The Progressive Era_1_

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					The Progressive Era

                  Goal 7:
-Explain the conditions that let to the rise of
-Analyze how different groups of Americans
  made economic and political gains in the
            Progressive Period.
Problems of the
   Late 1800s
    Origins of Progressivism
   Problems that contributed to the social upheavals of
    the late 1800s need to be addressed
   Journalists expose unsafe working conditions,
    corruption, and other problems
   Intellectuals question the role of large corporations
    as well as ways to make the government more
   Progressive Movement— aimed to return control of
    the government to the people, restore economic
    opportunity, and correct the injustices of American
Goals of the Progressive
    Although progressives didn’t always
    agree on problems and solutions, their
    efforts shared at least one of the
    following goals:
   Protecting social welfare
   Promoting moral improvement
   Creating economic reform
   Fostering efficiency
Origins of Progressivism
   Grange—regulation of commerce
   Populists—Omaha Platform which promoted
    secret ballot, shorter work day and week,
    income tax, increase in money supply,
    immigration control, and direct election of
   Suffragists—women’s right to vote, Seneca
    Falls Declaration
   Temperance movement—prohibition of alcohol
          Socialist Ideas Spark Reform
•    Some Americans began to embrace             • Henry George—”Progress and
     Socialism (socio-economic system              Poverty,” single-tax concept
     where property and the distribution of
     wealth are shared by the community)         • Edward Bellamy—”Looking
     in light of the panic—the Socialist Party     Backward,” tale of ideal socialist
     formed in 1901 and was led by Eugene          society
     Debs. The IWW was a major supporter
     of the American Socialist Party, but
     later split when they wanted to be
     more involved politically—the IWW           • Both George, Bellamy, and
     favored the working man being in              Eugene Deb’s radical socialist
     charge of gov’t and business                  ideas (although mostly feared)
                                                   helped spark reform by making the
                                                   public aware of problems
    Importance of these socialist ideas that
           emerged is that it brought the
      problems of the economy and society
         to the attention of the public and
       helped win over support for change,
       just not necessarily the change that
             socialists were looking for.
Key Figure: Eugene Debs
   American Union Leader, founded
    industrial unions (jailed during the
    Pullman Coach Strike)
   Founded the IWW (Wobblies)
   Founded and led the American Socialist
    Party, ran for President 5 times (once
    from jail)
    Protecting Social Welfare
   Aimed to soften harsh conditions of
   Social Gospel and Settlement House
   Organizations like the YMCA and Salvation
    Army opened libraries, sponsored classes,
    built recreational areas, fed the poor and
    instructed the poor in middle class values
   Improvements in working conditions
    (especially women and children)—Florence
    Kelley helped inspect factories and get the
    first laws banning child labor passed
Promoting Moral Improvement
             Felt morality held the key to improving
              the lives of the poor
             Prohibition was main reform—
              prohibitionist groups wanted to ban
              alcohol stating that it undermined
              American morals and was the cause of
              all problems
             Women’s Christian Temperance Union
              spearheaded the movement and went
              beyond prohibition—opened
              kindergartens for immigrants, visited
              inmates in prison, and worked for
    Creating Economic Reform
   Economic Panic of 1893 promoted reform
   Aimed to fix the uneven balance among big
    business, government and the public under the
    free-market system of capitalism
Creating Economic Reform
   Big Business often received favorable
    treatment from the gov’t and politicians
    and used economic power to limit
   Journalists called “Muckrakers” began
    writing about and exposing the corrupt
    and unfair practices of big business
    Muckrakers            journalists who expose graft,
    corruption, and other problems in society.

