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A quarterly Publication of Tanzania National Parks April-June 2008, Issue 004 8th LEON SULLIVAN MEETING “ ARUSHA HOSTS A SUMMIT OF A LIFETIME” 1 Arusha Manifesto Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere 1922-1999 ARUSHA MANIFESTO “The survival of our wildlife is a matter of grave concern to all of us in Africa. These wild creatures amid the wild places they inhabit are not only important as a source of wonder and inspiration but are an integral part of our natural resources and our future livelihood and well being. In accepting the trusteeship of our wildlife we solemnly declare that we will do everything in our power to make sure that our children’s grand-children will be able to enjoy this rich and precious inheritance. The conservation of wildlife and wild places calls for specialist knowledge, trained manpower and money. And we look to other nations to co-operate with us in this important task the success or failure of which not only affects the continent of Africa but the rest of the world as well” 2 CONTENTS Regulars 2. Arusha Manifesto 4. Director General’s Message 5. Editorial Comment News 6. Kikwete: Tourism is boosting our economy 8. Mwangunga urges creativity in Tourism Sector 10 Arusha hosts a summit of a lifetime 11. TANAPA Rangers attend ‘Walking Safari’ Training 12. TANAPA’s new commmercial wing ready Features 14. Tanzania has much to offer to the world 18. Keeping abreast with wildlife conservation 20. TANAPA spends 3.7 Billion in Community Conservation Projects 22. Tourism promotion: Tanzania needs to curb infrastructural challenges 24. “Mt Kilimanjaro offers fascinating hiking adventure” 26. Chimpanzee: A Man’s relative? 29. Trustees visit Parks 31. Animal Quiz 32. Humour 33. Parks’ Tarriffs Published by: Editor Graphics Design Tanzania National Parks Pascal Shelutete TANAPA Publishing Unit Mwl. Nyerere Conservation Centre Consulting Editor P.O. Box 3134, Arusha, Tanzania. Lilla N. Lyogello Photographs Editorial Team TANAPA Publishing Unit Editor-In-Chief Ezekiel Dembe Gerald Bigurube Ignas Lejora Catherine G. Mbena 3 MESSAGE FROM TANAPA DIRECTOR GENERAL Dear readers, The primary role of Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA) is conservation. The 15 nation- al parks, many of which form the core of a much larger protected ecosystem, have been set aside to preserve the country’s rich natural heritage and to provide secure breeding grounds where its fauna and flora can thrive; safe from the conflicting interests of a growing human population. The existing parks’ system protects a number of internationally recognized bastions of biodiversity and World Heritage sites, thereby redressing the balance of the country’s areas affected by deforestation, agriculture and urbanization. By choosing to visit Tanzania, you are supporting a developing country’s extraordinary investment for the future. In spite of population pressures, Tanzania has dedicated more than 50,000 square kilometers to national parks. Including other reserves, conservation areas and marine parks.Tanzania has accorded some form of formal protection to more than one-third of its territory a far higher proportion than most of the world’s wealthier nations. Tourism Tourism provides valuable revenue to support the conservation work of the National Parks, as well as wildlife research, and the education and livelihood of local communities. In addition, tourism helps to generate international awareness of conservation issues, while the physical presence of tourists can help deter illegal poaching activity by way of assisting the park rangers with game management. But TANAPA has resisted the temptation to cash in on the short term gains of mass tourism. Understanding our responsibility to Tanzania and to the world-in the conservation and management of a global resource. We are committed to low impact and sustainable visitation to protect the environment from irreversible damage while creating a first class ecotourism destination. Human activity is closely monitored and all development strictly regulated. Buildings in the parks must be unobtrusive and waste disposal is carefully controlled. Park visitors and facilities are widely distributed to prevent harassment of animals and to minimize the human imprint on the environment. Even in Tanzania’s most popular park, Serengeti, more than 7,000 square kilometers almost half the park’s area remains a wilderness zone with no roads. Local Community Guardianship of this rich resource, however, relies on the goodwill of the park’s neighbors. TANAPA is working hard to ensure that local communities have a sense of ownership and a vested interest in the future of the parks by sharing the 4 rewards of conservation and delivering tangible benefits. A percentage of park revenue is used to assist community development initiatives such as schools, health dispensaries, water schemes and roads. Villagers are encouraged to develop cultural tourism projects to cultivate their own financial returns from park visitors. Many locals are employed within the parks by lodges and tour operators-and by TANAPA, particularly in the fight against poachers who desire to steal from the parks for profit or subsistence. TANAPA works with communities to teach sustainable environmental management and assist with tree planting, establish nurseries and promote cultural, as well as wildlife conservation. Looking ahead The future depends on those who will inherit the parks. TANAPA is taking the lead in educating the local community; providing study materials and teacher training for schools; and showing conservation videos in Kiswahili in villages. Schools and community groups are offered free visits to the parks to demonstrate the importance of preserving these habitats. The support of research projects is an important facet of TANAPA’s commitment to the future. Tanzania’s chimpanzees are the subject of the longest-running study of its kind in the world. Scientists working in Tanzania’s parks continue to discover previously unknown species of butterflies, birds, beetles and plants. Regular surveys are undertaken to monitor the distribution and number of animals, test water quality, identify disease outbreaks, and check invasion of exotic species. The National Parks are a lifetime for animals that would otherwise face extinction from human hands. They offer refuge to many endangered and vulnerable species, safeguard shrinking habitats, and provide protected breeding sanctuaries in which threatened species can recover. With everyone’s support, I am convinced that these vital ecosystems will be preserved for the benefit of our future. Gerald Bigurube Director General, Tanzania National Parks “TANAPA has resisted the temptation to cash in on the short term gains of mass tourism... We are committed to low impact and sustainable visitation to protect the environment from irreversible damage while creating a first class ecotourism destination.” 5 FROM THE EDITOR’S DESK Dear TANAPA Today readers, Tanzania is proud to host one of the world’s renowned international meeting the 8th Leon Sullivan Summit between June 2 and 6,2008 in Arusha, the so called ‘Geneva of Africa’. May I take this opportunity to welcome all the delegates to this beautiful country and surely you will enjoy Tanzania’s true hospitality. While in the country, obviously you will be looking for areas of investment through partnerships with the locals, which we believe will be a catalyst in building the economy of our people. Certainly, Tanzania has a lot of potentials that are yet to be discovered by many. By coming to Tanzania, is a right step in discovering these potentials. What is needed therefore, is real commitment by responsible parties to ensure that deliberations and resolutions agreed at the meeting bear results. TANAPA welcomes the visitors to our 15 national parks , whether this time or in the near future because by so doing, you will be boosting our country’s tourism industry. The tourism industry in Tanzania now accounts for 17.2 per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic (GDP) Product and 25 per cent of total exports. According to statistics, Tanzania expects to receive a million tourists by 2010, up from some 719,031 who visited the country last year. Surely, the tourism sector is very vital for our economy. The industry has also been a good source of employment opportunities. Currently the sector offers direct employment to about 250,000 people while close to 2.5 million are supported indirectly. It is for these reasons that, TANAPA Today appeals to the 8th Leon Sullivan Summit delegates to positively contribute to Tanzania’s economy by investing in the available resources and boost the country’s nascent economy. “The tourism industry in Tanzania now accounts for 17.2 per cent of the country’s GDP Product and 25 per cent of total exports. Tanzania expects to receive a million tourists by 2010” 6 Kikwete: Tourism is boosting our economy President Jakaya Kikwete delivers a speech during the 33rd Africa Travel Association (ATA) meeting in Arusha in May, 2008. T he Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete has said that He attributed the achievement to the government’s tourism is now the country’s leading foreign serious efforts to promote tourism in the country. exchange earner, as it accounts for 17.2 per cent of the He said tourism has now been a model of success in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). current economic reform process, as it had been very responsive to transformation and modernization. Opening the 33rd Africa Travel Association (ATA) Congress recently in Arusha, President Kikwete said that ‘“We know we are not there yet, but we are determined the number of international tourist arrivals in the to get there the soonest possible, as we want to make our country had also increased from 525,122 in 2001, to country a premier world destination for leisure, 719,031 last year, the increase has led to a creation of exploration and discovery”, said the President. 