
convey of meaning and collaboration through motivation, enthusiasm and attaining of needs, to
changes, innovations and creative solutions. Thereby it describes the futures needs and chooses a
direction in order to get to that described future. In contrast, design management is re-active and is
responding to a given business situation by using specific skills, tools, methods and techniques.
Design management and design leadership depend on each other, design management needs
design leadership to know where to go and design leadership needs design management to know
how to go there.
Strategic Design Management
Design is rapidly becoming the key to differentiation, premium realization and brand
positioning. The need for strategically managing design, projects, processes, new design related
areas and leading innovation have become significant in the job description of not only managers but
also designers who want to move up the value chain, either in corporate or through their own design
Since NID has a spectrum of design faculties and disciplines, a multidisciplinary approach is
inherent in the scheme of things here than in any other business schools. The Strategic Design
Management programme draws upon from several design disciplines available at NID under faculties
of Industrial Design, communication Design, Textile, Apparel and Merchandising Design, and I.T.
Integrated (Experiential) Design. This 2-year programme would enable the students to develop
design leadership and entrepreneurial skills and empower them to become wealth creators in the
SDM will empower the students to employ design advantage to its full potential for business
success and societal transformation. The programme will help students to generate strategies that
enable the use of design for creating value desired value perception and differentiation. SDM is
basically an evolving business function that acts as an integrator of all the various business functions
and also facilitates a bridge between the producers and the consumers in order to create a strategic
and systemically coherent image and economic value for the business.
As a design manager, a person is involved with strategies, action plans and processes. Critical
functions such as Innovation, New Product Development, Packaging, Retail Impact, Competitive
Analysis, Design Measurement, Sustainability and Customer Delight issues are in the ambit of the
Design Manager. It also involves Design Research, Scenario Building and Trend Forecasting,
creating a right Design Mix, Branding and Design Communication strategies. The programme will
also inculcate the spirit of anticipating and aligning design & innovation-led future corporate strategies
to current and emerging socially responsible business landscape.
The programme enables students to participate in lectures, seminars, incubation clinics and
workshops to develop their design management competencies as leaders and entrepreneurial design
managers in the respective organisations. Participative and realistic simulation studies will form the
backbone of the programme and students will be encouraged to produce their own real life case
studies. The programme has been developed with the involvement of leading academicians from
several involvement of leading academicians from several countries in the field of design and design
management and its inputs are based on latest learning pedagogies requiring a distinct openness for
the same in the students. NID has a close working relationship with industry and collaboration with
internationally renowned institutes.
The Management of Building Flexibility in the Design Process
A building may have three types of flexibility: a) service flexibility is important to the building's
users, b) modifiability interests especially the owner, and c) long-term adaptability is a key factor
especially in the stratification of the urban structure and the cultural environment. A new indicator, the
Flexibility Degree, was developed as part of this study to measure building modifiability. Clear
phasing of the design process facilitates consideration of modifiability in the construction process. In
the goal-setting phase the design team analyzes the client's expressed needs and commits together
with representatives of the client to set flexibility goals. In the design solution phase the designers
work out a solution proposal, a modifiability concept, which describes the principles of how flexibility is
implemented in different parts and systems of a building. Only in the third phase, the implementation
design phase, are detailed technical plans drawn for implementing the solutions.
Flexibility is a property of a building that is realized to some extent in all projects, even if it had not
been actually taken into account in goal setting. Until now the problem has been that flexibility has
been perceived as an ambiguous, immeasurable concept. Moreover, it means different things to
different interest groups. The user is typically interested in the flexibility of the spaces used in daily
activities whereas the owner has also reason to consider flexibility over the medium and long term.
Unconsidered investment of resources in flexibility may lead to unnecessary expenditure that
does not necessarily result in flexibility in connection with actual changes. On the other hand, rigid
design solutions may increase dissatisfaction among users and unrentable space. Thus, flexibility is a
key parameter in the real estate business.
Flexibility can be affected most effectively by controlling design and construction. When the
building is finished, the possibility to have an impact on its flexibility is much more constrained since it
is implemented through frame solutions, floor heights, building services ductwork, etc. which are
expensive to change afterwards.
Below follows an examination of the flexibility concepts from the viewpoints of the various
parties to the real estate business. The user of spaces is interested in a different type of flexibility
than the building owner.
This type of flexibility refers to the building‘s ability to adapt to recurrent quick changes in
loading. Changes in loading are the result of, for instance, changes in the number of people in a
space, changes in the activity conducted in a space, etc. Service flexibility affects strongly the
productivity of the activity in the space. Thus, it is especially important for users. It can be improved
by, for instance, movable partitions and adjustable ventilation.
Modifiability of a building refers to its capacity to meet the changing needs of its users. Needs
change, for instance, as the users change or the business of current users changes. This type of
flexibility is an especially important property for the property owner. It can be improved by, for
instance, "loose" dimensioning of building services and system walls.
Long-term adaptability of a building refers to its adaptability to unknown activities and uses.
Adaptability is an important property for the property owner, for instance, when buying or selling a
building. It is also a major factor especially from the viewpoint of urban structure and the environment.
The long-term adaptability of old industrial properties has been particularly good thanks to high floor
heights and long spans. Their conversion to office and residential use has been possible and relevant
in several recent construction projects. The adaptability of a building can be assessed primarily by
comparing certain of its properties to "universal" criteria. Adaptability depends on, for instance, floor
height, spans, permissible floor loads and, for instance, a building‘s location in the community
A new indicator, the Flexibility Degree (FlexD), was developed as part of this study to
measure building modifiability. The Flexibility Degree can be made use of in design management
and, especially, in profitability comparison of implementation alternatives. Flexibility Degree can be
determined for an individual space, a space unit, or an entire building. Flexibility Degree is
determined by subtracting Rehabilitation Degree (RD) resulting from the renovation work from one
hundred percent, i.e. FlexD (%) = 100 % - RD (%). Rehabilitation Degree refers to the costs of
rehabilitation, as a percentage of new construction costs, required to produce quality corresponding
to the spatial standards of new construction.
Flexibility management in the design and construction process
Clear phasing of the design process facilitates consideration of flexibility in the construction
process. As earlier stated, today's methods are solution-oriented. This is due the fact that clear
project-specific goals have not been set. Thus, designers and implementers offer universal technical
solutions which they regard as flexible. The solutions offered by designers may vary as to flexibility by
fields of design. The architect's space arrangement may allow a quite large flexibility, but, for
instance, the principle of air distribution might not allow changes in the room plan without major
changes in building services technology.
A construction process that takes modifiability into account consists of three distinct phases.
The same division in three is generally used in construction design processes. In the goal process the
design team analyzes the client's expressed needs and commits together with representatives of the
client to set flexibility goals. In the design process the designers work out a design-conception
proposal, a modifiability concept, which describes the principles of how flexibility is implemented in
different parts and systems of a building. Only in the third phase, the implementation design phase,
are detailed technical plans drawn for implementing the solutions.
As the process proceeds, the client-focus changes between user and owner, which should be
considered, for instance, in the visualization and documentation principles. The goal process is
space-oriented where flexibility goals are analyzed specifically from the viewpoint of the user of a
space, i.e. the end client. The system process is more procurement- and implementation-oriented
where the owner is the focus of attention. The aim of implementation design, on the other hand, is to
produce the plans and data that serve construction and maintenance from solutions designed earlier
in the process. The design process and its phasing has been dealt with in more depth in the ongoing
Design process development project (SuPro) of the Finnish Association of Consulting Firms (SKOL).
Flexibility is not a universal property of a building. Thus, no universal goals can be set
forflexibility nor can "absolutely flexible" spaces be built. Flexibility is a relative property. We must
determine which alternative use situations we should prepare for since it is not possible, in practice,
to be prepared for arbitrary changes. Likewise, we must estimate acceptable conversion costs and
disturbances to activities. Assessment of alternative use situations is, however, possible only in the
quite short term, let's say under five years. On the other hand, we can prepare ourselves for the
"unknown future" mainly by certain solutions related to the building frame.
A building may have three types of flexibility:
1) service flexibility, 2) modifiability, and 3) long-term adaptability. Service flexibility is important to the
building's users. Modifiability interests especially the owner. Long-term adaptability is a key factor
especially in the stratification of the urban structure and the cultural environment. Building flexibility is
a key parameter in the real estate business. It can and should be impacted already at the design
phase of the building.
Planning Building Design Work
The Role of Buildings and the Case for Whole Building Design
Buildings are deceptively complex. At their best, they connect us with the past and represent
the greatest legacy for the future. They provide shelter, encourage productivity, embody our culture,
and certainly play an important part in life on the planet. In fact, the role of buildings is constantly
changing. Buildings today are life support systems, communication and data terminals, centers of
education, justice, and community, and so much more. They are incredibly expensive to build and
maintain and must constantly be adjusted to function effectively over their life cycle. The economics
of building has become as complex as its design.
Data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration illustrates that buildings are responsible
for almost half (48%) of all greenhouse gas emissions annually. Seventy-six percent of all electricity
generated by U.S. power plants goes to supply the building sector¹ and buildings often contribute to
health problems such as asthma and allergies due to poor indoor environmental quality. Since the
events of 9/11, safety has become paramount in buildings with security-related expenditures one of
the fastest rising expenses.
