Docstoc

IT and Marketing

Document Sample
IT and Marketing Powered By Docstoc
					            Marketing for MOST
        Module 10 – I.T & Marketing




                  技術経営コンソーシアム

開発担当者 :Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University 教授: Takamoto, Akihiro
                   更新日 October, 2003
     IT and Marketing

1.    Need for a new Marketing Paradigm.
2.    e-commerce, e-business &e-marketing.
3.    e-segmentation,e-targeting and e-positioning.
4.    The 11 Immutable Laws of Internet Branding.
5.    e-marketing research.
6.    New Marketing Mix.
7.    More on e-business.
8.    Has IT changed Marketing?
                     Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




“Embrace the Internet. Bring me a plan as to
  how you are going to transform your
  business beyond adding an Internet Site”
          - Jack Welch, former CEO of GE

“ I think people still underestimate in the
   decade ahead how much digital
   approaches will change the way they work
   and the way they live”
       - Bill Gates, The Richest Man on Earth
                      3
                          Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                  Is this WOW!

• The cost of sending mail to 10 million GE customers
  in 1985 :$ 3.3 million.



• The cost of sending the same e-mail to 10 million GE
  customers today : $ 0.




                           4
                                                               Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                                   Internet and E-Commerce

                                                         Websites
                                                     Competitors
                                                                           Business
                                                                           Partners
                                  Global Markets
                                                   Corporate Communications
                       Vendors                         Human Resources                      Internet
                       Supplier                                                             Capabilities
                                                                            Information
                                        Systems
                                                                            Management

Intranets        Constraints         Research      Customers                   Marketing                     Extranets
                                                                                              Technology
                      Cost        Product                                         Sales       Developments
                      Containment Development
                                                                    Product Distribution New-Business
                                            Customer Support
                                                          Core Business                  Product
                                        Price                Function                    Potential
                                        Competition       Competitive
                                                          Environment

                                                      The Internet
Bigdoli Hossein:electronic commerce: principal
                                                               5
and practice(2000)
                Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




The Need for a New Marketing Paradigm




                 6
                           Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing



  The Need for a New Marketing Paradigm

• There are three stages in the new Marketing
  Paradigm.

Stage 1: Selling concept, where starting point is the
  factory and the aim is profits through sales volume
  using selling and promotion.


Stage 2: Marketing concept, where starting point is the
  identifying the customers varying needs and the aim
  is profits through customer satisfaction using market
  STP.


                                                                 Cont…
                           7
                           Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




  The Need for a New Marketing Paradigm

…Cont.

Stage 3: Holistic Marketing concept where the
  Starting point is identifying the individual customers
  needs and aim at profitable growth through capturing
  customer share, customer loyalty , and customer
  lifetime value. This is achieved using database
  management and value chain integration linking
  collaborators.


  Right now we are passing the second stage and
  entering the third stage which, is part of the
  transition to the Digital Economy.

                            8
                                                     Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


                    Changing Assumptions in Strategic
                           Marketing Thinking

                     Old Marketing                                New Marketing
         •    Marketing department does                  •   Marketing integrates the work
              the marketing.                                 of exploring, creating and
                                                             delivering customer value.
         •    Marketer focuses on                        •   Marketer focuses on
              “interrupter” marketing.                       “permission” marketing.
         •    Marketing focuses on                       •   Marketing focuses on
              acquiring new customers.                       customer retention and brand
         •    Marketing focuses on                           loyalty.
              intermediate transactions.                 •   Marketing focuses on
         •    Marketing expenditures are                     capturing customer lifetime
              viewed as expenses.                            value.
                                                         •   Many marketing expenditures
                                                             are viewed as investments.



                                                     9
Reference:Marketingmoves: Kotler, Jain & Maesincee
               Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


Don’t we have to redraw Maslow’s
       Hierarchical chart?


                                       Don’t we need to
                                       have another tier for
                                       information needs?




               10
                        Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




               The New Economy

•   Or the digital economy.
•   Paperless companies.
•   Data base emphasis.
•   Got to be tech savvy otherwise heavy.
•   Information transparency
•   Information overload.
•   The world is the playground.



                        11
                                                     Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




            The major shift towards Digital Economy


               Digital economy has forced corporations to
               undergo a sea of change and there are nine new
               paradigms to be applied to operate efficiently in the
               new economy.


       1.      From asymmetry of information to democratization
               of information.
       2.      From goods for elites to goods for everyone.
       3.      From make-and-sell to sell-and-respond.
       4.      From local economy to global economy.