250,000 new jobs. Tanzania had realized that working in partnership with 7 Mwangunga u other stakeholders in the industry like ATA was a key to success that could attract more tourists and more invest- creativity in ment in tourism infrastructures, he added. The president said that though Africa had vast tourist resources available, tourism in the country was still at a very infant stage of development. “What has so far been exploited is a very tiny part of the tourism potential that exists in our dear continent. Much more can be done and needed to be done”, said the President. The President told the ATA Congress, whose this year’s theme was; “Bringing Africa to the World and the World to Africa,” that more needed to be done to tap Africa’s share in the global tourism business. Africa’s share of global tourist business he said, remained small, as projections indicate that Africa would receive 47 million tourists in 2010 and 77.3 million in 2020, an average growth of 5.5 per cent annually. “Given that, global tourism arrivals are projected to be one billion in 2010 and 1.6 billion in 2020, Africa’s share remains relatively small. Africa can perform much In order to conserve wildlife, we have to conserve the habitat fir better than what the projections tell us”, President generations to marvel at and for sustainable touri Kikwete said. The Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, Hon. Shamsa Mwangunga has urged tourism He added that development of tourism in Africa had stakeholders in the country to be creative to achieve speedy improvement in the industry. called for solutions to solve problems facing the industry such as communications, accommodation and standard The Minister was addressing participants during the of services to make the tourist’s stay comfortable. official opening of the International Workshop on ‘Balancing Biodiversity Conservation and Tourism’ held at Serengeti National Park recently. She said that, creativeness was needed for future tourism in the Serengeti Ecosystem. She stressed that as a nation, there was a need to look for other countries as role models. “I’m excited to be amongst a group of 8 urges exceeds expectations; according to her. n Tourism Sector The minister went on saying that, tourism was a major global industry and can contribute enormously to Tanzania’s economy. “Its present contribution is absolutely significant, it is one of the major sources of foreign currency and also a big employer”. However, the Minister did not avoid to caution over the challenges the tourism sector may encounter, such as over utilization, human impact outside the park, poor planning practices, uncoordinated implementation programs, poaching and climate change. The workshop was organized by the German Ministry of Environment, the Frankfurt Zoological Society, Tanzania Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism and Tanzania National Parks. “We need to understand the needs of our visitors and provide an exposure tha not only meets, but exceeds expectations” rst. The habitat such as this one, needs full protection for future ism so as to meet visitors’ needs and expectations. International experts helping us shape a vision for the future of tourism in the Serengeti Ecosystem” said the Minister. Hon. Mwangunga further added that, the future of Serengeti requires the balancing of science and environmental knowledge The minister pointed out that Tanzania has always provided the visitors with extra ordinary wilderness experiences but as the world changes and competition increases, there was a need to be smarter about how we do it. “We need to understand the needs of our visitors and provide an experience that not only meets, but 9 ARUSHA HOSTS A SUMMIT OF A LIFETIME AICC building where the Sullivan summit will take place Sullivan Summit VIII, "The Summit of a Lifetime," will between America and Africa, serving as a forum for take place in Arusha, Tanzania from June 2-6, 2008. economic and cultural cooperation. Africa needs part- ners, who can bring skills, expertise and resources to The Leon H. Sullivan Summits bring together the the problems and challenges it faces and defines. It is world’s political and business leaders, delegates through these partnerships that Africa can realize its representing national and international civil and full potential. multinational organizations, and members of academic institutions in order to focus attention and resources The key strategic objective of the Sullivan Summit VIII, on Africa’s economic and social development. is to create the opportunity for the nations in Africa and primarily North American and European business The Sullivan mission was inspired by Rev. Leon H. interests invest and otherwise engage in the socio-eco- Sullivan’s belief that the development of Africa is a mat- nomic development of the African continent, through ter of global partnerships. It was particularly important foreign direct investments, joint venture initiatives and to Rev. Sullivan that Africa’s Diaspora and Friends of public-private partnerships. SSVIII has four strategic Africa are active participants in Africa’s development. objectives as identified by the host country: The Sullivan Summits are organized by the Leon H. 1. To advance physical and economic infrastructure, Sullivan Foundation and held biennially in an African especially power, transport and information nation to highlight key issues and best practices, technology through Regional Economic stimulate discussion and define opportunities, promote Community Discussions private enterprise and foster high-level strategic 2. To attract investment in manufacturing, agricultural partnerships. development and tourism 3. To promote the tourism and hospitality sector as an Creative and innovative initiatives emerge out of discus- engine of economic growth sions and negotiations at the Summits, and new rela- 4. To advocate for the sustainability of the tionships are brokered in order to make those initia- environment as an integral part of Africa’s tives a reality. The Sullivan Summits are a bridge long-term economic success. 10 TANAPA Rangers attend ‘Walking Safari’ Training Walking Safari training participants at the Udzungwa Mountains. TintensiveNational took place in Udzungwa Mountain anzania guides. The training Parks conducted a three weeks ‘Walking Safari’ training for her Ranger The course covered outdoor travel skills using map reading, compass and GPS, wilderness First Aid, minimum impact conservation practices through Leave National Park in the South Central Tanzania. A total of No Trace (LNT) ethics. Areas of environment and 16 participants attended the training. cultural studies were also taught as well as customer care and leadership qualities. The aim of the course was to equip the TANAPA rangers with modern ways of conducting the ‘Walking The course participants successfully reached Safari’ which is new product in some of the national Mwanihana Peak (2,200m abs) on day seven of the parks. course. They experienced mainly wet and cloudy conditions whereby 17 out of the 21 course days had The participants were drawn from Udzungwa rainfall. Despite this, participants enthustically Mountains, Ruaha, Katavi, Serengeti, Tarangire, Lake completed the training. Towards the end of the course, Manyara and Arusha National Parks. The training was students elected two of their peers to lead them on an conducted by Kenyan experts. over night Independent Student Group Travel (ISGT) Currently, ‘Walking Safari’ has been introduced in from Udekwa Chui campsite to the base of Lake Manyara, Tarangire and Udzungwa National Parks Nyumbanitu Mountains. This allowed them to put into and was soon to start at Arusha and Mikumi National use skills learnt during the course without instructors. Parks. 11 TANAPA’S NEW COMMERCIAL WING READY Front view of the newly built commercial wing of TANAPA at its headquarters in Arusha. A fter having done a commendable job in be seminar rooms, first class restaurant and conservation and tourism for years now, the canteen services and TANAPA Information Centre. Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA) is expected to benefit from its newly constructed commercial “People who believe in well equipped conference wing which will start its operations soon. rooms will enjoy the existence of Kibo Hall, the main conference room with a capacity of The wing is meant to offer various services such as accommodating up to 300 people.” said Mr. conference facilities, library, publishing work, Richard Matolo, TANAPA Chief Engineer. bureau de change and rental offices. There will also 12 The rear view of the TANAPA newly built commercial facility. The Kibo Conference Hall is the main conference indigo press machine which can offer multipurpose room with well equipped microphones and address publishing work and desk top functions. system, strategically controlled from the projector room. Restaurant, Bureau de change, secretarial unit and front offices will all be leased out to capable There are seminar rooms with sitting capacities operators. ranging from 50 to 150 people . “We also have a special room for Very Important People (VIP), The complex will be managed by an independent located close to the Kibo Conference Hall”, property manager who will scout out for different explained Matolo. tenants and negotiate rental fees. The TANAPA Information Centre, located in the The TANAPA Commercial Wing is the second building, aims at giving information on phase of the Mwalimu J.K. Nyerere Conservation conservation as well as tourist information about Centre, whose construction cost about 2.5 billion the parks. and took a comprehensive 18 months of construction. The Publishing Unit is expected to serve TANAPA and external customers and act as a source of revenue. The unit is equipped with a very modern 13 TANZANIA HAS MUCH TO OFFER TO THE WORLD T anzania is the supreme destination in Africa. It possesses all the ingredients that typically attract visitors. Paradoxically, it provides an opportunity to talk about what makes it the greatest centres: Shira in the west, Mawenzi in the east and the snowcapped Kibo (5895 meters above sea level). Surely, this Park is a scenic show piece of Tanzania. destination. Certainly, we can identify these as the magic attributes. In western Tanzania, bordering with the Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi, along Lake Tanganyika, are to be found the There are tremendous and marvelous attractions one can be able Mahale Mountains and the Gombe Stream National Parks. to see when visiting this beautiful country. One thing, for a place Both parks harbour one of the most endangered species of to be attractive, there must be a panorama to every scene. animal- the Chimpanzee. Apart from this remarkable animal, the other attraction is the lake itself. This is the longest lake in the In Tanzania, what provides the panorama? Most often it is the world with almost 720 kilometers and the second deepest wildlife, natural scenic beauty, mountains, lakes, rivers, beaches, (1435m) after Lake Baykal (1740m) in Russia. The bottom of culture and, of course, the history. Lake Tanganyika, is 655m below sea level. Tanzania has all the above attractions, and many others have not The Mahale Mountains National Park is unique in been exploited. The National Parks are perhaps the most exciting. Tanzania is blesssed with a reasonable number of National Parks, each with its uniqueness, different from the others. Having more than three million large mammals, the Serengeti National Park is a thriller as it holds many pleasant reminiscences. Among the memories of this park are a variety of sounds at night, of a lion making a surprise kill late in the evening, but most of all, memories of the Serengeti Animal Migration as well as the endless plains located in the area. Serengeti contains the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa, and on a scale which has no parallel anywhere in the world. It is the only place in the world where one can witness the migration of over two million large mammals. This abundance of herbivores and carnivores includes wildebeest, zebra, gazelle, topi, buffalo, hartebeest, lion, leopard, and cheetah to mention botanogeographical terms in that it is the meeting place of natural but a few in an endless list. scenic majesty of Lake Tanganyika, the Mahale Mountains range, the Zairean tropical rainforests and the Tabora Miombo Admittedly, the Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa. woodlands. At 5895 meters above sea level, the peak of the mountain- Kibo, has permanent snow throughout the year. At the “Roof of Africa”, Close to Arusha, there is, the amazing Arusha National Park; a you are presented with a vista that encompasses Kenya and unique park in its own right. It comprises of all the features found Tanzania, a magnificent panorama of high plains and distant in various National Parks. Being at Arusha National Park, one can horizons. be able to enjoy the good view of the Ngurdoto Crater and if that is not enough, the park is the home of the famous mountain The Park’s outstanding features, therefore, are its major volcanic known as Mount Meru. Other prominent features found here 14 include the Momella Lakes, The Tropical Montane forest, Mount Meru and Ngurdoto craters, Big and Little Meru Peaks, the Ash Cone and the Waterfalls. Other features include: Serengeti “Ndogo” (Little Serengeti), habitat diversity, fig tree arch, butterflies and birdlife diversity and spectacular views of giraffe throughout the park. The Arusha National Park, forms part of a larger regional ecosystem of Mount Meru which is the fifth highest mountain in Africa. The fabulous Katavi in Rukwa region is another interesting National Park for visitors. The dominant vegetation found in this area is the miombo woodland. The Park, has surprisingly higher mammal biomass (estimated at over 23,000kg per sq km) than other protected areas in East Africa, except Lake Manyara National Park. The types of animal found here include buffaloes, zebra, hippo, waterbuck and impala. Other kilometer, and buffalo with a density of 18 per square kilometer, notable species are: roan, elephant, sable, giraffe, comprises the bulk of this biomass. hartebeest, reedbuck, topi, and warthog to mention but a few on an endless list. Puku, an endangered antelope is also found here. It is in this park, where, lions can be seen resting in trees during the day. Tree climbing lions, prefer the Acacia trees which appear For bird watchers, Katavi is a paradise. At least 400 different to be easy to climb. Unfortunately, elephants have a tendency of species of birds have been recorded in the area. They include: the knocking down these trees; and by debarking them, they kill the African skimmer, Carmine bee- eater, Racket tailed roller, trees. Some of the preferred trees have chicken mesh wires Miombo bush warbler and Collared palm thrush. around the main stem to prevent elephants from debarking them. The ‘Serengeti of flowers’-Kitulo, is another National Park in a The park has a larger concentration of elephant in Africa, having spectacular setting. Surely, sometimes it is very difficult to give a almost six elephants per square kilometer. There is also presence fair description of each individual park. However, Kitulo of over 380 species of birds in the park. National Park, is where one can witness the beauty of this country. It is more or less a botanical garden and the local people The Groundwater forest, found around the gate, is another in the surrounding area have correctly referred to it as the attraction, of course. Here, the tall trees are maintained by water ‘Garden of God’. Botanists have dubbed it the Serengeti of which seeps out of the rift wall. flowers, simply because, it hosts one of the great floral spectacles of the world. Apart from the area possessing wilderness characteristics, a series of hot water sulphur springs, form another tourist’s major The Lake Manyara National Park, which is 130km away from attraction. The springs are located in the southern end of the park, Arusha, is another potential Park Tanzania can offer in the travel and temperatures can reach 70º C enough to boil an egg. and tourism industry, worldwide. The park is located in the southwest direction to the famous twin World Heritage Sites of Mkomazi National Park in Same, Kilimanjaro region, offers a Ngorongoro and Serengeti. The outstanding features of the Park mountainous view of the Pare Mountains and their foot-hills. include, the spectacular escarpment of the Western side of the Common species of animals found in the park include: Elephant, Great Rift Valley. giraffe, Coke’s hartebeest, buffalo, gerenuk, Grant’s gazelle, Lesser kudu, zebra, warthog, reedbuck, waterbuck, impala, eland, The park boasts of different vegetation types which are oryx, dikdik, suni, rhino e.t.c. The large carnivores are lion, heterogeneous and are classified according to the local drainage leopard, hyena, silver backed jackal, wild dog and wild cat. conditions. The Groundwater and Riverine Forest, which can be seen immediately on entering the park, covers an estimated Mkomazi is also rich in avifauna. It is estimated that there are area of 1300 hectares. There is also a Swamp at Lake Manyara between 450 and 500 bird species making it one of the richest with an extensive area of swamp herbage which projects out over areas in terms of avian species- a birdwatchers paradise! the lakebed flats. Lake Manyara National Park has one of the highest mammal The Rubondo Island National Park is more or less a wildlife biomass in the world. Elephant, with a density of six per square sanctuary rather than a normal park. Its geographical position in 15 More than 400 species of birds have been recorded in Ruaha. The baobabs trees also exist throughout the park. These magnificent trees may live for up to 3000 years and are remarkably resilient; most of the big ones you are likely to encounter during your safari are between 100 and 800 years old! The