The federal government has responded to these challenges by putting into place Executive
Orders and Mandates. Other private sector programs, such as the USGBC LEED® rating system,
define standards and measures for sustainable buildings. Also, the Building Security Council's (BSC)
Building Rating System and certification for professionals has been created to help measure and
benchmark security in buildings. The private sector and industry have also responded by creating
more products and systems that have multiple benefits. The knowledge, materials, and systems exist
and are readily available to make a positive impact on the environment and on the quality of life of
Whole Building Design encompasses all of these issues and programs and is an essential way
of approaching building projects. Understanding Whole Building Design concepts will enable you to
think and practice in an integrated fashion to meet the demands of today's as well as tomorrow's
high-performance building projects.
The Components of Whole Building Design
Whole Building Design consists of two components: an integrated design approach and an
integrated team process. The "integrated" design approach asks all the members of the building
stakeholder community, and the technical planning, design, and construction team to look at the
project objectives, and building materials, systems, and assemblies from many different perspectives.
This approach is a deviation from the typical planning and design process of relying on the expertise
of specialists who work in their respective specialties somewhat isolated from each other.
Whole Building design in practice also requires an integrated team process in which the design team
and all affected stakeholders work together throughout the project phases and to evaluate the design
for cost, quality-of-life, future flexibility, efficiency; overall environmental impact; productivity,
creativity; and how the occupants will be enlivened. The 'Whole Buildings' process draws from the
knowledge pool of all the stakeholders across the life cycle of the project, from defining the need for a
building, through planning, design, construction, building occupancy, and operations.
The Integrated Design Approach
Each design objective is significantly important in any project, yet a truly successful one is
where project goals are identified early on and held in proper balance during the design process; and
where their interrelationships and interdependencies with all building systems are understood,
evaluated, appropriately applied, and coordinated concurrently from the planning and programming
phase. A high-performance building cannot be achieved unless the integrated design approach is
Design Objectives of Whole Building Design
In buildings, to achieve a truly successful holistic project, these design objectives must be
considered in concert with each other:
Accessible: Pertains to building elements, heights and clearances implemented to address
the specific needs of disabled people.
Aesthetics: Pertains to the physical appearance and image of building elements and spaces
as well as the integrated design process.
Cost-Effective: Pertains to selecting building elements on the basis of life-cycle costs
(weighing options during concepts, design development, and value engineering) as well as
basic cost estimating and budget control.
Functional/Operational: Pertains to functional programming—spatial needs and
requirements, system performance as well as durability and efficient maintenance of building
Historic Preservation: Pertains to specific actions within a historic district or affecting a
historic building whereby building elements and strategies are classifiable into one of the four
approaches: preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, or reconstruction.
Productive: Pertains to occupants' well-being—physical and psychological comfort—including
building elements such as air distribution, lighting, workspaces, systems, and technology.
Secure/Safe: Pertains to the physical protection of occupants and assets from man-made and
Sustainable: Pertains to environmental performance of building elements and strategies.
The Integrated Team Process
To create a successful high-performance building, an interactive approach to the design
process is required. It means all the stakeholders—everyone involved in the planning, design, use,
construction, operation, and maintenance of the facility—must fully understand the issues and
concerns of all the other parties and interact closely throughout all phases of the project.
A design charrette—a focused and collaborative brainstorming session held at the beginning of
a project—encourages an exchange of ideas and information and allows truly integrated design
solutions to take form. Team members—all the stakeholders—are encouraged to cross fertilize and
address problems beyond their field of expertise. The charrette is particularly helpful in complex
situations where many people represent the interests of the client and conflicting needs and
constituencies. Participants are educated about the issues and resolution enables them to "buy into"
the schematic solutions. A final solution isn't necessarily produced, but important, often
interdependent, issues are explored.
It is not enough to design the project in a holistic manner. It is also important to determine the
effectiveness and outcome of the integrated design solution. Consider conducting a Facility
Performance Evaluation to ensure that the high-performance goals have been met and will continue
to be met over the life cycle of the project. Consider retrocommissioning to ensure that the building
will continue to optimally perform through continual adjustments.
A Holistic Design Philosophy
The concept of "wholes" is not new. In 1926, Jan Christian Smuts, a South African Prime
Minister and philosopher, coined the term "holism". He believed that there are no individual parts in
nature, only patterns and arrangements that contribute to the whole. Buckminster Fuller also said
back in 1969 while working on the space program: "Synergy is the only word in our language that
means behavior of whole systems, unpredicted by the separately observed behaviors of the system's
parts or any subassembly of the system's parts."
Whole Building Design provides the strategies to achieve a true high-performance building:
one that is cost-effective over its entire life cycle, safe, secure, accessible, flexible, aesthetic,
productive, and sustainable.
Through a systematic analysis of these interdependencies, and leveraging whole building
design strategies to achieve multiple benefits, a much more efficient and cost-effective building can
be produced. For example, the choice of a mechanical system might impact the quality of the air in
the building, the ease of maintenance, global climate change, operating costs, fuel choice, and
whether the windows of a building are operable. In turn, the size of the mechanical system will
depend on factors such as, the type of lighting and controls used, how much natural daylight is
brought in, how the space is organized, the facility's operating hours, and the local microclimate. At
the same time, these same materials and systems choices may have an impact on the aesthetics,
accessibility, and security of the project. A successful Whole Building Design is a solution that is
greater than the sum of its parts.
As the world of buildings continues to change and grow in complexity, additional programs and
information will have an impact on the entire design, planning and construction community. Among
them is Building Information Modeling (BIM) software that is the newest trend in computer-aided
design. Many industry professionals forecast that buildings will be built directly from the electronic
models that BIM creates, or that architects will no longer create drawings but will instead "build
buildings inside their computers." BIM has the potential to change the role of drawings for the
construction process, improve architectural productivity, and make it easier to consider and evaluate
design alternatives. BIM will also aid in the process of integrating the various design teams' work,
furthering encouraging and demanding an integrated team process.
The Management of the Design Process
The process of designing a building, space or structure typically consists of these design
phases. It is important to understand and remind yourself of these phases, to bear in mind exactly
what you're trying to accomplish. And it does take time.
Programming is the activity of determining the "program", or set of needs that a building needs
In order for a design to succeed, in must be rooted in a thorough understanding of the user's
needs, the constraints and other goals of the project.
While many requirements in the program are often stipulated at the outset by the client, many
needs and constraints may not be immediately obvious. Without a thorough up-front exploration of
the program, a significant need or constraint may not be discovered until later in the project, when it
will be much more expensive and time-consuming to address.
A less obvious, but equally important failure is not recognizing more subtle needs - things that
may be ignored by everyone throughout the project, and may never be realized. It is attention to
these more subtle needs throughout the design process that makes the difference between an okay
building and a great building.
Any project should begin with a thorough examination of these needs, goals and constraints, to
form as complete as possible an understanding of these issues.
This includes an examination of who the users of the building will be, what use they will make
of the building, what rooms/spaces they need, what mood the building should create, and any other
goals of the project.
It also includes an examination of constraints, such as cost, zoning and building code
restrictions, and locally available materials.
During the programming phase, it is normal to identify what rooms/spaces are needed. For
each space, consider at least the following requirements:
Who will use the space?
Use(s) of the space; what activities will take place there
How private or public should the space be
Which other spaces should be adjacent or most accessible from that space
What type of mood should the space create?
How large should the space be
Schematic Design Phase
After establishing the program for a project, the focus in the architectural design process shifts
from what the problems are to how to solve those problems. During schematic design, the focus is on
the "scheme", or overall high-level design. Here, minor details should be ignored to instead focus on
creating a coherent solution that encompasses the project as a whole.
A major focus of this phase is the relationship between rooms and spaces. Consider which
spaces should be adjacent to one another and gradients of public vs private spaces when sketching
out the layout of spaces.
Design Development Phase
During the design development phase of the architectural design process, the scheme is
refined into the final design. In previous phases, the focus has been on the project as a whole. During
Design Development, in becomes important to give individual attention to each aspect, each space
and each detail of the project.
Construction Document Phase
At this stage of the architectural design process, the focus shifts from design to communicating
the design and providing all information necessary for construction.
Construction Management for Architects
Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and
technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science,
construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party to a
construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction
The Construction Management Association of America (CMAA) says the 120 most common
responsibilities of a Construction Manager fall into the following 7 categories: Project Management
Planning, Cost Management, Time Management, Quality Management, Contract Administration,
Safety Management, and CM Professional Practice which includes specific activities like defining the
responsibilities and management structure of the project management team, organizing and leading
by implementing project controls, defining roles and responsibilities and developing communication
protocols, and identifying elements of project design and construction likely to give rise to disputes
Typically the construction industry includes four parties: an owner, a designer (architect or
engineer), the builder (usually called the general contractor), and the government (local laws and
regulations). Traditionally, there are two contracts between these parties as they work together to
plan, design, and construct the project. The first contract is the owner-designer contract, which
involves planning, design, and construction administration. The second contract is the owner-
contractor contract, which involves construction. An indirect, third-party relationship exists between
the designer and the contractor due to these two contracts.
An alternate contract or business model replaces the two traditional contracts with three
contracts: owner-designer, owner-construction manager, and owner-builder. The construction
management company becomes an additional party engaged in the project to act as an advisor to the
owner, to which they are contractually tied. The construction manager's role is to provide construction
advice to the designer, on the owner's behalf, design advice to the constructor, again on the owner's
behalf, and other advice as necessary.
Design Build Contracts
Recently a different business model has become more popular. Many owners - particularly
government agencies have let out contracts which are known as Design-Build contracts. In this type
of contract, the construction team is known as the design-builder. They are responsible for taking a
concept developed by the owner, completing the detailed design, and then pending the owner's
approval on the design, they can proceed with construction. Virtual Design and Construction
technology has enabled much of the ability of contractors to maintain tight construction time frames.
