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					399 The Christian Faith and Public Life (3).     international order. The second half of the
F This capstone course examines the relation-
 .                                               course permits students to engage in a major
ship between the Christian faith and public      research project of their choosing that focuses
life. The first half of the course reviews and    on the relationship between their Christian
addresses what our public responsibilities are   faith and some particular aspect of public life.
as Christians generally, and Reformed Chris-     Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing; Bibli-
tians more specifically, and how such respon-     cal Foundations I or Theological Foundations
sibilities may relate to life in our contempo-   I, Developing a Christian Mind, and Philo-
rary pluralistic, democratic context, and to     sophical Foundations.
the state within the context of the broader

Professors C. Beversluis, M. Bolt, J. Brink, **M. Gunnoe, P Moes, A. Shoemaker,
     S. Stehouwer (chair), D. Tellinghuisen, G. Weaver
Associate Professors L. De Haan
Assistant Professor S. da Silva, *J. Yonker
Instructor B. Riek
Adjuncts J. DeBoe, C. Kok, L. Zwart
   The department offers a varied set of courses dealing with important facets of individual

human functioning. The major and minor programs in psychology are designed to allow
students flexibility to select courses, which fit their present interests as well as their future
expectations. Students majoring in psychology often enter human service careers or they
pursue graduate study in psychology and related fields. A student handbook for majors
can be obtained from the department office.

    Students planning a major or minor in psychology are advised to take Psychology 151
as their first course in psychology. Psychology 151, 255, and 399 satisfy requirements for
the general college core as well as for major or minor programs of study in psychology.
PSYCHOLOGY MAJOR                                 390 or any interim be counted as a 300-level
Psychology 151                                   elective.
Psychology 255                                   Students may include either Psychology 201
Psychology 256                                   or 204/205, but not both, as part of their ma-
Three Psychology electives (may include          jor.
one interim)
Two 300-level Psychology courses             Psychology 204 is offered as a standard de-
One 330-level Psychology lab course          velopmental course some semesters and Psy-
Psychology 399                               chology 205 is offered as a cross-cultural en-
                                             gagement course (CCE) other semesters. To
Students must complete a minimum of 10 psy- determine which course best suits your needs,
chology courses and a minimum of 32 semester please pick up a Psychology 204/205 compari-
hours of psychology course credit.           son sheet from the psychology office.
Students must have a minimum grade point Students should ordinarily take Psychol-
average of 2.00 in psychology courses to de- ogy 255 during their sophomore year and
clare a psychology major.                    Psychology 256 in the semester following
                                             completion of Psychology 255. Students may
Not more than one interim may be included not take Psychology 255 and 256 simultane-
in the ten-course major nor may Psychology ously.

                                                   POLITICAL SCIENCE, PSYCHOLOGY 237
             When possible, students are encouraged to          Students are encouraged to take Psychology
             postpone taking 330-level courses until after      255 to fulfill the core requirement in math-
             the completion of Psychology 256. Psycholo-        ematics if their program allows.
             gy 399 is intended to be one of the last cours-
             es in a psychology major or minor program.         HONORS
             Students intending to do doctoral work in          Students wishing to graduate with honors
             psychology are strongly encouraged to take         in Psychology must maintain a minimum
             Psychology 356 during their junior year and        GPA of 3.3 (3.5 beginning with the Class of
             to include more than one 330-level course          2007) and must complete at least six hon-
             in their program of study. These courses are       ors courses (18 semester hours minimum).
             less important for masters and/or counseling       Three of these courses must be in psychology
             programs.                                          and three must be from outside of the major.
                                                                One of the psychology honors courses must
             A model “four-year plan” and a “two year           involve an honors research paper in Psychol-
             plan” (for those who declare their major lat-      ogy 356 or a comparable honors project in
             er in their college career) are available in the   Psychology 390. Students must also achieve
             Psychology Department office.                       a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.5 in their
             All majors must complete the Psychology            psychology major.
             Department Senior Assessment during their
             last semester on campus. Information on the INTERNSHIPS
             Senior Assessment is available from the Psy- Psychology majors, who have demonstrated
             chology Department office.                     ability in their psychology courses, are en-
                                                           couraged to apply for an internship placement
             PSYCHOLOGY MINOR                              during their junior or senior year. Psychology

