Potato Research 73-00

Document Sample
Potato Research 73-00 Powered By Docstoc
					SPUDS french fries
Hashbrowns Tater Tots New Red Boiled
mashed Bakers                                                                                 Chips
curly fries                   The Benefits of
mashed BAKERS french fries SPUDS
                     Public Investments in Northwest

french fries CHIPS
         Potato Breeding Research
                  A. A. Araji, Professor Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology
                    S. L. Love, Professor Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences
SPUDS curly fries Hashbrowns Tater Tots

New Red Mashed
Hashbrowns Tater Tots New Red Boiled
curly fries Bakers
CHIPS mashed boiled
hashbrowns SPUDS
SPUDS curly fries Hashbrowns Tater Tots
Cooperative Extension System • Agricultural Experiment Station                                      BUL 822
                                                                       Page           LIST OF TABLES
Introduction ............................................................ 3           Table                                                                 Page
Major Potato Varieties Planted                                                        1. Percent of major potato varieties planted
   in the Pacific Northwest ...................................... 4                     in the Pacific Northwest, 1998 ............................. 4
Potato Breeding Research Program                                                      2. Potato acreage, production, prices, and
   for the Pacific Northwest ......................................4                     planting by market channel for Idaho, Oregon,
                                                                                         and Washington, average, 1995-98 ..................... 4
   Gemchip ...............................................................5
                                                                                      3. Benefit to potato producers growing potatoes
   Frontier Russet .....................................................5
                                                                                         for processing ...................................................... 8
   Chipeta .................................................................5
                                                                                      4. Benefit to potato producers growing potatoes
   Ranger Russet ......................................................5                 for the fresh market ............................................. 8
   Umatilla Russet .................................................... 6             5. Benefit to potato growers by adopting new
   Russet Legend ...................................................... 6                disease resistant varieties ..................................... 9
   Gem Russet.......................................................... 6             6. Benefit to the potato processing industry
   NDO1496-1 ........................................................ 6                  in the Pacific Northwest from the
   IdaRose ................................................................ 7            development and adoption of varieties
                                                                                         with high processing yields ................................ 10
   Bannock Russet ................................................... 7
                                                                                      7. Benefit to Pacific Northwest growers of chip
The Benefits of Public Investment                                                        potatoes from the development and adoption
  in Potato Breeding Research ................................ 7                         of Chipeta .......................................................... 10
  The Model ........................................................... 7             8. Total benefit to the Pacific Northwest potato
Results ..................................................................... 8          producers and processors from the
                                                                                         development, transfer, and adoption of the
  Benefits ................................................................ 8
                                                                                         new potato varieties ........................................... 10
     Development of High Yielding Processed
                                                                                      9. Total funding for Northwest potato breeding
     Potato Varieties ............................................ 8
                                                                                         research, 1984-98 .............................................. 11
     Development of High Quality Potato
     Varieties for the Fresh Market ...................... 8
                                                                                      LIST OF FIGURES
     Development of Disease Resistant                                                 Figure                                                       Page
     Potato Varieties ............................................ 9                  1. Gemchip and Frontier Russet .............................. 5
     Development of New Potato Varieties                                              2. Chipeta and Ranger Russet .................................. 5
     with High Processing Yields ......................... 9
                                                                                      3. Umatilla Russet and Russet Legend...................... 6
     Development of High Quality and High
                                                                                      4. Gem Russet and NDO1496-1 .............................. 6
     Yielding Chip Potato Varieties ................... 10
                                                                                      5. IdaRose and Bannock .......................................... 7
  Total Benefits ..................................................... 10
  Costs ................................................................. 11
  Return to Investment ......................................... 11
Summary ............................................................... 12
References .............................................................. 12

                          Idaho Agricultural Experimant Station
                                                                                      A. A. Araji is a professor in the UI Department of Agricultural
                             Dr. Richard C. Heimsch, Director                         Economics and Rural Sociology, Moscow, and Stephen L.
                             To enrich education through diversity                    Love is superintendent and potato research scientist at UI’s
                              the University of Idaho is an equal
                            opportunity/affirmative action employer                   Aberdeen Research and Extension Center.
                                  and educational institution.
300 6-01                                                               $2.00

           The Benefits of Public Investments in Northwest
                      Potato Breeding Research
                                                A. A. Araji and S. L. Love