   Ida Tarbell—exposed Rockefeller be exposing
    his cutthroat methods in the History of Standard
   Jacob Riis: “How the Other Half Lives” exposes
    conditions of urban poor
   Upton Sinclair: “The Jungle” which exposed the
    sickening conditions of the meatpacking industry
   Lincoln Steffins: worked with Tarbell and other
    muckrakers by trying to make Americans feel
    “shamed” and outraged about the corruption in
    American politics and society
Fostering Efficiency
   Use of experts and science to make society
    and the workplace more efficient or well-
   Used data to support reform efforts
   Break down manufacturing tasks into simpler
   Incorporated scientific management studies to
    see how quickly tasks can be preformed
   Development of the assembly line by Henry
Cleaning Up Local Government
   Cities faced the most obvious problems
   Political Machines had taken over—corruption,
    bribery, favors, and kickbacks were common in
    city gov’t
   2 Natural disasters help play a role in
    instituting change:
    •   Galveston, TX: hurricane and tidal wave almost
        demolish Galveston, politicians on the city council
        failed to achieve relief or adequately rebuild
    •   Dayton, OH: flood led to the adoption of council-
        manager gov’t to deal with the disaster
    Cleaning Up Local Government
   Commission gov’t: experts in charge of different
    departments, by 1917 500 cities had adopted this
   Council-Manager gov’t: the public elects a city
    council which is the law and policy making body,
    an elected mayor will preside over ceremonial
    duties and act as chairman, the council will also
    hire a manager who will supervise operations and
    implement policies. By 1925, managers were
    running nearly 250 cities.
    Reform Mayors
   Some mayors instituted reform without
    changing gov’t structure
    • Fairer Taxes
    • Lower fares for public transportation
    • Relief for unemployed
    • Dismissing corrupt officials and greedy owners of
    •   Converted utilities to being publicly owned
    •   Encouraged citizens to be more active in gov’t
    Reform Governors
   Passed laws to regulate
    railroads, mines, mills,
    telephone companies,
    and other large
   Robert LaFollette
    “Fighting Bob”:
    (Wisconsin) led the
    way—he helped institute
    railroad reform, regulated
    tax rates, he also pushed
    for various voting reforms
Voting Reforms
   Direct Primaries: allow voters to choose people for public
   Initiatives: a bill organized by people rather than
    lawmakers and put on ballot
   Referendums: voters are able to reject or accept an
   Recall: allowed voters to remove officials from elected
    positions by forcing them to face another election
   Direct Election of Senators—before the 17th amendment
    senators were elected by state legislatures, the issue of
    direct election was pushed by the Populist party, and is
    eventually adopted due to the success of direct primary,
    17th Amendment passes in 1913
    Reform in the Workplace
          Child Labor           Work Hours and Conditions
   Children are more prone      Set maximum hours
    to accidents and fatigue     Muller v. Oregon upheld
   National Child Labor          a 10 hour workday for
    Committee researched          women
    and advertised the harsh     Bunting v. Oregon
    conditions children faced     upheld a 10 hour
   Successes in nearly           workday for men
    every state passing          Worker’s
    legislation to ban child      compensation—benefits
    labor                         to aid families when a
                                  worker is hurt or killed on
                                  the job
Consumer Reforms
   Insurance Regulation
   Fairer Taxes
   Zoning Laws (part of urban planning)
   Building Codes = safety
   Food and Drug Administration = safety
   Income Tax established under 16th amendment
   Regulation of trusts and big business
   Utilities become publicly owned
Women and the Progressive Era
   Poorer women had to work: farming to help
    support family, work in industry and
    manufacturing, work in offices, stores, and
    schools, and some with no formal education
    did domestic jobs (cooks, laundresses, maids,
   Dangerous conditions, low wages, and long
    hours push women to work for reform
   Example: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
  Women Lead Reforms
     Women become more educated—applied skills
      to reforms
     Uneducated women also started efforts to
      reform workplace health and safety
     Women couldn’t vote so they strived to
      improved conditions at work and home—
      “Social Housekeeping”
     Workplace, housing, education, food and drug
             Suffrage Issue

-one of the Progressive reforms fueled by determined
-increased activism
-bold new strategies create enthusiasm
-rebirth of national movement under: Carrie Chapman Catt

-some women moved to more militant efforts
-women’s support in WW I eventually guaranteed success
Women’s Rights
   National American Women Suffrage
   Key People: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B.
    Anthony, Lucy Stone, Carrie Chapman Catt
   Faced constant opposition—liquor industry,
    textile industries, and many men in general
    feared their reforms and the changing role of
    Strategy for Suffrage and the
    19th Amendment
   1.convince state       Modest success, improvements in
    to give right to        conditions of workers, safer food
    vote                    and drug products, supported by
   2. court cases to       Roosevelt
    test the 14th          Efforts and work during
    Amendment               Progressive Era, in addition to
   3. national             their service in World War I
    constitutional          eventually led to the 19th
    amendment               amendment being passed in
                            1920—granting women the right
                            to vote!
     Essential Questions
1.   What conditions led to progressivism?
2.   How did the political, economic, and social
     conditions of the Gilded Age lead to the Progressive
3.   What events led to women’s suffrage and the 19th
4.   Which groups of Americans made economic and
     political gains during the Progressive Era?
5.   What tactics were most effective in bringing about
     the social, economic, and political reforms of the
     Progressive Era?
Review Questions
1.   Which group in society benefited the
     LEAST from the reforms of the
     Progressive Era?
a.   Immigrants
b.   African Americans
c.   Women
d.   children
2. How did the muckrakers serve
a. By informing people about abuses so
    they could protest
b. By enacting legislation to prevent
    political corruption
c. By cleaning up unhealthy meat
    processing plants
d. By filing and prosecuting antitrust laws
3. What was the MAIN reason behind calls for
   child labor laws?
a. Poor families needed their children’s wages

b. Child labor lowered the wages of all
c. Child labor was harmful to children’s
d. Businesses needed children to perform
   certain unskilled jobs
4. What was the MAIN goal of the
   women’s rights movement during the
   Progressive Era?
a. Higher education for women

b. Women suffrage

c. More jobs in industry

d. Jobs outside of factories
5. Origins of the Progressive Movement
    include all of the following EXCEPT
a. Journalists

b. The Grange

c. Suffragists

d. Political machines
6. Allows voters to remove officials from
    elected positions by forcing them to
    face another election
a. Initiative

b. Referendum

c. Direct primary

d. Recall

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