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					Arab -Israeli conflict 1945-1979
            Crisis in the Middle East
Day one
 Roots of the conflict 1900-1945
Geography
 Modern day Israel
 and Palestine
 Located on the
 Eastern side of the
 Mediterranean Sea
 Approximately
 10,000 square
 miles
Origins of the Conflict
 Jews claim land back to 2000 BCE
 (Canaan)
 For hundreds of years, the Israelites were
 invaded, exiled and conquered
 Jewish Diaspora: Romans disperse Jews and
 raze Jerusalem (70 CE)
Ottoman empire
 Ottoman Empire takes over in 1517:
 Palestine is now part of the Ottoman
 (Muslim) Empire
The break-up of the Ottoman empire
 At the turn of the 20th century most of the ME
 was still under Ottoman control but the empire
 was imploding.
   Young Turk movement
   Arab Consciousness
   Imperialism
       European powers wanted influence in the crumbling
        empire.
The Zionist Movement (1898)
  Zionism: the establishment of a Jewish state in
  Palestine: the ancient homeland of the Jews.
  The movement was founded by Theodore Herzl in
  the late 19th century.
  Because of Jewish persecution the Zionist
  movement was gaining popularity among Jews
  Jewish settlers began to move to Palestine.
World War I
 Ottoman Turkey joined the Central powers—UK
 and France began to plot the division of the
 Middle East.
   Britain promises Palestinian Arabs an Arab state in
   exchange for their help in defeating the Ottoman
   Empire.
   At the same time Britain also issued The Balfour
   Declaration
       Issued in 1917; declared that a there should be a Jewish
        national home in Palestine. Free Palestine
       Desire to encourage Jewish businessmen in America to
        support Wilson’s call for war loans.
       QuickTime™ and a
         decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
The Mandate System:
   An authorization granted by the League
   of Nations to a member nation to govern
   the former German or Turkish colonies,
   such as the British mandate in Palestine.
   (San Remo Conference)
       The Balfour Declaration was included in the
        obligations for the governance of Palestine;
        thus binding Britain to Jewish interests.
The British Mandate in Palestine,
1922-1945
 Continued Jewish immigration, British support
 for the Zionist position, rejection of Arab
 demands for independence were met with
 resentment and led to several bloody clashes
 which created bitterness on all sides.
 Source analysis 1922-1945
Peel Report 1937: Chapter X. - Conclusion: Considering the
attitude which both the Arab and the Jewish representatives
adopted in giving evidence, the Commission think it
improbable that either party will be satisfied at first sight with
the proposals submitted for the adjustment of their rival claims.
For Partition means that neither will get all it wants. It means
that the Arabs must acquiesce in the exclusion from their
sovereignty of a piece of territory, long occupied and once
ruled by them. It means that the Jews must be content with
less than the Land of Israel they once ruled and have hoped to
rule again. But it seems possible that on reflection both parties
will come to realize that the drawbacks of Partition are
outweighed by its advantages. For, if it offers neither party all it
wants, it offers each what it wants most, namely freedom and
security.
To both Arabs and Jews Partition offers a prospect--and there
is none in any other policy--of obtaining the inestimable boon
British White Paper- 1939
The Royal Commission and previous commissions of Enquiry have
drawn attention to the ambiguity of certain expressions in the Mandate,
such as the expression `a national home for the Jewish people', and
they have found in this ambiguity and the resulting uncertainty as to the
objectives of policy a fundamental cause of unrest and hostility
between Arabs and Jews. His Majesty's Government are convinced
that in the interests of the peace and well being of the whole people of
Palestine a clear definition of policy and objectives is essential.

1. The objective of His Majesty's Government is the establishment
within 10 years of an independent Palestine State in such treaty
relations with the United Kingdom as will provide satisfactorily for the
commercial and strategic requirements of both countries in the future
2. Jewish immigration during the next five years will be at a rate which,
if economic absorptive capacity permits, will bring the Jewish
population up to approximately one third of the total population of the
country…of some 75,000 immigrants over the next five years.

After the period of five years, no further Jewish immigration will be
permitted unless the Arabs of Palestine are prepared to acquiesce in it.
The impact of WWII on the British
Mandate in Palestine.
 6,000,000 Jews were
 killed as a direct result of
 the Holocaust
 Hundreds of thousands
 more were left homeless
 after World War II
 Many countries would
 not allow displaced Jews
 to live in their countries
 UK was looking for an
 honorable way out of the
 situation in Palestine.