Introduction                                for 6.5 percent of the fall potato pro-   lion. An estimated 82 percent of
    Agricultural research in the United     duction and 5.9 percent of total po-      Washington potatoes are produced
States has evolved into a decentral-        tato production in the United States      for processing. Total annual pota-
ized federal/state system. The state        for a total farm value of $142,595,250.   toes processed in Washington state
agricultural experimental stations          Washington potato production rep-         is estimated at 72,209,200 cwt at an
have responded with considerable            resented 21.1 percent of the fall po-     estimated processed value of $902.6
flexibility to changing circumstances       tato production and 19.1 percent of       million. This represents 26.7 per-
and have developed local, appropri-         total U.S. potato production for a        cent of the total potatoes processed
ate technologies. The contribution of       total farm value of $427,091,000.         annually in the United States (Na-
research to productivity growth in          The Pacific Northwest total potato        tional Potato Council 2000).
agriculture is well documented. The         farm value is $1.206 billion or 46            In 1998, the United States pro-
economic benefits of investment in          percent of the total U.S. potato farm     duced an estimated 128,775,360 cwt
agricultural research have been evalu-      value (National Potato Council 2000).     of potatoes for the fresh market. The
ated for all major agricultural com-            In 1998, an estimated 271,348,080     Pacific Northwest sub-region ac-
modities in the United States (Araji        hundredweight (cwt) of potatoes were      counted for 44.2 percent of the fresh
1980, 1989, 1990, 1998). The                processed in the United States, rep-      potato market. Idaho potato produc-
spillover effect and return to invest-      resenting 59 percent of the total pro-    tion for the fresh market represented
ment in potato research was analyzed        duction at an estimated processed         31.6 percent of the total U.S. pro-
for six potato-producing sub-regions        potato value of $3.4 billion. The Pa-     duction of potatoes for the fresh mar-
in the United States (Araji et al. 1995).   cific Northwest sub-region processed      ket. Oregon and Washington ac-
However, the benefits of specific re-       an estimated 186,435,410 cwt of po-       counted for 3.1 percent and 9.5 per-
search programs—breeding, for ex-           tatoes, 68.7 percent of the total U.S.    cent, respectively (National Potato
ample—have not been evaluated. This         processed potatoes at an estimated        Council 2000).
study evaluates the benefits of potato      value of $2.33 billion. Idaho pro-            In 1998, the United States pro-
breeding research to potato produc-         cessed 58.7 percent of its potato pro-    duced an estimated 59,788,560 cwt
ers and processors in Idaho, Oregon,        duction for a total of 79,497,410 cwt.    of seed potatoes. This represented 13
and Washington.                             This represented 29.2 percent of the      percent of the total U.S. potato pro-
    Potatoes are an important U.S. ag-      U.S. processed potatoes at a market       duction. The Pacific Northwest sub-
ricultural commodity with an annual         value of $994 million. Idaho pro-         region accounted for 36.1 percent of
farm value of more than $2.62 billion       cessed an estimated 13 million cwt of     the total U.S. seed potato produc-
and a processed value of about $3.4         potatoes produced in other neigh-         tion. Idaho produced 29.5 percent of
billion. The Pacific Northwest states       boring states. Total potatoes pro-        the total U.S. seed potato produc-
of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington            cessed in Idaho is estimated at           tion. Oregon and Washington ac-
are the largest sub-region in the United    92,497,410 cwt, accounting for 34         counted for 2.2 percent and 4.4 per-
States in the production and process-       percent of the total U.S. processed       cent, respectively. Less than 1 per-
ing of potatoes. In 1998, the Pacific       potatoes at a market value of $1.156      cent of the potato acreage in this sub-
Northwest produced 60 percent of            billion (National Potato Council          region is in chip potatoes (National
the fall potatoes in the United States      2000).                                    Potato Council 2000).
and accounted for 54.4 percent of all           An estimated 80 percent of potato         In general, the Pacific Northwest
potato production. Idaho accounted          production in Oregon is produced          sub-region is the most important area
for 32.4 percent of the fall potato         for processing. The total amount of       in the United States for the produc-
production and 29.4 percent of all          potatoes produced for processing is       tion of potatoes for processing, the
potato production in the United States      estimated at about 21,728,000 cwt.        fresh market, and seed potatoes. This
for a total farm value of $636,521,000.     This represents 8 percent of the total    sub-region also processes the major
Oregon potato production accounted          U.S. processed potatoes at an esti-       segment of potatoes and accounts for
                                            mated market value of $271.6 mil-

about 69 percent of all processed po-    of Oregon potato acreage was Russet                To maintain and/or improve this sub-
tatoes in the nation. The future com-    Burbank, 24.8 percent was Russet                   region’s competitive position in the
petitive position of this area in the    Norkotah, 17.2 percent was Shepody,                production and processing of pota-
domestic and international markets       and 10.3 percent was Ranger Russet.                toes, new varieties that are higher
for fresh, processed, and seed pota-        Russet Burbank also dominated                   yielding, better quality, and a higher
toes will depend significantly upon      Washington potato acreage. In 1987,                processing yield need to be devel-
new technologies to enhance the pro-     about 87 percent of the potato acre-               oped.
ductivity and the quality of potatoes.   age was planted with Russet Burbank.
                                         The percentage of potato acreage                   Potato breeding research
Major potato varieties                   planted with Russet Burbank is rap-                program for the Pacific
planted in the Pacific                   idly declining. In 1998, about 58.1                Northwest
Northwest                                percent of the acreage was planted                    Because of the national importance
   The major potato varieties planted    with Russet Burbank, 8.9 percent                   of the Pacific Northwest in the pro-
in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington         with Shepody, 13.2 percent with Rus-               duction and processing of potatoes,
during the 1985-97 period is sum-        set Norkotah, and 11.4 percent with                the U.S. Department of Agriculture
marized in this section.                 Ranger Russet. The rapid adoption                  (USDA) supported the establishment
                                         of Ranger Russet has been at the                   of a potato breeding research pro-
   In Idaho, Russet Burbank is the
                                         expense of declining Russet Burbank                gram in 1984 located in Idaho to
major variety produced for the fresh
                                         acreage (Table 1).                                 serve the potato industry in the three
market and for processing (Table 1).
During the 1985-91 period, this vari-       Russet Burbank is still the domi-               Pacific Northwest states of Idaho,
ety accounted for more than 90 per-      nant potato variety in the Pacific                 Oregon, and Washington. The objec-
cent of the Idaho potato acreage. It     Northwest for both processing and                  tive of the program is to develop new
gradually declined to 77.9 percent of    the fresh market. This variety is sus-             potato varieties to replace or upgrade
the acreage in 1998. Shepody, a Ca-      ceptible to diseases, has a relatively             the present two dominant processing
nadian variety, was introduced in        low percentage of U.S. No. 1 tubers,               varieties, Russet Burbank and
1985 and reached a maximum of 10         has a short shelf life, lacks the smooth           Shepody; the two dominant fresh
percent of the Idaho acreage in 1995.    appearance desired by consumers,                   market varieties, Russet Burbank and
Shepody represented 5.6 percent of       and has low processing yield.                      Russet Norkotah; and the two major
the Idaho potato acreage in 1998.           Shepody, a variety used primarily               chip varieties, Gemchip and Norchip.
Russet Burbank and Shepody were          for processing, is inferior to Russet                 Table 2 shows the distribution of
the two dominant potato varieties in     Burbank in both yield and quality.                 potato acreage by market channel for
Idaho, representing about 83.5 per-
                                         Table 1.   Percent of major potato varieties planted in the Pacific Northwest, 1998.
cent of the potato acreage in 1998.
Russet Norkotah, a fresh market va-                                               Percent of major varieties
riety, accounted for 4.8 percent of                           Acres        Russet                 Russet        Ranger
                                         State               planted      Burbank Shepody        Norkotah       Russet           Other
1998 potato acreage. Ranger Russet,
a variety developed by the Northwest     Idaho               402,000         77.9        5.6         4.8          6.6             5.1
                                         Oregon               57,000         39.5       17.2        24.8         10.3             9.2
potato-breeding program and re-          Washington          153,000         58.1        8.9        13.2         11.4             8.4
leased in 1991, represented 6.6 per-     Pacific Northwest   612,000
cent of 1998 acreage.
                                         Source: National Potato Council, Potato Statistical Yearbook, Englewood, CO., 2000.
   Russet Burbank was the dominant
potato variety in Oregon through the
                                         Table 2.   Potato acreage, production, prices, and planting by market channel for Idaho, Oregon,
mid-1980s. It accounted for about                   and Washington, average, 1995-98.
75 percent of the potato acreage
                                                           Acres                                   Percent Percent       Percent Percent
through 1990. With the introduc-         State           harvested     Production        Price    processed fresh         seed    chip
tion of Shepody and Russet Norkotah
                                                          (1,000)      (1,000 cwt)      ($/cwt)
in the late 1980s, the percentage of
                                         Idaho              402         136,963           5.03       58          30       12.2          0.8
potato acreage planted to Russet         Oregon              57           27,355          5.38       80          15        4.2          0.8
                                         Washington         153           87,967          5.46       82          14        2.2          0.8
Burbank declined significantly. For
                                         Pacific Northwest 612          251,285
example, in 1998, only 39.5 percent
                                         Source: National Potato Council, Potato Statistical Yearbook, Englewood, CO., 2000.

Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.             Frontier Russet                           tage of producing U.S. No. 1 yields
About 12.2 percent of the potato             Released by the Tri-State Potato        that are 20 percent higher. It has
acreage in Idaho is in seed potato         Breeding Program in 1990, Frontier        similar storage and processing char-
production; 30 percent is in fresh         Russet (Fig. 1) was never widely          acteristics to Russet Burbank. Fron-
potato market production; 57 per-                                                    tier Russet has established itself in a
cent is processing potato production;                                                niche market for the production of
and 0.8 percent is in chip potato                                                    skin-on fried products.
production. About 2.2 percent of the
potato acreage in Washington is in                                                   Chipeta
seed potato production; 14 percent is                                                   Chipeta is a 1993 Colorado re-
in fresh potato market production;                                                   lease of a selection that originated
82 percent is in processing potato                                                   with the UI’s Aberdeen breeding pro-
production; and 0.8 percent is in                                                    gram (Fig. 2). Chipeta is currently
chip potato production. About 4 per-                                                 the most widely grown chipping va-
cent of the acreage in Oregon is in                                                  riety in the Northwest. Compared
seed potato production, 15 percent is                                                with Norchip, it produces 18 percent
in fresh potato market production,                                                   higher total yield and 32 percent
80 percent is processing potato pro-                                                 higher U.S. No. 1 yield. Like
duction, and 0.8 percent is in chip                                                  Gemchip, Chipeta has excellent stor-
potato production.                                                                   age characteristics and has the ability
   Since its establishment, the potato                                               to extend the marketing of potatoes
breeding research for the Northwest                                                  for an additional one to two months.
released the following potato              Fig. 1. Gemchip and Frontier Russet       Chipeta has tuber solids that are 3
varieties:                                                                           percent higher than those of Norchip
                                                                                     and, consequently, can produce a
Gemchip                                                                              greater yield of higher quality chips.
   Released by the Tri-State Potato                                                  Chipeta is resistant to most field dis-
Breeding Program in 1989, Gemchip                                                    eases, does not require soil fumiga-
quickly became the dominant chip                                                     tion (except for control of nema-
variety in Idaho and the Northwest                                                   todes), nor treatment for early blight,
(Fig. 1). Gemchip combines high yield                                                and uses about 20 percent less nitro-
with good chip quality and long-term                                                 gen than Norchip.
storability. It is a round, white potato
                                                                                     Ranger Russet
with thin skin. In comparison with
Norchip, the variety it replaced in the                                                 Released in 1991 by the Tri-State
Northwest, Gemchip produces 16                                                       Potato Breeding Program, Ranger
percent higher total yield and 31 per-                                               Russet has been widely adopted as a
cent higher U.S. No. 1 yield. On                                                     processing variety, both from field
average the tubers have 0.6 percent                                                  delivery and storage situations (Fig.
higher solids than Norchip and re-                                                   2). Ranger Russet produces 5 percent
turn a higher chip yield. Gemchip                                                    higher total yield and 29 percent
tubers maintain physical integrity and     Fig. 2. Chipeta and Ranger Russet         higher U.S. No. 1 yield than does
chip color for a longer period of stor-                                              Russet Burbank. It has about a 10
age than do Norchip tubers, allowing                                                 percent advantage in total and U.S.
                                           adopted but has been grown on small
growers to market for one to two                                                     No. 1 yield over Shepody. Ranger
                                           acreage in both the Northwest and
additional months into the spring.                                                   Russet does not store well for more
                                           Northeast. It produces tubers that
Gemchip is resistant to early die, does                                              than six months and has a fairly seri-
                                           have excellent appearance and are
not require soil fumigation to control                                               ous problem with susceptibility to
                                           generally free from both external and
this problem, and requires about 20                                                  blackspot bruise, but is almost com-
                                           internal defects. Frontier Russet typi-
percent less nitrogen than Norchip.                                                  pletely free of other external and in-
                                           cally produces a total yield that is
                                                                                     ternal defects. A combination of suit-
                                           about 10 percent less than that of
                                                                                     able tuber shape, freedom from de-
                                           Russet Burbank, but has the advan-