                                                                                        Cont…
Reference:Marketingmoves: Kotler, Jain & Maesincee   12
                                                     Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




              The major shift towards Digital Economy


         ...Cont.

         5.      From the economics of diminishing returns to the
                 economics of increasing returns.
         6.      From owning assets to gaining assets.
         7.      From corporate governance to market governance.
         8.      From mass markets to markets of one.
         9.      From just-in-time to real-time.



                                                     13
Reference:Marketingmoves: Kotler, Jain & Maesincee
                                  Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


             How corporations are adapting to the Digital
                             Economy

         • Estimates of World B2B transactions in 2004:
           $ 7.3 Trillion1.

         • Ford and GM moved their B2B supply chain
           worth 300 and 500 billion USD online.

         • Cisco Systems announced they won’t do
           business with suppliers, who can’t take
           orders via the net.



                                  14
1. Gartner
                            Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


         More than 12% of the World Population is
                         online

     •   WORLD Total                   605.60 million
     •   AFRICA                          6.31million
     •   ASIA/Pacific                  187.24 million
     •   EUROPE                        190.91 million
     •   MIDDLE EAST                     5.12 million
     •   CANADA & USA                  182.67 million
     •   LATIN AMERICA                  33.35 million



                            15
Source:Nua.com
                                                Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing

                       Modes of communication between
                          businesses and customers
                             B2C                              C2C
                 Organizations Sites             Auctions(Ebay.com, ubid.com)
                 (Dell,Amazon)                   Consumer
     consume




                 Consumer Marketplaces           reviews(bizrate.com,
                 (Pets.com,Walmart.com)          Deja.com)
     r




                              B2B                             C2B
                 Organization Sites(Dell,IBM)    Customer Bids
                 Business Marketplaces           (Priceline.com, hotwire.com)
      business




                 (Commerce One, Vertical Net)




Source:e Marketing
excellence by P.R. Smith   business             16
                                                               consumer
           Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




e-commerce, e-business &
      e-marketing




           17
                           Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


    Relationship between e-commerce, e-
          business and e-marketing

• e-commerce includes e-tailing and just simple
  exchange of goods and payments online.

• e-business involves all the business processes in the
  value-chain.

• e-marketing is at the heart of the business adding
  value to the products, widening distribution channels,
  boosting sales while getting closer to the customer
  and understanding them better.



                           18
                                              Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


                  Relationship between e-commerce, e-
                        business and e-marketing

                                              One perception is that
                                              e-marketing,e-
                                              commerce and e-
                                              business is one and the
                 EM=EC=EB
                                              same thing?
                                               Do you think that’s
                                              true?




Source:e Marketing excellence by P.R. Smith
                                              19
                                              Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


                  Relationship between e-commerce, e-
                        business and e-marketing

                                                     Another perception
                       EB
                                                     is that e-commerce
                       EM                            is a part of the
                       EC                            process of e-
                                                     marketing and both
                                                     of them are part of
                                                     the bigger process
                                                     which is e-business.




                                              20
Source:e Marketing excellence by P.R. Smith
                                              Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


                Relationships between e-commerce, e-
                       business and e-marketing

                                                    There is still another
                                                    perception and that
                     EC            EM
                                                     e-commerce, e-
                                                    marketing and e-
                             EB                     business are different
                                                    processes altogether,
                                                    although they overlap
                                                    some of their functions.



Source:e Marketing excellence by P.R. Smith   21
                              Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing



             How much money is generated from the
                          NET?




Source:Activmedia             22
                     Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




e-segmentation, e-targeting & e-positioning




                     23
                                  Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                      e-segmentation
• The market is segmented based on customers like businesses,
  individuals and government.

• Segmentation of market based on B2B, B2C, C2B and C2C.

• The market is segmented considering the companies promotion
  mix ( offline vs. online mix).

• It is difficult to segment the market geographically as the Internet
  population is estimated at 20-30 million with 10% monthly
  growth rate all over the world.

                                                                     Cont…


                                  24
                                Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                     e-segmentation

…Cont.

• Demographically, the market is made up of young users with
  higher income levels.

• The psychographic segmentation is very accurate as the user’s
  browsing habits hint at his preferences.

• Product related segmentation is most important, as net users
  look for added values, technologically superior and best priced
  products.




                                25
                                Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                        e-targeting


• The target market for most of the companies has become large
  due to easy access all across the world.
• The target market should also be based on the companies
  product, and whether the product can be sold more effectively
  online or offline.
• Due to the availability of the internet the target market is huge
  but on the other hand competition is immense, therefore the
  company has to choose what region to target to create a niche
  market.