Day 2: 1945-1948
 The last years of the British Mandate, UNSCOP
 and Partition.
Key Terms:
1.   Haganah: An underground Jewish group created in 1920,
     Haganah became a countrywide organization that involved
     young adults.
2.   Irgun: An extreme Jewish organization founded in 1931 after
     a split within Haganah. They were more militant and
     advocated armed insurrection against the British and Arabs.
3.   Lehi: Radical armed Zionist group dedicated to the creation of
     a Jewish state in Palestine. Lehi was responsible for the
     assassination of the UK’s top official in Palestine.
4.   United Resistance: In 1945 these three underground groups
     joined together with the aim of creating an independent
     homeland ASAP.
5.   UN SCOP: United Nations special Committee on Palestine.
Britain and the post-war ME
 Following WWII UK had significant holdings in the ME
 but faced financial difficulties.
    In Palestine the UK had to figure out what to do with the
    mandate. Key issues:
        Growing US interest in Palestine
        Cold War: Soviet interests in Palestine.
        Actions of Arabs and Jews during the war = increased violence.
        Pro-Jewish support following the Holocaust
        Displaced Persons
Developments in Palestine 1945-46
 Arabs and Jews were unhappy to see the return
 of the British post WWII.
   Arabs suffered from a lack of political structure and
   leadership and were in a poor position to represent
   their own interests.
   Jewish Agency—Jews were in a better political
   position. The agency led by David Ben Gurion
   continued to represent Jewish interests to the British.
       Zionist Underground activity had begun to increase.
Diplomacy and the role of the United
States
 Committee of Enquiry was set up in November 1945 to
 resolve the Arab-Israeli situation.
   Final recommendation= partition was rejected as unworkable
   and not in the best interest of the population.
 Meanwhile, President Truman supported the Zionists
 and supported increased Jewish immigration into
 Palestine—this angered the British government.
King David Hotel
 Hotel was the headquarters of the British
 Mandate government and military command
 center.
King David Hotel bombing 7/22/46
  The Causes:
     After WWII the British decided to enforce tough measures to regain their
     authority—they were frustrated with the actions of sabotage and violence
     carried out by the underground resistance groups.
     The British launched a campaign to search for weapons and imprisoned
     Zionists.
  The bombing:
     The King David Hotel bombing was an attack carried out by the militant
     Zionist group Irgun.
        Telephoned warnings were sent to the switchboard by the hotel's main
          lobby, the Palestine Post newspaper, and the French consulate.
        No evacuation was carried out.

        91 people were killed and 46 were injured.
            • Controversy has arisen over the timing and adequacy of these
               warnings and the reasons why the hotel was not evacuated.
  The effects:
     Jewish Agency condemned the attack
     Worsened relations between the British and Palestinian Jews
     Britain desired to turn over the mandate to the UN.
Towards Partition
  UNSCOP is established in May of 1947.
       11 man committee toured Palestine.
        1. Palestinian Arabs refused to cooperate fully—believed the committee was
           weighted against them.
        2. Jewish groups offered full cooperation and promoted their interests.

       Event that influenced their decision
         Exodus

             • A ship that carried Jewish emigrants, that left France on July 11, 1947,
                with the intent of taking its passengers to Palestine.
             • Most of the emigrants were Holocaust survivor refugees, who had no
                legal immigration certificates to Palestine.
             • Following wide media coverage, the British Navy seized the ship, and
                deported all its passengers back to Europe.
             • Realizing that they were not bound for Cyprus, the emigrants conducted
                a 24-hour hunger strike, refusing to cooperate with the British
                authorities.
             • But the British government had no intention of backing down or relaxing
                its policy. Were sent to Germany.
             • During this time, media coverage of the human ordeal intensified and
                the British became pressed to find a solution.
             • The matter came to the attention of UNSCOP and helped influence their
                final decision.
The Exodus
UNSCOP Report, August 1947
 End to the mandate
 Partition plan
   Co-operate in an economic Union and share
   currency.
   Jerusalem would be governed under an international
   trusteeship
   Jewish state would be larger than the Arab state.
The UN vote for Partition, November
1947
 2/3 vote was needed
 GA vote
   33 supported
   13 against—ALL Islamic countries voted against the
   Partition.