fects, and high solids gives Ranger                                                    the Russet Burbanks in the fresh mar-
Russet a high level of processing effi-                                                ket during the first two months of the
ciency, with about 70 percent fin-                                                     storage season. It is resistant to early
ished product derived from raw tu-                                                     die, will not require soil fumigation
bers. Russet Burbank typically re-                                                     for this problem, and will use 10 to
turns around 45 percent. Ranger Rus-                                                   20 percent less nitrogen than Russet
set also gives better processing effi-                                                 Burbank.
ciency than Shepody due to its 3                                                          In addition to the six varieties that
percent higher solids content. Ranger                                                  were released, the Northwest potato
Russet is resistant to early blight, net                                               breeding program recently released
necrosis caused by leafroll virus,                                                     these varieties:
(PVY), and early die. It does not
require soil fumigation (except to                                                     Gem Russet
control nematodes) nor control mea-                                                       This new variety was released in
sures for any of these diseases. It is                                                 1999. It has Russet Norkotah’s ap-
estimated that replacing Russet                                                        pearance and superior processing
Burbank and Shepody with Ranger            Fig. 4. Gem Russet and NDO1496-1            quality to Russet Burbank (Fig. 4).
Russet will eliminate up to two chemi-                                                 Gem Russet’s total yield potential is
cal applications at $15-$20 each to        Russet. Umatilla Russet is expected         similar to that of Russet Burbank, but
control green peach aphid and two          to have the same yield and process-         it produces about 21 percent higher
chemical applications at $20 each to       ing advantages over Russet Burbank          yield of U.S. No. 1’s. Gem Russet has
control early blight.                      as does Ranger Russet, with the added       about 3 percent higher solids and a
                                           advantage that it will store for a longer   larger tuber size, which should give it
                                           period of time—up to eight months.          better processing efficiency (almost
                                           Ranger Russet and Umatilla Russet           as good as Ranger Russet). Gem Rus-
                                           are expected to replace Russet              set has excellent storage characteris-
                                           Burbank and Shepody as processed            tics and should be marketable for 10-
                                           potatoes.                                   12 months of the year. It is resistant
                                                                                       to net necrosis caused by leafroll vi-
                                           Russet Legend                               rus and will usually not require treat-
                                              Released in 1998 by the Tri-State        ment for green peach aphid. It is
                                           Potato Breeding Program, Russet Leg-        estimated that at least two chemical
                                           end is only moderate in yield poten-        applications at $15-$20 will be elimi-
                                           tial but has an extremely high per-         nated to control green peach aphid
                                           centage of U.S. No. 1’s (Fig. 3). It        with the adoption of Gem Russet.
                                           produces oblong shaped tubers with          Russet Legend and Gem Russet are
                                           heavy russet skin and is superior to        expected to replace Russet Norkotah
                                           Russet Burbank in its appearance            and Russet Burbank as fresh market
Fig. 3. Umatilla Russet and Russet         and grade. Russet Legend produces           potatoes (Fig. 4).
        Legend                             about 7 percent lower total yields,
                                                                                       NDO1496-1 (unnamed)
                                           but 23 percent higher U.S. No. 1
                                           yields in comparison with Russet                This unnamed selection is a round,
Umatilla Russet                                                                        white chipper (Fig. 4). It produces
   Released in 1998 by the Tri-State       Burbank. It is estimated that each 1
                                           percent increase in U.S. No. 1 yield        good yield, but its appeal comes from
Potato Breeding Program, Umatilla                                                      its outstanding chip quality after stor-
Russet is similar in many respects to      above 60 percent will increase price
                                           to growers by 1¢ per cwt. Russet            age at colder- than-normal tempera-
Ranger Russet including appearance                                                     tures. It produces 9 percent higher
and resistance to internal defects (Fig.   Legend has one flaw that will limit its
                                           utility: the development of stem-end        yields than Norchip and about 9 per-
3). It is almost identical in yield po-                                                cent less than Chipeta. Its U.S. No. 1
tential and processing quantity. It        discoloration after two to three
                                           months of storage. However, Russet          yield is higher than Norchip by 18
does not have the severe blackspot                                                     percent. Because NDO1496-1 is a
bruise problem expressed by Ranger         Legend will likely replace some of
                                                                                       cold chipper, it can be stored at cooler

                                         tatoes, combined with 1 percent more             Vt= {Vo+Vo(f∆Pt)}
                                         solids, which should give it process-
                                         ing efficiency approaching that of
                                         Ranger Russet. Bannock Russet has                where f is flexibility ration and Vo is
                                         good storage characteristics and will            the price per unit in the base year
                                         be capable of supplying high quality             Cjt= is the cost associated with the
                                         potatoes for 10-12 months of the                 development, technology transfer,
                                         year. Additionally, Bannock Russet               implementation, and maintenance of
                                         is resistant to all diseases associated          the jth variety in year t.
                                         with early die and will not require              βjt is the benefit that accrues to po-
                                         soil fumigation. It is also immune to            tato producers and processors as a
                                         PVY and resistant to net necrosis                result of adopting and implementing
                                         caused by leafroll virus. Bannock                the new variety. The outcome βjt is
                                         Russet also uses about 40 percent                probabilistic because it depends on
                                         less nitrogen than Russet Burbank. It            the probability of successful devel-
                                         is expected that this variety will re-           opment of the jth variety (P(S)), and
Fig. 5. IdaRose and Bannock              place Russet Burbank, Shepody, and               the probability of adopting jth variety
                                         Russet Norkotah.                                 (P(A)). The expected value of βjt is
                                                                                          defined as:
temperatures and still maintain qual-    The benefits of public                                    N
ity. This should reduce the amount
                                         investment in potato                            E(βj)=Σβjt{P(Α)∩P(S)}              (2)
of shrinkage in storage by as much as                                                              t=1
half, and extend the market season       breeding research
by one to four months.                      This study, using an ex-ante ap-              The present value of the expected
                                         proach, will analyze the benefit of              flow of benefits from variety jth is
IdaRose                                  the Northwest Potato Breeding Pro-               calculated by “discounting” the right-
   This selection was released in        gram to potato producers and pro-                hand side of equation (2) as shown
1999. IdaRose has round tubers with      cessors in Idaho, Oregon, and Wash-              in equation (3) below.
bright red skin (Fig. 5) and combines    ington (Araji et al. 1978).                                 N
high yields with an excellent appear-
                                         The model
                                                                                                    Σβ {P(Α)∩(S)}
                                                                                                    t=1 jt
ance and an outstanding eating qual-                                                     E(βjt)=                            (3)
ity. It exceeds the yield of Dark Red       The flow of benefits from each                               (1+r)t
Norland by as much as 20 percent.        variety developed by the breeding            Where:
IdaRose has long storage potential,      program is estimated by the follow-
                                                                                        r = the social discount rate (6 percent)
which is an unusual trait for a red-     ing equation:
skinned variety. This should allow it                                                    N = number of years for which the jth
                                                                                         variety affects productivity, quality,
to be used in the rapidly expanding                                           (1)        and/or cost (20 years)
red storage market. This is a market
into which the Northwest has not yet                                                     The 6 percent social discount rate in
                                         Where:                                          the risk free rate on government bonds
                                           βjt= the benefits accruing to the jth         was used by federal agencies.
Bannock Russet                               variety in year t                           The present value of the flow benefit
   This selection was released in            Ajt= the expected total production          was calculated over 20 years from the
1999. Bannock Russet has oblong              or acreage affected by the jth variety      first year of adoption. Maximum
tubers with heavy, dark russet skin          in year t                                   adoption was projected not to ex-
and combines excellent disease resis-        ∆Pjt= the expected change in net            ceed 70 percent and will effect 50
tance with high yield and good ap-           productivity and/or quality of po-          percent of the potato acreage.
pearance (Fig. 5). It has shown the          tato due to the jth variety in year t
ability to produce 2 percent higher          Vt= the expected price received per
total yield and 29 percent higher U.S.       cwt of raw potato or pound of pro-
No. 1 yield than does Russet Burbank.        cessed potatoes in year t
It produces very few undersized po-

