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DSA - Motorcyclists competence framework

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					Introduction to the Motorcyclist Competence Framework

The Competence Framework is divided into five roles. Each role is presented in a separate worksheet and is subdivided into units,
elements and performance criteria which describe specific riding related skills in greater detail. In addition, the knowledge and attitudes
underpinning each competence are included.

The range statements for all roles are contained in the final worksheet 'Range Statements'.

The aim of the Framework validation exercise was to compile crash data, research evidence and expert comment which supported the
inclusion of each competence statement in the Framework. In order to provide support, each piece of evidence needed to demonstrate that failure
to exhibit the competence would increase the probability of one or more of the following outcomes:

1. Personal injury or death.
2. Injury or death of other road users.
3. Damage to vehicles, property and infrastructure.
4. Financial loses.
5. Damage to the environment.
6. Committing an illegal act.
7. Social harm.
8. Loss of confidence in the driving licence.

The evidence cannot be published here currently due to technical issues. If you would like to know what evidence supports any aspect of the
Framework please send your request by email to helen.dunn@dsa.gsi.gov.uk




                                                                             Page 1/20
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R1          Prepare moped / motorcycle and its passengers for the journey
U1.1        Prepare riders and passengers of the moped / motorcycle for the journey
E1.1.1      Choose appropriate mode of transport
PC1.1.1.1   Evaluate the environmental, economic and safety implications of travelling by moped / motorcycle
PC1.1.1.2   Evaluate the environmental, economic and safety implications of other modes and types of transport
PC1.1.1.3   Make sure you are legally able to ride the moped / motorcycle
PC1.1.1.4   Correctly assess the fitness and needs of any pillion passengers
E1.1.2      Make sure you are prepared to ride
PC1.1.2.1   Check own physical state
PC1.2.2.2   Check own emotional state
PC1.2.2.3   Make alternative arrangements if performance is likely to be impaired by physical and/or emotional state
PC1.2.2.4   Choose helmets and eye protection that meet legal requirements
PC1.2.2.5   Choose clothing, footwear, gloves and other aids that enhance safety
PC1.2.2.6   Make sure you are familiar with moped / motorcycle controls
E1.1.3      Make sure pillion passengers and loads are prepared for riding
PC1.1.3.1   Make sure you are legally able to carry a pillion passenger
PC1.1.3.2   Brief pillion passengers to make sure they do not adversely impact on riding performance
PC1.1.3.3   Make sure passengers have helmets and eye protection that meet legal requirements
PC1.1.3.4   Make sure passengers have clothing, footwear, gloves and other aids that enhance safety
PC1.1.3.5   Make sure loads are secured and evenly distributed
U1.2        Make sure moped / motorcycle is roadworthy
E1.2.1      Maintain moped / motorcycle
PC1.2.1.1   Organise repairs and replacement of faulty parts as required
PC1.2.1.2   Make sure moped / motorcycle engine is maintained as advised by the manufacturer's handbook
PC1.2.1.3   Make sure moped / motorcycle suspension and steering is maintained as advised by the manufacturer's handbook
PC1.2.1.4   Make sure moped / motorcycle electrical systems are maintained as advised by the manufacturer's handbook
PC1.2.1.5   Make sure moped / motorcycle controls are maintained as advised by the manufacturer's handbook
PC1.2.1.6   Make sure moped / motorcycle number plates, mirrors and reflectors are fitted and visible
E1.2.2      Make sure moped / motorcycle is fit for the journey
PC1.2.2.1   Conduct pre-journey checks
PC1.2.2.2   Make sure the moped / motorcycle is equipped for passengers if required
E1.2.3      Make sure moped / motorcycle documentation meets legal requirements
PC1.2.3.1   Make sure registration and tax are up to date and that tax disc is visibly displayed on moped / motorcycle
PC1.2.3.2   Make sure licence is valid for the category of moped / motorcycle being ridden
PC1.2.3.3   Make sure that the rider has valid and legal insurance
PC1.2.3.4   Make sure that the moped / motorcycle has a current MOT certificate
U1.3        Plan Journey
E1.3.1      Choose an appropriate route
PC1.3.1.1   Memorise key route references where required
PC1.3.1.2   Choose a route with suitable road conditions
PC1.3.1.3   Choose a route taking into account weather conditions
PC1.3.1.4   Choose a route taking into account traffic conditions
PC1.3.1.5   Choose suitable routes for moped / motorcycle characteristics
PC1.3.1.6   Choose suitable alternate routes if original route is blocked
PC1.3.1.7   Choose suitable locations for rest breaks / refuelling
PC1.3.1.8   Choose a suitable time of day for the journey
E1.3.2      Calculate time required for the journey
PC1.3.2.1   Calculate time required for the journey in ideal conditions
PC1.3.2.2   Build in sufficient time for refuelling, breaks and refreshments
PC1.3.2.3   Build in sufficient time for adverse travel conditions
PC1.3.2.4   Build in sufficient time for return journey

Reference   Knowledge
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R1          Prepare moped / motorcycle and its passengers for the journey
U1.1        Prepare riders and passengers of the moped / motorcycle for the journey
E1.1.1      Choose appropriate mode of transport
            Current legal restrictions on mopeds / motorcycles associated with category 'P', 'A' and 'A1' licenses (e.g. engine size, age, CBT)
            Environmental impact of different types of vehicle
            Environmental effects of exhaust gases (e.g. carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide)
            Relationship between engine size and emission
            The physical ability and psychological demands associated with riding a moped / motorcycle (motor skills, age, coordination)
            Factors which may influence whether it is appropriate to make a journey by moped / motorcycle (weather and traffic conditions)
            Noise related to riding and its effects (e.g. damage to hearing, annoyance to vulnerable members of the community and others living
            near busy roads)
            Standing costs involved in buying a vehicle (e.g. road tax costs, correlation of depreciation and age of vehicle)


                                                                     Page 2/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R1          Prepare moped / motorcycle and its passengers for the journey
            Risks associated with moped / motorcycle size and power (e.g. larger engine sizes are over-represented in incidents)
            Running costs involved with vehicles (e.g. petrol, oil, servicing, repairs and replacements)
            Effects of pollution on other road users, vegetation, wildlife, etc.
            Environmental impact of using your moped / motorcycle for very short journeys, especially when the engine is cold
            Other transport options, such as walking, taking public transport, car sharing, and their advantages and disadvantages
            Potential decline in health and abilities with age and other modes of transport open to older riders (e.g. public transport, drivers, taxis
            etc.)
            Available options for alternative fuel
            Which mopeds / motorcycles have low fuel consumption
            Economic benefits reaped from different types of vehicle (e.g. more Miles per Gallon, lower road tax, reduced insurance premiums)

            Criteria for safely carrying pillion passengers (able to safely reach footrests when adjusted)
E1.1.2      Make sure you are prepared to ride
            The implications of riding under the influence of drink or drugs
            Symptoms of alcohol / drug / fatigue impairment
            Different strengths of alcohol
            What a unit of alcohol can „look‟ like
            Why not to ride if your breath alcohol is higher than 35µg/100ml (e.g. equivalent to a blood alcohol level of 80mg/100ml)
            Why zero alcohol levels are desirable and the benefits of never drinking and riding
            Penalties of indictment
            Metabolic rates and the speed with which alcohol can remain in your system
            The potential effects of prescriptive medication / illegal substances
            The potential effects of fatigue (e.g. before and during a journey)
            The effects of emotional state on riding performance
            How decision making can be impaired
            The effects of temporary physical impairment
            Recognition and effects of eyesight deterioration
            Recognition of the effects of reactalite lenses and tints
            Current legal requirements relating to the use of helmets and eye protection (UNECE Regulation 22.05 helmet, British standard 4110
            The effects of a poor riding position and posture on riding performance
            The effects of emotional disturbance on road-user behaviour
            Anger, aggression and frustration are incident causation factors
            That being careless, thoughtless and / or reckless are key contributory factors to incidents
            Why inattention has been one of the largest contributory factors to incidents
            The potential effects of physical and psychological changes on riding ability (e.g. slower response times, deterioration of vision and
            hearing, loss of muscle strength and flexibility, a reduction in the ability to focus or concentrate, lower tolerance for alcohol)
            What constitutes appropriate clothing, footwear, gloves and other aids to enhance safety
            The benefits of using fluorescent and reflective materials
            The effects of engine noise on hearing and the use of ear plugs
            The importance of checking and maintaining helmets and protective wear
            How to familiarise yourself with a new moped / motorcycle (e.g. visibility, steering, instrument panel, gears, size, handling, wheels,
            brakes (e.g. ABS), ancillary controls such as traction control)
E1.1.3      Ensure Pillion Passengers and loads are prepared to ride
            Legal requirements for carrying any projecting loads
            Legal requirements for carrying passengers
            Insurance cover for carrying passengers
            Managing the effects of load and load distribution on riding (e.g. balance)
            How to pack loads safely
            Types of load securing equipment and when to make appropriate use
            How to manage the impacts on riding resulting from carrying passengers or loads, including the effects of:
            Additional weight and its distribution
            Suitable restraints for animals
            Distractions
            Reduced visibility
            Social pressure
            Why inattention was one of the largest contributory factors to incidents
            Current legal requirements relating to the use of helmets, visors and eye protection (UNECE Regulation 22.05 helmet, British standard
            4110 grade X, XA, YA or ZA & BSI kite mark on eye protection)
            What constitutes appropriate clothing, footwear, gloves and other aids to enhance safety
            How to brief passengers on moped / motorcycle handling, movement and steering (e.g. body alignment, how to lean with rider into
            corners, that feet should remain on footrests)
U1.2        Make sure moped / motorcycle is roadworthy
E1.2.1      Maintain moped / motorcycle
            What oils to check (e.g. brake hydraulic, engine, etc.)
            That good quality engine oil can save fuel
            The danger of overfilling the oil level


