Pre-WWII WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR II ? Generally, tension, suspicion and mutual distrust built up during the 1920's and 30's by: – 1. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES ~ Germany humiliated and angry - desire for revenge. – 2. THE GREAT DEPRESSION ~ 1929-39. Germany hardest hit in Europe. – 3. THE FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS~to keep the peace.(Manchuria) – 4. THE RISE OF TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIPS ~ Italy, Germany, Spain, Japan (name these) – 5. THE WEAKNESS OF EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES ~ France, Britain – 6. AMERICAN ISOLATION & NEUTRALITY ~ made Hitler more willing to take chances. – 7. THE “RED” SCARE ~ ie. Fear that communism would spread to other countries resulted in a willingness to accept any group that were anti-communist. – 8. ACTS OF AGGRESSION AND APPEASEMENT ~ (Aggression: Japan, Italy, and Germany) (Appeasement: France, Britain) ORIGINS OF THE NAZI PARTY - Founded, early 1920's in Germany. - NAZI - short for National Socialist German Workers Party. - members disliked: 1. The Weimar Government ~ (Because they had signed the armistice and treaty) 2. Communists 3. Treaty of Versailles *** NOTE ~ Adolf Hitler joined the NAZI Party, he did NOT start it. ADOLF HITLER ~ born in Austria. ~ parents middle class, Catholics. ~ served in German army during WWI ... started as a dispatch runner and became a corporal. ~ wanted to be an architect...Vienna art academy refused him admission...he blamed the Jews. ~ medium height, dark hair & eyes, small moustache Any resemblance? ~ incredible will power. ~ powerful personality, almost hypnotic eyes. ~ fierce temper. ~ incredible speaking ability. 1920's : PROBLEMS IN GERMANY 1. INFLATION: prices rising, value of money dropping. 2. REPARATIONS PAYMENTS bankrupting the country. 3. UNEMPLOYMENT very high: - factories did not re-open after the war. – fewer men in army etc. 4. Lack of confidence in Weimar Government: a) not solving economic problems. (Did borrow money from the US....not a lot of help.) b) hated government for signing of the Treaty of Versailles. RESULT: ~ frequent elections ~ led to weak government. ***NOTE ~ NAZI Party only 1 of many political parties in Germany. THE NAZI PARTY PLATFORM “Vote for us and we will...”: 1. solve Germany‟s economic problems... high prices, worthless money, unemployment 2. tear up the Treaty of Versailles. 3. get rid of all the Communists in Germany. 4. make Germany great again. Nazi Party: - very nationalist. - blamed all of Germany‟s problems on others... ~ The Big Four (who?) ~ Government (who signed the armistice & treaty) ~ Communists ~ Jews (in control of government & industry) – Why? NAZI CAMPAIGN METHODS 1. Speeches, rallies 2. Newspapers, magazines. 3. Criticize other parties, the government 4. Use STORM TROOPERS to “convince” people...by beatings, intimidation. THE STORM TROOPERS part of the Nazi Party... “the enforcers”. - wore uniforms, organized like an army. - used Swastika armband. - wore knee-high boots. - „goose-step‟ march - NOT politicians or party organizers...did do some recruiting. - often criminal types & low-life scum. The Munich „Beer Hall‟ Putsch- 1923 Hitler now one of several important NAZI leaders. tries to take over government of Bavaria (German province). failed, leaders arrested and sent to prison. While in prison, Hitler wrote his book, MEIN KAMPF (My Struggle). Hitler released (good behavior). Now becomes the #1 leader of the Nazis. He decides that the way to get power is legally, by winning elections. 