There are two main advantages to using a design-build contract. First, the construction team is
motivated to work with the design team to develop a design with constructability in mind. In that way it
is possible for the team to creatively find ways to reduce construction costs without reducing the
function of the final product. The owner can expect a reduced price due to the increased
constructability of the design.
The other major advantage involves the schedule. Many projects are given out with an
extremely tight time frame. By letting out the contract as a design-build contract, the contractor is
established, and early mobilization and construction activities are able to proceed concurrently with
the design. Under a traditional contract, construction cannot begin until after the design is finished,
the project is bid and awarded, and the team can mobilize. This type of contract can take months off
the finish date of a project.
Agency Construction Management
Construction Cost Management is a fee-based service in which the Construction Manager
(C.M) is responsible exclusively to the owner and acts in the owner's interests at every stage of the
project. The construction manager offers advice, uncolored by any conflicting interest, on matters
Optimum use of available funds;
Control of the scope of the work;
Optimum use of design and construction firms' skills and talents;
Avoidance of delays, changes and disputes;
Enhancing project design and construction quality;
Optimum flexibility in contracting and procurement.
Cash flow Management.
Comprehensive management of every stage of the project, beginning with the original concept
and project definition, yields the greatest possible benefit to owners from Construction Management.
As time progresses beyond the pre-design phase the CM's ability to effect cost savings diminishes.
The Agency CM can represent the owner by helping to select the design team as well as the
construction team and manage the design preventing scope creep, helping the owner stay within a
pre-determined budget by performing Value Engineering, Cost/Benefit Analysis and Best Value
Comparisons. The Agency CM can even provide oversight services for a CM At-Risk contract.
Construction Management At-Risk
CM at-Risk is a delivery method which entails a commitment by the construction manager to
deliver the project within a Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP), in most cases. The construction
manager acts as consultant to the owner in the development and design phases, (often referred to as
"Preconstruction Services"), but as the equivalent of a general contractor during the construction
phase. When a construction manager is bound to a GMP, the most fundamental character of the
relationship is changed. In addition to acting in the owner's interest, the construction manager must
manage and control construction costs to not exceed the GMP, which would be a financial hit to the
CM "At Risk" is a global term referring to a business relationship of Construction contractor,
Owner and Architect / Designer. Typically, a CM At Risk arrangement eliminates a "Low Bid"
construction project. A GMP agreement is a typical part of the CM and Owner agreement somewhat
comparable to a "Low Bid" contract, but with a number of adjustments in responsibilities required by
the CM. Aspects of GMP agreements will be elaborated below. The following are some primary
aspects of the most potential benefits of a CM At Risk arrangement:
Budget management: Before design of a project is completed ( 6 months to 1-1/2 years of
coordination between Designer and Owner), the CM is involved with estimating cost of constructing a
project based on hearing from the designer and Owner (design concept) what is going / desired to be
built. Upon some aspect of desired design raising the cost estimate over the budget the Owner wants
to maintain, a decision can be made to modify the design concept instead of having to spend a
considerable amount of time, effort and money re-designing and/or modifying completed construction
documents, OR, the Owner decides to spend more money or obtain higher financial support for the
project. To manage the budget before design is done, construction crews are mobilized, CM is
spending tens of thousands per week just having onsite management, major items are purchased,
etc, etc,...is an extremely more efficient use of everyone's time, effort, Architect / Designer's costs,
and the CM's General Conditions costs, AND delivering to the Owner a design within his budget.
Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing and managing resources to bring
about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.
A project is a finite endeavor (having specific start and completion dates) undertaken to create
a unique product or service which brings about beneficial change or added value. This finite
characteristic of projects stands in sharp contrast to processes, or operations, which are permanent
or semi-permanent functional work to repetitively produce the same product or service. In practice,
the management of these two systems is often found to be quite different, and as such requires the
development of distinct technical skills and the adoption of separate management.
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and
objectives while honoring the project constraints. Typical constraints are scope, time and budget. The
secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs
necessary to meet pre-defined objectives.
Project Development Stages
Traditionally, project development includes a number of elements: four to five stages, and a
control system. Regardless of the methodology used, the project development process will have the
same major stages:
1. Initiation: The initiation stage determines the nature and scope of the development. If this stage is
not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business‘s needs.
The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and making
sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficiencies should be reported
and a recommendation should be made to fix them.
The initiation stage should include a cohesive plan that encompasses the following areas:
Study analyzing the business needs in measurable goals.
Review of the current operations.
Conceptual design of the operation of the final product.
Equipment and contracting requirements including an assessment of 'long-lead' items.
Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget.
Stakeholder analysis, including users, and support personnel for the project.
Project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedule.
2. Planning or Development: After the initiation stage, the system is designed. Occasionally, a small
prototype of the final product is built and tested. Testing is generally performed by a combination of
testers and end users, and can occur after the prototype is built or concurrently. Controls should be in
place that ensure that the final product will meet the specifications of the project charter. The results
of the design stage should include a product design that:
Satisfies the project sponsor, end user, and business requirements.
Functions as it was intended.
Can be produced within quality standards.
Can be produced within time and budget constraints.
3. Production or Execution: Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined
in the project management plan to accomplish the project's requirements. Execution process involves
coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project
in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the
processes performed as defined in the project management plan
4. Monitoring and Controlling: Monitoring and Controlling consists of those processes performed
to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and
corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. The key
benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the
project management plan.
Monitoring and Controlling includes:
Measuring the ongoing project activities (where we are);
Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, ...) against the project management plan and the
project performance baseline (where we should be);
Identify corrective actions to properly address issues and risks (How can we get on track
Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved
changes are implemented.
In multi-phase projects, the Monitoring and Controlling process also provides feedback
between project phases, in order to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project
into compliance with the project management plan.
Project Maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes:
Continuing support of end users
Correction of errors
Updates of the software over time
In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are
Over the course of any construction project, the work scope changes. Change is a normal and
expected part of the construction process. Changes can be the result of necessary design
modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value
engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. Beyond executing the change in the field,
the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed. This is referred
to as Change Management. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or,
more specifically, any change that modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. The record is
made on the contract documents – usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings. The
end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings, or more simply, ―asbuilts.‖ The
requirement for providing them is a norm in construction contracts.
When changes are introduced to the project the viability of the project has to be assessed
again. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects. When the
changes accumulate, the forecasted end result may not justify the proposed investment.
5. Closing: Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof.
Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned. Closing
phase consists of two parts:
Close project: to finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or
a project phase
Contract closure: necessary for completing and settling each contract, including the resolution of
any open items, and closing each contract applicable to the project or a project phase.
6. Project control systems: Project control is that element of a project that keeps it on-track, on-
time and within budget. Project control begins early in the project with planning and ends late in the
project with post-implementation review, having a thorough involvement of each step in the process.
Each project should be assessed for the appropriate level of control needed: too much control is too
time consuming, too little control is very risky. If project control is not implemented correctly, the cost
to the business should be clarified in terms of errors, fixes, and additional audit fees.
Control systems are needed for cost, risk, quality, communication, time, change, procurement,
and human resources. In addition, auditors should consider how important the projects are to the
financial statements, how reliant the stakeholders are on controls, and how many controls exist.
Auditors should review the development process and procedures for how they are implemented. The
process of development and the quality of the final product may also be assessed if needed or
requested. A business may want the auditing firm to be involved throughout the process to catch
problems earlier on so that they can be fixed more easily. An auditor can serve as a controls
consultant as part of the development team or as an independent auditor as part of an audit.
Businesses sometimes use formal systems development processes. These help assure that
systems are developed successfully. A formal process is more effective in creating strong controls,
and auditors should review this process to confirm that it is well designed and is followed in practice.
A good formal systems development plan outlines:
A strategy to align development with the organization‘s broader objectives
Standards for new systems
Project management policies for timing and budgeting
Procedures describing the process
Project Management Topics
1. Project Managers
A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers can
have the responsibility of the planning, execution, and closing of any project, typically relating to
construction industry, architecture, computer networking, telecommunications or software
development. Many other fields in the production, design and service industries also have project
A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives.
Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives,
building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint for projects, which is cost, time,
A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the
exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt
to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated
representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client
satisfaction, can be realized.
A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives.
Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives,
building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint for projects, which is cost, time,
A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the
exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt
to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated
representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client
satisfaction, can be realized.
2. Project Management Triangle
Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain
constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as "scope," "time," and "cost". These are
also referred to as the "Project Management Triangle," where each side represents a constraint. One
side of the triangle cannot be changed without affecting the others. A further refinement of the
constraints separates product "quality" or "performance" from scope, and turns quality into a fourth
The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project. The cost
constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what
must be done to produce the project's end result. These three constraints are often competing
constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time
constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean increased
time and reduced scope. The discipline of Project Management is about providing the tools and
techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet
3. Work Breakdown Structure
The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a tree structure, which shows a subdivision of effort
required to achieve an objective; for example a program, project, and contract. The WBS may be
hardware, product, service, or process oriented. In a project of contract, the WBS is developed by
the end objective and
successively subdividing it into manageable components
in terms of size, duration, and responsibility (e.g., systems, subsystems, components, tasks,
subtasks, and work packages)
which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective.
The Work Breakdown Structure provides a common framework for the natural development of
the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis for dividing work into definable
increments from which the statement of work can be developed and technical, schedule, cost, and
labor hour reporting can be established.
4. Project Management Framework
The Program (Investment) Life Cycle integrates the project management and system
development life cycles with the activities directly associated with system deployment and operation.