                                                                        Page 3/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R1          Prepare moped / motorcycle and its passengers for the journey
            How to check oil and refill with correct type, when necessary
            What water levels to check
            How and what type of coolant to add to engine
            How, what and when to add additives to engine fluid (e.g. anti-freeze in winter)
            What rubber to check (e.g. tyres)
            How to check tyre pressures
            How to check the brakes are working correctly
            How to recognise and fix (where appropriate) basic faults
            What electrical equipment to check (e.g. lights, horns and battery)
            That lights, indicators, reflectors and number plates must be clean and clear
            That exhaust emissions must not exceed prescribed levels
            That tyres must be correctly inflated and be free from certain cuts and other defects
            Signs of abnormal wear on tyres
            Methods to eliminate tyre wear
            That Category 'A1' and 'A' vehicles must have a tread depth of at least 1mm across the central ¾ of the breadth of the tread and around
            the entire circumference
            That Category 'P' vehicles must have a visible tread pattern around the entire circumference
            Awareness of tread depth indicators
            The purpose water cooling systems
            How to dispose of / recycle oil, batteries and old tyres if you carry out your own moped / motorcycle maintenance
            Vehicle Watch schemes and the benefits of participation in them
            How to check operation of the steering head
            How to check adjustment and lubrication of control cables
            How to check tension and operation of the drive chain
            How to check the suspension
            How to check the engine 'kill switch' is in the 'on' position
            Benefits of maintaining moped / motorcycle
            How to check damage to the motorcycle
            Dangers of not performing safety checks
E1.2.2      Ensure moped / motorcycle is fit for the journey
            Importance of everyday vehicle checks (use of acronyms e.g. POWDER; petrol, oil, water, damage, electrics and rubber)
            How to find out what type of fuel needs to be used for a particular vehicle
            How to check tyres for damage
            The effects of poor posture on riders (e.g. control, fatigue)
            That some mopeds / motorcycles have reserve levels of petrol /diesel
            Current legal requirements for carrying passengers (requirements and advice on footrests and handgrips)
            How to adjust moped / motorcycle when carrying pillion passengers and loads (footrests, handgrips, tyres, headlamps)
E1.2.3      Make sure moped / motorcycle documentation meets legal requirements
            How to keep details of vehicle Registration Document or Certificate up to date
            How to apply for a tax disc renewal and keep it up to date
            That the vehicle must have passed an MOT if older than 3 years
            That you must have a valid signed driving licence and be aware of any restrictions that may be applicable
            That you must inform DVLA if your name, address or medical condition changes
            That you must have a valid insurance certificate covering at least third party liability
            What insurance companies need you to do in order to meet your legal obligations
            The factors affecting the cost of insurance (e.g. make of moped/motorcycle, performance, engine capacity, age of rider, riding record,
            area of riding, purpose of riding - e.g. personal vs. business use)
            Terminology used by insurance companies (e.g. broker, premium, indemnity, personal liability, no claims discount etc.)
            That you must have a valid Vehicle Excise Duty disc clearly and correctly displayed at all times
            If asked, you must be able to produce your driving licence, valid insurance certificate, MOT certificate – if not immediately then within
            seven days to the Police
            The Statutory Off-Road Notification obligations
            Moped / Motorcycle rental procedures such as machine familiarisation and inspection
U1.3        Plan Journey
E1.3.1      Choose an appropriate route
            The use of GPS facilities in route planning
            The limitations of satellite navigation systems
            How to use route planning aids (e.g. internet / teletext / weather reports)
            The need to build in additional time for adverse circumstances
            Map symbols / road classification
            The importance of calculating refuelling locations taking into account vehicle fuel consumption rate
            Where and how to get information about congested routes
            Impact of road condition on safe riding (surfaces, grip, road markings condition)
            Risks involved with travelling at different times of the day
            How level of riding ability can affect route choice
            Techniques for memorising routes


                                                                      Page 4/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R1          Prepare moped / motorcycle and its passengers for the journey
E1.3.2      Calculate time required for the journey
            Where to find information to calculate journey times (e.g. map, teletext, internet)
            The use of GPS as a journey time guide
            The limitations of any route calculating software such as Microsoft Auto route
            That being in a rush is one of the main contributory factors to incidents (e.g. through carelessness, recklessness, etc.)
            The need to build in additional time factors for adverse circumstances
            Dangers associated with using a GPS system

            Attitude - Positive
R1          Prepare moped / motorcycle and its passengers for the journey
U1.1        Prepare riders and passengers of the moped / motorcycle for the journey
E1.1.1      Choose appropriate mode of transport
            Safety, economy and environmental impact are important factors to consider when deciding which mode of transport to use
E1.1.2      Make sure you are prepared to ride
            Riding under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or when fatigued, is always unacceptable (R31)
            It is important to wear the right safety equipment for your journey
E1.1.3      Ensure Pillion Passengers and loads are prepared to ride
            As a rider, you are responsible for the safety of your passengers (this includes making decisions about whether to let someone ride
            pillion)
U1.2        Make sure moped / motorcycle is road worthy
E1.2.1      Maintain moped / motorcycle
            Maintaining your bike properly is an important part of making sure you are safe
            Following the manufacturers guidelines is the best way of making sure your bike is properly maintained
E1.2.2      Make sure moped / motorcycle is fit for the journey
            Maintaining the bike properly is an important part of making sure you are safe
            Following the manufacturers guidelines is the best way of making sure your bike is properly maintained
E1.2.3      Make sure moped / motorcycle documentation meets legal requirements
            It is important to have both insurance and a valid MOT
U1.3        Plan journey
E1.3.1      Choose an appropriate route
            Good planning is an important part of reducing risk
E1.3.2      Calculate time required for the journey
            Good planning is an important part of reducing risk
            Attitude - Risky
            The following are examples of some of the things people might say about particular aspects of driving. Making any one of these
            statements does not mean that a driver will not behave in a safe and responsible way. People can express attitudes that seem
            dangerous but still behave in a safe way. However, there is evidence to suggest that individuals who say such things, and have these
            attitudes consistently, are most at risk.
R1          Prepare moped / motorcycle and its passengers for the journey
U1.1        Prepare riders and passengers of the moped / motorcycle for the journey
E1.1.1      Choose appropriate mode of transport

