Exercise by MikeJenny

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									          Review for Laboratory Exercise 18 – Special Senses: Vision, Hearing, and Equilibrium


   Identify the following accessory visual structures and describe their function.
                                                                 Medial rectus muscle
                                                                   Superior rectus muscle
                                                                    Inferior rectus muscle
                                                                    Lateral rectus muscle
                              Extrinsic muscles                    Inferior oblique muscle
                                                                   Superior oblique muscle
                                                                 Levator palpebrae superioris
                                                                       Lacrimal gland
                                                                     Nasolacrimal gland
                    Lacrimal apparatus and associated
                                                                      Lacrimal punctum
                                structures
                                                                        Lacrimal sac
                                                                     Lacrimal canaliculus
                                                                         Conjunctiva
                            Protective structures
                                                                           Cornea

   Identify the tissue layers and chambers of the eye and describe their function.
                                            Sclera
                       Tissue layers of the
                                            Choroid
                             Eyeball
                                            Retina
                                         Anterior Segment                    Anterior chamber
                                         (containing aqueous
                     Chambers of the Eye humor)                              Posterior chamber
                                             Posterior Segment (containing vitreous humor)

   Identify the following structures or regions of the eye and describe their function.

                    Lens                                  Iris
                    Pupil                                 Suspensory ligament
                    Fovea centralis                       Optic nerve
                    Cornea                                Optic disc (Blind spot)
                    Rods and cones                        Caruncle

   Define terms related to visual function.
       o Myopia ( nearsightedness )
       o Hyperopia ( farsightedness )
       o Presbyopia ( “aging eyes” - corrected with bifocals )
       o Emmetropia ( normal vision )

   Describe the visual pathway (to brain): retina  optic nerve  optic chiasma  optic tracts  thalamus 
    occipital lobe and midbrain (visual reflex site) and some fibers to hypothalamus (daily biorhythms)

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   Identify major structures of the sheep eye.

                    Sclera                    Optic nerve (severed)         Musculature
                    Cornea                    Pupil                         Lens
                    Retina                    Choroid                       Vitreous humor

   Identify the following structures of the ear and describe their function.

                                               Pinna
                             Outer Ear         External Auditory Canal
                                               Tympanic Membrane
                                                                  Malleus
                                                  Ossicles        Incus
                                                                  Stapes
                           Middle Ear          Oval Window
                                               Round Window
                                               Tympanic Cavity
                                               Auditory tube (Eustachian tube)
                                               Vestibule
                                               Semicircular canals
                                               Cochlea
                                               Organ of Corti - in one section of cochlea
                             Inner Ear
                                               and close up view
                                               Auditory nerve
                                                                  Bony labyrinth
                                                  Labyrinths
                                                                  Membranous labyrinth

   Distinguish between conduction deafness and sensorineural deafness.
   Distinguish between static and dynamic equilibrium and identify the location of sensors assisting in the
    maintenance of these activities.
   Describe the auditory pathway (to the brain): organ of Corti  cochlear nerve  medulla  midbrain 
    thalamus  temporal lobe




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