   10 abstained
Final plan approved by the
UN
3 ―cantons‖ each,
connected at points
Day three: From partition to war
11/47-5/48
 Key Terms:
   Fatah—a radical Palestinian organization founded in
   the 1950’s, including Yasser Arafat, to liberate
   Palestine.
   Arab League—Organization started in 1945 to
   promote Arab affairs and cooperation.
Partition
 The UN decision was met by outrage in the Arab world.
   The Arabs had no clear political strategy to pursue—they
   were suspicious of each other and some Arab leaders had
   their own self interest in mind.
   The Arab League proclaimed jihad against the Jews which
   gave them a bad reputation in much of the world.
 The Jewish movement had superior leadership and
 organization. They also had experienced soldiers many
 who had fought during WWII.
   Plan D
        Gain control of vital areas of the Hebrew State and defend its borders
         from attack.
Deir Yassin
 A month before the declaration of the state of
 Israel an number of Arabs were killed by Jewish
 paramilitaries in the village of Deir Yassin near
 Jerusalem—100-254 were killed.
 The event encouraged Arab states to unite and
 intervene in 1948, against the creation of the
 state of Israel.
Israel is Born!
May 14, 1948 in Tel
Aviv, the state of Israel
was declared.
  President—Chaim
  Weizmann
  PM—David Ben Gurion
  On the same day, Arab
  forces from neighboring
  forces invaded.
The Arab-Israeli War (1948)
 On May 15, 1948, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon,
 Saudi Arabia and Syria invaded the newly formed
 Israel—combined population equals 40 million
 (Jewish state 750,000).
   Arab countries committed less than 30,000 men while
   the Jews had over 65,000 in the field.
   The Arabs were not prepared for conflict and often
   pursued their own political and territorial objectives.
   Israel was able to import heavy weaponry.
Armistice
 With support from the United States, Israel was
 able to not only defeat the Arabs, but expand
 their territory.
 Negotiations began in January 1949 on the
 Greek Island of Rhodes and an agreement was
 signed in February.
Israel after the
   1948 War
Israel occupied
20% more than
 she had been
promised in the
 Partition plan
Consequences of the war
 1948 Exodus
   750,000 Palestinian Arabs were expelled or fled.
        Most have still not been able to return and are scattered
         in neighboring countries.
 Military defeat split the Arab League
 Jordan gained territory
 Great Britain lost all influence in the region
   Replaced by the US
Day four:
 Demographic shifts: The Palestinian Diaspora,
 Jewish immigration and the economic
 development of the Israeli state
Key terms:
 Diaspora—dispersion, scattering or forced exile.
 Intifada—Arabic for ―uprising‖. Name given to
 the period of Palestinian resistance to Israeli
 occupation from 1987.
The origins of the Palestinian Diaspora,
1947
 Palestinians claim that the Israelis followed a
 conscious policy of expulsion that started under
 the British Mandate
The role of the UN in the refugee crisis
 Majority of Palestinians fled to neighboring
 countries.
 UN passed a resolution calling for a return of
 Palestinians to their homes and compensation if
 they choose not to return.
 Israel would still have control of the land they
 gained in the 1948 war.
 Plan was rejected by the Arab states.
UN role continued:
 UN relief and Works agency (UNRWA) helped
 set up camps in neighboring countries.
 Irrigation projects, healthcare and schools were
 also established.
 Approximately 35% of Palestinian refugees are
 still under UN control—the remainder have
 become part of the population of other Arab
 countries.
Jewish immigration (Aliyah)
 Israel passed laws forbidding the return of Palestinian
 refugees to claim land and property—many new Israeli
 settlements were built in the West Bank.
 Law of return (1950)
    Right of every Jew to settle in Israel
 Citizenship Law (1952)
    Immediate citizenship to immigrants.
        Ashkenazim—Jews from France, Germany and Eastern Europe.
        Sephardim—Jews from Spain and Portugal
        Oriental—Jews from Iran, Iraq and Morocco.
Economic development
 Within 30 years Israel became an industrial
 economic power in the region.
 Initially, Israel had to import raw materials and
 relied on outside help via loans in order to
 advance transport, aid agriculture and build the
 basic infrastructure in order to sustain the new
 nation.