E1.1.2      Make sure you are prepared to ride
            Cannabis would reduce aggression and make you a better rider
            Riding when under the influence of alcohol or illegal drugs has little affect on crash involvement or severity
            Riding under the influence of drugs enhances the pleasurable effect of the drugs
            You don‟t need to know the safe limits of alcohol consumption
            Fatigue is not a contributor to serious crashes
            There are no consequences for a fatigued riding (e.g. the police cannot detect a fatigued rider)
            Most fatigued crashes occur at night
            Riding fatigued is not as dangerous as riding drunk or speeding
E1.1.3      Ensure Pillion Passengers and loads are prepared to ride
            Friends‟ expectations should influence own behaviour
            Having pillions on the bike can make you more alert
U1.2        Make sure moped / motorcycle is road worthy
E1.2.1      Maintain moped / motorcycle
            It is ok to ride an unroadworthy bike for short distances / on minor roads / if riding if to the garage to be fixed
            Other people ride unroadworthy bikes, so why can‟t I?
            I wouldn‟t be able to fix any faults myself, so what is the point of checking for them?
E1.2.2      Make sure moped / motorcycle is fit for the journey
            It is ok to ride an unroadworthy bike for short distances / on minor roads / if riding to the garage to be fixed
            Other people ride unroadworthy bikes, so why can‟t I?
            I wouldn‟t be able to fix any faults myself, so what is the point of checking for them?
E1.2.3      Make sure moped / motorcycle documentation meets legal requirements
            You are unlikely to get caught ridding without insurance
            You are unlikely to get caught ridding without a valid MOT

                                                                         Page 5/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R1          Prepare moped / motorcycle and its passengers for the journey
            You are unlikely to get caught ridding without a valid licence
U1.3        Plan journey
E1.3.1      Choose an appropriate route
            Riding fast can reduce time pressure
            Riding manoeuvres are less risky than they are
            Crash risk for particular situations is lower than it actually is
            Riding is an innate skill and not learned
            You are a better rider than you actually are
            Gaining a licence is a right, not a privilege
            If you use SatNav you don‟t need to plan a journey in advance
            It is better to get somewhere quickly than build in breaks for refreshment
E1.3.2      Calculate time required for the journey
            Riding fast can reduce time pressure
            Riding is an innate skill and not learned
            You are a better rider than you actually are
            Gaining a licence is a right, not a privilege
            If you use SatNav you don‟t need to plan a journey in advance
            It is better to get somewhere quickly than build in breaks for refreshment




                                                                      Page 6/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R2          Guide and control the moped / motorcycle
U2.1        Start, stop, park and leave the moped / motorcycle safely and appropriately
E2.1.1      Start moped / motorcycle
PC2.1.1.1   Remove any anti-theft devices
PC2.1.1.2   Mount moped / motorcycle appropriately
PC2.1.1.3   Consider effects of engine noise on other road users and the community
PC2.1.1.4   Monitor instrumentation, gauges and engine response throughout engine turn on
PC2.1.1.5   Correctly respond to instrumentation and gauges throughout engine turn on
PC2.1.1.6   Turn engine on using appropriate method
PC2.1.1.7   Switch lights on if required
E2.1.2      Stop, park and leave moped / motorcycle
PC2.1.2.1   Select appropriate point(s) to stop and park
PC2.1.2.2   Stop and park maintaining control and balance
PC2.1.2.3   Switch engine off
PC2.1.2.4   Use gears, stand(s) and other aids to ensure that the moped / motorcycle remains stationary
PC2.1.2.5   Dismount moped / motorcycle appropriately
PC2.1.2.6   Make sure the moped / motorcycle is secure
U2.2        Ride the moped / motorcycle
E2.2.1      Move off safely and smoothly
PC2.2.1.1   Perform 360 degree scan using mirrors and appropriate scanning techniques
PC2.2.1.2   Make sure stand(s) are stored in a safe position
PC2.2.1.3   Grip handlebars correctly to maintain full control
PC2.2.1.4   Move off safely and smoothly adopting appropriate riding position to maintain balance and control
PC2.2.1.5   Move off safely and under control at an angle from behind a parked vehicle or obstruction
E2.2.2      Monitor and respond to information from instrumentation, riding aids and the environment
PC2.2.2.1   Monitor gauges and warning lamps when riding
PC2.2.2.2   Respond appropriately to gauges and warning lamps when riding
PC2.2.2.3   Use switches and other controls as required
PC2.2.2.4   Make effective use of mirrors for keeping track of other road users and hazards
PC2.2.2.5   Judge speed and distance correctly and effectively
PC2.2.2.6   Use indicator effectively
PC2.2.2.7   Employ the OSM/PSL routine (Observation– Signal – Manoeuvre / Position – Speed – Look) correctly
E2.2.3      Operate throttle effectively
PC2.2.3.1   Use throttle to change speed
PC2.2.3.2   Use throttle correctly to maintain speed
E2.2.4      Operate brakes effectively
PC2.2.4.1   Brake safely using appropriate braking techniques
PC2.2.4.2   Use brakes to adjust and maintain speed
E2.2.5      Use gears appropriately
PC2.2.5.1   Change gears smoothly and in good time where required
PC2.2.5.2   Choose a suitable gear for selected speed so the engine is not revving or strained
E2.2.6      Perform manoeuvres
PC2.2.6.1   Make sure rearward and sideway glances are timed correctly before conducting manoeuvres
PC2.2.6.2   Ride at slow speeds maintaining control and balance with consideration of blind areas
PC2.2.6.3   Perform controlled stops using appropriate braking techniques
PC2.2.6.4   Perform turn in road correctly with consideration of blind areas
PC2.2.6.5   Wheel motorcycle correctly and safely maintaining control and balance
E2.2.7      Coordinate use of controls
PC2.2.7.1   Coordinate clutch, gears and brake control where required
PC2.2.7.2   Coordinate clutch, gears and throttle control where required
E2.2.8      Coordinate steering and leaning
PC2.2.8.1   Coordinate steering, leaning and braking
PC2.2.8.2   Coordinate steering, leaning and throttle
U2.3        Ride the moped / motorcycle with machine additions
E2.3.1      Correctly tow trailer
PC2.3.1.1   Make sure you are legally able to tow a trailer
PC2.3.1.2   Make appropriate adjustments to the moped / motorcycle or trailer as advised by the manufacturer's handbook
PC2.3.1.3   Make sure load is evenly distributed and secure on trailer
PC2.3.1.4   Brake and accelerate taking into account the impact of the trailer on vehicle dynamics
PC2.3.1.5   Corner taking into account the impact of the trailer on vehicle dynamics
E2.3.2      Use sidecar
PC2.3.2.1   Make sure you are legally able to use a sidecar
PC2.3.2.2   Make appropriate adjustments to the moped / motorcycle or sidecar as advised by the manufactures handbook
PC2.3.2.3   Make sure load is evenly distributed and secure on sidecar
PC2.3.2.4   Brake and accelerate taking into account the impact of sidecar on vehicle dynamics
PC2.3.2.5   Corner taking into account the impact of sidecar on vehicle dynamics



                                                                   Page 7/20
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R2          Guide and control the moped / motorcycle
Reference   Knowledge
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R2          Guide and control the moped / motorcycle
U2.1        Start, stop, park and leave the moped / motorcycle safely and appropriately
E2.1.1      Start moped / motorcycle
            How to operate anti-theft devices (e.g. immobilizer, wheel locks)
            Benefits of using anti-theft devices
            How to mount a moped / motorcycle safely
            How to read main visual aids on the instrument panel (e.g. speedometer, direction indicator repeater lights, fuel gauge & low fuel
            warning indicator, high beam indicator, revolutions counter, temperature and oil pressure, panel lamps)
            How to check engine cut-out switch
            How to recognise 'false neutral' (move bike forward / backwards or spin rear wheel)
            How to use ignition, fuel tap and starter mechanisms to start the engine
            How and when to use kick start lever and kick over if appropriate
            What is the bite point and how it is detected
            Vehicle diagnostic systems where fitted
            How to use manual choke and when and why to reduce the choke
            Effects of starting engine on others (noise, time of day)
E2.1.2      Stop, park and leave moped / motorcycle
            The correct drill for stopping – Observations – Signal – Manoeuvre
            How to identify a safe, legal and convenient stopping location
            How to use progressive braking techniques (planning)
            How to coordinate front and rear wheel braking
            The stopping distances for varying speeds and traffic and weather conditions
            How and when to use the cut-out switch (e.g. emergencies, when bike falls over, risk of fire)
            That stopping distance is broken into:
            Thinking distance
            Braking distance
            That you must switch off your headlights, fog lights and engine when parking
            Safety precautions when parking on hills and uneven surfaces (e.g. low gear, angling the rear wheel into curb, use of stands)
            How and when to use the side stand and central stand and dangers related to their use
            The on-road night parking rules:
            Parking and leaving a vehicle on the highway both during the day and overnight
            Not to park on a road at night facing against the direction of the traffic unless in a recognised parking space
            Displaying parking lights when parked on a road or a lay-by on a road with a speed limit greater than 30mph
            That vehicles and trailers and all vehicles with projecting loads must not to be left on a road at night without lights
            How and when to support vehicle (e.g. feet, bodyweight)
            How to check ignition and fuel switch are off
            How to correctly dismount the moped / motorcycle
            How to lock steering
U2.2        Ride the moped / motorcycle
E2.2.1      Move off safely and smoothly
            The location of blind spots and blind spot checks before moving away or performing a manoeuvre
            The OSM / PSL routine (Observation– Signal – Manoeuvre / Position – Speed – Look)
            Effective observations before moving off
            How to position the moped / motorcycle when moving off
            How gradients will affect ability to move off safely
            How to coordinate throttle, clutch and brakes to pull away smoothly
            Use of the „biting point‟ when releasing the clutch pedal in co-ordination with the throttle where appropriate
            How to maintain balance
            How to adopt correct riding position for optimal control and visibility
            How to correctly use footrests
            Appropriate use of the stand(s) and dangers related to its use
            That drivers 'failure to look properly' is one of the most frequently reported contributory factors to incidents
E2.2.2      Monitor and respond to information from instrumentation, riding aids and the environment
            The location of blind spots and making blind spot checks where and when necessary before performing a manoeuvre
            The OSM / PSL routine (Observation– Signal – Manoeuvre / Position – Speed – Look)
            Effective observation before moving off
            The location of switches and controls and how to use to avoid distraction or loss of control while on the move
            Legal requirements for using dipped headlights (e.g. on restricted roads such as those with street lights not more than 185 metres apart
            and which are generally subject to a 30 mph speed limit)
            Front and rear fog light rules and when to use them
            How to identify and respond to changes in road surfaces and weather conditions
            The effects of different types of glass fitted to mirrors
            That drivers 'failure to look properly' is one of the most frequently reported contributory factors to incidents
            The meaning of panel warning lights and gauges