By design, system operation management and related activities occur after the project is complete
and are not documented within this guide.
For example, see figure, in the US United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) the
program management life cycle is depicted and describe in the overall VA IT Project Management
Framework to address the integration of OMB Exhibit 300 project (investment) management activities
and the overall project budgeting process. The VA IT Project Management Framework diagram
illustrates Milestone 4 which occurs following the deployment of a system and the closing of the
project. The project closing phase activities at the VA continues through system deployment and into
system operation for the purpose of illustrating and describing the system activities the VA considers
to be part of the project. The figure illustrates the actions and associated artifacts of the VA IT Project
and Program Management process.
5. Project control variables
Project Management tries to gain control over variables such as risk. Potential points of failure:
Most negative risks (or potential failures) can be overcome or resolved, given enough planning
capabilities, time, and resources. According to some definitions (including PMBOK Third Edition) risk
can also be categorized as "positive--" meaning that there is a potential opportunity, e.g., complete
the project faster than expected.
Customers (either internal or external project sponsors) and external organizations (such as
government agencies and regulators) can dictate the extent of three variables: time, cost, and scope.
The remaining variable (risk) is managed by the project team, ideally based on solid estimation and
response planning techniques. Through a negotiation process among project stakeholders, an
agreement defines the final objectives, in terms of time, cost, scope, and risk, usually in the form of a
charter or contract.
To properly control these variables a good project manager has a depth of knowledge and
experience in these four areas (time, cost, scope, and risk), and in six other areas as well: integration,
communication, human resources, quality assurance, schedule development, and procurement.
The Role of Project Manager - Design and Build
PROJECT MANAGER TOPICS
Project Management is quite often the province and responsibility of an individual project
manager. This individual seldom participates directly in the activities that produce the end result, but
rather strives to maintain the progress and productive mutual interaction of various parties in such a
way that overall risk of failure is reduced.
Products and services
Any type of product or service — pharmaceuticals, building construction, vehicles,
electronics, computer software, financial services, etc. — may have its implementation overseen by a
project manager and its operations by a product manager.
The tools, knowledge and techniques for managing projects are often unique to Project
Management. For example: work breakdown structures, critical path analysis and earned value
management. Understanding and applying the tools and techniques which are generally recognized
as good practices are not sufficient alone for effective project management. Effective Project
Management requires that the project manager understands and uses the knowledge and skills from
at least four areas of expertise. Examples are PMBOK, Application Area Knowledge: standards and
regulations set forth by ISO for project management, General Management Skills and Project
When recruiting and building an effective team, the manager must consider not only the
technical skills of each person, but also the critical roles and chemistry between workers. A project
team has mainly three separate components: Project Manager, Core Team and Contracted Team.
Most of the project management issues that influence a project arise from risk, which in turn
arises from uncertainty. The successful project manager focuses on this as his/her main concern and
attempts to reduce risk significantly, often by adhering to a policy of open communication, ensuring
that project participants can voice their opinions and concerns.
Types of Project Managers
Construction Project Manager
Construction project managers in the past were individuals, who worked in construction or
supporting industries and were promoted to foreman. It was not until the late 20th century that
construction and Construction management became distinct fields.
Until recently, the industry lacked any level of standardization, with individual States
determining the eligibility requirements within their jurisdiction. However, several Trade associations
based in the United States have made strides in creating a commonly-accepted set of qualifications
and tests to determine a project manager's competency.
The Project Management Institute has made some headway into being a standardizing body
with its creation of the Project Management Professional (PMP) designation.
The Constructor Certification Commission of the American Institute of Constructors holds
semiannual nationwide tests. Eight American Construction Management programs require that
students take these exams before they may receive their Bachelor of Science in Construction
Management degree, and 15 other Universities actively encourage their students to consider
The Associated Colleges of Construction Education, and the Associated Schools of
Construction have made considerable progress in developing national standards for
construction education programs.
The profession has recently grown to accommodate several dozen Construction Management
Bachelor of Science programs.
Architectural Project Manager
Architectural project manager are project managers in the field of architecture. They have
many of the same skills as their counterpart in the construction industry. An architect will often work
closely with the construction project manager in the office of the General contractor (GC), and at the
same time, coordinate the work of the design team and numerous consultants who contribute to a
construction project, and manage communication with the client. The issues of budget, scheduling,
and quality-control are the responsibility of the Project Manager in an architect's office.
Software Project Manager
A Software Project Manager has many of the same skills as their counterparts in other
industries. Beyond the skills normally associated with traditional project management in industries
such as construction and manufacturing, a software project manager will typically have an extensive
background in software development. Many software project managers hold a degree in Computer
Science, Information Technology or another related field and will typically have worked in the industry
as a software engineer.
In traditional project management a heavyweight, predictive methodology such as the waterfall
model is often employed, but software project managers must also be skilled in more lightweight,
adaptive methodologies such as DSDM, SCRUM and XP. These project management methodologies
are based on the uncertainty of developing a new software system and advocate smaller, incremental
development cycles. These incremental or iterative cycles are time boxed (constrained to a known
period of time, typically from one to four weeks) and produce a working subset of the entire system to
be developed at the end of each iteration. The increasing adoption of lightweight approaches is due
largely to the fact that software requirements are very susceptible to change, and it is extremely
difficult to illuminate all the potential requirements in a single project phase before the software
The software project manager is also expected to be familiar with the Software Development
Life Cycle (SDLC). This may require in depth knowledge of requirements solicitation, application
development, logical and physical database design and networking. This knowledge is typically the
result of the aforementioned education and experience. There is not a widely accepted certification
for software project managers, but many will hold the PMP designation offered by the Project
Management Institute or an advanced degree in project management, such as a MSPM or other
graduate degree in technology management.
A project manager is the person who has the overall responsibility for the successful initiation,
planning, execution and closure of a project. This title is used in the construction industry,
architecture, information technology and many different occupations that are based on production of a
product or service.
The project manager must possess a combination of skills including an ability to ask
penetrating questions, detect unstated assumptions and resolve interpersonal conflicts as well as
more systematic management skills.
Key amongst his/her duties is the recognition that risk directly impacts the likelihood of success
and that this risk must be both formally and informally measured throughout the lifetime of the project.
Risk arises primarily from uncertainty and the successful project manager is the one who
focuses upon this as the main concern. Most of the issues that impact a project arise in one way or
another from risk. A good project manager can reduce risk significantly, often by adhering to a policy
of open communication, ensuring that every significant participant has an opportunity to express
opinions and concerns.
It follows from the above that a project manager is one who is responsible for making decisions
both large and small, in such a way that risk is controlled and uncertainty minimized. Every decision
taken by the project manager should be taken in such a way that it directly benefits the project.
Project managers use project management software, such as Microsoft Project, to organize
their tasks and workforce. These software packages allow project managers to produce reports and
charts in a few minutes, compared to the several hours it can take if they do not use a software
Roles and Responsibilities
The role of the project manager encompasses many activities including:
Planning and Defining Scope
Activity Planning and Sequencing
Developing a Budget
Managing Risks and Issues
Creating Charts and Schedules
Scalability, Interoperability and Portability Analysis
The tasks to be handled by a project manager to successfully manage a project include:
Integration Management - This is developing and managing the direction of the project
Scope Management - This includes planning, defining and managing the scope of the project.
Time and Cost Management - This covers developing a schedule, allocating resources and
managing funds for the project.
Quality Management - This involves taking care of the quality of the process in question such
that it meets or even exceeds various quality parameters set earlier.
Human Resource Management - A manager needs to take care of his team, encourage and
motivate them and make sure the team moves in the right direction.
Communication Management - The manager needs to prepare a communication plan and
make sure that there is a healthy communication, both horizontally and vertically.
Risk Management - Various risks involved in a project should be identified and a mitigation and
contingency plan needs to be developed to ensure that the project is not derailed at any point.
Procurement Management - Various materials needed during the project need to be procured
and managed with the vendors and suppliers for successful completion of the project.
A project manager is usually responsible for the success or the failure of the project. They first
need to define the project and then build its work plan. If the scope of the project is not very clear, or
the project is executing poorly, the manager is held accountable. However, this does not mean that
the manager does all the work by himself (which is practically impossible). There is an entire team
under the project manager, which helps to achieve all the objectives of the project. However, if
something goes wrong, the project manager is ultimately accountable.
Apart from this, depending on the size and the complexity of the project, they may need to take
on multiple roles. The project manager may need to assist with gathering business requirements, help
to design a database management system or may prepare project documentation. They may work full
time on a large project, or may work part-time on various projects of a smaller nature; or may
alternatively handle various projects as well as handle other responsibilities like business analysis
and business development.
At times, they may have accountability but not authority. For example, he or she may be using
certain resources but might not have direct control over those resources. At such times, the manager
might find certain limitations over task execution, which might not take place as they might have liked.
Not having direct control over the state of finances and finance allocation might cause ambiguity.
In order to be successful, the project manager must be given support and authority by senior
As the designers complete various phases of design development, the project manager will be
charged with the responsibility to insure compliance with the owner‘s program and the budget.
Regular meetings need to be scheduled with the design consultants to ensure that drawing
preparation is proceeding as scheduled. Another critical task at these meetings is to determine that
an acceptable scope is included in the design development drawings. More often than not, as the
design is being developed, design creep occurs; more details are added than were contemplated in
the initial design and more importantly, in the initial budget. The project manager must be alert to
obvious as well as subtle changes from the initial design concept and must be able to detect them
and determine if the budget can accept them.