   The present value of costs is expressed     processing yields, and (5) develop-               20 years at the 1998 purchasing value
   as:                                         ment of high quality and high yield-              of the dollar. The annual present value
                                      (4)      ing varieties of chip potatoes. The               of the flow of benefit exceeds $5.4
         N                                     benefit from each area is analyzed in             million. The flow of benefit was cal-
      t=1                                      the following sections.                           culated based on projected probabil-
                                                                                                 ity of adoption of 3 percent in 1997,
                                               1. Development of high yielding
                                               processed potato varieties
                                                                                                 5 percent in 1998, 10 percent in
   Cjt= the present value of total costs                                                         1999, 15 percent in 2000, and 10
                                                   The estimated benefit of improved
   associated with the development of                                                            percent increments in subsequent
                                               yield of Ranger Russet and Umatilla to
   the jth variety                                                                               years. In 1998, Idaho had 6.6 percent
                                               growers producing potatoes for pro-
   Rjt= research investment in the de-                                                           of its potato acreage in Ranger Russet,
                                               cessing is shown in Table 3. Idaho                Washington had 11.4 percent of its
   velopment of the jth variety                growers of processed potatoes will ben-
   Tjt= technology transfer cost of the jth                                                      potato acreage in Ranger Russet, and
                                               efit by an estimated $63.4 million over
   variety                                                                                       Oregon had 10.3 percent of its acre-
                                               a 20-year period at the 1998 purchas-
                                                                                                 age in Ranger Russet.
   Ijt= implementation cost to adopt the       ing power of the dollar by adopting
   jth variety                                 Ranger Russet and Umatilla to replace             2. Development of high quality
   Mjt= the cost of maintenance research       Russet Burbank and Shepody. The an-               potato varieties for the fresh
   required to sustain the productivity        nual benefit to Idaho growers of pro-             market
   of the jth variety at its potential level   cessed potatoes will exceed $3 million.               The two fresh market varieties de-
   Expenditures in the development,            Oregon growers stand to gain an esti-             veloped by the Northwest Potato
   transfer, implementation, and main-         mated $9.1 million over a 20-year                 Breeding Program are Russet Legend
   tenance of the jth variety before 1998      period at an annual benefit of $457,108           and Gem Russet. Russet Legend was
   were compounded at 6 percent to             at the 1998 purchasing power of the               released in 1998 and Gem Russet was
   bring it to the 1998 level. The flow of     dollar. Washington growers will ben-              released in 2000.
   expenditure after 1998 was dis-             efit a total of $35.9 million over a 20-              The projected probability of adop-
   counted by 6 percent to bring it to         year period at the 1998 purchasing                tion of these two fresh market variet-
   the 1998 level. The 1995-97 average         power of the dollar. The annual benefit           ies is 10 percent of the acreage the
   acreage, production, and prices             to Washington growers producing po-               first year, 10 percent the second year,
   shown in Table 2 were used to calcu-        tatoes for processing will exceed about           and 10 percent increment in each
   late the expected value of the flow of      $1.8 million.                                     subsequent year not to exceed 70
                                                   In general, the adoption of the               percent. The estimated benefits to
Results                                        higher yielding Ranger Russet and                 growers producing potatoes for the
                                               Umatilla as the two processing variet-            fresh market due to the improved
   The flow of benefits, costs, and                                                              quality of these two varieties of table
                                               ies will benefit the Pacific Northwest
returns associated with the develop-                                                             potato are shown in Table 4.
                                               by an estimated $108.5 million over
ment, transfer, and implementation of
the new potato varieties developed by
the Northwest Potato Breeding Pro-             Table 3.   Benefit to potato producers growing potatoes for processing.
gram are analyzed in this section.                                   Gross annual              Present             Annual present
                                               State                   benefit                  value                  value
                                               Idaho                $10,511,255            $ 63,397,969             $3,169,898
   Five major areas of expected ben-           Oregon                 1,515,753               9,142,168                457,108
efits from the development of new              Washington             5,959,461              35,944,117              1,797,208
potato varieties are analyzed. These           Pacific Northwest    $17,986,469            $108,484,254             $5,424,214
areas are: (1) development of high
yielding potato varieties for process-         Table 4.   Benefit to potato producers growing potatoes for the fresh market.
ing, (2) development of high quality                                      Gross annual             Present               Annual present
potato varieties for the fresh market,         State                        benefit                 value                    value
(3) development of disease resistant           Idaho                       $4,503,342            $20,710,460               $1,035,523
potato varieties for all market chan-          Oregon                         316,606              1,456,043                   72,802
nels, (4) development of new potato            Washington                   1,052,703              4,841,287                  242,064
varieties with a high percentage of            Pacific Northwest           $5,872,651            $27,007,790               $1,350,389