                                                                     Page 8/20
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R2          Guide and control the moped / motorcycle
E2.2.3      Operate accelerator effectively
            The effects of acceleration and deceleration sense on vehicle performance and the environment
            How to operate cruise control systems when fitted
            The disadvantage of excessive engine revolutions during moving away and while stationary
            The effects of shifting weight when accelerating
            The main causes and effective reactions to skidding
E2.2.4      Operate brakes effectively
            The physical and dynamic implications of braking on bends
            How to coordinate front and rear wheel braking
            Why to avoid braking on bends where necessary
            Stopping distances and the effects of adverse weather and / or changes in road surface on them
            How and when to use progressive braking techniques
            How to stop the vehicle as quickly and as safely as possible
            How aids to braking work (e.g. ABS, linked brakes)
E2.2.5      Operate gears correctly
            The number of gears and configuration as fitted
            Characteristics of operating automatic transmissions
            The environmental impact of high revving engines, low gears and high speeds
            Vehicle loading and effects of timely gear selection when ascending and descending gradients
            Use of selective gear changing
            Use of gears when parking
            How to select a suitable gear for the conditions
            When to change gear by the sound of the engine
E2.2.6      Perform manoeuvres
            Blind spots and making blind spots checks where and when necessary before performing a manoeuvre
            The OSM / PSL routine (Observation– Signal – Manoeuvre / Position – Speed – Look)
            The „effective observation‟ elements when executing any manoeuvre
            Various braking techniques to stop the moped/motorcycle effectively and efficiently under full control
            Skid avoidance and correction
            The correct procedure to carry out a U-turn manoeuvre
            Rules relating to prohibition of U-turns
            How to choose appropriate road position for manoeuvre
            How to wheel the moped / motorcycle safely
            Altering riding position and weight can cause wobble
            How road surfaces affect manoeuvres
            How to allow for and react to vulnerable road users
            That drivers 'failure to look properly' is one of the most frequently reported contributory factors to incidents
E2.2.7      Coordinate use of controls
            Appropriate techniques for coordinating brakes, throttle and gears
            The effects of sudden and harsh application of the throttle, brakes and gears
            How to coordinate hand and foot movements to change gear
            How to coordinate braking, clutch, throttle and gear selector
            How to coordinate use of throttle, gear change and clutch
            The effects of coasting
E2.2.8      Coordinate steering and leaning
            How to apply pressure to coordinate lean with steering to change direction of moped / motorcycle
            How to position hands on handlebars correctly
            The effects of angle and centrifugal force
            Dangers of misjudging steering and leaning (e.g. loss of traction, banking too far striking curb, swinging wide, overshooting)
            How to judge camber and gradient when leaning
            How to judge point of turn
U2.3        Ride the motorcycle with machine additions
E2.3.1      Correctly tow trailer
            Current legal requirements associated with towing a trailer
            How to adjust the motorcycle to tow a trailer
            How to fit trailer to motorcycle
            Blind spots and making blind spots checks where and when necessary before performing a manoeuvre
            The OSM / PSL routine (Observation– Signal – Manoeuvre / Position – Speed – Look)
            Towing regulations and weight restrictions
            The correct trailer checks (e.g. trailer is loaded correctly, is correctly hitched up, lights and indicators are connected, braking system is
            working correctly)
            Changes in vehicle handling characteristics and how to compensate for them when towing a trailer
            When an abnormal vehicle position may be required to negotiate junctions or turnings
            What “snaking” is and how to remedy it
            Brake fade and what to do when descending gradients
            Restrictions that may apply to the overall dimensions of motorcycle and trailer


                                                                        Page 9/20
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R2          Guide and control the moped / motorcycle
            Whether rescue service cover will include a trailer
            The need to display number plates on trailers
E2.3.2      Use sidecar safely
            Current regulations on sidecar use (After 1 August 1981 should be fixed to left hand side)
            How to ensure the machine is suitable for sidecar attachment
            How to check sidecar is fixed and aligned correctly
            The effects of braking on sidecar
            The change in cornering and turning with sidecar on left and right hand steering
            How to change power when negotiating left and right hand corners and turns
            How to counter the effects of braking and accelerating

            Attitude - Positive
R2          Guide and control the moped / motorcycle
U2.1        Start, stop and leave the moped / motorcycle safely and appropriately
E2.1.1      Start moped / motorcycle
            Good riders make sure their actions do not negatively affect other road users or the community (e.g. starting their bike, pulling out or
            parking)
E2.1.2      Stop, park and leave moped / motorcycle
            Good riders make sure their actions do not negatively affect other road users or the community (e.g. safe and legal)
U2.2        Ride the moped / motorcycle
E2.2.1      Move off safely and smoothly
            Good riding is about operating the bike in a smooth, coordinated and controlled way (rather than maximising speed and manoeuvring
            sharply)
            Attitude - Risky
            The following are examples of some of the things people might say about particular aspects of driving. Making any one of these
            statements does not mean that a driver will not behave in a safe and responsible way. People can express attitudes that seem
            dangerous but still behave in a safe way. However, there is evidence to suggest that individuals who say such things, and have these
            attitudes consistently, are most at risk.
R2          Guide and control the moped / motorcycle
U2.1        Start, stop and leave the moped / motorcycle safely and appropriately
E2.1.1      Start moped / motorcycle
            Crash risk for particular situations is lower than it actually is
            Riding is an innate skill and not learned
            You are a better rider than you actually are
            Gaining a licence is a right, not a privilege
            A moped / motorbike is not very powerful
E2.1.2      Stop, park and leave moped / motorcycle
            Crash risk for particular situations is lower than it actually is
            Riding is an innate skill and not learned
            You are a better rider than you actually are
            Gaining a licence is a right, not a privilege
            Once you get off your bike it is not your responsibility
            A moped / motorbike is not very powerful
U2.2        Ride the moped / motorcycle
E2.2.1      Move off safely and smoothly
            Riding manoeuvres are less risky than they are
            Crash risk for particular situations is lower than it actually is
            Riding is an innate skill and not learned
            You are a better rider than you actually are
            A moped / motorcycle is not very powerful
            Gaining a moped / motorcycle licence is a right, not a privilege