In design-build work, the cost of reproducible can be considerable. Progress drawings and
outline specification created by the architect will be transmitted to the structural, electrical, and
mechanical engineers for review, coordination, and comment many times over. If subcontractors have
been brought on board, they will need to review these design development documents and comment
on compliance with their initial cost input. The specification will be scrutinized to ensure that the
proper product specifications and the suppliers are included. Even if the initial budget for design
development drawings have been met or exceeded, unless all future DD drawings are distributed to
concerned parties, the end cost could be much higher. Saving money at this juncture is short-sighted.
Make sure all concerned subcontractors review all design development drawings as they are
The project manager‘s responsibility in the design-build process takes on another critical
aspect at this juncture. Being aware of the client‘s requirements and expectations and also of the
restraints and constraints imposed by the construction budget, the project manager has to ensure that
both obligations are being met. As each building component or system is developed on the drawings
and in the specifications, a careful review of corresponding costs is necessary. Hopefully, there will
be a balance of over-budget items to under-budget items that together will maintain the integrity of the
When the project manager is satisfied that the plans and specifications meet the client‘s
requirements and are within the confines of the construction budget, the drawings should be reviewed
with the client. Since the project manager is the expert in reading plans and the client is not, each
page of the drawing should be explained in simple, non-technical terms, if necessary. Important
details or design elements pointed out to the client at this time will forestall ―I didn‘t know‖ comments
later on. The project manager during this process should begin with the site plan; indicate the location
of walks, curbs, grade changes, site utilities, location and types of plantings, and where seed or sod is
to be placed.
The structural drawings may be of little interest or concern to the client, but nonetheless the
structural system of the building should be explained, calling attention to bay sizes, and floor-to-floor
Time should be spent reviewing the architectural drawings in detail, pointing out the various
floors, ceiling, and wall finished. Construction terminology may be confusing to an owner; for
example, explaining that title in the bathroom is at wainscot height may not be meaningful, but if it is
indicated that the tile is approximately 42 inches high, that will clarify matters.
After each plan is reviewed and explained, ask the owner to sign or initial each page indicating
review and acceptance of the plan.
Now is the time to work out any misunderstanding over what is and what is not to be included
in the project. If there are disparities between the quality or types of finishes included by the client,
there may be some time to effect these changes, if they don‘t have a major impact on the budget. It is
better to resolve all differences at this stage rather than during construction, in order to avoid
misunderstandings. The goal is to produce a successful project and satisfied client and add to the
company‘s reputation and competence as a design-builder.
What is Facility Management?
The concept of facility management services gained prominence in India after liberalization,
Privatization and Globalization (LPG). The market became open for everyone and there is
tremendous competition among the rivals to provide best product or services at the optimum cost.
Hence, every company concentrates over their core business and outsourced the rest of the
supporting function to minimize the operation cost.
In a nutshell, The Facility Management is managing all the support system which is required
for operating core operation of business from janitorial services to maintenance of equipments,
production support system to staffing solution, creating esuriently healthy work environment to
maintain aesthetic ergonomics of the organization.
The Facility Management services maximize value and provide efficient management services
at lower operating cost and maintaining high service level. There are mainly two types of Facility
Soft Services: Involvement of Human skill
Hard Services: Involvement of electrical and mechanical equipments with human skill
From the last few years, two more facility management services came into existence due to
the complexity of the business which requires integration of both, i.e., soft and hard services.
Production Support System
Facility management or facilities management is the management of communal buildings such as
offices or colleges. The facilities and services provided include air conditioning, cleaning, decoration,
electric power, lighting and security. The term facility management is similar to property management
but is applied to larger commercial properties where the management and operation of the buildings
is more complex. Some or all of these aspects can be assisted by computer programs.
One definition provided by the International Facility Management Association (IFMA) is:
"A profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by
integrating people, place, processes and technology."
Another broader definition provided by IFMA is: "The practice or coordinating the physical
workplace with the people and work of the organization; integrates the principles of business
administration, architecture, and the behavioral and engineering sciences."
In the UK and other European countries facilities management has a wider definition than
simply the management of buildings and services. The definition of FM provided by the European
Committee for Standardization (CEN) and ratified by BSI British Standards is:
“Facilities management is the integration of processes within an organisation to maintain and develop
the agreed services which support and improve the effectiveness of its primary activities”.
The British Institute of Facilities Management has formally adopted the CEN definition but also
offers a slightly simpler description:
"Facilities management is the integration of multi-disciplinary activities within the built environment
and the management of their impact upon people and the workplace".
In Australia, the term Commercial Services has replaced facilities management in some
organisations. Commercial services can also define services other than just looking after facilities,
such as security, parking, waste disposal, facility services and strategic planning.
It is the role of a facility manager to ensure proper operation of all essential building services.
These services can include:
o Electrical Substations
Emergency power systems
o Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems
o Standby generators
Building monitoring systems
o Automation systems
o Monitoring systems
o Sprinkler systems
o Smoke/fire detection systems
o Gaseous extinguishing systems
Along with building services, dealing with office spaces can also fall under the responsibility of
the facilities department.
Technology of building automation
Administrative vs. Technical Management
The support of administrative facility management through information technology is identified
as Computer Aided Facility Management (CAFM), Facilities Management Systems, or Computerized
Maintenance Management Systems.
The collection of monitoring and supervising devices, control and regulation systems, and
management- and optimization facilities/mechanisms in buildings within technical facility management
are identified as Building Automation (BA). The goal is to accomplish functional processes in the
overall industry independently (automatically), according to pre-adjusted values (parameters) or to
simplify their operation and monitoring. All sensors, actuators, control elements, users and other
technical devices in the building are interconnected in a network. Workflows/sequences can be
summarized in scenarios. Characteristic feature is the decentralized structure of control units (DDC)
as well as the integrated networking via a bus system (usually EIB/KNX or illumination (DALI))
Movement to technical management has been rapid in some industries while other industries
still rely on the antiquated administrative approach. Industries with more linear structures and
processes typically are more inclined to implement technical systems because ongoing management
of these systems can be maintained by a top down organizational structure. Industries that are not as
linear have tended to be slow adopters of technical management because of the belief that the
system cannot be implemented or maintained effectively. Industries like commercial office and retail
often tend to have the most challenges in implementing and maintaining technical systems because
their organizations reflect a great deal of diversity with owners, brokers, managers, and tenants
typically being from different organizations with disparate interest and priorities. Recent trends have
shown a dramatic increase in the use of technical management largely due to research
demonstrating the tremendous cost savings of converting to the technical approach. In addition,
technical management providers who are capable of matching the organization's processes,
constituencies, and provide comprehensive setup and maintenance support throughout the life of the
system have delivered significant advantages and reduce the number of early project terminations
and under utilized or "orphaned" systems.
Components of best in class systems may include:
Certificate of Insurance
Automated & Mass Communications
Fire & Life Safety
VALUE ENGINEERING AND QUALITY
Value engineering can be defined as an organized effort directed at analyzing designed
building features, systems, equipment, and material selections for the purpose of achieving essential
functions at the lowest life cycle cost consistent with required performance, quality, reliability, and
In the design phase of federal building development, properly applied value engineering
considers alternative design solutions to optimize the expected cost/worth ratio of projects at
completion. Value engineering elicits ideas on ways of maintaining or enhancing results while
reducing life cycle costs.
In the construction phase, GSA PBS contractors are encouraged through shared savings to
draw on their special 'know-how' to propose changes that cut costs while maintaining or enhancing
quality, value, and functional performance.
Value engineering (VE) is a systematic method to improve the "value" of goods or products
and services by using an examination of function. Value, as defined, is the ratio of function to cost.
Value can therefore be increased by either improving the function or reducing the cost. It is a primary
tenet of value engineering that basic functions be preserved and not be reduced as a consequence of
pursuing value improvements.
In the United States, value engineering is specifically spelled out in Public Law 104-106, which
states ―Each executive agency shall establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering
procedures and processes."
Value engineering is sometimes taught within the project management or industrial
engineering body of knowledge as a technique in which the value of a system‘s outputs is optimized
by crafting a mix of performance (function) and costs. In most cases this practice identifies and
removes unnecessary expenditures, thereby increasing the value for the manufacturer and/or their
VE follows a structured thought process that is based exclusively on "function", i.e. what
something "does" not what it is. For example a screw driver that is being used to stir a can of paint
has a "function" of mixing the contents of a paint can and not the original connotation of securing a
screw into a screw-hole. In value engineering "functions" are always described in a two word
abridgment of an active verb and measurable noun (what is being done - the verb - and what it is
being done to - the noun) and to do so in the most non-prescriptive way possible. In the screw driver
and can of paint example, the most basic function would be "blend liquid" which is less prescriptive
than "stir paint" which can be seen to limit the action (by stirring) and to limit the application (only
considers paint.) This is the basis of what value engineering refers to as "function analysis".
Value engineering uses rational logic (a unique "how" - "why" questioning technique) and the
analysis of function to identify relationships that increase value. It is considered a quantitative method
similar to the scientific method, which focuses on hypothesis-conclusion approaches to test
relationships, and operations research, which uses model building to identify predictive relationships.
Value engineering is also referred to as "value management" or "value methodology" (VM),
and "value analysis" (VA). VE is above all a structured problem solving process based on function
analysis—understanding something with such clarity that it can be described in two words, the active
verb and measurable noun abridgement. For example, the function of a pencil is to "make marks".
This then facilitates considering what else can make marks. From a spray can, lipstick, a diamond on
glass to a stick in the sand, one can then clearly decide upon which alternative solution is most
Implementing Value Engineering
Implementing Value Engineering GSA applies value engineering to new construction and
major modernization projects. Value engineering practices are formally structured in the design phase
and depend on contractor initiative in the construction phase.
