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Head Injury

STUDENT REVIEW SHEET

Matching Exercises

a. Coup

b. Cerebral contusion

c. Subdural hematoma

d. Dysphasia

e. Dysarthria

f. Neurogenic pulmonary edema



1.___ A complication of many brain-injured patients that involves difficulty using or

       understanding language as a result of their injury

2.___ A classification of brain injury in which most of the damage occurs relatively

       close to the impact site

3.___ A frequently seen brain lesion in which an area of the brain is bruised without

       being punctured or lacerated

4.___ The tearing of surface veins or dislodgement of pools of venous blood causing

       accumulation of blood below the dural meningeal layer and above the arachnoid

       covering of the brain
5.___ A complication resulting from the sympathetic nervous system response to

       increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), leading to vasoconstriction and causing

       more blood to be shunted to the lungs

6.___ A group of speech disorders resulting from disturbances in muscular control of

       the speech mechanism as a result of damage to the central or peripheral nervous

       systems



True/False Questions

1.___ The majority of head injuries are caused by motor vehicle crashes, followed by

       falls and assaults.

2.___ Linear skull fractures may be limited to the floor of the skull or may occur in

       association with fractures of the cranial vault, such as parts of the frontal or

       temporal bones.

3.___ Large cerebral contusions may expand over 2 to 3 days after the injury and may

       create widespread dysfunctions as a result of increasing cerebral edema.

4.___ Numerous locations in both cerebral hemispheres regulate voluntary control over

       the muscles used in breathing, with the cerebellum synchronizing and

       coordinating the muscular effort.

5.___ Clinical manifestations of diabetes insipidus are decreased urine output, urine

       specific gravity usually greater than 1.025, hemodilution as evidenced by

       decreased hematocrit, and hyponatremia.

6.___ For patients receiving phenytoin, the nurse should pay careful attention to the

       patient’s cardiac rate and rhythm.
7.___ Suctioning through the nasopharynx should be avoided in a patient with suspected

        basilar skull fracture.



Short Answer/Fill-in Questions

1. List three severity-of-head-injury classifications and the description of deficit

   according to the Glasgow Coma Scale.

   a.

   b.

   c.



2. Identify three nursing strategies to assist the patient with sensory stimulation after

   head injury.

   a.

   b.

   c.



3. Name three types of breathing patterns and the neuroanatomical lesion involved.

   a.

   b.

   c.



Essay Question

Describe Cushing’s triad and its value in the determination of increased ICP.

				
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posted:8/26/2011
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