                                26                                   Cont…
                                  Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                          e-targeting

…Cont.

• With the fast growth of the internet its difficult to imagine the
  scope of the target market.
• Target marketing on the net is more effective when, it is
  concentrated on small number of customers especially in the
  case of high value products, on the other hand for innovative
  products, bigger target markets have been successful as well.




                                  27
                                  Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                         e-positioning

• The most important strategy on the Internet is how to position
  your product.

• Only online, only offline, or offline-online available products.

• Shift from product-centric companies to customer-centric
  companies.

• Adding a new medium for providing information, and reach the
  customer through the web.



                                                                       Cont…



                                  28
                                Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                     e-positioning
Cont…

• Customization is the new mantra for customer value.

• Distribution channels are matched to customer’s preferences.

• Make profits on customers lifetime value.

• It’s a two way communication network via the web, which is
  necessary to expedite transactions.




                                29
                Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




The 11 Immutable Laws of Internet
           Branding




                30
                                                        Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




            The 11 Immutable Laws of Internet Branding

           1.      The Law of either/or : the internet can be business or
                   medium, but not both.
           2.      The Law of interactivity: online business cannot survive
                   without interactive website.
           3.      The Law of the common name: most internet companies
                   have a common word as their name which, is not very
                   attractive
           4.      The Law of the proper name: name is the most important
                   asset of the company on the net, so it better be something
                   spectacular.
           5.      The Law of singularity: the internet is innovative and
                   creative and to be the market leader is the mantra for
                   success. The one who does it first reaps the most benefits.
           6.      The Law of advertising: advertising off the net will always
                   be bigger than on the net, use the right kind of mix.
                                                                         Cont…

Source:Immutable Laws of Internet Branding: Al Ries ,
                                                        31
Laura Ries: Harper Collins.
                                                        Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




          The 11 Immutable Laws of Internet Branding
         Cont…

         7.       The Law of globalism: on the internet there are no
                  boundaries and territories. The world is the playground.
         8.       The Law of time: the internet is very fast and you have to be
                  quicker and focused to reap the benefits.
         9.       The Law of vanity: do not try and do everything, be selective
                  and have common sense.
         10.      The Law of divergence: the internet is moving in the
                  opposite direction of convergence.
         11.      The Law of transformation: to be successful on the internet,
                  you have to believe that it has transformed our lives and will
                  further affect it in different ways.



Source:Immutable Laws of Internet Branding: Al Ries ,   32
Laura Ries: Harper Collins.
         Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




e-marketing research




         33
                        Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




     e-marketing research benefits
• Cost savings.
• It is individually directed.
• It is a good way to reach unreachable people
  like doctors, lawyers, professionals.
• It is fast and has maximum reach.
• Sample size is not a problem.
• It offers anonymity for the surveyed, therefore
  there is more honesty.
• It is easier to reach early adopters.


                        34
                       Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




         e-marketing research traps

• The users of the internet do not represent the
  whole population, they are different.
• Online research is not right for every
  company and product.
• Sample audience is not defined.
• There is no interaction between the surveyor
  and surveyed.




                       35
         Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




The New Marketing Mix




         36
                                       Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


     The New Marketing Mix in the Digital
                Economy

                                   Product      •Digital value
                                                added
                                                •Brand experience
•Online vs. Offline Mix
•Integration


    Promotion                      The New                              Price
                                  Marketing Mix

                                                                   •New Pricing Models
                                                                   •Price Transparency


       •Representation
                                     Place
       •New Distribution Models

                                       37
                          Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                      Product

• Can your product be produced in a better way using
  IT?
• Is the internet the right medium for your product?
• Is your product easily deliverable?
• Can your product be purchased without the customer
  actually feeling it or touching it?
• Can you make sure that utility of the product is the
  same to the consumer, whether purchased offline or
  online?
• What are the added values to buy online?


                          38
                           Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                        Price

• Because customers have new buying models, new
  pricing approaches are essential.
• Price transparency is the way on the Internet.
• Prices are complex and have a lot add-ons.
• Fixed pricing has made way for leasing in a big way:
  cars, computers, even music can be leased.
• Pricing under pressure is experienced by all
  corporations: “in the digital world the customer has
  become the true King”.




                           39
                              Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                            Place

• Does it matter whether you are in Timbuktu or in New York?
  Your store is online.

• New distribution models have given birth to
  1) Disintermediation.
  2) Reintermediation.
  3) Info mediation.
  4) Peer-to-Peer Services.
  5) Affiliation and collaboration.