             Psychology 151                                380 provides a four-semester hour credit in-
             At least one from Psychology 255, 330, ternship experience in one of a variety of areas
                 331, 332, 333, 334, or 335.               of professional psychological practice and/or
             Four Psychology electives (may include research (see course description). These ex-
                 one interim)                              periences can provide important background
                                                           for bachelor’s degree level employment or
             Students must complete a minimum of 6 psy- graduate education in psychology. Students
             chology courses and a minimum of 18 semes- may also apply for an eight-week summer
             ter hours of psychology course credit         internship experience in neuropsychology at
                                                           Rush Presbyterian St. Luke’s Medical Center
             Students may include either Psychology 201 in Chicago. Although students may earn more
             or 204, but not both, as part of their minor. than 4 semester hours of internship credits,
                                                           only 4 semester hours can be applied toward
             SECONDARY EDUCATION                           the major. Interested students should contact
             PSYCHOLOGY MINOR                                              .
                                                           G. Weaver or P Moes.
             Psychology 151
             Psychology 201                                COURSES
             Psychology 212                                151 Introductory Psychology: Perspectives
             Psychology 310                                on the Self (3). F and S. This course provides
             At least one from Psychology 255, 330, an introduction to psychology’s study of the
                 331, 332, 333, 334, or 335.               biological, affective, cognitive, and social di-
             Psychology 399                                mensions of human identity and behavior. It
             One psychology elective (may be an in- includes the consideration of such issues as
                 terim)                                    perception and consciousness, learning and
                                                           memory, motivation and emotion, personal-
             Students must complete a minimum of 7 psy-
                                                           ity development and social interaction, stress
             chology courses and a minimum of 20 semester
                                                           and adjustment. Students are introduced to
             hours of psychology course credit.
                                                           the methods of psychological research and to
                                                           the role of psychology in scientific endeavor

             238 PSYCHOLOGY
and human application. Through assigned           attempts to establish identity and intimacy.
reading and writing as well as classroom dis-     Prerequisite: Psychology 151 or Education
cussion, students learn to critically weigh al-   302, or permission of the instructor. Not of-
ternative claims regarding human behavior         fered 2007-2008.
and to appreciate a holistic approach to the
                                                  211 Personality and Adjustment (3). * A
study of persons.
                                                  study of theory and research pertinent to
201 Developmental Psychology: Lifespan            personality dynamics and adjustment. Cov-
(3). * F and S. An overview of human psycho-      erage typically includes concepts of mental
logical development from birth to death. The      health, the nature of stress, the self concept,
primary objective is to understand the behav-     and principles of emotional and interper-
ior characteristic of each stage of development   sonal competence. Special emphasis is given
and the factors which influence that behavior.     to influential world views, Christian assess-
Not open to students who have taken or plan       ments, and personal applications. Prerequi-
to take Psychology 204. Prerequisite: Psychol-    site: Psychology 151 or permission of the in-
ogy 151 or Education 302, or permission of        structor. Not offered 2007-2008.
the instructor.                                  212 Psychopathology (3). * F and S. A study
204 Developmental Psychology: Child (3). of the wide range of abnormal behaviors.
*An overview of normal development from Emphasis is on causes, dynamics, and clas-
conception through adolescence. Organization sification, with some attention to treatment
is chronological (infant, toddler, etc) and con- approaches. Prerequisite: Psychology 151 or
ceptual (cognitive development, social-per- permission of the instructor.
sonality development, etc.) Students may en- 213 Mental Health and the Classroom (3).
gage in service learning at Headstart preschool * S. An introduction to the developmental
in lieu of a term paper, but cannot fulfill CCE needs and common developmental stressors