1933: Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany Chancellor = Prime Minister. Nazis are largest party in Reichstag but DON‟T have a majority of seats. President Hindenburg asks Hitler to form a government…assumes he will form a coalition. Hitler agrees, becomes Chancellor, then calls another election, but, this time he has control. The Reichstag Fire Towards the end of the election campaign, the Reichstag building burns down. Hitler blames the Communists…trying to start a revolution and FEAR. Hitler uses special articles in Weimar Constitution to suspend Constitution and have the President rule by decree. Communists are arrested and other parties campaigns are stopped, Nazis can campaign. Election results: Nazis get largest number of seats but still NOT a majority. The Enabling Law Gave Hitler the power of a dictator. Made all other parties illegal. Destroyed the power of trade unions. Hitler's first step towards TOTAL CONTROL or TOTALITARIANISM. The Rise of Totalitarian States (1920-1945) A totalitarian government claims total authority over its people. It allows only one political party and outlaws all opposition. The economy is run or controlled by the government with schools and media used to teach people total belief in the government. (Propaganda-untrue information is used to brainwash citizens in order to make them loyal and unquestioning.) The leader of a totalitarian state is usually a dictator, a single, strong- willed personality whose rule is absolute. Four Totalitarian Governments in Europe (1918-1945) ITALY (Mussolini)- FASCISM GERMANY (Hitler)- FASCISM/Nazism RUSSIA (Stalin)- COMMUNISM SPAIN (Franco)- FASCISM Reasons for the rise in popularity of Totalitarian States 1.Voter impatience with: democratically elected leaders. Not enough progress being made in areas of reform and economy after WW I. 2. Economic problems: poverty, hunger, unemployment, inflation. Many created as a result of WW I and the treaty of Versailles. 3. Nationalism: Dictators promised to restore pride and glory of their countries in the eyes of the world. (Germany & Italy) The SS Hitler's hand-picked bodyguards. Elite group – desired a pure Aryan race – at first…6 ft. & blond and blue eyed well trained and best equipped military units in Germany. Managed the concentration & extermination camps, Allies declared it to be a „criminal organization‟ during WW II. Hated and feared by Germans. Wore black uniforms. The Night of the Long Knives 1934 Hitler's elite bodyguards (SS), killed Rohm & hundreds of Storm Troopers. WHY? Hitler could not be sure of their loyalty to him. 1934: President Von Hindenburg Dies Hitler takes power of President as well as that of Chancellor, now to be addressed as FUHRER (leader). Army has to take loyalty oath to Hitler (not to Germany). The Third Reich begins…Hitler vows it will last 1000 years. The Master Race Taught in Hitler‟s book Mein Kampf, the Aryan race (pure German). Nazi‟s teach racial superiority, all lesser races should serve the Master Race. EXCEPT Jews…Nazis thought that these people were dangerous, trying to make the Master Race impure. The Nuremberg Laws-1935 1. No German can marry a Jew. 2. All Jewish identity cards are stamped with a „J‟ (later, all Jews forced to wear a star of David on outer clothing). 3. No Jew can be a German citizen. 4. No Jew can own a business. 5. No Jew can own a property. 6. Most professions closed to Jews. 7. Jews cannot attend or teach in German schools and universities. 8. No Jew can work for the government. Kristalnacht-1938 Known as the night of the broken glass. Young Polish Jew in Paris killed a German diplomat, leads to… …Goebbels (Minister of Propaganda) gives speech blaming all Jews and encourages violence against Jews, Strom Troopers lead POGROM (acts of violence against Jews for no just reason). billions of dollars in damage and hundreds killed. The Camps First one opened in Dachau, in 1933, prisons too full, concentration camps were for political prisoners, not criminals. Dachau became model camp, SS gave tours. By 1939, approximately 25000 in camps. Camps also included factories, prisoners used as slave labour. The Camps 1941 (during war) – Hitler decided on the FINAL SOLUTION to the Jewish problem. – some camps set up specifically to murder Jews,. – AUSCHWITZ, in Poland, one of the best known „death‟ camps. Gas chambers and ovens. GENOCIDE: an attempt to wipe out an entire race of people. The Holocaust: 1933-1945 Nazis attempt to murder all the Jews in Europe. Estimate 6 million dead. Jewish population of Europe 1920‟s was 9 million.
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