exciting Great Ruaha River offers the major attraction of course, especially during the dry season. In this period, the river attracts a large number of animals including: impala, warthog, giraffe, waterbuck, eland, zebra, buffalo, lion, leopard, hunting dog, Grant’s gazelle, roan and sable antelopes, Lesser and Greater kudus, cheetah etc. In addition, the river harbours and amazing high number of hippo schools and crocodiles which merit attention. Saadani National Park, is the only park, where the ‘bush meets the beach’. Located along the coast line of the Indian Ocean, the park contains a unique combination of terrestrial wildlife and marine flora and fauna. Hence, it is one of the very few Parks in Africa where big game has Lake Victoria, reveals a number of things. In the 1960s, several been seen strolling on the beach! chimpanzees, rhino, suni, roan antelope, giraffe, black-and-white colobus monkey as well as elephant were introduced in the park. The Park which is located to the north Bagamoyo town, has a Admittedly, the park is the only one in a fresh water lake in combination of attractions suitable for tourists. It is the only Africa. protected area in Tanzania offering terrestrial, littoral and marine resources. It is also one of the few areas on the East African The kind of wild animals found in this park include: Sitatunga, Coast, that is protected, and contains species of animals bushbuck, vervet monkey, hippo and crocodile which are associated with terrestrial life. numerous and widespread in the park. The other animal species seen are large-spotted genet cat, spot-necked otter and cane rat. Saadani protects part of the East African Lowland Coastal Forest Reptiles include monitor lizards and pythons. Records show that System (Zaraninge), with its rare and endemic species. there have been no mammalian predators on the island. Additionally, Saadani is very important because it provides protection for the green turtle and the mangroves which are rare The fact that the Park is an island, with its sandy beaches and in East Africa. rocky shore, is in itself interesting. To date, there is a large num- ber of species of birds that have been identified in the park, some of which are migratory species from East, Central and West Africa. Rubondo has an abundance of herons, storks, ibises, egrets, cor- morants, kingfishers and birds of prey. It is believed that the park has the highest density of fish eagles in the world. It is impossible to walk, boat or drive, fifty meters without seeing notable pairs of these beautiful birds. Rubondo Island National Park, is also a migratory route for birds from Europe, Central, East and West Africa. In the Southern Tanzania, lies the second largest park after Serengeti- Ruaha. This large piece of land, gets its name from the Great Ruaha River, which flows along the entire eastern border of the park for about 160km. Ruaha enjoys a good climate, and indeed, it is a photographer’s paradise. It is easier here, to see both Greater and Lesser Kudu, roan and sable antelope in the same park. This is one of the special attractions of the Park. The area is also one of Tanzania’s largest elephant sanctuaries. 16 In Saadani National Park, all the big five except rhinoceros are However, the park is a haven for primates. Two endemic species present. Others include, hippo, giraffe, bushbuck, bushpig, red are also found here. They are the Iringa red colobus monkey and duiker, dikdik, fringe-eared oryx, eland, Lichtenstein’s the Sanje crested mangabey. The other primates are vervet hartebeest, spotted hyena, genet, civet, zebra, warthog, yellow monkey, Sykes monkey, baboon, black and white colobus baboon, blue monkey, black and white colobus monkey, vervet monkey. monkey etc. Along with a variety of birds, the beach and sea, different vegetation types, the Wami River and the turtle nesting The Udzungwa has spectacular mountains scenery. The ground at Madete, they form major attractions for different combination of landforms, valleys, waterfalls, forests and the market segments. geology is a thriller. The Tarangire National Park, which is situated in northern Mikumi National Park, borders the Selous Game Reserve. The Tanzania, derives its name from the Tarangire river, which rises abundant wildlife, attracted to the lush vegetation, include lions, in the Kondoa highlands in central Tanzania and makes its way eland, zebra, wildebeest, elephant, hippo and giraffe. Eland, one northwards along the axis of the park. The river forms a dry of the largest antelopes, is frequently sighted around the Mkata season retreat for large numbers of floodplain. Mikumi is the most reliable destination in Tanzania mammals including a high density of for viewing the eland. Several observation towers in the park elephant and plains game. And, although long stretches of the allow visitors to view the entire park. river are devoid of surface water, enough pools remain to attract thirsty animals especially during the months from July to November. In the wet season, these ani- mals disperse to large areas outside the park. Within the park, there are different features: flat areas, lake, swamps and the kopjes. Baobabs-with their branches protesting in the sky – are another feature. Admittedly, there are several hills that can be seen within the park. The Tarangire river is the main perennial river traversing the park. In Tarangire, large herds of elephants can be seen throughout the year; likewise, herds of oryx and gerenuk are commonly seen traversing the park. On the whole, hundreds of species of wildlife and birds inhabit the wetlands, Acacia woodlands and innumerable baobabs, the river, hills, low valleys and kopjes-a vibrant ecosystem indeed! In the dry season, the park forms an important refuge for wildlife. Over 400 bird species have been recorded in Mikumi National Park: storks, pelicans, herons, ibis, eagles and kites are some of The Udzungwa Mountains National Park, in the Southern the birds. Many of the species found in Mikumi, are rarely seen Tourist Circuit of Tanzania, forms part of the Eastern Arc in the northern game parks of Tanzania. Mikumi National Park, is Mountains. It is believed that, this range of mountains, has an the location for several educational and research studies such as extraordinary rich and unique biodiversity and has been the ongoing field study of yellow baboons. nicknamed the “Galapagos Islands of Africa”. The eleven geologically separated blocks of mountains, form a broken chain Surely, Tanzania is a country of striking running from Southern Kenya through Tanzania, up to the differences-geographically, historically and culturally. Nestled northern tip of Malawi; and each block has tropical forests with between the Indian Ocean and Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania has high rainfall. more to offer to the world than other African countries. Incredible natural beauty. A combination of the old and the new-like Surely, the Udzungwa Mountains National Park is beautiful. It medieval towns and ultra modern hotels. As well as an endless has unique, natural, cultural and biological attributes in their variety of sports, beaches, national parks, wildlife reserves, spectacular setting. The “exceptional resources” are many and archaeological sites and festivals. Come and share with us the varied. beauty of this country. It is unbelievable! As it is with other Parks, Udzungwa supports a large number of mammals including elephant, buffalo, lion, leopard, bushbuck, sable, eland and waterbuck. 17 Keeping Abreast with Wildlife Conservation T hroughout history, wildlife has suffered because of human Parakeet, the passenger pigeon and the California grizzly bear. beings and their activities. Increasingly, efficient weapons such as bows, rifles and shotguns, enabled people to kill game with Growing concern for wildlife growing ease. With such weapons, hunters have killed and wiped Beginning in the late 1800's, growing concern for the world's off some species of animals. People have also cleared forests, vanishing wildlife has led to increased conservation action. The drained swamp, and dammed rivers to clear the way for governments of many nations have passed protective laws and set agriculture and industry. These activities, have seriously harmed or aside national parks and other reserves for wildlife. But several destroyed large areas of plant and wildlife habitats. Human beings, hundred species of animals and thousands of species of plants still may also disrupt the natural processes of the habitats that remain. face the danger of extinction. Such animals include the Asian lion, These disruptions affect the diversity and size of living populations Bengal Tiger, Blue Whale, Mountain Gorilla, Whooping Crane, in the habitats. Many such habitats are small and no longer con- California Condor and all Asian Rhinoceroses. nected to vast ecosystems (communities of living organisms and their physical environment). Classifications of scarce wildlife Three main classifications are commonly used for animals and The impact of human activities plants that face possible extinction: (1) endangered, (2) vulnerable, Various species became extinct even before people appeared on and (3) lower risk. earth. In the past, however, other species developed and replaced those that had disappeared or alarmingly died off. Admittedly, the Endangered species face the most serious threat of total variety of life did not diminish. Today, human activities kill extinction. They require direct human protection for off species with no hope for their replacement and so the variety survival. The California Condor is endangered because only about of life is decreasing. 