   Growers in the Pacific Northwest                   cent with Shepody, and 5 percent                    period, or $380,803 per year. In addi-
producing table potatoes will benefit                 with Russet Norkotah. An estimated                  tion to the economic benefits of the
by over $27.6 million over a 20-year                  95.1 percent of Idaho potato acreage                development and adoption of disease
period at an annual rate of more than                 was planted with these three varieties              resistant potato varieties, a minimum
$1.4 million per year at the 1998                     that are highly susceptible to disease.             of 1,224 pesticide applications will be
purchasing value of the dollar. Grow-                 Before the introduction of Ranger Rus-              eliminated from the environment on
ers in Idaho producing table potatoes                 set an estimated 65.7 percent of Wash-              612,000 acres of potatoes annually. In
will gain the most as Idaho has a                     ington potatoes was with Russet                     Idaho an estimated 804 chemical ap-
larger proportion of its potato acre-                 Burbank, 7.6 percent was in Shepody,                plications will be eliminated. In Or-
age planted in table potatoes than do                 and 17.5 percent was in Russet                      egon an estimated 114 applications
Oregon and Washington. It is esti-                    Norkotah. An estimated 90.8 percent                 will be eliminated, and in Washing-
mated that Idaho growers of table                     of Washington potato acreage was                    ton an estimated 306 applications will
potatoes will benefit by about $20.7                  planted with these three varieties. An              be eliminated.
million over a 20-year period at an                   estimated 30.9 percent of Oregon po-
                                                                                                          4. Development of new potato
annual rate of over $1 million at the                 tato acreage was planted with Russet
                                                                                                          varieties with high processing
1998 purchasing power of the dollar.                  Burbank, 18.2 percent with Shepody,                 yields
Oregon growers will benefit by about                  and 38.8 percent with Russet Norkotah
                                                                                                              The Pacific Northwest states of
$1.5 million over a 20-year period at                 for a total of 87.9 percent in these
                                                                                                          Idaho, Oregon, and Washington pro-
an annual rate of $72,802. Washing-                   three varieties.                                    duce about 69 percent of the pro-
ton growers will benefit by more than                     The benefits from reduced pesti-                cessed potatoes in the United States.
$4.8 million over a 20-year period at                 cide cost of adopting Ranger Russet,                Idaho potato processing plants ac-
an annual rate of $242,064.                           Umatilla, Russet Legend, and Gem                    count for 34 percent, Oregon ac-
3. Development of disease resistant
                                                      Russet are shown in Table 5. The                    counts for 8 percent, and Washing-
potato varieties                                      present value of the future flow of                 ton accounts for 26.7 percent. Russet
   Russet Burbank, Shepody, and Rus-                  benefits to potato growers in the Pa-               Burbank and Shepody are the two
set Norkotah are highly susceptible to                cific Northwest is estimated at $77.1               main varieties produced for processed
net necrosis, early blight, and late                  million. The adoption of the new vari-              potatoes. Before the release of Ranger
blight. Ranger Russet, Umatilla, Leg-                 eties will significantly reduce active              Russet, an estimated 83 percent of
end, and Gem Russet are more resis-                   toxic materials with beneficial envi-               Idaho potato acreage was planted
tant to PLRV and early blight. The                    ronmental impacts.                                  with Russet Burbank and 7.1 percent
results of this study indicate that the                   Idaho potato growers will gain an               was with Shepody for a total of 90.1
adoption of the new varieties will elimi-             estimated $48.4 million at the 1998                 percent. Washington had 65.7 per-
nate one to two spray applications per                purchasing power of the dollar by                   cent of potato acreage planted with
year to control green peach aphid at                  adopting the new disease resistant va-              Russet Burbank and 7.6 percent with
$15-$20 per application and will elimi-               rieties. Annual benefit at the 1998                 Shepody, for a total of 73.3 percent.
nate two applications to control early                purchasing power of the dollar is esti-             Oregon had 30.9 percent of its po-
blight at $20 per application.                        mated at $2.4 million for a 20-year                 tato acreage planted with Russet
   Idaho has 402,000 acres planted                    period. Washington potato growers                   Burbank and 18.2 percent with
with potatoes annually. Before the in-                expected benefit is $21.1 million over              Shepody, for a total of 49.1 percent.
troduction of Ranger Russet, about 83                 20 years, or over $1 million per year.                  Russet Burbank has a low finished
percent of Idaho potato acreage was                   Oregon potato growers are expected                  processed product from raw pota-
planted with Russet Burbank, 7.1 per-                 to gain $7.6 million over a 20-year                 toes: about 45 percent. Shepody may
                                                                                                          have higher processing yields than
Table 5.     Benefit to potato growers by adopting new disease resistant varieties.
                                                                                                          Russet Burbank. The competitive po-
                          Acres         Percent      Annual gross         Present             Annual      sition of the potato processing indus-
State                   harvested1     affected1       benefit             value          present value
                                                                                                          try in Idaho and the Pacific North-
                          (1,000)                                                                         west in the domestic and interna-
Idaho                       402          95.1         11,469,060         48,400,035          2,420,001    tional market will be significantly
Oregon                       57          87.9          1,503,090          7,616,067            380,803
Washington                  153          90.8          4,167,720         21,117,590          1,055,879    enhanced by the development and
Pacific Northwest           612                       17,139,870         77,133,692          3,856,683    adoption of potato varieties with high
                                                                                                          processing yields. Ranger Russet and
    Source: National Potato Council, Potato Statistical Yearbook, Englewood, CO., 2000.

Table 6.   Benefit to the potato processing industry in the Pacific Northwest from the development and adoption of varieties with high
           processing yields.
                                                                                                                          Percent in
                             Total              Percent           Annual                 Present           Annual       Russet Burbank
State                     production 1         processed1       gross value               value         present value    and Shepody

                         (1,000 cwt)
Idaho                      136,963                  58       $ 83,972,015         $517,621,267          $25,881,063           90.1
Oregon                      27,355                  80          15,017,895           92,573,482           4,628,674           49.1
Washington                  87,967                  82          59,482,625          366,663,685          18,333,184           73.3
Pacific Northwest          252,285                           $158,472,535         $976,858,434          $48,842,921
 Source: National Potato Council, Potato Statistical Yearbook, Englewood, CO., 2000.