                                                                      Page 10/20
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R3          Use the road in accordance with the Highway Code
U3.1        Negotiate the road correctly
E3.1.1      Negotiate junctions
PC3.1.2.1   Carry out procedures correctly when negotiating junctions
PC3.1.2.2   Turn left / right and go ahead correctly
PC3.1.2.3   Emerge into the traffic stream correctly from both left and right sides
PC3.1.2.4   Cross the path of traffic safely when turning right into side roads
PC3.1.2.5   Negotiate crossroads correctly
PC3.1.2.6   Negotiate roundabouts correctly
E3.1.2      Negotiate slip roads
PC3.1.3.1   Join main road correctly from left hand side
PC3.1.3.2   Join main road correctly from right hand side
PC3.1.3.3   Leave main road correctly from the left hand side
PC3.1.3.4   Leave main road correctly from the right hand side
E3.1.3      Maintain appropriate position on the road
PC3.1.3.1   Use correct lane
PC3.1.3.2   Maintain appropriate position in lane
PC3.1.3.3   Change lanes correctly when necessary
E3.1.4      Negotiate bends
PC3.1.4.1   Assess bend and road characteristics correctly
PC3.1.4.2   Adjust speed and positioning prior to entering the bend
PC3.1.4.3   Maintain control throughout
U3.2        Comply with signals, signage, markings and traffic calming measures
E3.2.1      Comply with traffic signals and road signage when riding
PC3.2.1.1   Respond correctly to warning signs
PC3.2.1.2   Comply with mandatory and prohibitive signs giving orders
PC3.2.1.3   Respond correctly to information and direction signs
PC3.2.1.4   Comply with all lights designed to control traffic
PC3.2.1.5   Negotiate all types of pedestrian crossing correctly
PC3.2.1.6   Negotiate all types of railway and tram crossings safely
E3.2.2      Comply with signals given by others
PC3.2.2.1   Respond appropriately to signals given by other road users
PC3.2.2.2   Comply with signals given by police officers
PC3.2.2.3   Comply with signals given by traffic wardens
PC3.2.2.4   Comply with signals given by school crossing wardens
PC3.2.2.5   Comply with signals given by Highways Agency Traffic Operators
PC3.2.2.6   Comply with signals given by VOSA
PC3.2.2.7   Comply with signals given by any authorised persons
E3.2.3      Comply with road markings and street furniture and traffic calming measures
PC3.2.3.1   Comply with road markings along the carriageway
PC3.2.3.2   Comply with road markings across the carriageway
PC3.2.3.3   Comply with road markings along the edge of the carriageway or at the kerb
PC3.2.3.4   Comply with other road markings
PC3.2.3.5   Negotiate traffic calming measures appropriately

Reference   Knowledge
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R3          Use the road in accordance with the Highway Code
U3.1        Negotiating the road correctly
E3.1.1      Negotiate junctions
            Rules relating to the main types of junction (e.g. T junctions, Y junctions, staggered junctions, crossroads and roundabouts)
            The OSM / PSL routine (Observation– Signal – Manoeuvre / Position – Speed – Look)
            How to turn left safely
            How to turn right safely
            How to emerge into the traffic stream safely
            How to cross the path of approaching traffic safely
            That all vehicles at mini roundabouts must pass round the central markings except large vehicles which are physically incapable of doing
            so
            The importance of showing consideration for vulnerable road users
            Abnormal positioning required to be taken by some road users
            How and when to use 'lifesaver' check
            Dangers of using inappropriate lane at junctions
            That as a rider you may be more vulnerable and less visible at junctions
            Implications of passing in crossroads (offside & nearside)
E3.1.2      Negotiate slip road
            Current legal restrictions on motorcycles / mopeds entering dual carriageway / motorway
            How to join a dual carriageway / motorway

                                                                    Page 11/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R3          Use the road in accordance with the Highway Code
            The OSM / PSL routine (Observation– Signal – Manoeuvre / Position – Speed – Look)
            How to emerge safely and fit in with other road users when present
            How to leave a dual carriageway / motorway
            The need to allow for queuing traffic on slip roads when joining / exiting
            When and how to use the hard shoulder
            Appropriate positioning on a carriageway
            Dangers of crossing lanes
            Implications and risks associated with overtaking
E3.1.3      Maintain correct position on the road
            Lane discipline and appropriate lane selection and use
            Early application of Observation – Signal– Manoeuvre routine for smooth safe lane changing
            Implications and risks associated with overtaking
            Positioning should be adapted to environment (traffic, obstruction, weather)
            Looking down can alter balance and position
            Positioning on the road will affect visibility and detectability
E3.1.4      Negotiate bends
            What factors to take into account when judging speed and positioning on bends (e.g. type and condition of the road, sharpness of the
            bend, camber of the road, centrifugal force, visibility, weather conditions)
            The OSM / PSL routine (Observation– Signal – Manoeuvre / Position – Speed – Look)
            How to use effective scanning techniques to assess possible dangers in bends
            The use of controls in a bend and the associated risks (gears, throttle, brakes)
            The impact of loads or extra weight on cornering
            The dangers associated with negotiating left and right hand bends (pedestrians, stationary vehicles, positioning)
            Capabilities of moped / motorcycle
            More than 2/3 of incidents occur on bends
U3.2        Comply with signals, signage, markings and traffic calming measures
E3.2.1      Comply with traffic signals and road signage when riding
            How to respond to all warning signs
            How to comply with all mandatory traffic signs wherever located on all roads to include motorways
            All rules and procedures that apply to zebra crossings
            All rules and procedures that apply to pedestrian crossings controlled by lights
            That you must stop when the Police signal you to stop
            When, where and why hazard warning lights may be used whilst riding
            That you must exercise proper control of your vehicle at all times
            That traffic must travel on the left unless indicated by signs to say otherwise
            Where not to ride except to gain lawful access to property (e.g. pavement)
            Which road users are not allowed to use motorways
            That you must not go beyond the signal in any lane if red lights flash on a signal in the central reservation at the side of the road or
            above your lane
            Why you must not exceed the mandatory permitted speed limits for the road you are on and your vehicle
            That you must not cross the central reservation, or ride against the traffic flow on a motorway or dual carriageway unless directed to do
            so by an official
            Why you must not to ride on the hard shoulder except in an emergency or if directed to do so by signs
            That the right hand lane of a motorway must not be used by:
            Any vehicle drawing a trailer
            A goods vehicle with a maximum laden weight over 7.5 tonnes or coaches limited to 60mph
            Why you must not stop on the carriageway, hard shoulder, slip road, central reservation or verge except in an emergency
            Why you must not pick up or set down anyone, or walk on a motorway except in an emergency
            That you must obey lights used at level crossings
            Why you must not cross user operated gates or barriers when the red light is showing
            That you must not enter a road, lane or other route reserved for trams
            Why you must not park a vehicle where it would get in the way of trams or where it would force other road users to do so
            That you must follow the route shown by road signs and markings
            That you must not ride between a tram and the left-hand kerb when a tram has stopped to pick up passengers
            Why you must not to ride on the hard shoulder except in an emergency or if directed to do so by signs
E3.2.2      Comply with signals given by others
            That you must stop when a school crossing patrol shows a „stop for children‟ sign
            Arm signals given by persons controlling traffic
            That you must stop when directed by the Police, traffic warden or Highways Agency Traffic operator
            That you must stop when directed to do so at road works
E3.2.3      Comply with road markings and traffic calming measures
            That you must not enter areas of diagonal strips, or chevrons, that are protected by solid white lines
            Why you must not ride or park in a cycle lane
            When a rider can and cannot cross or straddle double continuous white lines
            That you must stop behind the line at a junction with a „stop‟ sign and a solid white line across the road
            That you must give way to traffic on the main road when emerging from a junction with broken white lines across the road


                                                                     Page 12/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R3          Use the road in accordance with the Highway Code
            Why you must not enter a yellow box junction until the exit road or lane is clear
            That you must stop behind the white stop line across the road at traffic lights, unless the light is green
            That you must not move forward over the white line when the red light is showing at traffic lights
            That you must wait behind the first white line reached at advanced stop lines
            That you must not park on an area covered by the zigzag lines at pedestrian crossings
            That you must not overtake the lead moving vehicle on the approach to a pedestrian crossing nor overtake the lead vehicle which has
            stopped to give way to pedestrians
            Why you must not wait or park where there are restrictions shown by:
            Yellow lines along the edge of the carriageway
            School entrance markings on the carriageway
            Why not to stop or park on:
            The carriageway or the hard shoulder of a motorway expect in an emergency
            A pedestrian crossing or area either side if controlled by zigzag road markings
            A clearway
            An urban clearway within its hours of operation, except to pick up or set down passengers
            Road marked with double white lines, expect to pick up or set down
            A tram or cycle lane during its periods of operation
            A cycle track
            Red lines in a Red Route area or zone

            Attitude - Positive
R3          Use the road in accordance with the highway code
U3.1        Negotiate the road correctly
E3.1.1      Negotiate junctions
            Knowledge and understanding of the Highway Code helps you and other road users stay safe
            Good riders know, and comply with, the Highway Code
E3.1.2      Negotiate slip road
            Knowledge and understanding of the Highway Code helps you and other road users stay safe
            Good riders know, and comply with, the Highway Code
E3.1.3      Maintain appropriate position on the road
            Knowledge and understanding of the Highway Code helps you and other road users stay safe
            Good riders know, and comply with, the Highway Code
E3.1.4      Negotiate bends
            Good riders aim to ride smoothly and in a controlled fashion
U3.2        Comply with signals, signage, markings and traffic calming measures
E3.2.1      Comply with traffic signals and road signage when riding
            Knowledge and understanding of the Highway Code helps you and other road users stay safe
            Good riders know, and comply with, the Highway Code
E3.2.2      Comply with signals given by others
            Knowledge and understanding of the Highway Code helps you and other road users stay safe
            Good riders know, and comply with, the Highway Code
E3.2.3      Comply with road markings and traffic calming measures
            Knowledge and understanding of the Highway Code helps you and other road users stay safe
            Good riders know, and comply with, the Highway Code
            Attitude - Risky
            The following are examples of some of the things people might say about particular aspects of driving. Making any one of these
            statements does not mean that a driver will not behave in a safe and responsible way. People can express attitudes that seem
            dangerous but still behave in a safe way. However, there is evidence to suggest that individuals who say such things, and have these
            attitudes consistently, are most at risk.
R3          Use the road in accordance with the highway code
U3.1        Negotiate the road correctly
E3.1.1      Negotiate junctions
            Highway Code does not apply to you
            Following the Highway Code is not an important part of being a safe rider
            Highway Code aberrations will not be caught
            Highway Code aberrations will not be penalised
            Laws and rules only need to be followed if they fit in with other considerations
            You don‟t need to know the law to be a good rider
            It is acceptable to be ignorant of the law
            Ignorance of the law is a justifiable excuse
            If there is no one else around then the laws of the road don‟t apply
            Other riders ignore the Highway Code, so why can't I?
E3.1.2      Negotiate slip road
            Highway Code does not apply to you
            Following the Highway Code is not an important part of being a safe rider
            Highway Code aberrations will not be caught

                                                                    Page 13/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R3          Use the road in accordance with the Highway Code
            Highway Code aberrations will not be penalised
            Laws and rules only need to be followed if they fit in with other considerations
            You don‟t need to know the law to be a good rider
            It is acceptable to be ignorant of the law
            Ignorance of the law is a justifiable excuse
            If there is no one else around then the laws of the road don‟t apply
            Other riders ignore the Highway Code, so why can't I?
E3.1.3      Maintain appropriate position on the road
            Highway Code does not apply to you
            Following the Highway Code is not an important part of being a safe rider
            Highway Code aberrations will not be caught
            Highway Code aberrations will not be penalised
            Laws and rules only need to be followed if they fit in with other considerations
            You don‟t need to know the law to be a good rider
            It is acceptable to be ignorant of the law
            Ignorance of the law is a justifiable excuse
            If there is no one else around then the laws of the road don‟t apply
            Other riders ignore the Highway Code, so why can't I?
E3.1.4      Negotiate bends
            Negotiating bends at faster speeds than other riders shows that you are skilled
U3.2        Comply with signals, signage, markings and traffic calming measures
E3.2.1      Comply with traffic signals and road signage when riding
            Highway Code does not apply to you
            Following the Highway Code is not an important part of being a safe rider
            Highway Code aberrations will not be caught
            Highway Code aberrations will not be penalised
            Laws and rules only need to be followed if they fit in with other considerations
            You don‟t need to know the law to be a good rider
            It is acceptable to be ignorant of the law
            Ignorance of the law is a justifiable excuse
            Riding fast is exciting
            Accelerating hard is exciting
            Speeding is not risky
            You are safe even when exceeding speed limits
            Speeding is acceptable
            Speeding is enjoyable
            Riding fast can reduce time pressure
            Speeding will make you feel good about yourself
            It is acceptable to speed if riding safely
            Speed limits are not set at reasonable limits
            You can exceed the speed limit to a certain extent
            Speed limits are arbitrary
            You can judge safe speed better than the limit
            Riding within the speed limit is boring
            As long as you justify the situation to be safe, you can stop the bike wherever you want
            It is ok to stop outside a school (for example) as long as it is for a short time
E3.2.2      Comply with signals given by others
            Highway Code does not apply to you
            Following the Highway Code is not an important part of being a safe rider
            Highway Code aberrations will not be caught
            Highway Code aberrations will not be penalised
            Laws and rules only need to be followed if they fit in with other considerations
            You don‟t need to know the law to be a good rider
            Ignorance of the law is a justifiable excuse
            As long as you justify the situation to be safe, you can stop the bike wherever you want
            It is ok to stop outside a school (for example) as long as it is for a short time
            If there is no one else around then the laws of the road don‟t apply
            Other riders ignore the Highway Code, so why can't I?
E3.2.3      Comply with road markings and traffic calming measures
            Highway Code does not apply to you
            Following the Highway Code is not an important part of being a safe rider
            Highway Code aberrations will not be caught
            Highway Code aberrations will not be penalised
            Laws and rules only need to be followed if they fit in with other considerations
            You don‟t need to know the law to be a good rider
            Ignorance of the law is a justifiable excuse

                                                                     Page 14/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R3          Use the road in accordance with the Highway Code
            As long as you justify the situation to be safe, you can stop the bike wherever you want
            It is ok to stop outside a school (for example) as long as it is for a short time
            If there is no one else around then the laws of the road don‟t apply
            Other riders ignore the Highway Code, so why can't I?




                                                                     Page 15/21
Reference    Statement
Purpose      Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R4           Ride safely and efficiently in the traffic system
U4.1         Interact appropriately with other road users
E4.1.1       Communicate intentions to other road users
PC4.1.1.1    Use arm signals and indicators to signal intentions in a timely fashion
PC4.1.1.2    Give signals clearly and correctly according to the Highway Code
PC4.1.1.3    Position moped / motorcycle in a way that signals intentions when safe to do so
PC4.1.1.4    Use horn and lights as a means of communication to other road users
E4.1.2       Cooperate with other road users
PC4.1.2.1    Allow for others‟ mistakes
PC4.1.2.2    Give other road users time to perform manoeuvres
PC4.1.2.3    Adapt riding to road and traffic and weather conditions
PC4.1.2.4    Make progress in the traffic stream when safe and appropriate
PC4.1.2.5    Identify and respond to vulnerable road users correctly
PC4.1.2.6    Monitor and manage own reaction to other road users
PC4.1.2.7    Overtake with due consideration for other road users
PC4.1.2.8    Meet approaching traffic and other road users safely
PC4.1.2.9    Show awareness and anticipation to other road users
PC4.1.2.10   Respond to emergency vehicles appropriately
PC4.1.2.11   Filter through traffic with due regard to other road users
U4.2         Minimise risk when riding
E4.2.1       Identify and respond to hazards
PC4.2.1.1    Use continual scanning techniques of distance and foreground
PC4.2.1.2    Identify precursors or clues to hazards correctly
PC4.2.1.3    Identity hazards correctly
PC4.2.1.4    Anticipate what may happen
PC4.2.1.5    Prioritize hazards appropriately
PC4.2.1.6    Plan actions and respond appropriately
PC4.2.1.7    Maintain concentration when faced with distractions
E4.2.2       Ride Defensively
PC4.2.2.1    Create and maintain a safe riding space
PC4.2.2.2    Make continual checks of surroundings and blind spots
PC4.2.2.3    Position moped / motorcycle to ensure you have been seen
PC4.2.2.4    Manage own physical / psychological state
PC4.2.2.5    Use dipped headlights or running lights during daylight hours
PC4.2.2.6    Maintain safe and comfortable riding position
PC4.2.2.7    Ride at such a speed that you can pull up in the distance seen to be clear ahead
E4.2.3       Follow principles of ecologically responsible riding (eco-safe riding)
PC4.2.3.1    Brake efficiently using appropriate braking techniques
PC4.2.3.2    Accelerate smoothly and progressively to minimise fuel consumption
PC4.2.3.3    Use deceleration sense to minimise fuel consumption
PC4.2.3.4    Remove excess weight from vehicle when not needed
PC4.2.3.5    Choose most appropriate gear
PC4.2.3.6    Turn engine off, when appropriate
U4.3         Manage incidents effectively
E4.3.1       Take appropriate action if moped / motorcycle breaks down
PC4.3.1.1    Stop and move moped / motorcycle to a safe place to minimise future risk and switch off engine
PC4.3.1.2    Make sure passengers and loads are managed safely
PC4.3.1.3    Give adequate warning to other road users to minimise risk
PC4.3.1.4    Get appropriate help
E4.3.2       Take appropriate action when witness to, or involved in, an accident
PC4.3.2.1    Where appropriate, stop and move moped / motorcycle to a safe place to minimise future risk
PC4.3.2.2    Make sure passengers and loads are managed safely
PC4.3.2.3    Ensure adequate warning is given to other road users
PC4.3.2.4    Make appropriate assessment of incident scene and personal safety
PC4.3.2.5    Give appropriate help to others
PC4.3.2.6    Give clear and accurate information to emergency services
PC4.3.2.7    Complete legal requirements accurately and in good time, if required