GSA generally contracts for two value engineering studies - one at completion of concept
design and the second at completion of design development. In each, GSA asks a value engineering
consultant to identify and evaluate changes that could result in increased functional value (including
customer satisfaction) in the completed facility while reducing construction or operation and
maintenance costs. The value engineering effort is scaled to the project size, complexity, and status.
GSA concentrates value engineering efforts in the early stages of project design because early
review affords greater savings and allows a change of direction, if appropriate, without affecting
project delivery schedules. Emphasis is on obtaining maximum life cycle value for 'first-cost' dollars-
the dollars budgeted for the project. If savings are identified, the project budget may be reduced, or
the money may be reallocated, if justifiable, for features that would lend greater life cycle value to the
GSA continues value engineering during construction because a contractor's practical
experience and purchase options can often generate substantial savings. When a construction
contractor proposes a value engineering change to construction requirements, materials, or methods,
the contractor shares in the savings. The change may reduce the cost of construction or the life cycle
cost of the building, but must not lessen building performance, design quality, safety, appearance, or
ease of upkeep. GSA evaluates proposed changes and, if approved, modifies the contract and makes
an incentive payment to the contractor. The contractor's share of construction cost savings is 55
percent for fixed price contracts, but can be different for incentive-based contracts.
Value engineering goals for individual projects are often addressed in partnering agreements
among GSA, the various consultants, the construction contractors, and the end users.
What PBS Wants in Value Engineering Consultants
Value engineering consultants may be single firms or joint ventures of two or more firms. GSA
expects participants in a joint venture to have a track record of working together effectively to perform
similar services. GSA also prefers that the value engineering consultant for a project not be affiliated
or otherwise involved in current business associations with the project's design firm. If such a
connection exists, GSA may exclude a consultant due to a potential conflict of interest.
Consultants must demonstrate the necessary resources and experience to conduct the studies
called for, including skill and experience in construction projects of similar complexity. Value
engineering of building construction must represent a significant portion of a firm's overall business.
GSA generally procures value engineering services through professional services, indefinite
quantity contracts, which may also address construction management support.
Source selection procedures involve a Request for Proposals followed by an
evaluation/selection based on qualifications and offered services. When an indefinite quantity contract
is the source of Value Engineering services, a work order defines the scope of work for each specific
value engineering study and is negotiated for a fixed price.
Value Management – Its relevance to Managing Construction Projects
Value Management is a style of management particularly dedicated to motivating people,
developing skills and promoting synergies and innovation, with the aim of maximizing the overall
performance of an organization.
Value Management has evolved out of previous methods based on the concept of value and
functional approach. These were pioneered by Lawrence D. Miles in the 1940's and 50's who
developed the technique of Value Analysis (VA) as a method to improve value in existing products.
Initially Value Analysis was used principally to identify and eliminate unnecessary costs. However it is
equally effective in increasing performance and addressing resources other than cost. As it evolved
the application of VA widened beyond products into services, projects and administrative procedures.
The Value Management Approach involves three root principles:
a continuous awareness of value for the organization, establishing measures or estimates of
value, monitoring and controlling them;
a focus on the objectives and targets before seeking solutions;
a focus on function, providing the key to maximize innovative and practical outcomes.
Concept of Value
The concept of Value relies on the relationship between the satisfaction of many differing
needs and the resources used in doing so. The fewer the resources used or the greater the
satisfaction of needs, the greater the value. Stakeholders, internal and external customers may all
hold differing views of what represents value. The aim of Value Management is to reconcile these
differences and enable an organization to achieve the greatest progress towards its stated goals with
the use of minimum resources
It is important to realize that Value may be improved by increasing the satisfaction of need
even if the resources used in doing so increase, provided that the satisfaction of need increases more
than the increase in use of resources.
The Key Principles
Value Management is distinct from other management approaches in that it simultaneously
included attributes which are not normally found together. It brings together within a single
o emphasis on teamwork and communication,
o a focus on what things do, rather than what they are (functional approach);
o an atmosphere that encourages creativity and innovation;
o a focus on customer's requirements and
o a requirement to evaluate options qualitatively to enable robust comparisons of options
Positive human dynamics
o teamwork - encouraging people to work together towards a common solution;
o satisfaction - recognizing and giving credit;
o communication - bringing people together by improving communication between them;
o fostering better common understanding and providing better group decision support;
o encouraging change - challenging the status quo and bring about beneficial change;
o ownership - the assumption of ownership of the outcomes of Value Management
activities by those responsible for implementing them;
Consideration of external and internal environment
o external conditions - taking account of pre-existing conditions external to the
organization over which managers may have little influence;
o internal conditions - within the organization there will be existing conditions which
managers may or may not be able to influence;
o degrees of freedom - the external and internal conditions will dictate the limits of
potential outcomes and should be quantified.
Effective use of methods and tools.
o means of achieving outcomes.
The Benefits of Value Management
The most visible benefits arising out of the application of VM include:
better business decisions by providing decision makers a sounds basis for their choice;
improved products and services to external customers by clearly understanding, and giving
due priority to their real needs;
enhanced competitiveness by facilitating technical and organizational innovation;
a common value culture, thus enhancing every member's understanding of the organization's
improved internal communication and common knowledge of the main success factors for the
simultaneously enhanced communication and efficiency by developing multidisciplinary and
decisions which can be supported by the stakeholders.
The benefits are available to providers and consumers in all sectors of society:
The industrial sector including manufacturing, construction and processing;
The services sector, both public and private;
The government, health, education and other public activities.
Value management programmes have assisted in achieving value improvement for major
clients such as BP, Retail, British Airways, BAA, Pfizer, Stanhope, and water and rail companies.
Substantial improvements have been achieved in the return on investment of capital projects, up to
50% improvement in capital productivity.
How is best value achieved?
The key to delivering Best Value projects for clients in the construction industry is to run a tight
ship, with senior management supervision and clear direction. In particular to ensure that project
An understanding of the key business needs and success criteria of clients, users and
A clear performance brief in terms of value objectives;
The skills needed, and further training if required;
No areas of uncertainty as to policy issues and expected outcomes;
An effective team with good communications; and
The will to eliminate unnecessary costs, and to seek innovative solutions.
How is value management applied?
VM throughout the project lifecycle - Typically, a project will have a planned series of workshops
integrated with the project programme beginning at project definition - strategic level, and continuing
through to construction- technical level. At the operations stage, lessons learnt workshops and post
occupancy evaluation studies assist in improving future projects in addition to the utilisation of the
Cost cutting Vs value improvement - For many years, value analysis and value engineering was
associated with cost cutting, but through applying value methods on projects, it became apparent that
Best Value was not about cost cutting, rather improving the understanding of the client's requirements
and business needs. This is central to today's VM thinking.
Understanding of client needs - Where there is a poor understanding of client need, or where this is
not clearly defined in the client's brief, the result is often poor value throughout the project lifecycle
with wasted resource in management time, design time, production time and the cost of change.
Securing a clear client brief requires skilled facilitation so that misconceptions on all sides are
Value Management considers:
The involvement of multi-disciplined users and stakeholders at the earliest strategic and
tactical workshops to be of paramount importance
At the later stages of the project design and implementation, technical value studies still
involve stakeholder representation, but, in view of the nature of the topics at the later stages, the
multi-disciplined stakeholders are likely to be more technically orientated and focused on
External 'challenge' - is important to achieving innovation in the construction industry, so for all
strategic and tactical workshops, facilitators who are external to the project team are involved. This
ensures that there is no undue political or commercial pressure brought to bear on the project team.
This also ensures that areas of uncertainty are identified and dealt with. Technically orientated
workshops at the detailed design or construction phases are often integrated with the project team
meetings and are often facilitated by a member of the team.
Function analysis - methods such as FAST diagrams are considered to be very important in
successfully breaking existing paradigms. Thinking in terms of 'functions' concentrates on the
performance required rather than the traditional solutions. For example, in a major railway station
renewal, the function 'enable transfer' placed the emphasis on transfer between lines and reduced the
emphasis on access for new passengers. This resulted in increased investment in improving access
between the lines and reduced the investment in new ticket halls giving not only a reduction in cost,
but also an improvement in use.
Creativity - The construction industry has many consultancy disciplines which often results in
compartmentalized thinking. The creativity or speculation stage of the workshop enables cross-
disciplined thinking and a more holistic approach to problem solving and more cost-effective
solutions, such as the balance between the architectural concept for a building and the mechanical
solution for heating and cooling of the building. The end users' value criteria can also lead to solutions
which can provide better options in terms of whole life costing, such as the initial cost of providing
flexibility for future changes which may never arise compared to the cost of alterations in future when
the need arises.
COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE
Computer architecture in computer engineering is the conceptual design and fundamental
operational structure of a computer system. It is a blueprint and functional description of requirements
and design implementations for the various parts of a computer, focusing largely on the way by which
the central processing unit (CPU) performs internally and accesses addresses in memory.
It may also be defined as the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware
components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals.
Computer architecture comprises at least three main subcategories:
Instruction set architecture, or ISA, is the abstract image of a computing system that is seen by
a machine language (or assembly language) programmer, including the instruction set,
memory address modes, processor registers, and address and data formats.