core in this non-CCE course. Not open to stu- of school age children. Emphasis is on the
dents who have taken or plan to take Psychol- methods of communication and classroom
ogy 201 or Psychology 205. Prerequisite: Psy- management, which allow the teacher to
chology 151 or Education 302 or permission promote healthy adjustment. Prerequisite:
of the instructor. Not offered 2007-2008.        Psychology 151 or Education 302, or per-
205-CCE Developmental Psychology (3). mission of the instructor.
*F An overview of normal development 216 Psychology of the Exceptional Child
from conception through adolescence with (3). * A basic overview of children who dif-
an emphasis on cross-cultural differences in fer physically, mentally, or behaviorally from
children’s socialization. Particular emphasis more typical children. Emphasis on causal
is placed on articulations of the Christian factors, characteristics, and diagnosis. Pre-
faith in U.S. black and Hispanic subcultures. requisite: Psychology 151 or Education 302,
Organization parallels the non-CCE version or permission of the instructor. Not offered
of the course, but readings and writing focus 2007-2008.
on cross-cultural understanding. Cross-cul-
tural engagement occurs through Headstart 220 Psychological Perspectives on Marriage
preschool and in worship services. Not open and the Family (3). *F This course focuses
to students who have taken or plan to take       on psychological theory, research, and per-
Psychology 201 or Psychology 204. Prereq- spectives on family life. The course examines
uisite: Psychology 151 or Education 302, or historical and current conceptualizations of
                                                 the family as well as cross-cultural and al-
permission of the instructor.
                                                 ternative conceptualizations. Psychological
207 Developmental Psychology: Adoles- perspectives on marriage preparation, mar-
cent (3). *A study of human development riage, divorce, infertility, child rearing, and
in the second decade of life. Topics include single parenthood, as well as developmen-
the types of transitions experienced (so- tal changes in the family are addressed. The
cial, cognitive, and physical); the contexts course also focuses on family dysfunction,
of adolescence (family, peer-group, school, treatment, and health. Prerequisite: Psychol-
and work); and adaptive vs. maladaptive ogy 151 or permission of the instructor.

                                                                            PSYCHOLOGY 239
             222 Human Sexuality and Gender (3). *F       .   current conceptualizations of interviewing
             This course explores the ways that sexuality     techniques and processes. Theory, issues,
             and gender have been studied as variables        and techniques regarding the interview are
             in psychological research and theory. Spe-       applied to both clinical uses and organiza-
             cial attention will be given to recent theo-     tional settings. Prerequisite: Psychology 212
             ries of physiological and cultural influences     or permission of the instructor.
             on men’s and women’s development. Biblical
                                                              301 Organizational Psychology (3). *A con-
             and popular perspectives on sexuality and
             gender issues will be examined, and promis-      sideration of psychological concepts and
             es and problems in gender relations will also    research related to human action in work
             be studied. Prerequisite: Psychology 151 or      situations, particularly in organizations.
             permission of the instructor.                    The course includes discussions of the psy-
                                                              chological processes of individuals involved
             255 Statistics and Research Design. (4) * F      in work and management (e.g., perceptual
             and S. This course is an introduction to sta-    discrimination in varying tasks, strategies
             tistics and computer application in psychol-     in problem solving, motivation for power
             ogy. Concepts and procedures taught include      and achievement, and effects of compensa-
             levels of measurement, measures of central       tion on learning), and the social psychology
             tendency, correlation techniques, probability    of the work organization (communication
             theory, and hypothesis tests. Lab work in-       patterns, decision-making processes, per-
             cludes the use of SPSS software. This course     formance evaluation, conflict, and stress).
             is intended to meet the core Mathematics         The relationship of psychological theory and
             requirement for Psychology majors and mi-        practice are analyzed through case studies
             nors. Psychology students typically take this    of organizational experiences. Also listed as
             course in their sophomore year. Prerequi-        Business 351. Prerequisite: Business 160 and
             sites: An introductory course in one of the