180 birds of this species still exist, most of them in captivity. In 1987 wildlife biologists captured what was then the last remaining Since about 1600, many kinds of wildlife have become extinct; for wild California Condor. Since then, more than 150 California example, in North America, such species include the Carolina Condors have been born and raised in captivity and scientists have released some of these birds into the wild in California and Arizona. Vulnerable species, also known as threatened species, are generally abundant in some areas, but they face serious dangers nevertheless. These dangers may result from unfavorable changes in the environment. They also may be due to extensive hunting, fishing or trapping, or even to collecting by hobbyists. The gray wolf, a vulnerable species, is plentiful in some places. But, its overall numbers worldwide, are threatened by hunting, trapping, and poisoning. Lower risk species, also known as rare species, have small populations. They often live in restricted geographical Rhinos are in great risk of vanishing because of human activities and areas, but their numbers are not necessarily decreasing. For poaching. 18 example, the rare bristlecone pine trees grow only at high altitudes industrialized nations, the recreational viewing of animals in zoos in the Western United States. But their survival is not seriously and wildlife refuges, is also a source of revenue. threatened. Scientific value Values of wildlife conservation The study of wildlife, provides valuable knowledge about various If people ignore the need for wildlife conservation, today's life processes. Such study, has helped scientists understand how endangered species will soon become extinct. Many other species the human body functions and why people behave as they do. will also face extinction. If this happens, human beings will lose Scientists have also gained medical knowledge and discovered much of great value that cannot be replaced. Wildlife is important important medical products by studying wildlife. In addition, by to people for four main reasons: (1) beauty, (2) economic value, observing the effect of environmental pollution on wild animals, (3) scientific value and (4) survival value. scientists have learned how pollution affects human life. Beauty Survival value Every kind of animal and plant, differs from every other kind, Every species of wildlife plays a role in helping maintain the and thus contributes in a special way to the beauty of nature. balanced, living systems of the Earth. Most people feel that such beauty enriches their life. It These systems, must continue to also heightens the enjoyment of camping and other function, if life is to survive. Thus, the forms of outdoor loss of any species can threaten the recreation. survival of all life, including human beings. Methods of wildlife conservation The method used to protect wildlife, depends on the source of the danger to the species. Much wildlife can be helped, by ensuring that their environment provides enough food, water, and shelter. This method, habitat management, involves such action as soil conservation, good forestry prac- tices, and water management. Protecting against habitat destruction Many species of wildlife are threatened because human beings have destroyed their habitats. For example, people have drained swamps and marshes and converted them into farmland. The wetland habitats that remain have been further degraded due to factors caused by human activity. These factors include the redirecting of surface water away from wetland sites, reduction of ground water levels, sedimentation, toxic chemicals, and isolation from other wetlands. Poor Wild Dogs are also disappearing slowly. farming practices, may also destroy land, or the spread of cities and industries may pave over former wildlife Economic value habitats. Pollution may poison the air, water, plants, and animals. Wild species of animals and plants provide many valuable To save wildlife habitats, people must control pollution and set substances, such as wood and other plant products, fibers, meat aside areas in which wild animals and plants can survive. and other foods, and skins and furs. The financial value of wild species is important to the economies of many nations. In 19 Protecting against over hunting TANAPA An animal threatened by too much hunting, can be protected by laws that forbid or regulate such killing. These laws, Community may specify when a certain species may be hunted or how many of the species may be killed. Laws, can also protect plants, endan- gered by over collection. If an entire habitat requires protection, the area may be made a national park or wildlife refuge. In some cases, predatory animals that kill an endangered species must be controlled until the endangered animal has increased in numbers. On the other hand, a species may become too numerous. When this happens, the animal may threaten its own survival—or the sur- vival of other species—by eating too much of the food supply. This problem has occurred with elk and hippopotamuses in national parks. The numbers of such a species, must then be reduced, either by controlled hunting or by restoring its natural enemies where they have become scarce. Other methods of protection If a species, can no longer survive in its natural environment, it may be raised in captivity and then released into a protected area. This method saved the Hawaiian goose. Likewise, conservation- ists hope to save the black-footed ferret. This small mammal, once lived in the Great Plains, but its population declined sharply during the 1900's. Scientists captured all known ferrets in the 1980's and began breeding them in captivity. In 1991, they began releasing the ferrets into the wild, where these animals have established new breeding populations. A species threatened by disease may be helped by sanitation measures in its habitat. Rare plants can be maintained in botani- cal gardens, or their seeds can be saved in seed banks for future planting. The success of wildlife conservation, depends on knowledge of the ecology of a species and the forces at work in a habitat. In other words, it requires an understanding of the way in which a species lives and how it relates to everything in its environment. A dispensary built by TANAPA for a village nea NB: The bits and pieces of the above information, are a result of collection from internet materials and from all Tanzania National Parks has spent about 3.7 bn/- studies we could lay hands on. EDITOR to support 124 community projects during the financial year 2007/2008. The communities that benefited from the amount include those living around national parks as well as various disadvantaged and women groups. 20 A Spends 3.7 billion for y Conservation Projects TANAPA has a presence. Bearing in mind the contribution of the communities towards wildlife conservation, TANAPA had initially introduced a trial period of outreach program under the ‘neighbors as partners’ philosophy, a policy meant to give conservation education to communities together with a benefit sharing mechanism. This program later on led to the introduction of Support for Community Initiated Projects (SCIP) which is a tool for implementing outreach program of benefit sharing. The idea behind this cost sharing mechanism is that TANAPA will contribute 70% of project costs and the remaining 30% which is in kind, will be borne by the community for the approved projects. It was envisaged that if the communities are enjoying the benefits, in turn they will value, hence protect the park resources that generate the benefits both materially and in kind. SCIP is a tool used to implement outreach program objectives of benefit sharing with local communities. Through SCIP, a significant contribution in resource conservation has been recog- nized. The SCIP has brought about change in attitude towards conservation of wildlife resources due to the awareness campaigns and sensitization at all levels. The impact of the projects has reduced communities’ burden in the contribution to their developmental projects. ar Katavi National Park as part of SCIP programs. The feedbacks from the community with regards to the support from TANAPA has been positive one whereby the communities show appreciation on the The programs are implemented under the improved social services e.g. Classrooms, dormitories, Community Conservation Service (CCS) programs, teacher’s houses, dispensary, health centers and water which TANAPA facilitates to reach out to local people projects. through development projects. There are also employment opportunities and These programs include construction of schools, improved relationship. schools dormitories, water projects, health centers and dispensaries in areas across the country where 21 TOURISM PROMOTION: TANZANIA NEEDS TO CURB INFRASTRUCTURAL CHALLENGES Beautiful attractions scenes like this one may not be accessible to tourists if the means of infrastructures are poor. T he challenges facing the tourism Industry in Tanzania, are many