Reference    Knowledge
Purpose      Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R4           Ride safely and efficiently in the traffic system
U4.1         Interact appropriately with other road users.
E4.1.1       Communicate intentions to other road users
             Arm signals as covered in the Highway Code and when they may need to be given
             Risks associated with giving arm signals (e.g. reduced stability, risks at high speed)
             When to use indicators and the importance of ensuring that when given they are used correctly and in good time


                                                                     Page 16/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R4          Ride safely and efficiently in the traffic system
            The importance of ensuring signals are cancelled as and when appropriate
            How to link the use of signals to the application of the Observation – Signal – Manoeuvre routine
            When signals must be given and when it is acceptable not to use them
            When and when not to use the horn e.g. do not sound the horn, unless there‟s a danger from another moving vehicle, when:
            Vehicle is stationary
            In a built up area between 11.30pm and 7am – flash headlights instead
            Within hearing distance of animals and vulnerable road users
            When the flashing of headlights may be an appropriate means of warning of approach or as an alternative to the horn
            How and when to use hazard warning lights
            How and when to use road positioning to indicate intentions
            The difficulties faced (showing intention, road position) when turning right, especially for mopeds
E4.1.2      Cooperate with other road users
            Effective scanning techniques
            Awareness and anticipation of the actions of other road users to include:
            Pedestrians – both young and elderly
            Animals on the verge or carriageway
            When and where it is appropriate to make progress
            The dangers of riding at such a pace as to be unable to pull up in the distance seen to be clear ahead or to exceed any speed limit in
            force
            Separation distances and the two second rule
            Applying the Observation – Signal – Manoeuvre routine and giving priority when relevant to meet other traffic safely.
            Applying the Observation – Signal – Manoeuvre routine safely and correctly when overtaking slower moving traffic
            Where and when is unsafe to attempt to overtake other road users
            That you must not ride without due care and attention or without reasonable consideration for other road users
            How to respond correctly when emergency vehicles are on call and how to give them precedence whether approaching from behind,
            ahead of from side roads
            That 'failure to judge another person's path or speed' was one the most common contributory factors in road incidents
            Risks involved with filtering through traffic
            Legal restrictions on under-taking
            How to filter safely with due consideration to other road users
U4.2        Minimise risk when riding
E4.2.1      Identify and respond to hazards
            Effective scanning techniques
            What determines the zone of vision including:
            Buildings and hedges
            Bends in the road or contours in the land
            Moving and parked vehicles
            Available light and the weather
            When other road users are vulnerable and how to react accordingly
            How to “read the road ahead” and being prepared to expect the unexpected
            That you must not ride without due care and attention or without reasonable consideration for other road users
            Potential distractions, what they are and how to manage them (e.g. mobile phones, talking to pillion passengers, using a satellite
            navigation system)
            That drivers 'failure to look properly' is one of the most frequently reported contributory factors to incidents
            That 'failure to judge another person's path or speed' has been one the most common contributory factors in road incidents
            Effects of 'overlooking' foreground, concentrating on distant view
            How helmets and visors may effect your peripheral vision and techniques to overcome this
            What constitutes a hazard to yourself or other road users (including other road users, weather, time of day, road condition and surfaces)

            The effects and causes of skidding and aquaplaning
            The appropriate use of headlights (day, night, bad weather)
E4.2.2      Defensive Riding
            The OSM / PSL routine (Observation– Signal – Manoeuvre / Position – Speed – Look)
            Separation distances and the two second rule when and where appropriate
            Separation distance in slow moving and queuing traffic
            Thinking and braking distances for varying speeds
            Effective scanning techniques
            That you must not ride without due care and attention or without reasonable consideration for other road users
            That 'following too close' is one of top 10 contributory factors to road incidents
            That 'failure to judge another person's path or speed' was one the most common contributory factors in road incidents
            The importance of being visible
            How to position vehicle for situation
            Appropriate use of lights and dipped headlights
            Use of 'keep left' rule and its exceptions
            Importance of forward planning
            60% of motorcycle casualties involve a collision with a car

                                                                    Page 17/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R4          Ride safely and efficiently in the traffic system
            How helmets and visors may effect your peripheral vision and techniques to overcome this
E4.2.3      Follow principles of ecologically responsible riding (eco-safe riding)
            The effects of increased fuel consumption by carrying unnecessary equipment or luggage.
            Forward planning linked to early reaction and smooth deceleration
            How to use the highest gear possible and recognise when to change down to avoid engine labour
            The importance of regular maintenance and adhering to recommended service schedules
            How to use cruise control when fitted
            Effective scanning techniques
            That you should not put eco-safe riding techniques above safe riding principles
            Different techniques for reducing exhaust pollution (e.g. fuel injection, electronic engine management systems and redesigned exhaust
            systems)
            Catalytic converters
            The fuel efficiency of all various engines
            Available options for alternative fuel
            Which moped / motorcycles have low fuel consumption
            When fuel consumption is highest
            How to maintain and use momentum
U4.3        Manage incidents effectively
E4.3.1      Take appropriate action if moped / motorcycle breaks down
            How to keep control of your moped / motorcycle, should a breakdown occur by:
            Avoiding braking severely
            Steering gently onto side of the road as you lose speed
            If possible, getting the moped / motorcycle off the road
            Using appropriate hazard warning device(s)
            Telephoning the emergency services
            Waiting on the embankment
            Not attempting to carry out repairs
            Where to position warning triangle when broken down:
            On a straight road, putting the triangle 45 metres from your vehicle
            On a winding or hilly road, putting the triangle where others will see it before they have to deal with a bend or hump in the road
            On a narrow road, putting the triangle on the nearside verge or footpath
            How to control moped / motorcycle following puncture or blow out by:
            Not braking suddenly
            Trying to keep a straight course by holding handlebars firmly
            Stopping at the side of the road
            Getting the vehicle away from traffic
            Why it is better to use an emergency roadside telephone rather than a mobile phone
            Appropriate use of engine cut-out switch
E4.3.2      Take appropriate action when witness to, or involved in an incident.
            What to do in an emergency including:
            Giving help wherever you can
            Noting details of witnesses
            Gathering as much information as possible
            Taking photographs
            Draw or sketch a plan
            Not admitting liability
            Giving statements when requested by the Police
            The legal requirements concerning incidents, that is the need to report to Police name and address within 24 hrs any incident involving
            injury to any person or animal or any damage to any vehicle or property
            Why you must not stop on the carriageway, hard shoulder, slip road, central reservation or verge except in an emergency
            Why you must not pick up or set down anyone, or walk on a motorway except in an emergency
            That you must, if you are involved in an incident which causes damage or injury to any other person, vehicle, animal or property:
            Stop
            Give your own and the vehicles owner’s name and address, and the registration number of the vehicle, to anyone having reasonable
            grounds for requiring them
            If you do not give your name and address at the same time of the incident, report the incident to the Police as soon as reasonably
            practicable, and in any case within 24 hours
            That you must, if another person is injured and you do not produce your insurance certificate at the time of the incident to a Police officer
            or to anyone having reasonable grounds to request it:
            Produce your insurance certificate to the Police within seven days
            The principles of first aid
            How far you are able to offer help (first aid capabilities)
            The symptoms and treatment of shock
            How to contact the relevant emergency services

