Pre WWII by yaofenjin

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 40

									Pre-WWII
      WHAT WERE THE CAUSES
       OF WORLD WAR II ?
   Generally, tension, suspicion and
    mutual distrust built up during the
    1920's and 30's by:
    – 1. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES ~
         Germany humiliated and angry - desire for
         revenge.
    – 2. THE GREAT DEPRESSION ~ 1929-39.
         Germany hardest hit in Europe.
    – 3. THE FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF
         NATIONS~to keep the peace.(Manchuria)
– 4. THE RISE OF TOTALITARIAN
      DICTATORSHIPS ~ Italy, Germany, Spain,
     Japan (name these)
– 5. THE WEAKNESS OF EUROPEAN
      DEMOCRACIES ~ France, Britain

– 6. AMERICAN ISOLATION & NEUTRALITY
     ~ made Hitler more willing to take
     chances.
– 7. THE “RED” SCARE ~ ie. Fear that
     communism would spread to other countries
     resulted in a willingness to accept any group
     that were anti-communist.

– 8. ACTS OF AGGRESSION AND
     APPEASEMENT ~
       (Aggression: Japan, Italy, and Germany)
       (Appeasement: France, Britain)
         ORIGINS OF THE
           NAZI PARTY
 - Founded, early 1920's in Germany.
 - NAZI - short for National Socialist
  German Workers Party.
   - members disliked:
        1. The Weimar Government ~
            (Because they had signed the
             armistice and treaty)
        2. Communists
        3. Treaty of Versailles

   *** NOTE ~ Adolf Hitler joined the NAZI
    Party, he did NOT start it.
          ADOLF HITLER
 ~ born in Austria.
 ~ parents middle class, Catholics.
 ~ served in German army during WWI ...
    started as a dispatch runner and became a
  corporal.
 ~ wanted to be an architect...Vienna art
     academy refused him admission...he
     blamed the Jews.
   ~ medium height, dark hair & eyes, small
      moustache

                Any resemblance?




 ~ incredible will power.
 ~ powerful personality, almost hypnotic
     eyes.
 ~ fierce temper.
 ~ incredible speaking ability.
       1920's : PROBLEMS IN
             GERMANY
   1. INFLATION: prices rising, value of
      money dropping.

   2. REPARATIONS PAYMENTS bankrupting
       the country.

   3. UNEMPLOYMENT very high: - factories
      did not re-open after the war. – fewer
      men in army etc.
   4. Lack of confidence in Weimar Government:
       a) not solving economic problems. (Did
          borrow money from the US....not a lot of
          help.)
       b) hated government for signing of the Treaty
          of Versailles.

   RESULT: ~ frequent elections ~ led to weak
              government.

   ***NOTE ~ NAZI Party only 1 of many political
              parties in Germany.
     THE NAZI PARTY PLATFORM
“Vote for us and we will...”:

   1. solve Germany‟s economic problems...
      high prices, worthless money, unemployment

   2. tear up the Treaty of Versailles.

   3. get rid of all the Communists in Germany.

   4. make Germany great again.
                Nazi Party:
 - very nationalist.
 - blamed all of Germany‟s problems on
    others... ~ The Big Four (who?)
             ~ Government (who signed the
               armistice & treaty)
             ~ Communists
             ~ Jews (in control of government
               & industry) – Why?
    NAZI CAMPAIGN METHODS
   1. Speeches, rallies

   2. Newspapers, magazines.

   3. Criticize other parties, the government

   4. Use STORM TROOPERS to “convince”
       people...by beatings, intimidation.
       THE STORM TROOPERS
   part   of the Nazi Party... “the enforcers”.
       -   wore uniforms, organized like an army.
       -   used Swastika armband.
       -   wore knee-high boots.
       -   „goose-step‟ march
   - NOT politicians or party organizers...did
      do some recruiting.

   - often criminal types & low-life scum.
The Munich „Beer Hall‟ Putsch-
            1923
   Hitler now one of several important NAZI
    leaders.

    tries to take over government of Bavaria
    (German province).

   failed, leaders arrested and sent to prison.
   While in prison, Hitler wrote his book,
    MEIN KAMPF (My Struggle).

   Hitler released (good behavior). Now
    becomes the #1 leader of the Nazis. He
    decides that the way to get power is
    legally, by winning elections.
      1933: Hitler becomes
     Chancellor of Germany

 Chancellor = Prime Minister.
 Nazis are largest party in Reichstag but
  DON‟T have a majority of seats.
 President Hindenburg asks Hitler to form a
  government…assumes he will form a
  coalition.
 Hitler agrees, becomes Chancellor, then
  calls another election, but, this time he
  has control.
          The Reichstag Fire

   Towards the end of the election campaign,
    the Reichstag building burns down.