• The world is the playground now and distribution has taken over
  the limitations of place, especially in “information intensive”
  businesses.

• Physical limitations do exist however, in many businesses.

                              40
                       Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing



                  Promotion

• Both, online and offline promotion is
  important to optimize the promotional mix.
• Both, offline and online communications have
  to be integrated.
• They have to be creative.
• There has to be interaction with the customer.
• Globalized approach.




                       41
                                                                 Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




               What is the web’s advertising revenue?




                                Source: Jupiter Communications




Source:Jupiter Communications                                    42
                       Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




            The Fifth P- PEOPLE
• People are more important now than ever
  before.
• Customers have to be satisfied more as they
  have more alternatives and more information.
• Staff has to be trained as marketing tools are
  advancing rapidly technologically.
• As marginal costs are low repeat customers
  means lots of profits.
• Happy Staff= Happy Customers= Happy
  Shareholders.


                       43
        Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




More on e-business




        44
                             Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


     What industries has the internet really
               revolutionized?

1.   Information-intensive industries namely:
        • Financial services
        • Entertainment
        • Education
        • Government
2.   Auction industry.
3.   Travel Industry.
4.   Some parts of retail industry, like books.




                             45
                          Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




        Let’s talk about the e-customer

• The e-customer is smart and well informed, well
  educated, more affluent, and an early adopter of
  technology.
• The e-customer is used to extras.
• The e-customer wants simplified purchases.
• The e-customer is lazy.
• The e-customer wants the best price.
• The e-customer is not very loyal.
• The e-customer can be an individual, corporation,
  government.
• The e-customer wants interaction.



                          46
                Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


How do consumers actually use the
           internet?




                47
                      Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




  What we pay for and what we don’t?
       Pay                                    Free

 Internet access                 Shopping info

Analysis                         Commodity or
                                 financial data

Entertainment                    Search engines

Customized services              E-mail

                                 Purchases


                      48
                         Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




    Advantages of e-business for consumers

•   Perfect for couch potatoes.
•   Price transparency.
•   Complete information.
•   Instant delivery.
•   Ease of payment.
•   Infinite product choice.
•   After sales service without leaving home.



                         49
                         Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




Disadvantages of e-business for consumers

•   Payment security.
•   No tangibility of goods.
•   Dependence on e-tailer’s word.
•   Addictive.
•   Makes them lazy.
•   Unlimited information leads to confusion.




                         50
                          Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                      e-tools

•     The web, interactive television and cellular
      phones.
     These tools enable marketers:
1.    To get fine tuned.
2.    To interact with buyers
3.    Get direct response.
4.    Brand building and customer service.
5.    Cost savings.


                          51
                             Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




      Advantages of e-business for sellers


•   Cost savings.
•   Interaction.
•   Removal of customer service bottlenecks.
•   Target approach and individualized service to the
    customer.
•   Improved purchasing, recruiting, training and internal
    and external communications.
•   Infinite database of customers.
•   Transparency of Information.
•   No boundaries.


                             52
                          Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




    Disadvantages of e-business to sellers


•   Price transparency.
•   Technology dependence.
•   Limited product differentiation.
•   Minimal margins.
•   No physical interaction.
•   Frauds.




                          53
                                                         Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                         Model for a Virtual Organization
                     Alliance with
                     subcontractors
                                                                  Boundary of firm
Alliance with a
major supplier
                                                                                             Customer response
                                                                                             and order-fulfillment
                                                                                             teams


                                        Intranets

Extranets
                                                                                               Alliance with a
                                                                                               major customer


                                                                                             Manufacturing teams


                                                                                          Alliance with a competitor
                                                                                          who provides services
Alliance with                                                                             that are complementary
small suppliers                 Cross-functional teams        Engineering teams

Reference:Burn Janice: e-business strategy               54
for virtual organization.
                        Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




         Will Click replace the Brick?

• Maybe not, because we still enjoy going to
  the market.
• Maybe not, because the Brick and Mortar
  stores are integrating Bricks and Clicks very
  well( Walmart.com, Macy’s.com).
• Maybe not, because 90% of the goods we
  buy have to be touched and felt.
• Maybe not, because its still too early to say.



                        55
                                           Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                 The new types of operational systems

          • Click Only: only website business and no prior history. E.g.
            e.trade.com,etc.
          • Click followed by Brick: some click only firms follow up with
            brick stores. E.g. Amazon.com, gateway.com
          • Brick followed by Click: existing brick and mortar companies
            going online. E.g. Wal-Mart and walmart.com
          • Brick and Mortar Only: only physical stores and no
            online sales: E.g. some custom shops like REI.
          • Brick followed by Click Only: a brick and mortar store followed
            up with an internet site and then, the the brick store abandoned.
            E.g. Egghead software.