Day 5
 The Suez crisis of 1956
The Egyptian Revolution and the
emergence of Nasser
 Egyptian army officers (Free Officers Movement) during
 the War of Independence of Israel plotted to over
 through the monarch of Egypt because he was corrupt
 and incompetent.
 The Egyptian Revolution eventually resulted in Gamal
 Abdul Nasser as prime minister and president.
    Land redistribution program
    Aswan Dam project
        Control flooding of the Nile
        Loans were initially scheduled to come from the US and UK through
         the World Bank
Relations deteriorate
 Nasser started to look for more sophisticated weaponry.
    Chinese and Russians were willing to sell arms
    Russians offered to lend money for the dam.
 Nasser aids Algerians against France.
 Nasser supported the dismissal of Jordan's pro-British
 head of Army.
 Egypt’s diplomatic recognition of Communist China
 In retaliation the US, UK and France refuse to loan
 money for Aswan Dam.
Crisis to war
 Arab-Israeli conflict becomes intertwined with the Cold
 War.
 Nasser nationalizes Suez canal.
    Cut off UK sea links
 Tripartite talks—US, UK and France announced that
 that the Suez canal was to be an international waterway
 whose board would report to the UN.
    Egypt rejected
Operation Muskateer
 Secretly military preparations were started by the
 UK and France.
   The plan included an Israeli invasion of Egypt.
   UK and France would intervene, occupy the canal
   zone and remove Nasser.
October –November 1956
 War lasted one week
 War worsened Arab Israeli relations.
 1. Israel quickly captured most of Sinai and Gaza
 2. Anglo-France ultimatum to both sides to withdraw.
 3. Egypt rejected and appealed to the UN.
 British and France aircraft attack Egyptian airfields.
 America orders a ceasefire
 Results
 handout
1956 Suez Crisis
 Israel withdrew fully within
 a year, and the original
 border was restored
Day 6
 The development of Arabism and the emergence
 of the PLO
Arabism before 1948
 Identified with Arab nationalism and an awakening of
 consciousness among intellectuals in the Arab world.
    Self-determination
    Independence
    Arab culture
    Politically
        Pan-Arab ideology that has not been very successful at uniting the
         Arabs in a a union of nation states.
           • Arab League (1945) currently has 22 members
Continued…
 Began during WWI and continued after the
 defeat of the Ottoman empire.
 The mandate system frustrated the Arabs and
 resulted in the more radical development of
 Arabism in the 1930’s.
   Ba’athism
       Founded by Michel Aflaq and attempted to combine
        socialism with the vision of a pan-Arab nation.
Nasser and Arab Socialism
 The Arab-Israeli war helped create a more radical strain of
 nationalism and Arabs found a common focal point of hatred
 towards Israel.
 In the 1950’s the Arab Nationalist movement became hostile
 towards the West and Israel while promoting a type of socialism
 that promoted social progress and the celebration of a shared
 history language and culture.
 The movement had difficulty unifying politically however found
 some success from Nasser in Egypt.
    Nasser became the leader of the pan-Arab ideological movement which
    tried to unite the Arab cause and reached its height in the years after the
    Suez crisis of 1956.
    Nasser saw the potential of a united Arab world.
Nasser and Arab Socialism continued…
 1958-1961—Egypt and Syria merge to become
 the United Arab Republic.
 After the Arab defeat in the war of 1967, support
 for Pan-Arabism declined, and Nasser simply
 focused on recovering lost territory.
The formation of the PLO
 Islamic fundamentalism offered an alternative
 path to Arabism.
 In frustration with the lack of progress made for
 the poor and Arab unity, some sought
 representation and action through the
 Palestinian Liberation Organization.
PLO
 A minority of Palestinians came to believe that the
 liberation of their homeland had to happen in order for
 Arab unity to become a reality.
    1954-they took the name Fatah and were led by Yasser
    Arafat, Khali al-Wazir, and Salah Khalaf out of Damascus.
        Used Guerilla warfare which would attract others to their cause and
         encouraged armed conflict as a means to recover Palestine
    1964—at the Arab summit in Cairo the PLO was officially
    established and formed and umbrella under which other
    resistance groups would operate (first leader Ahmad
    Shuqeiri)
    1969—Yasser Arafat becomes the leader of the PLO.