                                                              Psychology 151 or permission of the instruc-
             social sciences (e.g., Psychology 151) and       tor. Not offered 2007-2008.
             meeting the Calvin admission requirement
             in Mathematics.                                 306 History and Systems of Psychology (3).
                                                             * This course explores the historical roots of
             256 Fundamentals of Research and Prac- some of the current directions and tensions
             tice (3). * F and S. This course will provide in the field of psychology. Questions about
             hands-on, participatory research activities human nature and the nature of mind and
             that build on the basic theories and appli- knowledge are addressed though the study of
             cations of Psychology 255. Students will be ancient, medieval and modern psychological
             conducting projects that allow the learning theory. Prerequisites: two courses in psychol-
             of fundamental practice skills in community ogy or permission of the instructor. Not of-
             or social science research, but also provide fered 2007-2008.
             additional practice and theory building in
             statistics and basic research methods. Spe- 310 Social Psychology (3). * F and S. A
             cific concepts will include basic perspectives study of how people think about, influence,
             in social science research, the fundamentals and relate to one another. Attention is giv-
             of measurement in social sciences, sampling en to such topics as persuasion and attitude
             techniques, survey design, application of sta- change, conformity and obedience, group
             tistical methods to real world situations, use conflict and decision-making, stereotypes
             of SPSS, ethical issues in research, and the and illusions of social thought, attraction
             critical evaluation of research methods and and prejudice, and altruism and aggression.
             results. Prerequisites: An introductory course Prerequisite: Psychology 151 or permission
             in one of the social sciences (e.g., Psychology of the instructor.
             151) and Psychology 255.
                                                             311 Theories of Personality (3). * F and S.
             280 The Interview: Theory and Practice in A study of the enduring human personal-
             Clinical and Organizational Settings (2). ity characteristics that often distinguish one
             * S. This course focuses on psychological person from another. Extensive consider-
             theory, research, and practice in regard to ation is given to biological, psychodynamic,
             the interview. Emphasis is on historical and social, cognitive, and trait-descriptive theo-

             240 PSYCHOLOGY
ries of personality structure and function-       ders and work activity, gender and culture
ing. The course also introduces students to       differences in achievement and power mo-
a variety of personality scales and invento-      tives, decisional processes in learned opti-
ries designed to identify important individ-      mism, and applications of theory to learn-
ual differences in personality. Prerequisites:    ing in inner city classrooms and to industrial
Psychology 151 and 212 or permission of the       productivity. The study of motivation is pre-
instructor.                                       sented as a model for understanding inter-
                                                  relationships among different approaches to
312 Principles of Psychological Measure-
ment (3). * An introduction to the theoreti-      psychological theory and research. Two-hour
cal and practical issues of psychological test-   laboratory each week. Prerequisite: Psychol-
ing. Topics include: Reliability and validity     ogy 151 or permission of the instructor. Rec-
of tests, construction of psychological and       ommended: Jr./Sr. status.
educational measures, the use and misuse of     331 Psychology of Sensation and Perception
standardized tests, strengths and weaknesses    (4). * A detailed examination of the theories
of commonly used tests, and the social, edu-    and research pertaining to various sensory
cational, and legal issues involved in testing  and perceptual processes in human beings.
and measurement. Prerequisite: Psychology       Methodological, physiological, and pretheo-
255 or permission of the instructor. Not of-    retical issues are addressed. Two-hour labora-
fered 2007-2008.                                tory each week. Prerequisite: Psychology 151
314 Theories of Counseling and Psychother- or permission of the instructor. Recommend-
apy (3). * F An introduction to counseling and ed: Jr./Sr. status. Not offered 2007-2008.
psychotherapeutic methods for dealing with 332 Psychology of Learning Processes (4). *
emotional disorders. The course includes an A consideration of how research findings and
overview of major approaches to counseling theory relate to learning processes. Included

and psychotherapy with an analysis of the the- are such issues as the role of reinforcement
oretical aspects and techniques employed. An and punishment, methods of enhancing or
attempt is also made to integrate these various suppressing performance, biological limits on
approaches and to view them from a Christian learning, stimulus generalization, and discrim-
perspective. Prerequisites: Psychology 212 ination learning. The importance of learning
and 311 or permission of the instructor.        theory for psychology in general is stressed.
322 Perspectives of Psychology: Youth Faith Two-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisite:
Development and Spiritual Formation (3). Psychology 151 or permission of the instruc-
*F This course examines how faith is formed tor. Recommended: Jr./Sr. status. Not offered
and developed, with particular emphasis 2007-2008.
on the adolescent passage between child- 333 Brain and Behavior (4). * F This course
hood and adulthood, in cultural context. It explores the rapidly expanding knowledge of
includes the history an current practices of brain function that is having a major impact
spiritual formation with particular emphasis on the way we understand everyday behavior,
on the Protestant tradition, current theories personality, and human nature. Specific top-
of moral and faith development, and stu- ics include the relationship of brain function
dents’ self-reflection on their own formative to vision, sleep, sexuality, memory, language,
experiences and insights. Course content to emotions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia,
be explored, evaluated, and applied from a and homosexuality. The course includes an
Reformed biblical perspective.                  introduction to the work of clinical neuropsy-
330 Psychology of Motivation (4). * S. An         chologists and cognitive neuroscientists by
investigation of physiological, learning the-     way of clinical case studies. Class discussions
ory, and social-cognitive explanations of mo-     and readings also focus on our understanding
tivation. Topics include: Brain mechanisms        of persons in light of this research. Laboratory
influencing hunger, sexual desire, attention,      and off-campus experiences introduce basic
punishment and reward, drug effects on per-       anatomy and physiology of the brain, elec-
sonality, emotional processes in addiction,       trophysiological measures (EEG), behavioral
drive and incentive effects in clinical disor-    measures of brain function, and neuropsycho-