Reference:Marketingmoves: Kotler, Jain &   56
Maesincee
            Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




Has IT changed Marketing?




            57
                           Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




          Has IT changed marketing?


• Certainly, it has broadened its vision and boundaries.

• Competition is at a new level, it’s not local anymore.

• It has dramatically changed the whole process of
  marketing.

• And yet, the essence of marketing remains intact: it is
  an art and science to best meet the needs of
  customers.



                           58
                                                     Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                         Shifts in Operational Marketing


         •    Reverse Product design.
         •    Reverse Pricing.
         •    Reverse Advertising.
         •    Reverse Promotions.
         •    Reverse Distribution Channels.
         •    Reverse Segmentation.




Reference:Marketingmoves: Kotler, Jain & Maesincee   59
                        Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing



                     CRM


The most important aspect of the internet is
its ability to let the organization interact with
the customer.


 Customer Relationship Management is now
the focus of every marketing team, in every
organization.




                        60
                                            Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                                           CRM


        CRM helps a company develop customers who would :

        • Buy more from the company irrespective of relatively
          higher prices than competition.
        • Recommend the company to other customers.
        • Use company support service and facilities.
        • Make the company the standard for the organization
          or family.
        • Try out the company’s new offerings and help them
          make them better.



Reference:Marketingmoves: Kotler, Jain &
                                            61
Maesincee
                                           Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing


                       Arthur M. Hughes’ five criteria for
                               successful CRM


         1.       The company has well developed marketing
                  processes.
         2.       The company can capture customers’ names,
                  addresses, and purchase behavior with ease.
         3.       Data about customers’ repeat purchases can be
                  captured at the point of sale.
         4.       The company has the skills to build and mine their
                  databases.
         5.       The company can offer a frequency reward
                  program with significant benefits for both parties.


Reference:Marketingmoves: Kotler, Jain &
Maesincee                                  62
                                                  Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                                           The CRM process

                    Stage of CRM                            Key initiatives
         • Finding the target customers.               • Defining target markets.
                                                       • Acquiring target markets.
         • Filling the target customers’
           needs.                                      • Translating the customer
                                                         value into actionable
                                                         customer benefits.
                                                       • Matching the market
                                                         offerings with customer’s
         • Forming the link with target                  choice context.
           customers.
                                                       • Designing market
                                                         intelligence.
                                                       • Gaining insight from
                                                         customer information.
Reference:Marketingmoves: Kotler, Jain &
Maesincee                                         63
                           Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




Have we adapted to this new style of living?


• Do you think we can work without Computers
  anymore. Imagine no e-mails.
• When we call the world without boundaries, isn’t the
  Internet really it.
• It is not for couch potatoes it’s for efficient people
  who believe in time savings.
• The Internet has given us more options than we ever
  had.
• A whole world is just a CLICK away.


                           64
                                 Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




              Will it transform our lives?

• You are kidding yourself, if you disagree that it has not already
  transformed your life.

• How many people have not used the internet for purchasing
  anything?

• How many people are not using chats and emails as alternative
  to telephone?

• How many people don’t know what the internet is?

   NEWS FLASH: We have been TRANSFORMED
   completely.

                                 65
                                   Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




      What will be the next big thing now?
• Wireless- net: it’s not that reliable right now but popularity is
  increasing because of reach to far off places.

• Peer-to-Peer: this technology helps individuals communicate
  with each other through their PC’s.

• Cellular Browsing: e-mailing through cellular phones is already
  very popular. Will it replace the PC in the future?

• Machine-to-Machine: right now companies like e-bay and yahoo
  auctions are acting as intermediaries, will machines play an
  important role in transactions between people.


   In this fast paced world of technological advances, we
   won’t have to wait long to see the next big thing to emerge.

                                   66
                        Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                   The Future

• The internet is in the early majority stage.

• In years to come, if you someone calls their
  kids Raj.com and Yuko.com, then don’t be
  taken aback.

• IT is a way for a better informed and a more
  efficient world.



                         67
                            Marketing for MOST: Module 10 – IT and Marketing




                     The Future
  But Beware:

• IT cannot create a single drop of water or a grain of
  rice by itself.

• IT can be a dangerous weapon if misused.

• The “highest human needs” may not be satisfied by
  IT.

• There is potential withering of human intellect through
  information overload.

                            68

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:51
posted:8/26/2011
language:English
pages:68