Palestinian Activism, 1967-1969
     Group presentations
        Karemeh, March 1968
        Black September, 1970
        Munich 1972
        Palestinian recognition of the UN, 1974
        The Entebbe raid, July 1976
1. Explain the causes of the event
2. Explain the actual event
3. What were the effects of the event
4. How did the event tie into the larger Arab-Israeli crisis
5. Visual—can include media coverage of the actual event.
Day 7: Six Day war and Yom Kippur war
 After the 1956 war, Egypt agreed to the
 stationing of a UN peacekeeping force in the
 Sinai in order to keep that border region
 demilitarized.
 Nasser also agreed to reopen the Straits of Tiran
 to Israeli shipping. As a result, the border
 between Egypt and Israel remained quiet for a
 while
Causes of the six day war 1967
 The creation of the PLO
 April 1967 Israel shot down a Syrian MIG jet resulting in
 the unification of Arab states.
 In the spring of 1967, the USSR fed the Syrian
 government false information that Israel was planning to
 invade Syria. In response, Nasser closed the Straits to
 Israeli ships and demanded UN withdraw from Sinai—
 the buffer was removed.
The Six-Day War (1967)
 Egypt and other Arab states, began a new plan to invade Israel
 After it became clear that the attack was imminent, Israel
 attacked first.
    During the first 24 hours Israeli jets destroyed the air forces of Egypt,
    Jordan, Iraq and Syria which ensured themselves victory in the war.
 The resulting six day war ended with an overwhelming Israeli
 victory.
 Israel re-took the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, the West
 Bank and all of Jerusalem—tripled in size.
  UN sponsored cease-fire ended the conflict.
Effects of the war
 15,000 Arabs died and Nasser resigned.
 Decline in pan-arabism and growth in
 fundamentalist Palestinian and Islamic
 nationalism.
 More Palestinian refugees scattered throughout
 the region.
Effects of the Six Day War
Gains Jerusalem,
Golan Heights, Gaza,
and Sinai Peninsula
(ensures access to
Red Sea)
Developments between the wars: 1967-
1973
 Initially Israel declared herself ready to hand
 back territories in return for a guarantee of full
 and lasting peace and recognition of Israel’s
 right to exist. Events led to a change in policy.
   1967-1970 War of attrition between Egypt and Israel.
   Palestinian activism
   Anwar Sadat takes control in Egypt.
        Seeks détente with the USA
        Goes to war against Israel.
The Yom Kippur War (1973)
 Egypt and Syria lead a surprise attack on Israel during
 the holy day of Yom Kippur in 1973
 At first, Israel has heavy losses, but the United States
 sent more than 2 Billion dollars in military aid, and Israel
 bounces back
 After several weeks, a truce was signed, but no official
 treaty; Israel actually gained more land as a result of the
 war
Consequences of the war
 Israel claimed victory on the battlefield but
 realized they could be beaten.
 Politically, Sadat emerged as a world figure and
 hero to the Arabs.
 UN passed resolution 338 which called for a
 ceasefire.
Peace?
 No Arab countries recognized Israel as an independent
 state until Egypt (president Anwar Sadat) approached
 Israel with a proposal in 1977
 He would officially recognize Israel in exchange for the
 Sinai Peninsula being returned to Egypt
The Camp David Accords
 US president Carter invited the two leaders
 (Sadat and Menachem Begin) to Camp David in
 Maryland.
 The Camp David accords were signed in
 September 1978.
 As a result, Israel and Egypt became the
 two largest recipients of US military aid
End of IB unit
 Blood and Tears documentary.
Why no Palestine?
The intifadas of 1987 and 2000!
  Palestinians practice civil disobedience against Israel;
  boycotts, riots, attacks on Israeli soldiers
  Not successful (not much change), but it did bring
  attention to the situation from the rest of the world
  Led to the Oslo accords
Peace?
 1993 – Oslo peace accords: Israel & PLO agree on a
 plan for autonomy in West Bank and Gaza for the
 Palestinians
 1994 – Gaza and Jericho given to Palestinian Authority
 (government for Palestinians)
 But no peace?
What Next?
 Arafat, leader of the
 Palestine Authority,
 denounces the violence,
 but says he cannot
 control it—he dies.
 Jan 9, 2005 Mahmoud
 Abbas elected President
 of the Palestinian
 National Authority.
Can there ever be peace?
 Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and
 Mahmoud Abbas were working towards peace
 but Sharon suffered a stroke and the Palestinian
 Islamist group Hamas, swept Palestinian
 elections.
Ariel view of security barrier

				
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