                                                                            PSYCHOLOGY 241
             logical testing. Prerequisites: Psychology 151 practice or research (e.g., school psychol-
             and Biology core or permission of the instruc- ogy, industrial-organizational psychology, or
             tor. Recommended: Jr./Sr. status.                counseling-rehabilitation psychology). Stu-
                                                              dents work eight hours per week under the
             334 Cognitive Psychology (4). * F A survey
                                                              direction of an on-site supervisor and partici-
             of research and theory in the study of human
                                                              pate in regular seminar meetings conducted
             cognition. The course covers the acquisition,
                                                              by the college instructor. These experiences
             representation, and use of knowledge with
                                                              will introduce students to service in profes-
             emphasis on the processes of memory, lan-
                                                              sional psychology, as it is related to issues of
             guage, and decision-making. Two-hour labo-
                                                              psychological theory, research, client charac-
             ratory each week. Prerequisite: Psychology
                                                              teristics and needs, professional standards,
             151 or permission of the instructor. Recom-
                                                              and Christian discipleship. Each student will
             mended: Jr./Sr. status.
                                                              author a project that communicates learning
             335 Health Psychology (4). * S This course throughout the internship. Prerequisites: Ju-
             considers the psychosocial and physiological nior or senior psychology major, completion
             processes that underlie wellness. The role of of course sequences related to the internship
             stress in cardiovascular disease, cancer, drug specialization (information available from
             addiction, sleep disorders and eating disorders the Psychology Department), and depart-
             is considered. The centrality of immune and mental approval of student application.
             cardiovascular system functioning in health
                                                              390 Independent Study. F I, and S. Prerequi-
             and illness is emphasized. Attention is given
                                                              site: Permission of the department chair.
             to the effectiveness of a wide variety of cop-
             ing strategies including pain control, physical 399 Psychology and Religion (3). * F and
             exercise, and religious practice. Across topics, S. This capstone course examines relation-
             the course will emphasize current treatment ships between psychology and religion. It

             procedures and research issues in the field. includes discussions of how several major
             Two hour laboratory each week. Prerequisite: psychologists have attempted to explain re-
             Psychology 151 or permission of the instruc- ligious faith and practice. The course exam-
             tor. Recommended: Jr./Sr. status.                ines frameworks that have been proposed for
                                                              relating Christian beliefs about persons and
             356 Experimental Psychology (4). *S. This
                                                              psychological explanations. Consideration is
             course explores experimental designs and
                                                              given to how these frameworks have influ-
             the statistical techniques related to them.
                                                              enced recent investigations of areas related to
             Students will have hands-on experience with
                                                              our experiences of Christian faith (e.g., per-
             experimental control techniques, factorial
                                                              ception, moral development, and emotion).
             designs and interaction effects, and the use
                                                              Prerequisites: Psychology 151 and three ad-
             of the analysis of variance. In addition, stu-
                                                              ditional psychology courses or permission of
             dents will design their own experimental re-
                                                              the instructor. (See description of Templeton
             search, implement their studies and analyze
                                                              Award linked to the course under “Financial
             the resulting data. This course is a prepara-
                                                              Information, Other Student Awards” heading
             tion for graduate-level research. Prerequi-
                                                              of the catalog).
             sites: Psychology 255 and 256. .
             380 Internship in Psychology (4). * F and              Graduate Courses
             S. Students are placed in a field experience 590 Independent Study. F I, and S.
             related to a specialized area of psychological

             242 PSYCHOLOGY

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