STUDENT REVIEW SHEET
b. Cerebral contusion
c. Subdural hematoma
f. Neurogenic pulmonary edema
1.___ A complication of many brain-injured patients that involves difficulty using or
understanding language as a result of their injury
2.___ A classification of brain injury in which most of the damage occurs relatively
close to the impact site
3.___ A frequently seen brain lesion in which an area of the brain is bruised without
being punctured or lacerated
4.___ The tearing of surface veins or dislodgement of pools of venous blood causing
accumulation of blood below the dural meningeal layer and above the arachnoid
covering of the brain
5.___ A complication resulting from the sympathetic nervous system response to
increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), leading to vasoconstriction and causing
more blood to be shunted to the lungs
6.___ A group of speech disorders resulting from disturbances in muscular control of
the speech mechanism as a result of damage to the central or peripheral nervous
1.___ The majority of head injuries are caused by motor vehicle crashes, followed by
falls and assaults.
2.___ Linear skull fractures may be limited to the floor of the skull or may occur in
association with fractures of the cranial vault, such as parts of the frontal or
3.___ Large cerebral contusions may expand over 2 to 3 days after the injury and may
create widespread dysfunctions as a result of increasing cerebral edema.
4.___ Numerous locations in both cerebral hemispheres regulate voluntary control over
the muscles used in breathing, with the cerebellum synchronizing and
coordinating the muscular effort.
5.___ Clinical manifestations of diabetes insipidus are decreased urine output, urine
specific gravity usually greater than 1.025, hemodilution as evidenced by
decreased hematocrit, and hyponatremia.
6.___ For patients receiving phenytoin, the nurse should pay careful attention to the
patient’s cardiac rate and rhythm.
7.___ Suctioning through the nasopharynx should be avoided in a patient with suspected
basilar skull fracture.
Short Answer/Fill-in Questions
1. List three severity-of-head-injury classifications and the description of deficit
according to the Glasgow Coma Scale.
2. Identify three nursing strategies to assist the patient with sensory stimulation after
3. Name three types of breathing patterns and the neuroanatomical lesion involved.
Describe Cushing’s triad and its value in the determination of increased ICP.