Ref         Attitude - Positive


                                                                      Page 18/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R4          Ride safely and efficiently in the traffic system
R4          Ride safely and efficiently in the traffic system
U4.1         Interact appropriately with other road users
E4.1.1      Communicate intentions to other road users
            Good riders exhibit a high degree of care for their own safety, their passengers and other road users
            Good riders make sure that their actions do not create unnecessary stress for other road users
            Good riders remain calm under pressure (e.g. inconsiderate behaviour from other road users)
            Good riders understand how their actions affect other road users (e.g. social riding)
E4.1.2      Cooperate with other road users
            Good riders exhibit a high degree of care for their own safety, their passengers and other road users
            Good riders make sure that their actions do not create unnecessary stress for other road users
            Good riders remain calm under pressure (e.g. inconsiderate behaviour from other road users)
            Good riders understand how their actions affect other road users (e.g. social riding)
U4.2        Minimise risk when riding
E4.2.1      Identify and respond to hazards
            Good riders do not take unnecessary risks
            It is important not to compromise safety in order to arrive somewhere on time or keep up with other riders
E4.2.2      Defensive Riding
            Good riders recognise that they are vulnerable, especially on a motorcycle
            Good riders have a proactive approach to planning and riding
E4.2.3      Follow principles of ecologically responsible riding (eco-safe riding)
            It is important to apply eco-safe riding where safe to do so
U4.3        Manage incidents effectively
            If an incident occurs, it is important to help other road users if you can do so safely
Ref         Attitude - Risky
            The following are examples of some of the things people might say about particular aspects of driving. Making any one of these
            statements does not mean that a driver will not behave in a safe and responsible way. People can express attitudes that seem
            dangerous but still behave in a safe way. However, there is evidence to suggest that individuals who say such things, and have these
            attitudes consistently, are most at risk.
R4          Ride safely and efficiently in the traffic system
U4.1         Interact appropriately with other road users
E4.1.1      Communicate intentions to other road users
            Others will not be upset by your bad behaviour
            The traffic congestion situation can be improved by aggressive behaviour
            Riding violations are condoned by others
            It is acceptable to compete with other riders
            You are a better rider than you actually are
            Road etiquette and good manners do not apply to you
            Riding violations are condoned by others
            You are a better rider than others
            Aggressive riding will not be penalised
            Aggressive violations will not be caught
            Belief that you have more of a right than others to be on the road
E4.1.2      Cooperate with other road users
            Others will not be upset by your bad behaviour
            Traffic congestion situation can be improved by aggressive behaviour
            Riding violations are condoned by others
            It is acceptable to compete with other riders
            You are a better rider than you actually are
            Road etiquette and good manners do not apply to you
            You are a better rider than others
            Aggressive riding will not be penalised
            Aggressive violations will not be caught
            Belief that you have more of a right than others to be on the road
            If people are riding very slowly and disrupting the traffic flow it is ok to behave aggressively to them
U4.2        Minimise risk when riding
E4.2.1      Identify and respond to hazards
            Riding manoeuvres are less risky than they are
            Crash risk for particular situations is lower than it actually is
            You are safe even when exceeding speed limits
            Riding fast is thrilling
            Riding fast can reduce time pressure
            You are a better riding than you actually are
            It is acceptable to speed if riding safely
            Speed limits are not set at reasonable limits
            You can exceed the speed limit to a certain extent
            Speed limits are arbitrary

                                                                   Page 19/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R4          Ride safely and efficiently in the traffic system
            You can judge safe speed better than the limit
            You have a lower chance than others of experiencing a negative event
            Riding does not need full attention
            It is acceptable to use a mobile phone when riding
            It is acceptable to attend to distractions
            Riding within the speed limit is boring
            Fatigue only occurs on long journeys
            Fatigue is not a contributor to serious crashes
            There are no consequences for fatigued riding (e.g. the police cannot detect a fatigued rider)
            Most fatigued crashes occur at night
            Riding fatigued is not as dangerous as riding drunk or speeding
            Riding close to others will encourage them to ride faster
E4.2.2      Defensive Riding
            It is the responsibility of other road users to consider your vulnerability on the road
            Riding manoeuvres are less risky than they are
            Crash risk for particular situations is lower than it actually is
            You are safe even when exceeding speed limits
            You have a lower chance than others of experiencing a negative event
E4.2.3      Follow principles of ecologically responsible riding (eco-safe riding)
            Since others don‟t ride in an eco-safe way, then why should you?
            Own eco-safe riding would have little or no effect globally
U4.3        Manage incidents effectively
            It is better not to get involved in another road user's incident
            If the crash was not my fault, it is not my responsibly to get involved




                                                                     Page 20/21
Reference   Statement
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R5          Review and adjust riding behaviour over lifetime
U5.1        Keep up to date with changes
E5.1.1      Keep up to date with changes to road rules
PC5.1.1.1   Keep up to date with legal changes to signals and signage
PC5.1.1.2   Keep up to date with legal changes to road markings and traffic calming measures
PC5.1.1.3   Keep up to date with road / traffic law
E5.1.2      Keep up to date with maintenance requirements of moped / motorcycle
PC5.1.2.1   Keep up to date with maintenance requirements of moped / motorcycle as age and condition change
PC5.1.2.2   Keep up to date with changes to moped / motorcycle technology
E5.1.3      Keep up to date with changes to legal requirements for registering and taxing moped / motorcycle
PC5.1.3.1   Keep up to date with any changes to certificates for moped / motorcycle
PC5.1.3.2   Make sure licence is still valid and update DVLA Swansea of any personal changes when relevant
U5.2        Learn from Experience
E5.2.1      Evaluate riding behaviour
PC5.2.1.1   Identify own riding errors
PC5.2.1.2   Evaluate seriousness of riding errors
PC5.2.1.3   Identify when poor riding habits are developing
PC5.2.1.4   Evaluate and learn from others' riding behaviour
E5.2.2      Recognise personal characteristics and changes which affect riding performance
PC5.2.2.1   Evaluate personal factors that may influence riding behaviour
PC5.2.2.2   Seek professional advice when necessary
PC5.2.2.3   Assess physical factors that may influence riding ability
PC5.2.2.4   Identify any age related changes that may influence riding ability
PC5.2.2.5   Indentify physical or psychological impairments and advise DVLA Swansea as appropriate
E5.2.3      Adjust own riding behaviour
PC5.2.3.1   Identify options for reducing mistakes
PC5.2.3.2   Identify options for improving riding
PC5.2.3.3   Continue to develop and update personal riding skills
PC5.2.3.4   Adapt riding behaviour to ensure that physical, personal, psychological and age related changes do not affect safe riding performance

PC5.2.3.    Adapt riding behaviour to account for difficulties arising from riding an unfamiliar machine or having had a break from riding

Reference   Knowledge
Purpose     Ride a moped / motorcycle safely and responsibly
R5          Review and adjust riding behaviour over lifetime
U5.1        Keep up to date with changes
E5.1.1      Keep up to date with changes to road rules
            Where to find information which will keep you up to date (e.g. internet sites covering road safety and safe riding techniques, Government
            publications, etc.)
E5.1.2      Keep up to date with maintenance requirements of moped / motorcycle
            The importance of referring to the manufacturer's handbook specific to vehicle type and the contents therein
            Technological changes affecting motorcycle maintenance
E5.1.3      Keep up to date with changes to legal requirements for registering and taxing moped / motorcycle
            How and where to contact relevant agency or department and review appropriate web site information updates prior to having to renew
            or re-register as and when necessary
            The need to ensure that your moped/motorcycle is taxed, insured and tested at the required intervals
U5.2        Learn from Experience
E5.2.1      Evaluate riding behaviour
            The value of assessing your own riding behaviour against best practice
            How to assess your own riding behaviour
            The advantage of having riding development from a instructor to keep up to date and eliminate the potential for poor habits
            That being careless, thoughtless and / or reckless are key contributory factors to incidents
            That inattention has been one of the largest contributory factors to incidents
            The consequences of failure to comply with rules of the road
            Benefits of post-test training
E5.2.2      Recognise personal characteristics and changes which affect riding performance
            Your own visual efficiency - including tunnel /peripheral vision
            The negative effects of high and low contrast on vision
            The negative effects of high and low contrast glare on vision
            The negative effects of reduced respiratory volume on riding performance
            Situations where riding performance may deteriorate when elderly (e.g. following routes from memory, navigating efficiently, and riding at
            night)
            That mortality rates related to riding incidents are at their highest between ages 20-29
            That self awareness of your own riding is a good way of reducing risky riding behaviours (e.g. perhaps through actions such as reducing
            number of miles ridden, avoidance of riding in bad weather conditions etc.)




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