and varied. One such area, is inadequate infrastructure both in towns and Look at this: About 30% of the country is under wildlife protection (slightly more than 225,000square kilometers); and that the government of the United the country side. If the industry is to succeed, then Republic of Tanzania is spending more money per something has to be done quickly to invest on both capita, on wildlife protection, than the United States infrastructure and superstructure. It should be noted of America. The country has 15 National Parks, that the tourism product consists of the 3A’s more than fifteen Game and Forest Reserves. (Attractions, Accessibility and Amenities). An Admittedly, there are more than fifty (50) Game absence of any one of the 3A’s makes the whole Controlled Areas. All these, are “pull factors,” and industry to collapse. This is the main reason why make Tanzania a unique destination. Combined with investment in infrastructure is a necessity. the beautiful beaches, mountains, caves, waterfalls, lakes and rivers, archaeological sites, a variety of Let us have an overview of one of the 3 A’s; that culture-all these attributes, make Tanzania, a thriller. is ‘attractions’-and these are National Parks, of course. Just look around, and you will be amazed to Four tourist circuits are now in place. The most note that, tourism today, is playing a remarkable role popular and developed circuit is the Northern tourist in the growth of the country’s economy, by way of circuit. It comprises of the Usambara Mountains, foreign currency earnings and is a pillar for both Mkomazi, Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Tarangire, Lake direct and indirect employment (formal and Manyara and Serengeti National Parks as well as informal). Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA). 22 The Southern tourist circuit, on the other hand, Doing tourism business in Tanzania can be very includes: the Selous Game Reserve, Mikumi challenging. The country has a number of challenges National Park, Udzungwa Mountains National Park that make running the business difficult. as well as Kitulo and Ruaha National Parks. While TANAPA was struggling to promote its The Western tourist circuit comprises of Katavi Southern products, the issues of infrastructures and National Park, Mahale Mountains National Park, superstructure was posing a very big challenge from Gombe Stream National Park and Rubondo Island roads, airstrips and marine transport and National Park. accommodation in the mentioned areas. These areas have been a challenge to us for sometime now,” said And lastly, the Coastal tourist circuit which Mr. Kijazi. includes: Dares Salaam, Tanga, Kilwa Kivinje, Bagamoyo, Zanzibar, Saadani National Park and Infrastructure is the major constraint on growth Mafia Island which is the conchologist’s paradise. of our economy. It offers tremendous opportunities Here also, there is a Marine National Park for investment. However, Tanzania can not tackle this issue alone. The entire regional economy is The Northern tourist circuit is fairly developed, suffering from poor infrastructure. Therefore, the but the rest: Southern, Western and Coastal tourist government has particularly focused on this regional circuits need serious infrastructural development to context of infrastructure investment. meet an inevitable influx of tourists in the years to come. The infrastructure services are good deals to exploit. If the exercise was done properly, then the The recently strategic Tourism Development port, railways and highways could offer a lot of Program laid a great deal of emphasis in promoting business opportunities in terms of creating investment opportunities into various circuits, in connection with neighboring countries, which are consistent with the National Tourism Development landlocked. drive. However, the strategy is facing a challenge in some key areas of tourism promotion. Improvement of infrastructures in these circuits require huge amounts of money. It is obvious that It is obvious that TANAPA’s responsibility is not the Tanzania National Parks Authority would like to only confined to Tanzania, but the rest of the world. welcome investors in different areas. This, in the “As a policy, TANAPA which is the custodian of all final analysis, would release pressure from tourists the National and World Heritage areas, is strictly who are more interested in the Northern Tourist against the money first activities” said the Director Circuit. of Tourism and Customer Services, Mr. Allan Kijazi. “It is only through improved infrastructure that Mr. Kijazi added that, the target was to utilize we can lure investors in these areas. Therefore, part Tanzania’s competitive edge of its unspoiled nature, and parcel of our strategy is to look for institutions and abundant wildlife, to lure various players with that can offer soft loans for infrastructure the capacity of putting Tanzania on a fast tourist development” explained Mr. Kijazi. track. Currently, there are planes like Regional Air, “It is exactly because of this that while we won’t Coastal Air, Civil Aviation just to mention but a few. forget the Northern Tourist Circuit’s attractions, we Apart from these, other aircrafts which come have a strategic Tourism Development Program that directly from countries such as Kenya and Ethiopia will from now on, lay a great deal of emphasis on can also land in the respective park’s airstrips. promoting investment in the Southern, Western and Coastal Tourism Circuits in consonance with the For those arriving by road, they are facing the National Tourism Development drive. The industry same challenge. TANAPA is responsible for road has generally been ignorant of the beauty on these construction and maintenance in national parks and other circuits which are really remote, untouched not beyond. Therefore, TANAPA has to establish and in possession of bigger diversity,” quipped Mr. cooperation with the central and local government Kijazi. organs to make sure that nothing stands on the way in the travel and tourism promotion of the country’s tourism products. 23 Real experience… “Mt Kilimanjaro offers fascinating hiking adventure” By Alphonce Akarrow guide and the costs involved, including the entry fees. This was done as planned. Then I trained myself into various kinds of Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro, was my dream since long time physical exercise so as to acclimatize myself with the task ago. Not only because I was born in the proximity of Mt. ahead. I practiced running, cycling, attending gyms as well as Kilimanjaro, but also since I came to learn in school that it is other light exercises. I also chose Moshi to be my area of the highest free-standing mountain in the world. This dream, training, because the weather was more-or-less the same as was also accelerated further when I was abroad, where, I met that found in the mountain area. Uhuru peak: It was not an easy task but with determination you can make it! a lot of friends from various parts of the world, most of them, After making sure that I had all the required equipment asking about the mountain and wanted to know the logistics (some, we purchased, and some, we hired), then we embarked into getting there. While some few of them had already on the climb through Marangu route. We started the climb climbed the mountain, I had not. So, I lay down a plan to late (at around 12:00hrs) on 13th April 2007 because of climb the mountain. I arranged with my brothers for a tour some unavoidable logistics. We arrived at Mandara Hut 9 km 24 Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa’s snow-capped roof away in the evening (approximately 2,720 meters above the health status – do a medical check up, get a sea level). We cooked our dinner and spent a night there. On doctor’s advice, before you climb. Some of these tips are at the the following day, we started the climb from Mandara Hut at entrance gate. around 07:00hrs. We arrived at Horombo Hut in the afternoon; and instead of spending a night there, we decided Okay, we passed Gilman’s point and Stella plate before to take light food stuff and drink (as lunch) and thereafter conquering Uhuru peak. In fact we were supposed to reach continued with the ascent. We were really exhausted on the there earlier (than 09:15hrs) to avoid slippery snow on the way to Kibo Hut. way back. However, we managed to descend safely. At Kibo Hut, I wasn’t able to take any food , even juice. So we We reached Kibo Hut late evening on 14th April 2007. We decided to descend to Horombo Hut. It was a very funny and cooked our dinner and had dinner between 20hrs-21hrs. interesting trip!! You will really enjoy all the stages and the Temperatures there, were very low, as it was freezing. At that weather changes. At Horombo Hut, we cooked our dinner and point, it normally freezes. We were not able to eat as it was spent our night. On the following day (16th April 2007), the case for other stop points. From this point onward or a after breakfast, we started descending. We passed Mandara little bit down from there, some people start to feel or suffer Hut and reached the gate (exit gate) – Marangu, in the from mountain sickness. Something I learnt was that: We afternoon. We spent roughly 3 days from Friday to Monday. were supposed to take sufficient food which would then give We were excited after