Micro-architecture, also known as Computer organization is a lower level, more concrete and
detailed, description of the system that involves how the constituent parts of the system are
interconnected and how they interoperate in order to implement the ISA. The size of a
computer's cache for instance, is an organizational issue that generally has nothing to do with
System Design which includes all of the other hardware components within a computing
system such as:
o system interconnects such as computer buses and switches
o memory controllers and hierarchies
o CPU off-load mechanisms such as direct memory access
o Issues like multi-processing.
Once both ISA and micro-architecture have been specified, the actual device needs to be
designed into hardware. This design process is called implementation. Implementation is usually not
considered architectural definition, but rather hardware design engineering.
Implementation can be further broken down into three (not fully distinct) pieces:
Logic Implementation - design of blocks defined in the micro-architecture at (primarily) the
register-transfer and gate levels.
Circuit Implementation - transistor-level design of basic elements (gates, multiplexers, latches
etc) as well as of some larger blocks (ALUs, caches etc) that may be implemented at this level,
or even (partly) at the physical level, for performance reasons.
Physical Implementation - physical circuits are drawn out, the different circuit components are
placed in a chip floor-plan or on a board and the wires connecting them are routed.
For CPUs, the entire implementation process is often called CPU design.
More specific usages of the term include more general wider-scale hardware architectures, such as
cluster computing and Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) architectures.
The term ―architecture‖ in computer literature can be traced to the work of Lyle R. Johnson and
Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., members in 1959 of the Machine Organization department in IBM‘s main
research center. Johnson had occasion to write a proprietary research communication about Stretch,
an IBM-developed supercomputer for Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; in attempting to characterize
his chosen level of detail for discussing the luxuriously embellished computer, he noted that his
description of formats, instruction types, hardware parameters, and speed enhancements aimed at
the level of ―system architecture‖ – a term that seemed more useful than ―machine organization.‖
Subsequently Brooks, one of the Stretch designers, started Chapter 2 of a book (Planning a
Computer System: Project Stretch, ed. W. Buchholz, 1962) by writing, ―Computer architecture, like
other architecture, is the art of determining the needs of the user of a structure and then designing to
meet those needs as effectively as possible within economic and technological constraints.‖ Brooks
went on to play a major role in the development of the IBM System/360 line of computers, where
―architecture‖ gained currency as a noun with the definition ―what the user needs to know.‖ Later the
computer world would employ the term in many less-explicit ways.
The first mention of the term architecture in the referred computer literature is in a 1964 article
describing the IBM System/360. The article defines architecture as the set of ―attributes of a system
as seen by the programmer, i.e., the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the
organization of the data flow and controls, the logical design, and the physical implementation.‖ In the
definition, the programmer perspective of the computer‘s functional behavior is key. The conceptual
structure part of an architecture description makes the functional behavior comprehensible and
extrapolatable to a range of Use cases. Only later on did ‗internals‘ such as ―the way by which the
CPU performs internally and accesses addresses in memory,‖ mentioned above, slip into the
definition of computer architecture.
Computer Architecture Topics
Some practitioners of computer architecture at companies such as Intel and AMD use more
Macro-architecture - architectural layers that are more abstract than micro-architecture, e.g.
ISA (Instruction Set Architecture) - as defined above
Assembly ISA - a smart assembler may convert an abstract assembly language common to a
group of machines into slightly different machine language for different implementations
Programmer Visible Macro-architecture - higher level language tools such as compilers may
define a consistent interface or contract to programmers using them, abstracting differences
between underlying ISA, UISA, and microarchitectures. E.g. the C, C++, or Java standards
define different Programmer Visible Macroarchitecture - although in practice the C
microarchitecture for a particular computer includes
UISA (Microcode Instruction Set Architecture) - a family of machines with different hardware
level microarchitectures may share a common microcode architecture, and hence a UISA.
Pin Architecture - the set of functions that a microprocessor is expected to provide, from the
point of view of a hardware platform. E.g. the x86 A20M, FERR/IGNNE or FLUSH pins, and
the messages that the processor is expected to emit after completing a cache invalidation so
that external caches can be invalidated. Pin architecture functions are more flexible than ISA
functions - external hardware can adapt to changing encodings, or changing from a pin to a
message - but the functions are expected to be provided in successive implementations even if
the manner of encoding them changes.
The exact form of a computer system depends on the constraints and goals for which it was
optimized. Computer architectures usually trade off standards, cost, memory capacity, latency and
throughput. Sometimes other considerations, such as features, size, weight, reliability, expandability
and power consumption are factors as well.
The most common scheme carefully chooses the bottleneck that most reduces the computer's
speed. Ideally, the cost is allocated proportionally to assure that the data rate is nearly the same for
all parts of the computer, with the most costly part being the slowest. This is how skillful commercial
integrators optimize personal computers.
Computer performance is often described in terms of clock speed (usually in MHz or GHz).
This refers to the cycles per second of the main clock of the CPU. However, this metric is somewhat
misleading, as a machine with a higher clock rate may not necessarily have higher performance. As a
result manufacturers have moved away from clock speed as a measure of performance.
Computer performance can also be measured with the amount of cache a processor has. If the
speed, MHz or GHz, were to be a car then the cache is like a traffic light. No matter how fast the car
goes, it still will be stopped by a red traffic light. The higher the speed, and the greater the cache, the
faster a processor runs.
Modern CPUs can execute multiple instructions per clock cycle, which dramatically speeds up
a program. Other factors influence speed, such as the mix of functional units, bus speeds, available
memory, and the type and order of instructions in the programs being run.
There are two main types of speed, latency and throughput. Latency is the time between the
start of a process and its completion. Throughput is the amount of work done per unit time. Interrupt
latency is the guaranteed maximum response time of the system to an electronic event (e.g. when the
disk drive finishes moving some data). Performance is affected by a very wide range of design
choices — for example, pipelining a processor usually makes latency worse (slower) but makes
throughput better. Computers that control machinery usually need low interrupt latencies. These
computers operate in a real-time environment and fail if an operation is not completed in a specified
amount of time. For example, computer-controlled anti-lock brakes must begin braking almost
immediately after they have been instructed to brake.
The performance of a computer can be measured using other metrics, depending upon its
application domain. A system may be CPU bound (as in numerical calculation), I/O bound (as in a
web serving application) or memory bound (as in video editing). Power consumption has become
important in servers and portable devices like laptops.
Benchmarking tries to take all these factors into account by measuring the time a computer
takes to run through a series of test programs. Although benchmarking shows strengths, it may not
help one to choose a computer. Often the measured machines split on different measures. For
example, one system might handle scientific applications quickly, while another might play popular
video games more smoothly. Furthermore, designers have been known to add special features to
their products, whether in hardware or software, which permit a specific benchmark to execute quickly
but which do not offer similar advantages to other, more general tasks.
Power consumption is another design criterion that factors in the design of modern computers.
Power efficiency can often be traded for performance or cost benefits. With the increasing power
density of modern circuits as the number of transistors per chip scales (Moore's Law), power
efficiency has increased in importance. Recent processor designs such as the Intel Core 2 put more
emphasis on increasing power efficiency. Also, in the world of embedded computing, power efficiency
has long been and remains the primary design goal next to performance.
Computer Systems Architecture
The discipline that defines the conceptual structure and functional behavior of a computer
system. It is analogous to the architecture of a building, determining the overall organization, the
attributes of the component parts, and how these parts are combined. It is related to, but different
from, computer implementation. Architecture consists of those characteristics which affect the design
and development of software programs, whereas implementation focuses on those characteristics
which determine the relative cost and performance of the system. The architect's main goal has long
been to produce a computer that is as fast as possible, within a given set of cost constraints. Over the
years, other goals have been added, such as making it easier to run multiple programs concurrently
or improving the performance of programs written in higher-level languages.
A computer system consists of four major components: storage, processor, peripherals, and
input/output (communication). The storage system is used to keep data and programs; the processor
is the unit that controls the operation of the system and carries out various computations; the
peripheral devices are used to communicate with the outside world; and the input/output system
allows the previous components to communicate with one another.
The storage or memory of a computer system holds the data that the computer will process
and the instructions that indicate what processing is to be done. In a digital computer, these are
stored in a form known as binary, which means that each datum or instruction is represented by a
series of bits. Bits are conceptually combined into larger units called bytes (usually 8 bits each) and
words (usually 8 to 64 bits each). A computer will generally have several different kinds of storage
devices, each organized to hold one or more words of data. These types include registers, main
memory, and secondary or auxiliary storage.
Registers are the fastest and most costly storage units in a computer. Normally contained
within the processing unit, registers hold data that are involved with the computation currently being
Main memory holds the data to be processed and the instructions that specify what processing
is to be done. A major goal of the computer architect is to increase the effective speed and size of a
memory system without incurring a large cost penalty. Two prevalent techniques for increasing
effective speed are interleaving and cacheing, while virtual memory is a popular way to increase the
effective size. Interleaving involves the use of two or more independent memory systems, combined
in a way that makes them appear to be a single, faster system. With cacheing, a small, fast memory
system contains the most frequently used words from a slower, larger main memory.
Virtual memory is a technique whereby the programmer is given the illusion of a very large
main memory, when in fact it has only a modest size. This is achieved by placing the contents of the
large, ―virtual‖ memory on a large but slow auxiliary storage device, and bringing portions of it into
main memory, as required by the programs, in a way that is transparent to the programmer.
Auxiliary memory (sometimes called secondary storage) is the slowest, lowest-cost, and
highest-capacity computer storage area. Programs and data are kept in auxiliary memory when not in
immediate use, so that auxiliary memory is essentially a long-term storage medium. There are two
basic types of secondary storage: sequential and direct-access. Sequential-access secondary
storage devices, of which magnetic tape is the most common, permit data to be accessed in a linear
sequence. A direct-access device is one whose data may be accessed in any order. Disks and drums
are the most commonly encountered devices of this type.