   Hitler blames the Communists…trying to
    start a revolution and FEAR.
   Hitler uses special articles in Weimar
    Constitution to suspend Constitution and
    have the President rule by decree.

   Communists are arrested and other parties
    campaigns are stopped, Nazis can
    campaign.

   Election results: Nazis get largest number
    of seats but still NOT a majority.
           The Enabling Law

   Gave Hitler the power of a dictator.

   Made all other parties illegal.

   Destroyed the power of trade unions.

   Hitler's first step towards TOTAL
    CONTROL or TOTALITARIANISM.
The Rise of Totalitarian States
        (1920-1945)
   A totalitarian government claims total
    authority over its people. It allows only
    one political party and outlaws all opposition.
    The economy is run or controlled by the
    government with schools and media used to
    teach people total belief in the government.
   (Propaganda-untrue information is used
    to brainwash citizens in order to make
    them loyal and unquestioning.)


   The leader of a totalitarian state is
    usually a dictator, a single, strong-
    willed personality whose rule is absolute.
Four Totalitarian Governments
           in Europe
        (1918-1945)
   ITALY (Mussolini)- FASCISM

   GERMANY (Hitler)- FASCISM/Nazism

   RUSSIA (Stalin)- COMMUNISM

   SPAIN (Franco)- FASCISM
Reasons for the rise in popularity of
        Totalitarian States
   1.Voter impatience with:
       democratically elected leaders.
       Not enough progress being made in
      areas of reform and
       economy after WW I.
 2.   Economic problems:
        poverty, hunger, unemployment,
         inflation.
        Many created as a result of WW I and
         the treaty of Versailles.

 3.   Nationalism:
        Dictators promised to restore pride
         and glory of their countries in the
         eyes of the world. (Germany & Italy)
                     The SS

   Hitler's hand-picked bodyguards.

   Elite group – desired a pure Aryan race
    – at first…6 ft. & blond and blue eyed

   well trained and best equipped military
    units in Germany.
   Managed the concentration &
    extermination camps,

   Allies declared it to be a „criminal
    organization‟ during WW II.

   Hated and feared by Germans.

   Wore black uniforms.
    The Night of the Long Knives
               1934

   Hitler's elite bodyguards (SS), killed Rohm
    & hundreds of Storm Troopers.

   WHY?

   Hitler could not be sure of their loyalty to
    him.
          1934: President Von
           Hindenburg Dies
   Hitler takes power of President as well as
    that of Chancellor, now to be addressed
    as FUHRER (leader).

   Army has to take loyalty oath to Hitler
    (not to Germany).

   The Third Reich begins…Hitler vows it will
    last 1000 years.
            The Master Race
   Taught in Hitler‟s book Mein Kampf, the
    Aryan race (pure German).

   Nazi‟s teach racial superiority, all lesser
    races should serve the Master Race.

   EXCEPT Jews…Nazis thought that these
    people were dangerous, trying to make
    the Master Race impure.
The Nuremberg Laws-1935
   1. No German can marry a Jew.

   2. All Jewish identity cards are stamped
       with a „J‟ (later, all Jews forced to wear
       a star of David on outer clothing).

   3. No Jew can be a German citizen.

   4. No Jew can own a business.
   5. No Jew can own a property.

   6. Most professions closed to Jews.

   7. Jews cannot attend or teach in German
    schools and universities.

   8. No Jew can work for the government.
            Kristalnacht-1938
   Known as the night of the broken glass.

   Young Polish Jew in Paris killed a German
    diplomat, leads to…

   …Goebbels (Minister of Propaganda) gives
    speech blaming all Jews and encourages
    violence against Jews, Strom Troopers lead
    POGROM (acts of violence against Jews for no
    just reason).

   billions of dollars in damage and hundreds killed.
                The Camps
   First one opened in Dachau, in 1933,
    prisons too full, concentration camps were
    for political prisoners, not criminals.

   Dachau became model camp, SS gave
    tours.

   By 1939, approximately 25000 in camps.

   Camps also included factories, prisoners
    used as slave labour.
                 The Camps
   1941 (during war)
    – Hitler decided on the FINAL SOLUTION to the
      Jewish problem.
    – some camps set up specifically to murder Jews,.
    – AUSCHWITZ, in Poland, one of the best
      known „death‟ camps.

   Gas chambers and ovens.

   GENOCIDE: an attempt to wipe out an
    entire race of people.
    The Holocaust: 1933-1945

   Nazis attempt to murder all the Jews in
    Europe.

   Estimate 6 million dead.

   Jewish population of Europe 1920‟s was
    9 million.

								
To top