Table 7.   Benefit to Pacific Northwest growers of chip potatoes from the development and             varieties developed by the Northwest
           adoption of Chipeta.                                                                       Potato Breeding Program is summa-
                       Total       Percent         Annual             Present        Annual           rized in Table 8 for Idaho, Oregon,
State               production1    in chip1     gross benefit          value      present value       and Washington. The results show
                    (1,000 cwt)                                                                       that the potato industry will benefit
Idaho                136,963             0.8      $1,102,272       $ 8,103,217        $405,160        by about $1.2 billion over 20 years at
Oregon                27,355             0.8         220,153         1,416,018          70,800        an annual benefit of $60.2 million at
Washington            87,967             0.8         707,955         4,553,547         227,677        the 1998 purchasing power of the
Pacific Northwest    252,285                      $2,030,380       $14,072,782        $703,637
                                                                                                      dollar. The present value of benefits
Source: National Potato Council, Potato Statistical Yearbook, Englewood, CO., 2000.                   to Idaho potato growers and proces-
Umatilla Russet produce 70 percent                                                                    sors is about $658.2 million at an
                                                   the Northwest Potato Breeding Pro-
finished processed potatoes from raw                                                                  annual benefit of about $32.9 mil-
                                                   gram, is 20 percent higher yielding
potatoes. This is 25 percent more                                                                     lion at the 1998 purchasing value of
                                                   than Norchip and Gemchip. The
finished processed potatoes than that                                                                 the dollar. The Idaho potato industry
                                                   Chipeta variety is projected to re-
produced from Russet Burbank and                                                                      will benefit the most from adopting
                                                   place Norchip and Gemchip.
Shepody. Average price for finished                                                                   the new varieties of potatoes com-
                                                      The benefits to Pacific Northwest               pared to Oregon and Washington.
processed potatoes is 25¢ per pound.               growers of chip potatoes from the                  The Idaho potato industry captures
   The benefits to the potato process-             development and adoption of Chipeta                about 55 percent of the expected
ing industry from the development                  is shown in Table 7. The present                   flow of benefit from the develop-
and adoption of the new varieties are              value of the flow of benefit to growers            ment, transfer, and adoption of the
shown in Table 6. Results show that                in the Pacific Northwest producing                 new potato varieties.
the development and adoption of                    chip potatoes exceed $14 million over
Ranger Russet and Umatilla for pro-                                                                      The present value of benefits to
                                                   a 20-year period at an annual value of
cessed potatoes will benefit the Pa-                                                                  the potato industry in Washington is
                                                   $703,637. Idaho growers will cap-
cific Northwest potato processing                                                                     estimated at $433.1 million at an
                                                   ture more than 57 percent of this
industry a total of $976.9 million at                                                                 annual benefit of $21.7 million at the
                                                   benefit at an annual value of about
an annual rate of $48.8 million. Idaho                                                                1998 purchasing power of the dollar.
potato processors will capture about                                                                  The present value of benefits to Or-
53 percent of this benefit at an annual            Total benefits                                     egon potato growers and processors
benefit of more than $25.9 million.                   Total benefits to potato producers              are estimated at $112.2 million at an
Washington and Oregon potato pro-                  and processors from the development,               annual benefit of $5.6 million at the
cessors will capture 38 percent and 9              transfer, and implementation of the                1998 purchasing power of the dollar.
percent of this benefit, respectively.
                                                   Table 8.     Total benefit to the Pacific Northwest potato producers and processors from the
5. Development of high quality and                              development, transfer, and adoption of the new potato varieties.
high yielding chip potato varieties                                       Gross annual                Present              Annual present
   The two main varieties of chip                  State                    benefit                    value                   value
potatoes planted in the sub-region                 Idaho                 $111,557,944              $ 658,232,948            $32,911,647
are Norchip and Gemchip. These va-                 Oregon                  19,061,299                112,203,778              5,610,188
                                                   Washington              70,882,662                433,120,226             21,656,011
rieties, however, are low yielding. A
new variety, Chipeta, developed by                 Northwest             $201,501,905              $1,203,556,952           $60,177,846

Table 9.     Total funding for Northwest potato breeding research, 1984-98.
                                                  Source of funds
State                        Federal1           State1          Private             Total
Idaho                     $ 4,721,696        $ 867,977        $ 306,280         $ 5,895,953
Oregon                      4,721,696         2,227,500          707,000          7,656,196
Washington                  4,721,696         1,559,282        1,189,000          7,469,978
Pacific Northwest         $14,165,088        $4,654,759       $2,202,280        $21,022,127
    Direct research expenditures including 10 percent overhead costs.

Costs                                                ments with the three land-grant uni-     this investment was from federal
    The Northwest Potato Breeding                    versities in the Pacific Northwest       sources, 22 percent from the states,
Program is supported with funding                    (PNW) ranged from $192,300 in            and only 11 percent from the private
from three different sources. Since                  1984 to $633,600 in 1998. Total          sector. Research expenditures in 1999
its inception in 1984, the breeding                  USDA contribution to cooperative         until the expected release of the last
program received funding from the                    agreements was $8,021,125 during         varieties in 2005 are projected at the
federal government, the state gov-                   the 1984-98 periods. In general, to-     1998 level of $1,642,483 per year.
ernment, and the potato industry.                    tal annual USDA funding for the          Research expenditures for the 1999-
The USDA has been the primary                        Northwest Potato Breeding Program        2005 periods are projected to be
source of funding, followed by state                 ranged from $381,116 in 1984 to          $9,854,898. Total research invest-
funding and funding from the po-                     $1,035,405 in 1998. The USDA total       ments from 1984 until the release of
tato industry (Table 9).                             funding during the 1984-98 period        the final varieties under development
    The USDA contributes to the                      was $14,165,088.                         will be $30,877,025.
Northwest Potato Breeding Program                       The three land-grant universities
                                                                                              Return to investment
in two ways. First, the USDA/ARS                     in the PNW directly contributed a
                                                     total of $4,654,759 in state funds to        Total gross annual benefit, using
Potato Breeding Program, located at
                                                     the Northwest Potato Breeding Pro-       the probability of research success
Aberdeen, plays an integral role in
                                                     gram during the 1984-98 period.          and the probability of adoption, is
Northwest potato variety develop-
                                                                                              estimated to be $201.5 million. The
ment. This federally funded project                     Oregon State University’s contri-
                                                                                              gross annual benefit discounted by 6
supplies all germplasm to the uni-                   bution is estimated at $2,227,500.
                                                                                              percent annually over 20 years will
versity program in the Northwest.                    Washington State University contrib-
                                                                                              yield present value of $1.2 billion.
This program also assists with early                 uted $1,559,282, and the University
                                                                                              Direct research expenditure plus over-
generation selection and supplies ma-                of Idaho contribution during this pe-
                                                                                              head since the inception of the pro-
terials for initial seed increases for               riod is estimated at $867,977. The
                                                                                              gram in 1984 to 2005 will total
new varieties. The state projects are                potato industry in the PNW contrib-
                                                                                              $30,877,025. The benefit-cost ratio is
dependent on the federal breeder for                 uted a total of $2,202,280 to the
                                                                                              38.97. The benefit-cost ratio indicates
their success. Direct research budget                Northwest Potato Breeding Program
                                                                                              that for every dollar of investment in
in this portion of the federal contri-               during the 1984-98 period. The po-
                                                                                              the Northwest Potato Breeding Pro-
bution ranged from $188,816 in                       tato industry in Washington accounted
                                                                                              gram, the potato industry in Idaho,
1984 to $401,805 in 1998. The total                  for 54 percent of this total. The Or-
                                                                                              Oregon, and Washington will benefit
direct investment during the 1984-                   egon potato industry accounted for
                                                                                              by $38.97. This is a healthy return to
98 period totaled $4,856,229. Di-                    32 percent, and the Idaho potato in-
                                                                                              investment in addition to the program
rect research budget for the 1999                    dustry accounted for 14 percent.
                                                                                              environmental benefit and long-run
fiscal year was increased to $493,953.                  In general, a total of $21 million    contribution to enhancing the eco-
    Second, the USDA contribution                    was invested in potato breeding re-      nomic viability and the industry com-
to the Northwest Potato Breeding                     search for the Northwest during the      petitive advantage both nationally and
Program through cooperative agree-                   1984-98 period. About 67 percent of      in the international market.