Memory mapping is one of the most important aspects of modern computer memory designs.
In order to understand its function, the concept of an address space must be considered. When a
program resides in a computer's main memory, there is a set of memory cells assigned to the
program and its data. This is known as the program's logical address space. The computer's physical
address space is the set of memory cells actually contained in the main memory. Memory mapping is
simply the method by which the computer translates between the computer's logical and physical
address spaces. The most straightforward mapping scheme involves use of a bias register.
Assignment of a different bias value to each program in memory enables the programs to coexist
Another strategy for mapping is known as paging. This technique involves dividing both logical
and physical address spaces into equal-sized blocks called pages. Mapping is achieved by means of
a page map, which can be thought of as a series of bias registers.
A computer's processor (processing unit) consists of a control unit, which directs the operation
of the system, and an arithmetic and logic unit, which performs computational operations. The design
of a processing unit involves selection of a register set, communication paths between these
registers, and a means of directing and controlling how these operate. Normally, a processor is
directed by a program, which consists of a series of instructions that are kept in main memory.
Although the process of decoding and executing instructions is often carried out by logic
circuitry, the complexity of instruction sets can lead to very large and cumbersome circuits for this
purpose. To alleviate this problem, a technique known as microprogramming was developed. With
microprogramming, each instruction is actually a macro-command that is carried out by a micro-
program, written in a microinstruction language. The microinstructions are very simple, directing data
to flow between registers, memories, and arithmetic units.
It should be noted that microprogramming has nothing to do with microprocessors. A
microprocessor is a processor implemented through a single, highly integrated circuit.
Peripherals and Communication
A typical computer system includes a variety of peripheral devices such as printers, keyboards,
and displays. These devices translate electronic signals into mechanical motion or light (or vice
versa) so as to communicate with people.
There are two common approaches for connecting peripherals and secondary storage devices
to the rest of the computer: The channel and the bus. A channel is essentially a wire or group of wires
between a peripheral device and a memory device. A multiplexed channel allows several devices to
be connected to the same wire. A bus is a form of multiplexed channel that can be shared by a large
number of devices. The overhead of sharing many devices means that the bus has lower peak
performance than a channel; but for a system with many peripherals, the bus is more economical
than a large number of channels.
A computer controls the flow of data across buses or channels by means of special
instructions and other mechanisms. The simplest scheme is known as program-controlled
input/output (I/O). Direct memory access I/O is a technique by which the computer signals the device
to transmit a block of data, and the data are transmitted directly to memory, without the processor
needing to wait.
Interrupts are a form of signal by which a peripheral device notifies a processor that it has completed
transmitting data. This is very helpful in a direct memory access scheme, for the processor cannot
always predict in advance how long it will take to transmit a block of data. Architects often design
elaborate interrupt schemes to simplify the situation where several peripherals are active
Even though architecture management is largely an extension of traditional notions of analysis,
design, and construction, it's different enough that we should expect resistance from IT shops in
general. Software development and delivery has been done for many years, and development
organizations have systems in place for getting the job done. Proposals to alter those systems are
never taken lightly, and even when proposals are embraced, the change is generally difficult. Like any
situation requiring change, education and information is a key element of successful adoption.
The education required for understanding and appreciating architecture management begins by
accepting that this discipline is not so much new, as it is something that needs to be done better.
Designers and developers have always had to manage architecture. But as the driving factors cited
earlier have come into play -- SOA, GDD, and outsourcing -- the scalability of doing things the way
they've always been done has been compromised. You can only work so many hours in a week, you
can only hire so many more people, and you can only train them to create work-around for a limited
time. Having the development group take a tough, close look at their trends in staff, time, and even
employee burnout may be the best education to start with.
The Principles for Responsible Management Education
The Six Principles for Responsible Management Education
As institutions of higher learning involved in the education of current and future managers we
are voluntarily committed to engaging in a continuous process of improvement of the following
Principles, reporting on progress to all our stakeholders and exchanging effective practices with other
Purpose: We will develop the capabilities of students to be future generators of sustainable
value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global
Values: We will incorporate into our academic activities and curricula the values of global
social responsibility as portrayed in international initiatives such as the United Nations Global
Method: We will create educational frameworks, materials, processes and environments that
enable effective learning experiences for responsible leadership.
Research: We will engage in conceptual and empirical research that advances our
understanding about the role, dynamics, and impact of corporations in the creation of
sustainable social, environmental and economic value.
Partnership: We will interact with managers of business corporations to extend our knowledge
of their challenges in meeting social and environmental responsibilities and to explore jointly
effective approaches to meeting these challenges.
Dialogue: We will facilitate and support dialog and debate among educators, business,
government, consumers, media, civil society organizations and other interested groups and
stakeholders on critical issues related to global social responsibility and sustainability.
Engagement Model for PRME Schools & Academic Institutions
The PRME can serve as a framework for systemic change for business schools and
management-related institutions, on the basis of three distinctive characteristics of the initiative:
Any school that is willing to engage in a gradual but systemic manner is welcome to join the
initiative. Implementation of the Principles should be understood as a long-term process of continuous
performance improvement and the PRME can provide a framework of general principles through
which to engage faculty and staff, and build institutional support.
A Learning Network
The PRME initiative also functions as a learning network. By collecting and channeling good
practices, it will facilitate an exchange of existing and state-of-the-art experiences within the PRME
Report to Stakeholders
Adopting the PRME implies that the signatory school is willing to report regularly - annually -
on progress to all stakeholders. Public reporting is the best way to ensure the credibility of the
initiative and allows giving recognition to good performances.
Why Participate in the PRME?
The benefits of adopting the PRME for a business school or a management-related academic
institution are to a certain degree similar to the benefits for a business engaging in responsible
Businesses which incorporate values of sustainability and corporate citizenship into their core
strategy and daily operations are the forerunners of a necessary adaptation process of the corporate
world. Likewise, leading schools that want to stay "ahead of the curve" are adopting the PRME as an
internationally recognized framework for adaptation and change.
Business schools and management-related institutions are by definition closely connected to
the community they serve: the corporate world and their key stakeholder organizations. This is why
they need to focus as much on the excellence of their basic research as on the relevance of applied
research to new needs and changing operating environments of business. It is the same reason why
schools strive to strike the right balance between sound scholars and excellent practitioners within
their faculty. Given the growing demand by business to develop new approaches on how to integrate
environmental, social and governance issues, it is in the best interest of business schools striving for
excellence to adapt and serve this new demand.
The PRME are a call to encourage and facilitate large-scale progress of business schools
towards a new approach in education that meets the new needs and expectations of the business
world and the demands of a new generation of students with regard to sustainability and good
corporate citizenship. Until this new value proposition becomes main-stream, schools that lead the
change will have a competitive advantage. Leading corporations will welcome the emergence of a
new generation of professionals whose vision, knowledge and skills are suited for the new
opportunities of value creation in the 21st century. In sum, the PRME are an initiative that will
increasingly enhance responsible performance, adaptation to changing demands, and
competitiveness in the market.
Managing the Professional Services Firm
Thoughts on ways to improve the management of professional services firms:
On role clarification within partnerships
As a professional adviser, one of my core arguments has been need for change within many
professional practices to better delineate otherwise conflicting roles and to facilitate more effective
governance and management. I believe that this is critical to improved performance and indeed
survival in some cases.
Partnerships under Challenge
The partnership is the traditional organizational form within professional services and remains
important today. In this form the world is dominated by the equity partners who essentially own the
game. The practice grows by admitting new partners generally recruited from within the ranks who
pay a price for partnership. In turn, this facilitates exit by existing partners. Partners receive their
return from the profit pool, the pre-tax net remaining after deduction of expenses.
This traditional model is under strain. Risks associated with equity partnership have increased. There
is growing reluctance among younger professionals to accept partnerships. At the same time, the
availability of partnerships has also declined for those that are interested. Increasingly, partners
themselves want more flexible life styles.
There is not scope in this type of post to canvass all these changes and their implications.
Instead I want to focus on one thing drawn from organizational theory, the way in which role
clarification can assist a partnership to manage change.
Confusion in Roles
All of us who have been involved as managers or advisers on people issues know that clarity
in job role is critical to performance. People need to know what they have to do, how their
performance will be measured. This is also critical when it comes to remuneration. Lack of clarity
about the links between role and pay can and does create significant management problems.
Unfortunately, the traditional partnership approach breaches the clarity principle. Partners traditionally
receive an agreed share of the profit pool. In return, they are expected to do a range of things that
may have little direct connection with either the size of the profit pool or their share of it. This can
create significant tensions within the practice and may make it hard to easily address performance
problems at partner level.
In my view, the first key step in addressing this problem is to make a clear distinction between
the partner's equity and work roles. Equity partners in the firm should receive a return on the capital
invested in the practice, while their work roles should be remunerated with payments directly related
to those roles and associated contribution to the practice. These payments should then be counted as
a cost from a management accounting perspective, creating a notional profit directly related to equity.
Once this separation principle has been established, the definition of roles and the
remuneration to be attached to those roles can then be dealt with using conventional job analysis and
Impact of Clarification
This simple approach to role clarification offers a number of very real performance gains. To
begin with; it makes partners more directly accountable for their own work performance. In turn, this
makes it easier to assess partner contribution and vary remuneration accordingly. It also makes it
easier to admit staff or non-equity partners in that they can be paid using the same principles as
applied to equity partners for their work.
Finally, it can increase flexibility for equity partners in managing their own affairs.