obtaining our certificates. Later we took us sufficient energy before passing Horombo Hut or before a commuter bus to Moshi town. Some of our team members reaching Kibo Hut. With mountain sickness, it is always not went to Arusha and some went to Moshi rural and that was possible to eat food. You may end up just drinking water and the end of the exciting mountain climb and the fulfillment of finish your climb safely. This is what happened to me. You my dream. Next, it will be to climb Mt Meru in Arusha and need to carry drinking water – very crucial. I took water from then Mt Kilimanjaro again. This time around, I will go for a that night till late evening on the following day at Horombo more challenging route. Hut on the way back from the mountain top. Yap, I have climbed Mt Kilimanjaro. I have conquered its The next day (15th April 2007), we woke up mid night and top. Have you? started the climb to the top. This took us nearly 8 hours to reach Uhuru Peak (5895metres above sea level). We reached there at around 09:15 hrs. The amount of oxygen at the top of the mountain, is estimated to be 50% of the normal one we inhale on the lower levels. So you need to have enough energy and practices before you climb. You also need to know your 25 TANAPA Today’s animal….... CHIMPANZEE: A MAN’S RELATIVE?! L ook into the intelligent, warm brown eyes of a chimpanzee and you may see yourself not far below the surface, for you are looking at your closest animal Chimpanzees are the most adaptable of the great apes, living in lowland and mountain forests, dry woodlands, and even open savannah country. The populations in relative. The chimpanzee is classified among the great the Gombe Stream and Mahale Mountains National apes, with the gorilla, orang-utan, and bonobo (pygmy Parks thus represent the extreme south-eastern limit of chimpanzee).All are large, big brained and tail –less, the eastern race. and an impartial observer from another planet would Chimpanzees are covered in long black hair except for their faces, ears, fingers and toes. A baby chimp is born with light pink skin and a white ‘tail-tuft’ of hair that signals immaturity. As it matures, its skin darkens; usually becoming deep brown or black, and the white tuft disappears at about 8-9 years. Young adults have sleek, glossy, very black coats. After about 20-25 years, males in particular tend to become brown or grey on the lower back and legs and either sex may develop baldness or grey hair on the crown of the head. Many chimps live between 30- 50 years. The oldest chimp known at Gombe so far was a female named Flo, who was at least 43 years when she died. At Gombe, adult males weigh 35-40 kgs, and adult females are slightly smaller at 32 kgs. They normally walk on all fours. This foot posture is called ‘quadrupedal’. At shoulder Chimpanzee with her baby at Gombe National Park. height they are 70-80 cms. high. A large male standing erect is about probably include us in the same group, perhaps in the 130cms high. Chimps in other areas and in captivity same genius as the chimpanzee, with whom we share tend to be larger than the Gombe population. over 95% of our genes. Chimpanzee live in ‘communities’of about 20-100 individuals. The members of a community do not stay together all the time, but they share a common home 26 range (10-30 sq.km at Gombe and Mahale), within Chimpanzees communicate very loudly when separated which they roam around in small groups of 5 or fewer, by vegetation or distance. Irregular, excited barks are frequently meeting other members and keeping in given by chimps who have found a new food-source. touch through loud calls. If food is very abundant in Loud, tense and repeated screams are given by a chimp one area for several days or more, most members of the who is being threatened or attacked by another. Loud community may temporarily gather there in a large and wailing ‘wraa’ calls are responses to something strange noisy gathering. like a big snake. Adult males form the ‘stable core’ of the community, If you do not know where to find chimpanzees, the best unlike most other primate species. Sometimes way to start is to climb high up on a ridge and listen for competitive but generally supportive of one another, any of these calls, while scanning the trees for black they spend their whole lives in the community of their shapes. Do not be discouraged if you hear nothing, they birth. They protect their range against neighboring might be there. communities, and from time to time they patrol its borders as a group, chasing or attacking or even killing any strangers that they meet. The number of adult males seems to determine the size of the range they can control. Adult females do not permanently pair with males. A young female, when she comes into oestrus (about every 356 days) develops a conspicuous pink anogenital swelling, and seeks out the company of males, sometimes even going to a neighboring community. She will mate promiscuously with many different males. As she grows older, however, she may settle down to a pattern of ‘consort ships’ with just a few regular partners. Thus when she starts showing signs of oeastrus, one of these males leads her away, and they will avoid the company of all other chimps for several days, sometimes for 2 weeks or more. In this situation, the male has exclusive mating rights to that female, which obviously increases his chance of producing an offspring. When not in oeastrus, females are less sociable than males, and spend much of their time alone except for their young, or with one or two female companions. Family ties are very close. Infants are born after 8 months pregnancy, well formed and able to cling tightly to the mother’s belly. Normally births are single, but 2 instances Chimpanzee in a deep thought, just like human beings of twins have been observed at Gombe. 27 While travelling, chimpanzee always walk on the and wrestle with them. When playing, chimps show a ground, walking on the soles of their feet and the play face, with the lower teeth bared, and they give knuckles (second joints) of their fingers. They often hoarse panting laughter. Even adult chimps play togeth- follow well defined trails in a single file, but they can be er on rare occasions. hard to follow because they keep up a steady pace even when their trails become small tunnels through thorny An oestrous female often attracts a group of males. She vines, to which the humans form is poorly adapted. may mate with any of them, even infants and juveniles, or a high ranking male, may monopolize her. A male initiates mating by showing unmistakable signs of his Some of the most interesting social behavior occurs readiness, and beckoning to the female or shaking a when chimpanzees meet and greet each other after branch. Then the female crouches and presents herself being separated for a while, and have to re-establish to him. Chimpanzees feed for about six hours every their relationships. Often, when adult males join a day. They spend about 50-70% of that time eating fruit, group, they arrive with hair erect, a sign of tension and about 20% eating leaves and the remainder on a variety readiness to fight. They may either break into a of other things-seeds, flowers, pith, barks, stems and resin. Nor are they only vegetarians, at certain times of the year they eat a lot of insects, and they are oppor- tunistic hunters of birds’ eggs and nestlings. In spite of all this variety, chimps tend to concentrate on a few major food crops during the year. At the end of the day, and occasionally for a day time ‘siesta’, each chimp prepares a nest in which to sleep. Normally, a nest is used only once, but sometimes old nests are improved and re-used. Standing on a branch, the chimp bends leafy branches and twigs towards itself, breaking them or pressing them Playtime: Chimpanzee playing with each other down to form a springy platform of leaves and twigs. A mother shares her charging display by either swaying bushes or dragging nest with her infant, but weaned juveniles, sleep alone. branches, hurling rocks or stamping on the ground, Members of a group may nest in the same tree if there even hitting anyone who does not get away on time. A is room, or in adjacent trees. Usually chimps sleep all female, typically greets a male, by pant-grunting and night, sometimes waking up to give a chorus of hoots; presenting her rear quarters to him. He then inspects but on moonlight nights, they may feed close to the her anogenital area to determine her hormonal nest. condition, or may just give her a reassuring touch. Sometimes, chimps may kiss or embrace one another in greeting or for reassurance. In relaxed situations, young chimps spend much time playing. Infants at first, play largely, with objects, or with their mothers and older siblings who gently tickle 28 TRUSTEES VISIT NATIONAL PARKS A visit to the Mt. Kilimanjaro Park. A visit to the Serengeti Park 29 TRUSTEES VISIT PARKS A visit to the Tarangire Park. A visit to the Saanane Island Park 30 ANIMAL QUIZ 1. Where on earth one can find Serengeti and Mount Kilimanjaro National Parks? (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania). 2. Why is Serengeti so famous in the world? (Wildebeest migration, Wild and Beaches meet, Home of Red Colobus Monkeys). 3. Mention animal that is famous at Gombe and Mahale National Parks? (Rhinoceros, Chimpanzee, Elephants) 4. Saadani National Park is a unique park because :- (It is located near Lake Victoria, Can be reached by air only, Where the bush meets the beach) 5. Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Meru both can be found in which country within East Africa? (Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda) 8. Lake Manyara 6. Which National Park is referred as the “Serengeti of Flowers”? 7. Tree Climbing Lions (Katavi, Lake Manyara, Kitulo) 6. Kitulo 7. Why is Lake Manyara National Park different from 5. Tanzania other parks? 4. Where the Bush meets the beach (Because of large number of Black Rhinos, Because of White Monkeys, Because of Tree Climbing Lions) 3. Chimpanzee 8. Flamingo birds can frequently be found at which 2. Wildebeest Migration park? 1. Tanzania (Udzungwa, Mkomazi, Lake Manyara) ANSWERS: 31 HUMOUR A Young Business Man makes a Phone Call 10. You move into a new house and you decide to "Netscape" before you landscape. A young businessman had just started his own 11. Your family always knows where you are. firm. He'd rented a beautiful office and had it 12. In real life conversations, you don't laugh, furnished with antiques. Sitting there, he saw a you just say "LOL, LOL". man come into the outer office. Wishing to 13. After reading this message, you immediately appear busy, the businessman picked up the forward it to a friend! phone and started to pretend he had a big deal working. He threw huge figures around and Anger In the Sky made giant commitments. Finally, he hung up and asked the visitor, "Can I help you?" The man God was fed up. In a crash of thunder He said, "Sure. I've come to install the phone!" yanked up to Heaven three influential men: Bill Clinton, Boris Yeltsin and Bill Gates. Your friend and their computer "The human race is a complete disappointment," God boomed. "You each have one week to ‘You know it is time to reassess your prepare your followers for the End of the relationship with your computer when....’ World." 1. You wake up at 4 O'clock in the morning to With another crash of thunder they found go to the bathroom and stop to check your themselves back on Earth. email on the way back to bed. Clinton immediately called his cabinet. "I have 2. You turn off your computer and get an awful good news and bad news," he announced grimly. empty feeling, as if you just pulled the plug "The good news is that there is a God. The bad on a loved one. news is, He's really mad and plans to end the 3. You decide to stay in college for an additional world in a week." year or two, just for the free internet access. In Russia, Yeltsin announced to parliament, 4. You laugh at people with 28.8 modems. "Comrades, I have bad news and worse news. 5. You start using smileys :-) in your snail mail. The bad news is that we were wrong; there is a 6. You find yourself typing "com" after every God after all. The worse news is He's mad and is period when using a word processor.com going to end the world in a week." 7. You can't correspond with your mother Meanwhile, Bill Gates called a meeting of his top because she doesn't have a computer. engineers. "I have good news and better news. 8. When your email box shows "no new The good news is that God considers me one of messages" and you feel really depressed. the three most influential men on Earth," he 9. You don't know the gender of your three beamed. "The better news is we don't have to fix closest friends because they have nondescript WINDOWS 95." screen name and you never bothered to ask. 32 National Parks’ Tarriffs The entry fees are valid for 24 hours only G. Permit for each Motor vehicle from 1st july 2006:(all Parks A. Permit for entry for each person to Serengeti Tanzanian Foreign National Park from 1st jan 2006 Registered Registered Tshs US $ Tanzanian Non Tanzanian Tshs US $ i) Tare weight up to 2000 kgs 10,000 40 a) Of or above the age of 16 years 1,500 50 ii) Tare weight between b) Between the age of 5 years 2001-3000 kgs 25,000 150 and 16 year 500 10 i) Tare weight between c) Children below th age of 5 years free free 3001-7000 kgs 50,000 200 iii) 7001-10000 kgs 100,000 300 B. Permit for entry for each person to Kilimanjaro National Park from 1st jan 2006 Tanzanian Foreign iv) Vehicles accident fees Tanzanian Non Tanzanian Registered Registered Tshs Tshs 1. All types of vehicles 200,000 200,000 Tshs US $ a) Of or above the age of 16 years 1,500 60 b) Between the age of 5 years v) Fine for overspeeding and 16 year 500 10 1. All types of vehicles 50,000 50,000 c) Children below th age of 5 years free free vi) Long time permit for citizens non commercial C. Permit for entry for each person to Arusha, Tarangire and vehicles/trailers boats and aircraft. 1. Tare weight up to 2000 kgs 50,000 50,000 Lake Manyara National Parks from 1st july 2006 2. Tare weight from 2000 kgs 7000 kgs. Minimum is paid Tanzanian Non Tanzanian quarterly and part thereof thereof 100,000 100,000 Tshs US $ a) Of or above the age of 16 years 1,500 35 3. Tare weight over 7000 kgs 200,000 200,000 b) Between the age of 5 years 4. Tractors, trailers and boats per and 16 years 500 10 annum. Minimum is paid quarterly c) Children below the age of 5 years free free and part thereof. 5,000 5,000 5. Aircraft per annum. Minimum is D. Permit for entry for each person to Katavi, Mikumi, paid quarterly and part thereof 200,000 200,000 Ruaha, Rubondo and Udzungwa National Parks H. Permit for camping in any one period of 24 hours or part Tanzanian Non Tanzanian thereof from 1st july 2006:(All Parks except Kilimanjaro) Tshs US $ a) Of or above the age of 16 years 1,000 20 b) Between the age of 5 year and 16 years 500 5 1. On Established Campsite Tanzanian Non Tanzanian c) Children below the age of 5 years free free a) Of or above the age of16 years 1,000 30 Tshs US $ b) Between the age of 5 years E. Permit for entry for each person to Gombe National Park and 16 years 100 5 c) Children below th age of 5 years free free 3. All Campsites in Kilimanjaro Tanzanian Non Tanzanian Expatriate a) Of or above the Tshs US $ US $ age of 16 years 1,500 100 40 National Park from 1st july 2006 b) Between the age of 5 and 16 years 500 20 10 2. Special Campsites Tanzanian Non Tanzanian Tshs US $ a) Of or above the age of 16 years 2,000 50 F. Permit for entry for each person to Mahale National Park b) Between the age of 5 years and 16 years 100 10 a) Of or above the age c) Children below the age of 5 years free free Tanzanian Non Tanzanian Expatriate of 16 years 1,500 80 40 Tshs US $ US $ b) Between the age I. Guide fees of 5 and 16 years 500 30 10 a) Fees for the service of an official Tanzanian Non Tanzanian c) Children below the Tshs US $ guide 500 10 age of 5 years free free free b) Fees for the service of an official guide who accompanies tourists outside normal working hours 1,000 15 c) Walking Safaris guides 5000 20 33 J. Special Sport Fishing applicable only to Gombe, Mahale P. Filming Fees and Rubondo Island National Parks (sport fishing allowed The following filming fees are applicable to each person per only between 7 a.m. and 5 p.m.) day and covers entrance, camping and filming fees. (Filmers are not categorized into Tanzanians and Non Tanzanian) Tanzanian Non Tanzanian a) Of or above the age of 16 years 2000 50 Tshs US $ b) Between the age of 5 and 16 years 1000 25 a) All Parks except Gombe and Mahale US $ 100 c) Children below the age of 5 years free free b) Gombe US $ 180 c) Mahale US $ 130 K. Huts, Hostel, Rest Houses Fees (rates are payable per head per night). Prior booking is required. Q. Hotel concession Fees Fees of 10% per person on half board (bed, breakfast and a) Kilimanjaro National Park: meal) shall be payable by the owner or proprietor of a hotel or Mandara, Horombo and Kibo lodge in respect of each person who lodges or stay in such a (Huts and Camping) 1,000 50 hotel or lodge. b) Meru-Miriakamba and Saddle 800 20 c) Other Huts-Manyara, Ruaha, NB: Please note that tariffs are subject to change without prior Mikumi 3,000 20 notice d) Hostels Marangu, Manyara, Serengeti, Mikumi, Ruaha and Gombe (Strictly for organized groups with permission of the Park warden In charge) 500 10 e) Rest House-Serengeti, Ruaha, Mikumi, Arusha and Katavi. 5,000 30 f) Rest House-Gombe 2,000 20 L. Rescue Fee for Mts Kilimanjaro and Meru The Park shall be responsible for rescue between the point of the incident to the gate in any route. The climber will take care of other expenses from the gate to any chosen a) Rescue fee 1,000 20 Rescue fee is payable per person per trip and is non refundable M. Canoeing at Lake Manyara and Arusha National Park a) Per person half day 4,000 20 b) Per person full day 8,000 40 N. Night Game Drive at Lake Manyara National Park a) Per person per Night - 50 US $ O. Permit for Landing of aircraft and Helicopters 1.Local Registered in Tshs Tanzanian Non Tanzanian Tshs US $ a) Up to 4 seater 2,000 5,000 b) 5 -12 seater 5,000 15,000 c) Over 13 seater 10,000 25,000 2. Foreign Registered in US $ Tanzanian Non Tanzanian Tshs US $ a) Up to 4 seater 40 100 b) 5 -12 seater 100 150 c) Over 13 seater 150 300 34 TANZANIA NATIONAL PARKS 35 The Director General, Tanzania National Parks, P.O. Box 3134, Arusha, Tanzania. Direct line: (+255) 27 250 8040 General line: (+255) 27 250 3471/4082/1930 Fax: (+255) 27 250 8216 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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