Summary                                    ■ The PNW sub-region portion of the             • The adoption of disease-resistant
                                           fresh potato market is 44.2 percent             potato varieties will benefit the PNW
■ Potatoes have a U.S. annual farm         (Idaho 31.6, Washington 9.5, and Or-            an estimated $77 million by elimi-
value of over $2.6 billion and a pro-      egon 3.1 percent).                              nating one spray application.
cessed value of about $3.4 billion.
                                           ■ The U.S. produces an estimated                • An estimated 1,224 chemical
■ The Pacific Northwest (PNW) pro-         59,788,560 cwt of seed potatoes.                sprays will be eliminated from the
duces about 60 percent of the fall pota-
                                           ■ The PNW sub-region accounts for               PNW environment when the new
toes in the United States and accounts                                                     PNW disease-resistant varieties are
                                           36.1 percent of the U.S. total seed
for 54.4 percent of all U.S. potato pro-                                                   adopted.
                                           potatoes (Idaho 29.5, Washington 4.4,
                                           and Oregon 2.2 percent).                    ■ In general, the PNW potato indus-
■ The PNW total potato farm value is
                                           ■ Russet Burbank and Shepody are            try is estimated to receive a $1.2 billion
$1.2 billion or 46 percent of total U.S.                                               benefit by adopting the 10 new variet-
                                           the two dominant varieties of potatoes
potato farm value.                                                                     ies from the Northwest Potato Breeding
                                           produced for processing in the Pacific
■ Idaho grows 32.4 percent of the fall     Northwest.                                  Program.
potatoes and accounts for 29.4 per-
                                           ■ Russet Burbank and Russet Norkotah            • Idaho will capture 55 percent of
cent of all U.S. potato production.                                                        this benefit, Washington will receive
                                           are the two main varieties of table pota-
■ Washington potato production is          toes produced in the Pacific North-             36 percent of the benefit, and the
21.1 percent of the fall potato produc-    west.                                           Oregon potato industry will receive
tion and 19.1 percent of the total U.S.                                                    a boost of 9 percent.
                                           ■ Norchip is the main chip variety
potato production.
                                           used in the Pacific Northwest.
■ Oregon potato production accounts
                                               • The Northwest Potato Breeding
for 6.5 percent of the fall potato pro-                                                Araji, A. A., R. J. Simm, and R. L. Gardner.
                                               Program has released 10 new variet-
duction and 5.9 percent of the total                                                      1978. Return to Agricultural Research
                                               ies of potatoes since 1984 (Bannock        and Extension Programs: An Ex-Ante
U.S. potato production.
                                               Russet, Chipeta, Frontier Russet,          Approach. American Journal of Agri-
■ An estimated 271,348,080 cwt of              Gemchip, Gem Russet, IdaRose,              cultural Economics. Vol. 60: 965-968.
potatoes are processed in the United           NDO1496-1, Ranger Russet, Russet        Araji, A. A., editor. 1980. Research and
States annually, which is 59 percent of        Legend, and Umatilla Russet).              Extension Productivity in Agriculture.
the total production at an estimated
                                           ■ The 10 newly released varieties are          University of Idaho.
value of $3.4 billion.                                                                 Araji, A. A. 1998. Return to Investment in
                                           expected to become varieties that re-
■ The PNW sub-region processed an          place Pacific Northwest use of Norchip,        the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Sta-
estimated 186,435,410 cwt of pota-                                                        tion by Principal Function. Research
                                           Russet Burbank, Russet Norkotah, and
toes, which is 68.7 percent of the total                                                  Bulletin No. 144, University of Idaho.
                                           Shepody because the new varieties are
U.S. processed potatoes at an estimated                                                Araji, A. A. 1989. Return to Public Invest-
                                           more disease resistant, higher yielding,       ment in Wheat Research. Canadian Jour-
value of $2.3 billion.                     and have better qualities.                     nal of Agricultural Economics. Vol. 37:
■ Idaho processed an estimated             ■ An ex-ante technology assessment             467-479.
92,497,410 cwt, which is 34 percent of     model, with probability distribution        Araji, A. A. 1990. The Function, Focus,
the total U.S. processed potatoes at a     is used to estimate the economic ben-          and Productivity of the State Agricul-
market value of $1.2 billion.              efits of adopting the new varieties. The       tural Experiment Station in the United
■ Washington’s total annual potatoes       results show:                                  States. Agribusiness: An International
processed are estimated at 72,209,200                                                     Journal. Vol. 6: 633-642.
                                               • The benefit to potato growers         Araji, A. A., F. C. White, and J. F. Guenthner.
cwt, which is an estimated processed           who grow potatoes for processing           1995. Spillovers and the Return to Agri-
value of $902.6 million and 26.7 per-          in the PNW is estimated at over            cultural Research for Potatoes. Journal
cent of the U.S. total.                        $108 million (Idaho $63 million,           of Agriculture and Resource Econom-
■ Oregon’s amount of potatoes pro-             Washington $36 million, and Or-            ics. Vol. 20: 263-276.
duced for processing is estimated at           egon $9 million).                       National Potato Council. 2000. Potato Sta-
about 21,728,000 cwt, which is 8 per-          • The estimated benefits for pro-          tistical Yearbook, Englewood, Colorado.
cent of the total U.S. production and an       ducing fresh market potatoes with       Idaho Agricultural Statistics Service. 2000.
estimated value of $271.6 million.                                                        Idaho Agricultural Statistics, Boise,
                                               the new varieties in the PNW is $27
■ The U.S. produces an estimated                                                          Idaho.
                                               million (Idaho $21 million, Wash-
128,775,360 cwt of potatoes for the            ington $5 million, and Oregon $1
fresh market.                                  million).

Shared By: