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									BMORE 2008                                                    OTEC NEG                                                                           LAG
Page 1 of 28


Neg .................................................................................................................................................. 1
AT- Hurricanes add on................................................................................................................. 2
OTEC fails- Susceptible to storms .............................................................................................. 3
Technical solutions for over fishing fail ...................................................................................... 4
OTEC NEGATIVE ........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.5
   THERE ARE ONLY A FEW SITES GOOD FOR OTEC: NO PROOF OF FEASIBILITY ...................................5
   OTEC IS BAD FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENT ...................................................................................................7
   PROBLEMS WITH COLD WATER PIPE FOIL OTEC .........................................................................................8
   OTEC‘S UP-FRONT COST IS TOO GREAT, STOPS INVESTMENT AND SUCCESS ......................................9
   PRACTICAL AND TECHNICAL BARRIERS THWART OTEC SOLVENCY .................................................. 10
   OTEC LEADS TO NON-NATIVE AQUACULTURE AND AGRICULTURE .................................................... 11
   OTEC LEADS TO DETRIMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES ............................................................ 13
NO RISK OF WATER WAR- EMPIRICALLY DENIED..................................................... 14
NO WATER WAR- EGYPT...................................................................................................... 15
NO INDIA-PAKISTAN WATER WAR ................................................................................... 16
No Middle East Water War ....................................................................................................... 17
AT- MIDDLE EAST WAR GOES NUCLEAR ....................................................................... 18
Deep Ocean Water Pumps CP ................................................................................................... 19
AT- Cutting fossil fuels key to solve GW .................................................................................. 20
AT- impact turn .......................................................................................................................... 21
Solvency extensions ..................................................................................................................... 22
AT- hurricanes add on................................................................................................................ 23
Plankton is key to stop global warming/ Plankton Good impacts .......................................... 24
Oil DA links ................................................................................................................................. 27
BMORE 2008                                    OTEC NEG                                                      LAG
Page 2 of 28

                                      AT- Hurricanes add on

Global warming does not increase the frequency of hurricanes
Martin Merzer, Miami Herald staff - April 4, 2008 - Some researchers see no link between global warming,
hurricane activity- lexis
   We're in a busy period of hurricane activity that will inflict unimaginable damage, but global warming is
   not the cause, leading researchers told the nation's foremost forecasters and other experts Friday. Chris
   Landsea, a respected researcher and the National Hurricane Center's science officer, told attendees of
   the National Hurricane Conference that there is no conclusive evidence that global warming has
   significantly enhanced or otherwise affected the number or intensity of hurricanes. "Any trend we see
   due to global warming has very little impact, has caused very tiny changes, and might actually be
   slightly reducing the activity we see in the Atlantic," Landsea told the group, which numbered 2,100
   earlier in the week, though some left before the global warming session began. But overall, hurricane
   seasons will remain relatively active and they will become increasingly costly, researchers said. Insurance
   experts warned Friday that the nation soon will absorb a hurricane that causes more than $100 billion in
   damage, and Landsea has estimated that a Category 5 hurricane could produce at least $140 billion in
   damage to South Florida. But that, he and others said, has virtually nothing to do with global warming.
   Landsea noted that former vice president Al Gore's award-winning ``An Inconvenient Truth,'' which
   has galvanized attention to global warming, is promoted by a book cover and movie poster that show a
   hurricane emerging from a smokestack _ and spinning in the wrong direction. "So you might conclude that
   the hurricane science depicted in Mr. Gore's book just might have some inaccuracies," Landsea said.
BMORE 2008                                    OTEC NEG                                                     LAG
Page 3 of 28

                             OTEC fails- Susceptible to storms

OTEC is a set up for energy disaster- A big storm would wipe out OTEC plants
BECCA FRIEDMAN- Harvard political review staff- February 26, 2006 - An Alternative Source Heats Up-
Examining the future of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion- Online-

   Moreover, OTEC is highly vulnerable to the elements in the marine environment. Big storms or a
   hurricane like Katrina could completely disrupt energy production by mangling the OTEC plants.
   Were a country completely dependent on oceanic energy, severe weather could be debilitating. In
   addition, there is a risk that the salt water surrounding an OTEC plant would cause the machinery to
   ―rust or corrode‖ or ―fill up with seaweed or mud,‖ according to a National Renewable Energy
   Laboratory spokesman.
BMORE 2008                                     OTEC NEG                                                        LAG
Page 4 of 28

                         Technical solutions for over fishing fail

Technical solution to fish stock depletion fail, only limiting fishing solves
Robert Morley- Columnist—06/03/08- Where Have All the Fish Gone?- Online-
    Unfortunately, the reality is that mankind seems to mismanage just about everything it puts its hands to.
    Yes, increasing knowledge and advancing technology have led to increased fish captures, food
    consumption and living standards for many of the world‘s people. Advanced sonar, gps-driven, computerized
    oceangoing behemoths have learned to efficiently comb the seas and maximize fish capture—but at what
    cost? Have we sacrificed our future food supply for short-term abundance? What a paradox. Increasing
    knowledge and scientific advancement not only isn’t keeping current problems in
    check, it is helping create new ones. We build bigger, more efficient ships to capture more fish to
    feed the world, and we end up destroying our fisheries. Herbert W. Armstrong, in an August-September
    1970 Plain Truth article, referred to this paradox: ―Knowledge production is supposed to be the way to cure
    all our evils. Given sufficient knowledge, the great minds have assured us, we shall have the solution to
    all humanity’s problems, ills and evils.‖ But more knowledge is not solving the world’s
    problems. The world’s fisheries are a sad example—greater technology is just helping humankind
    damage the environment faster than ever. Unfortunately, overexploitation of resources and the
    destruction of the environment is the story of mankind—it is the story of the cod, our forests and soils, our
    fresh water—and if things don‘t change, it will be the story of the oceans.
BMORE 2008                                       OTEC NEG                                                          LAG
Page 5 of 28


State of Hawaii OTEC Fact Sheet, September 18, 2002, accessed July 25, 2003,
    OTEC plants must be located where a difference of about 40° Fahrenheit (F) occurs year round. Ocean depths
    must be available fairly close to shore-based facilities for economic operation. Floating plant ships could provide more
    flexibility. Although extensive and successful testing of OTEC has occurred in experiments on component parts
    or small scale plants, a pilot or demonstration plant of commercial size needs to be built to further document
    economic feasibility.

EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 2003,
   Like tidal power plants, OTEC power plants require substantial capital investment upfront. OTEC researchers
   believe private sector firms probably will be unwilling to make the enormous initial investment required to build
   large-scale plants until the price of fossil fuels increases dramatically or until national governments provide financial
   incentives. Another factor hindering the commercialization of OTEC is that there are only a few hundred land-
   based sites in the tropics where deep-ocean water is close enough to shore to make OTEC plants feasible.

L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol.12, No.4, Winter 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003,
    Comparing production costs of electricity and desalinated water can identify scenarios under which OTEC
    should be economical, relative to conventional technologies. Table 1 summarizes results obtained for the capital
    costs given in Figure 5 using a fixed rate of 10 percent, 20 year loan, and OTEC plant availability of only 80 percent.
    Operation and maintenance costs corresponding to approximately 1.5 percent of the capital cost are used. One scenario
    corresponds to small island nations, where the cost of diesel-generated electricity and fresh water is such that a small, 1
    MW land-based OC- OTEC plant, with water production, would be cost-effective today. However, only a few sites
    throughout the world meet this scenario.

Thomas H. Daniel, Ph. D., Scientific/Technical Director, Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, Hawaii, IOA
Newsletter Vol.13, No.3/Autumn 2002, accessed July 28, 2003,
   Though the OTEC resource is very large, it exists mostly where people don't. There are at most a few hundred
   land-based sites where deep water is close enough to shore in the tropics to make land-based OTEC plants
   feasible. Any significant development of the resource will, therefore, require siting of plants in mid-ocean. Not
   only is the cost of working at sea higher than on land, but there are also problems with transmitting energy generated
   offshore to land-based populations. Deep sea cables would be very expensive and are not efficient for long range
   power transmission, and alternative transmission schemes, such as microwave transmission via reflecting
   satellite, aren't feasible with current technology.
BMORE 2008                                       OTEC NEG                                                         LAG
Page 6 of 28


EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 2003,
    Then, the Natural Energy Laboratory in 1999 tested a 250-kW pilot OTEC closed-cycle plant, the largest such plant
    ever put into operation. Since then, there have been no tests of OTEC technology in the United States, largely
    because the economics of energy production today have delayed the financing of a permanent, continuously
    operating plant.

State of Hawaii OTEC Fact Sheet, September 18, 2002, accessed July 25, 2003,
    OTEC-produced electricity at present would cost more than electricity generated from fossil fuels at their
    current costs. The electricity cost could be reduced significantly if the plant operated without major overhaul for 30
    years or more, but there are no data on possible plant life cycles.

EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 2003,
    Another challenge with ocean energy systems is economics. It doesn't cost much to operate ocean energy
    facilities, but they are very expensive to build. For example, construction costs for tidal power plants are high, and
    payback periods are long. The cost of a proposed tidal power plant across the Severn River in the United Kingdom is
    estimated at about $12 billion, far more expensive than even the largest fossil fuel power plants. As a result, the cost
    per kilowatt-hour of tidal power is not competitive with conventional fossil fuel power.

Robert J. Nicholson, III, Sea Solar Power International, LLC., U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Meeting
Washington, D.C., January 24, 2003, accessed July 28, 2003,
   It is true that hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent by the US Department of Energy attempting to
   design an OTEC plant that Sea Solar Power had already designed. This effort was funded by D.O.E., orchestrated
   by a research group in Hawaii which relied primarily on the aerospace industry for detailed engineering which was
   flawed from the beginning. They designed the cycle as if it were a high temperature power plant using standard
   off the shelf components. The size and cost was so extravagant that it could not possibly compete with fossil fuels.
BMORE 2008                                       OTEC NEG                                                           LAG
Page 7 of 28

                            OTEC IS BAD FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENT

State of Hawaii OTEC Fact Sheet, September 18, 2002, accessed July 25, 2003,
    Construction of OTEC plants and laying of pipes in coastal waters may cause localized damage to reefs and
    near-shore marine ecosystems. Some additional development of key components is essential to the success of
    future OTEC plants (e.g., less-costly large diameter, deep sea water pipelines; low-pressure turbines and condensers
    for open-cycle systems; etc.)

L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 2001, accessed July 28, 20 03,
    Other potentially significant concerns are related to the construction phase. These are similar to those associated
    with the construction of any power plant, shipbuilding and the construction of offshore platforms. What is unique to
    OTEC is the movement of seawater streams with flow rates comparable to those of rivers and the effect of
    passing such streams through the OTEC components before returning them to the ocean. The use of biocides and
    ammonia are similar to other human activities. If occupational health and safety regulations like those in effect in the
    USA are followed, working fluid and biocide (most probably anhydrous ammonia and chlorine) emissions from a plant
    should be too low to detect outside the plant sites. A major release of working fluid or biocide would be hazardous
    to plant workers, and potentially hazardous to the populace in surrounding areas, depending on their proximity.
    Both ammonia and chlorine can damage the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes, and can inhibit respiration. Should an
    accident occur with either system, the risks are similar to those for other industrial applications involving these

L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003,
    Organisms impinged by an OTEC plant are caught on the screens protecting the intakes. Impingement is fatal to
    the organism. An entrained organism is drawn into and passes through the plant. Entrained organisms may be
    exposed to biocides, and temperature and pressure shock. Entrained organisms may also be exposed to working
    fluid and trace constituents (trace metals and oil or grease). Intakes should be designed to limit the inlet flow velocity to
    minimize entrainment and impingement. The inlets need to be tailored hydrodynamically so that withdrawal does not
    result in turbulence or recirculation zones in the immediate vicinity of the plant. Many, if not all, organisms impinged
    or entrained by the intake waters may be damaged or killed. Although experiments suggest that mortality rates for
    phytoplankton and zooplankton entrained by the warm-water intake may be less than 100 percent, in fact only a fraction
    of the phytoplankton crops from the surface may be killed by entrainment. Prudence suggests that for the purpose of
    assessment, 100 percent capture and 100 percent mortality upon capture should be assumed unless further
    evidence exists to the contrary.
BMORE 2008                                      OTEC NEG                                                        LAG
Page 8 of 28


Thomas H. Daniel, Ph. D., Scientific/Technical Director, Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, Hawaii, IOA
Newsletter Vol.13, No.3/Autumn 2002, accessed July 28, 2003,
   The OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) must transport large volumes of deep seawater to the plant from about 1000
   m depth. For shore-based plants, the CWP must be at least 3 km long, even with the steepest bottom slopes known.
   Small pipeline diameters are inherently inefficient, due to friction losses and temperature increase. Because of this and
   the fact that the CWP represents almost 75% of the cost of current plant designs, optimization studies conclude that
   plants smaller than about 50 MW cannot compete economically with other present energy alternatives. A 50 MW
   plant will require about 150 m3/s of deep seawater, necessitating a pipeline with an inside diameter of at least 8 m.
   Current technology requires costly reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) or even more expensive fiberglass reinforced plastic
   (FRP) materials for pipelines of this diameter.

L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003,
    The design of OTEC CWPs, mooring systems and the submarine power cable must take into consideration
    survivability loads as well as fatigue induced loads. The first kind is based on extreme environmental
    phenomena, with a relatively long return period, that might result in ultimate strength failure while the second
    kind might result in fatigue-induced failure through normal operations.

L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Summer 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003,
    Claude's cycle is also referred to as open-cycle OTEC (OC-OTEC) because the working fluid flows once through the
    system. He demonstrated this cycle in 1930 in Cuba with a small land-based plant making use of a direct contact
    condenser (DCC). Therefore, desalinated water was not a by-product. The plant failed to achieve net power
    production because of a poor site selection (e.g., thermal resource) and a mismatch of the power and seawater systems.
    However, the plant did operate for several weeks. This was followed by the design of a 2.2 MW floating plant for the
    production of up to 2000 tons of ice (this was prior to the wide availability of household refrigerators) for the city of
    Rio de Janeiro. Claude housed his power plant in a ship (i.e., plantship), about 100 km offshore. Unfortunately, he
    failed in his numerous attempts to install the vertical long pipe required to transport the deep ocean water to the
    ship (the cold water pipe, CWP) and had to abandon his enterprise in 1935. His failure can be attributed to the
    absence of the offshore industry, and ocean engineering expertise presently available. His biggest technological
    challenge was the at-sea installation of a CWP.
BMORE 2008                                      OTEC NEG                                                         LAG
Page 9 of 28


Thomas H. Daniel, Ph. D., Scientific/Technical Director, Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, Hawaii, IOA
Newsletter Vol.13, No.3/Autumn 2002, accessed July 28, 2003,
   OTEC is inherently a large-scale technology, requiring a large capital investment up front. The size of the
   investment dictates that, even though the process requires no fuel and will have relatively low operating costs,
   the investment will only be recouped over a number of years. The economic viability of OTEC is thus determined
   by factors such as the financing cost, the plant life-cycle and the future cost of competing energy sources. If an
   OTEC plant could be guaranteed to operate for 30 years without major overhaul, conservative projections of energy cost
   and interest rates predict a 30% return on investment, and investors would be eager to invest. However, it is not possible
   to predict the life cycle of a 50 MW plant from the limited intermittent operation of the largest plant built thus far, the
   250 kW open cycle experiment at NELHA. World Bank advisors have determined that a pilot plant of about 5 MW
   operating for 5 years would be needed to justify investment in the full-scale technology. Such a plant would still be
   very expensive, however, and it would almost certainly lose money.

EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 20 03,
    Bringing costs into line is still a huge challenge, however. All OTEC plants require an expensive, large diameter
    intake pipe, which is submerged a mile or more into the ocean's depths, to bring very cold water to the surface. This
    cold seawater is an integral part of each of the three types of OTEC systems: closed-cycle, open-cycle, and

QUESTIONS, December 2002, accessed July 28, 2003,
   The new designs for OTEC are still mostly experimental. Only small-scale versions have been made. The largest
   so far is near Japan, and it can create 100 kilowatts of electricity. Another small-scale OTEC is off the coast of
   Hawaii, producing 50 kilowatts of electricity. If a successful OTEC is built, it is planned to produce 2 megawatts of
   electricity. However, a full scale OTEC would cost many millions of dollars, and it would be very difficult to build.
BMORE 2008                                     OTEC NEG                                                        LAG
Page 10 of 28


Dohn Riley and Mark McLaughlin, Alternative Energy Institute, TURNING THE CORNER: ENERGY SOLUTIONS
FOR THE 21ST CENTURY, 2001,, accessed July 28,
   Researchers believe it will be quite some time before OTEC technology is in a position to partially phase out the
   use of fossil fuels in limited regions of the world. The large amount of equipment, chronic maintenance problems,
   and very low efficiency rates suggest that OTEC power generation will not be replacing fossil fuels any time

Seth Bechis, senior concentrating in Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard, HARVARD SCIENCE REVIEW, Winter
2002, p. 72.
   On the down side, OTEC electric plants are more expensive to run than current coal and oil stations, and the
   required materials such as durable, deep water pipelines, turbines and pumps need to be refined. Finally, the
   plants must be located in areas where there is a sharp dropoff in ocean depth, in order to maintain a thermal
   gradient year-round. Hawaii and some Caribbean islands are well suited for this purpose. For now, the
   technology remains to be tested in a full-scale model.

L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol.12, No.4, Winter 2001,,
accessed July 28, 2003.
   Several means of energy transport and delivery from plants deployed throughout the tropical oceans have been
   considered. OTEC energy could be transported via electrical, chemical, thermal and electrochemical carriers. The
   technical evaluation of non-electrical carriers leads to the consideration of hydrogen produced using electricity and
   desalinated water generated with OTEC technology. The product would be transported, from the OTEC plantship
   located at distances of 1,600 km (selected to represent the nominal distance from the tropical oceans to major
   industrialized centers throughout the world) to the port facility in liquid form to be primarily used as a
   transportation fuel. A 100 MW-net plantship can be configured to yield (by electrolysis) 1300 kg per hour of liquid
   hydrogen. Unfortunately, the production cost of liquid hydrogen delivered to the harbor would be equivalent to a
   $250 barrel-of-crude-oil (approximately 10 times present cost). The situation is similar for the other energy
   carriers considered in the literature. Presently, the only energy carrier that is cost-effective for OTEC energy is the
   submarine power cable.

L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Summer 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003,
    Tropical and subtropical island sites could be made independent of conventional fuels for the production of electricity
    and desalinated water by using plants of appropriate size. The larger question of OTEC as a significant provider of
    power for the world can not be assessed, beyond the experimental plant stage, until some operational and environmental
    impact data is made available through the construction and operation of the pre-commercial plant mentioned above.
BMORE 2008                                       OTEC NEG                                                           LAG
Page 11 of 28


EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, February 2003,, accessed July 28, 2003.
    Aquaculture is perhaps the most well-known byproduct of OTEC. Cold-water delicacies, such as salmon and
    lobster, thrive in the nutrient-rich, deep, seawater from the OTEC process. Microalgae such as Spirulina, a health
    food supplement, also can be cultivated in the deep-ocean water.

John P. Craven, Common Heritage Corporation, and Thomas H. Daniel, Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority,
Facilities Panel: November 4-12, 2001, Honolulu, Hawaii, accessed July 28, 2003,
    Aquaculture represents the primary use of deep ocean water today. The demand for aquacultural products is
    increasing, and the inherently smaller seawater requirements compared to OTEC make aquaculture enterprises
    more realizable with present pipeline technology. As noted many times previously, deep ocean water has three
    primary characteristics that make it especially useful for aquaculture: it's cold, it's clean and it's nutrient rich. The low
    temperature makes it possible to grow plants and animals (such as nori and Maine lobster) that don't normally grow in
    the tropics, but the primary value of the coldness comes from the temperature control that can be achieved by mixing
    with warm surface water. The low pathogen levels and high nutrient levels are both useful characteristics of the
    deep water for aquaculture, but neither is as important commercially as is ability to control temperature at low cost.

EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 2003,
OTEC technology also supports chilled-soil agriculture. When cold seawater flows through underground pipes, it chills
the surrounding soil. The temperature difference between plant roots in the cool soil and plant leaves in the warm air allows
many plants that evolved in temperate climates to be grown in the subtropics. The Natural Energy Laboratory maintains a
demonstration garden near its OTEC plant with more than 100 different fruits and vegetables, many of which would not
normally survive in Hawaii.
BMORE 2008                                     OTEC NEG                                                        LAG
Page 12 of 28


Jan TenBruggencate, Science Writer, HONOLULU ADVERTISER, February 8, 20 03, p. A1.
   Acanthophora spicifera, the most widespread of the five top alien algae, covers 11 percent to 50 percent of the sea floor
   off certain areas of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui and a single small area off the Big Island's Hamakua Coast. Hypnea
   musciformis, a feathery limu brought in for aquaculture, is found most heavily on Maui, with one dense population on
   south Kaua'i and smaller amounts on south O'ahu. Several species of Kappaphycus are thick in Kane'ohe Bay,
   where it is expanding fast. The weed is so rigid it can damage corals by abrasion as well as shading them out.
   Avrainvillea amadelpha, with bright green, leathery leaves, competes directly with the Islands' only native
   seagrass on sandy bottoms off south O'ahu and in one location off south Kaua'i. Hunter said all but the Acanthophora
   were introduced for aquaculture. Some, such as Gracilariaare, are eaten without processing, although the native
   manauea and less aggressive introduced ogo are considered tastier. Some seaweeds are processed into agar — used in
   laboratories to grow bacteria and in food production as a thickening agent — and carageenen, widely used as a gelling
   agent and to make ice cream and yogurt smoother. Acanthophora is believed to have arrived in Hawai'i on the bottom of
   a barge from Guam in 1950. "All of these are superweeds," Hunter said. In addition to trashing the marine
   environment and impacting native species and valued fish, the weeds pile up on shore after storms, marring

Jan TenBruggencate, Science Writer, HONOLULU ADVERTISER, February 8, 20 03, p. A1.
   Co said alien marine algae is a statewide concern, though unrelated to a separate battle being waged against the
   noxious aquatic weed Salvinia molesta, a fast-growing freshwater plant — not an alga — that is clogging up Lake
   Wilson. "The five major problematic limu in the Hawaiian Islands are a real threat to the coral reef systems.
   Gracilaria salicornia, for example, will quickly overgrow corals and less aggressive marine algae, outcompeting them
   for space," Co said.

Darryl Johnson, U.S. Ambassador to Thailand, Opening the South/Southeast Asia Workshop on Alien Invasive Species, U.S.
EMBASSY PRESS RELEASE, #087/02, August 14, 20 02, accessed July 28, 2003,
    Invasive alien species are defined as non-native species whose introduction to a new ecosystem can cause
    economic or environmental harm or harm to health. They are estimated to cost the U.S. over $137 billion
    annually and have emerged as a global environmental threat second only to habitat loss in their impact on
    biological diversity.

Darryl Johnson, U.S. Ambassador to Thailand, Opening the South/Southeast Asia Workshop on Alien Invasive Species, U.S.
EMBASSY PRESS RELEASE, #087/02, August 14, 20 02, accessed July 28, 2003,
    In other instances, non-native species are introduced into the environment for specific purposes - such as for use
    in erosion control or aquaculture production - and later turn out to be problematic. Our challenge is to
    decide how to live in an increasingly fast-paced and borderless world without destroying unique ecosystems, damaging
    crops, or threatening human health. And, as one of today's participants [Dr. Jeff Waage] said, "Invasive species are not
    just an agricultural issue, not just an environmental issue; they are a development issue." This is so because the
    countries hardest hit are those that can least afford it: countries where food is grown for subsistence, not as a
BMORE 2008                                     OTEC NEG                                                       LAG
Page 13 of 28


EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, February 2003,, accessed July 28, 2003.
    OTEC may one day provide a means to mine ocean water for 57 trace elements. Most economic analyses have
    suggested that mining the ocean for dissolved substances would be unprofitable because so much energy is
    required to pump the large volume of water needed and because of the expense involved in separating the minerals
    from seawater. But with OTEC plants already pumping the water, the only remaining economic challenge is to
    reduce the cost of the extraction process.

L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003,
    Metallic structural elements (e.g., heat exchangers, pump impellers, metallic piping) corroded or eroded by
    seawater will add trace elements to the effluent. It is difficult to predict whether metals released from a plant will
    affect local biota. Trace elements differ in their toxicity and resistance to corrosion. Few studies have been
    conducted of tropical and subtropical species. However, the sheer size of an OTEC plant circulation system suggests
    that the aggregate of trace constituents released from the plant or redistributed from natural sources could have
    long-term significance for some organisms.
BMORE 2008                                     OTEC NEG                                                         LAG
Page 14 of 28

                          NO RISK OF WATER WAR- EMPIRICALLY DENIED

Volker BOEGE AND Mandy TURNER – 2006
A Joint Project of the Finnish Institute of International Affairs & the Centre for International Cooperation and Security -
Conflict Prevention, Management and Reduction in Africa - Access to freshwater and Conflict Prevention, Management and
Resolution in Africa – Online-
   There have been serious tensions between upstream and downstream or bordering riparians
   of the Nile River, the Euphrates and Tigris, the Jordan River, the Amu-Darja and Syr-Darja.
   The ―water wars‖ discourse repeatedly refers to these cases. However, in doing so, a highly
   distorted picture has been presented. Despite the vast number of transboundary river systems (260
   worldwide, 63 on the African continent) there have been no serious conflicts to date, and even in the
   most conflict-prone cases violence has been avoided. The ―Basins at Risk‖ (BAR) project at Oregon State
   University conducted comprehensive empirical work on the issue of international water courses and conflict. The
   findings of this project, presented in the ―Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database‖ (TFDD), have put the ―water
   wars‖ thesis into perspective. The project assessed all reported events of conflict and cooperation over water resources
   between two or more states from 1948 to 2000. It found that of the 1,831 interactions between riparians, the vast
   majority (1,228) were of a cooperative nature. Indeed, over the past 50 years approximately 200 treaties
   on the common use of shared water courses have been put into effect. Of the 507 conflictive
   events registered, only in 37 cases was violence used and only 21 of these included military
   action. Of these 21 cases (out of 1,831) 18 involved Israel and its neighbours, hence a very specific
   conflict constellation. In the database not one single ―water war‖ can be found.16
BMORE 2008                                    OTEC NEG                                                     LAG
Page 15 of 28

                                           NO WATER WAR- EGYPT

Volker BOEGE AND Mandy TURNER – 2006
A Joint Project of the Finnish Institute of International Affairs & the Centre for International Cooperation and Security -
Conflict Prevention, Management and Reduction in Africa - Access to freshwater and Conflict Prevention, Management and
Resolution in Africa – Online-
   The prominent case of the Nile River basin, which provides an example of a ―water war‖ danger, is shared by
   10 countries in Northern and Eastern Africa. It is often regarded to be a special case as the entire economic
   development of the downstream riparian, Egypt, depends on the waters of the Nile. Egypt, which is the most
   powerful riparian state in economic and military terms, has declared the secure inflow of Nile water from beyond its
   boundaries a national security issue. In the past, there have been serious disagreements between Egypt and
   upstream riparians (Ethiopia in particular) about the division of Nile water, which in situations of serious stress
   (drought), has led to threats of military action. However, the danger of war has diminished due to
   cooperation efforts in the basin (see 5.2 below).23
BMORE 2008                                     OTEC NEG                                                         LAG
Page 16 of 28

                                      NO INDIA-PAKISTAN WATER WAR

   In May, when Islamic terrorists attacked a bus full of civilians near an Indian army base in Kashmir state, Indian leaders
   pledged to retaliate, and told the Army to be prepared to sacrifice their lives in an all-out attack. But when two
   Islamic gunmen shot their way into a Hindu temple in Gujarat state late Tuesday afternoon, killing 32
   worshipers before being killed by Indian commandos, the same Indian leadership was much more
   restrained. While most officials blame Pakistan, none have called for military reaction, let
   alone war. Indian President Abdul Kalam, for example, appealed to different religious groups to remain peaceful.
   "We should unitedly defeat all the evil designs against our country," he said. "Our police and security forces are fully
   capable of defeating all forms of terrorist attempts against our country." After months of beating the drums of
   war over what it sees as Pakistani-funded terrorist attacks, India has suddenly changed its
   tactics. Growing closeness with the West and increased isolation of its enemies - particularly
   Pakistani-based Islamic militant groups - have left India more confident in its fight against
   domestic and cross-border terrorism, analysts say.
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Page 17 of 28

                                        No Middle East Water War

No Risk of water wars in the Middle East
South China Morning Post- May 17, 2007 - Running on empty- -lexis
   While tensions are high, some say the water conflict forces opposite sides to co-operate. Of all the Palestinian-
   Israeli committees established under the 1995 Oslo peace agreement, only the joint water committees continue to
   meet regularly and co-operate. "The idea of water wars is sexy and appealing but it's media hype,"
   said Israel Foreign Ministry deputy director-general for Middle East Affairs Yaakov Keidar. "If you have scarce
   resources it won't do any good to fight over them; you will only re-divide the scarcity." Palestinian Friends of
   the Earth Middle East director Nader Al Khateeb agreed. "I totally disagree with any suggestion of war over
   water. It doesn't make sense because war cannot solve the water problem. Peace will." Former Israeli water policy
   adviser Mr Kinarty said: "It took thousands of hours and endless patience to reach an interim peace agreement. But I
   have endless patience because I know peace is better than war. I've fought wars and I lost a child to war. Peace is
   always better." In the Palestinian-Israeli water row, some say the solution lies in rebalancing the supply inequity,
   addressing sewage treatment and curtailing illegal drilling.
BMORE 2008                                    OTEC NEG                                                           LAG
Page 18 of 28

                           AT- MIDDLE EAST WAR GOES NUCLEAR

Professor Li SHAOXIAN, expert in the Middle East and a senior researcher in the Institute of Contemporary
International Relations, 8-17-2001,
    Although the situation in the Middle East is alarming, it will not start a war. The main reasons
    are: First, both the international community and international environment will not
    allow another Middle East war to break out. Peace and development is still the theme of today‘s
    world. No big power wants to see a new war between Arab and Israel in this area so crucial to oil
    production. Second, war is not in line with the interests of several countries in the Middle
    East. None of the Israelis (including Sharon himself) wants war, because war would again put the
   very existence of the country in danger; Yasser Afrafat, as well, does not want war, because war would turn
   his 10 years peace efforts into nothing; Egypt and Syria, the other two big powers in Middle
   East, do not want war either. The president of Egypt Hosni Mubarak firmly rejected the possibility
   of war in an interview with Israeli TV. Bashar al-Assad, the new president of Syria, has put most his
   attention on domestic affairs. Third, the countries and extremists who do want to see war have
   neither the capablities or means for war.
BMORE 2008                                                 OTEC NEG                                                                         LAG
Page 19 of 28

                                         Deep Ocean Water Pumps CP

Text: The United States Federal Government should construct 10,000 Deep Ocean water pumps in the Gulf
of Mexico with the intent of using plankton to sequester CO2. The pumps should be built in conjunction with
state and local government and the business community to find ancillary economic opportunities from the
Water pumps. We’ll clarify.

Observation2- not topical- we provide no incentives for the development of fossil fuel.

Observation 3- Competition- the Counterplan competes via net benefits. All our disads based on cutting fossil
use our net benefits to the CP.

Observation 4. Solvency- A large scale deployment of deep ocean water pumps would solve global warming,
allowing the earth to heal itself
Roger Highfield, Science Editor for the telegraph (UK) - 26/09/2007- James Lovelock's plan to pump ocean
water to stop climate change- Online-
    A plan to save our world from extreme climate change by pumping cold water from the depths of the
    oceans is outlined today by James Lovelock, the scientist who inspired the greens. James Lovelock is best known
    for his ideas that portray Earth as a living thing , a super-organism - named Gaia, after the ancient Earth goddess - in
    which creatures, rocks, air and water interact in subtle ways to ensure the environment remains stable. Today Lovelock, of Green
    College, Oxford University, outlines an emergency way to stimulate the Earth to cure itself with Chris Rapley,
    former head of the British Antarctic Survey who is now the director of the Science Museum, London. They believe the answer
    lies in the oceans, which transport much more heat than the atmosphere and, covering more than 70 per cent of the Earth's
    surface. They propose that vertical pipes some 10 metres across be placed in the ocean, such that wave
    motion would pump up cool water from 100-200 metres depth to the surface, moving nutrient-rich
    waters in the depths to mix with the relatively barren warm waters at the ocean surface. This would
    fertilise algae in the surface waters and encourage them to bloom, absorbing carbon dioxide
    greenhouse gas while also releasing a chemical called dimethyl sulphide that is know to seed sunlight
    reflecting clouds. "Such an approach may fail, perhaps on engineering or economic grounds", they say, adding that the effects on
    the acidity of the ocean also have to be factored in. None the less, "the removal of 500 gigatons (500 billon tons) of carbon
    dioxide from the air by human endeavour is beyond our current technological capability. "If we can't
    'heal the planet' directly, we may be able to help the planet heal itself." One version of the scheme sees
    around 10,000 pipes in the Gulf of Mexico, they told The Daily Telegraph. But until there are some trials, "there is no way
    one can come up with a figure on atmospheric carbon dioxide reduction per pipe let alone temperature reduction," said Dr Rapley.

Artificially Cold water up-drafts solve for fishing stocks too
Kirke- 2003- Brian Kirke- School of Engineering, Griffith University- Enhancing fish stocks with wave-powered
artificial upwelling
27 August 2003. - Available online-
    There is now growing interest in the prospect of emulating this natural upwelling process and
    increasing ocean fish production in areas where there is no natural upwelling, by pumping large
    quantities of nutrient-rich DOW from depths of some hundreds of metres up to the euphotic zone. The
    density difference between the surface and deep water is only about 2–3 kg/m3, and although this is enough to prevent nutrients reaching
    the surface by natural mixing, the mechanical energy required to overcome it is relatively small, as will be shown below. Large
    amounts of nutrient-rich deep ocean water could therefore be pumped up with a relatively small
    amount of power. If a low cost, low maintenance technology for pumping the water up and maintaining it within the photic zone
    without excessive dilution can be found, locations close to markets could be chosen for artificial upwelling,
    thereby reducing harvesting costs. The use of wave energy for pumping would reduce the energy in the
    waves in the area, thereby creating a relatively calm and comfortable environment for fishing. This
    would be beneficial in an area such as the mid-west coast of Western Australia, where "strong southerly winds that persist throughout
    most of the year…result in many lost fishing days" and "quite large scale seas (>2 m)…can make fishing and research operations
    difficult" [6]. It may also be possible to reduce coastal erosion by careful selection of sites for wave energy extraction.
BMORE 2008                                     OTEC NEG                                                        LAG
Page 20 of 28

                         AT- Cutting fossil fuels key to solve GW

Deep ocean water pumps ameliorate fossil fuel use by cutting air conditioning costs
Prof. Joe Cummins- 28/07/06- The Blue Revolution: Air Condition and Energy from Deep Waters of Lakes and
Oceans- Online-
   Many great cities around the world are located near ocean shores or deep lakes. The cities of Toronto,
   Stockholm and Honolulu, and the Cornell University campus are showing the world what can be done
   using cold deep water to power the cooling of large buildings, providing a large saving in energy
   and cutting down on carbon emissions and pollution from energy generating plants.
   Toronto initiated the cooling system in 2004 by the company Enwave District Energy Ltd. A five-kilometre
   long pipe draws cold (4 C) water from the depths (83 metres down) of Lake Ontario to Toronto Island (just
   offshore of Toronto) where the water is filtered and treated with chlorine as it is delivered to taps in homes
   and businesses. After treatment, the very cold water flows to a city plant that employs a heat exchanger
   to transfer heat from the water to cool a closed cooling water loop that circulates to the distribution
   network, where more heat exchangers cool the water circulating through the air conditioning systems in
   the office towers. The system will meet up to about 40 percent of the city‘s cooling needs. Toronto, like most
   Midwestern Cities, has very hot and humid summers, which put a huge demand on the electrical supply, so
   that the lake cooling system brings very welcome relief and protection against electrical ‗brown out‘. Cooling
   is provided for office towers, sports and entertainment facilities and waterfront developments. Currently,
   government buildings including the Ontario legislative complex are being modified for lake-water cooling
   [1-3]. Cornell University draws cold water from a nearby deep lake, Lake Cayuga. The water is pumped to a
   heat exchanger at the shore where the campus and a school share a cooling loop, and the warm water from
   the buildings flows down to push cool water up to the campus. The system is both elegant and cost
   effective [4].
BMORE 2008                                      OTEC NEG                                                         LAG
Page 21 of 28

                                              AT- impact turn

Even if the risks are high, the risks of global warming mandate them. The fact that deep
ocean water is a natural process limits its potential negative impacts
Roger Highfield, Science Editor for the telegraph (UK) - 26/09/2007- James Lovelock's plan to pump ocean
water to stop climate change- Online-
    "The Earth is fast becoming a hotter planet than anything yet experienced by humans," they write,
    explaining that natural processes that would normally regulate climate are being driven to amplify warming,
    so that higher temperatures can, for example, stimulate the release of more methane from wetlands and
    amplify the warming. "Such feedbacks, as well as the inertia of the Earth system and that of our
    response, make it doubtful that any of the well-intentioned technical or social schemes for carbon
    dieting will restore the status quo. "We need a fundamental cure for the pathology of global
    heating. Emergency treatment could come from stimulating the Earth's capacity to cure itself."
    Scientists have put forward several proposals to reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the planet's
    surface, including the use of light-reflecting sulphate particles in the atmosphere and installing mirrors in
    orbit around the planet. Using radical techniques to "engineer" Earth's climate by blocking sunlight
    could cool our overheated planet but present great risks that could well worsen global warming should
    they fail or be discontinued, warned one recent study by Ken Caldeira of the Carnegie Institution's
    Department of Global Ecology. "Geoengineering schemes have been proposed as a cheap fix that could let
    us have our cake and eat it, too. But geoengineering schemes are not well understood. Our study shows that
    planet-sized geoengineering means planet-sized risks." However, Dr Rapley said in response: "The
    attraction of this approach is that the dangers of "unexpected consequences" are low, because
    we are advocating stimulating and enhancing an entirely natural process."
BMORE 2008                                     OTEC NEG                                                       LAG
Page 22 of 28

                                        Solvency extensions

Power alone from OTEC may not be cost effective, but a combination of all positive
attributes is very lucrative
Davidson- 2000- Jack R. Davidson- VICE PRESIDENT AND CEO-GREEN



To meet the need for supplemental fresh water on coastal deserts, Dr. Craven invented the
Hurricane Tower (now patented). This DOW rain-maker is based on the same principles as
a hurricane. Proof of concept has been established and more extensive tests are under way.
CHC has also added a DOW chilled building to its demonstration facility. This Chill
House, made from a 40' container, provides for cool, short term storage of agricultural and
aquacultural produce. When the DOW system components (fresh water production, air-
conditioning, produce cooling, agriculture and aquaculture) are linked sequentially, this
becomes a very cost effective process.

Deep ocean water coming to the surface increases plankton stocks, accounting for 90% of
the worlds fish production
Kirke- 2003- Brian Kirke- School of Engineering, Griffith University- Enhancing fish stocks with wave-powered
artificial upwelling - 27 August 2003. - Available online-
    Most marine animals and plants live in the top 40 m of the water column [4]. When they die, there
    remains sink. In shallow coastal waters the nutrients can be recycled and these areas can be highly
    productive. But if the water is deeper than about 40–100 m, they sink below the euphotic zone, enriching
    the deep ocean water (DOW) but becoming unavailable to phytoplankton, which form the lowest trophic
    level of the marine food chain and require light to grow. The nutrients can then re-enter the food chain
    only where this nutrient-rich DOW is brought to the surface. This does not generally happen in warm
    and temperate regions of the oceans due to the density difference between the warm surface water and
    the cold DOW. As a result most tropical and temperate oceans have low productivity [4]. But in cold
    waters at high latitudes and in regions where currents bring cold polar water from the high latitudes, the
    ocean surface temperature drops to about 4°C and its density is similar to that at the bottom. The nutrient-
    rich DOW is then easily brought to the surface by turbulent mixing. Upwelling of DOW also occurs
    near some coasts, especially the west coasts of Southern Africa and South America due to ocean circulation.
    These regions of natural upwelling correspond to some of the most productive ocean fishing grounds of
    the world, contributing 90% of global ocean natural production [5].
BMORE 2008                                      OTEC NEG                                                         LAG
Page 23 of 28

                                        AT- hurricanes add on

Cold water pumps solve hurricanes and fish stocks
Roger Highfield, Science Editor for the telegraph (UK) - 26/09/2007- James Lovelock's plan to pump ocean
water to stop climate change- Online-
    "The whole idea is to stimulate some action to find out," he said. "To get an idea of orders of
    magnitude, the net drawdown of the ocean is estimated to be 2 gigatons per year (compared with
    human emissions of eight gigatons per year), but only part of that is by the biological pump we are seeking
    to enhance, and only a fraction of that (maybe as low as 10 per cent) finally sinks to the bottom and is
    trapped in the sediments (although holding it in the deep ocean helps for a while). "So one would have to
    work hard to get a net sequestration of a gigaton a year - but every little helps. " Lovelock added: "Let's not
    be pessimistic about the possibilities of the pipes or they might never be tried. Do not forget that they cool
    the top layer as well as fertilizing it. "In the Gulf this alone may be important for reducing the severity
    of hurricanes. It is local self interest such as hurricane prevention and the restoration of
    fisheries that may pay for the project." And they conclude in Nature: "The stakes are so high that
    we must try such schemes, even if they may fail.
BMORE 2008                                       OTEC NEG                                                         LAG
Page 24 of 28

     Plankton is key to stop global warming/ Plankton Good impacts

Plankton help slow global warming by increasing cloud cover- Like a butterflies wings
starting a hurricane, plankton can be critical to the earths climatic regulation
 Asaravala-2004- Amit Asaravala- staff- Plankton Cool Off With Own Clouds - Online-,1282,64239,00.html
    Phytoplankton may be small, but that doesn't mean they can't do big things -- like change the weather
    to suit their needs. A recent study funded by NASA's Earth Science Department shows that the tiny sea
    plants release high quantities of cloud-forming compounds on days when the sun's harmful ultraviolet
    rays are especially strong. The compounds evaporate into the air through a series of chemical
    processes that result in especially reflective clouds. This, in turn, blocks the radiation from bothering the
    phytoplankton. The findings not only confirm earlier theories that plankton are linked to the creation of
    clouds above the ocean but could also lead to a better understanding of how living things affect the Earth's
    climate. "The take-home message is that all the processes that are going on in the ocean and the
    climate are very tightly connected," said David Siegel, co-author of the study and director of the Institute
    for Computational Earth System Science in Santa Barbara, California. "This is really the impetus for other
    researchers to look into the whole cycle of how biology and climate interact." Siegel and Woods Hole
    Oceanographic Institution researcher Dierdre Toole announced the results of their study in the May issue of
    the Geophysical Research Letters, a scientific journal. The two researchers performed the study on
    measurements taken off the coast of Bermuda. There, they found that the ocean levels of a compound called
    dimethylsulfoniopropionate, or DMSP, were directly related to the level of ultraviolet radiation reaching the
    phytoplankton that live near the ocean's surface. DMSP is an important link in the plankton-to-cloud cycle
    because, as it leaves the phytoplankton cells and enters into the water, bacteria break it down into a chemical
    called dimethylsulfide, or DMS. Evaporated water, in turn, carries the DMS into the air where the chemical
    reacts with oxygen to form various sulfur compounds. These compounds collect as dust particles that
    promote water condensation, which, finally, leads to cloud formation. The entire process takes place very
    rapidly, ensuring that the plankton aren't under the sun's rays too long. In their study, Siegel and Toole found
    that the upper layer of DMS in the atmosphere could be replaced in just a few days. That the process happens
    at all may be a sign that the Earth is better prepared to handle climate forces like the depletion of the ozone
    layer, which also blocks ultraviolet light, than previously thought. However, Siegel believes it's too early to
    make such assessments because it's unclear just how widespread the phenomenon is. It's also unclear
    just how much ultraviolet light and other forces the system can tolerate. The researchers now plan to
    create computer models that explore how the presence and absence of phytoplankton might change the
    climate. They also hope to add to their study by using information from NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-
    view Sensor mission, which collects data on shifts in visible light reaching the ocean's surface. It's possible
    that the extended work will show that phytoplankton do affect climate on a global scale, said Siegel. If
    that's the case, it's also possible that scientists who like to talk about the "butterfly effect" -- the theory
    that the flapping of a butterfly's wings in one part of the world could eventually lead to violent weather
    patterns in another -- may soon find that it's more hip to talk about the "phytoplankton effect."
BMORE 2008                                      OTEC NEG                                                        LAG
Page 25 of 28

Plankton in tropical oceans help to reflect sunlight by creating clouds
Science daily- july 14, 2004- When Sun's Too Strong, Plankton Make Clouds
   People say size doesn't matter, and that may be true for tiny plankton, those free-floating ocean plants
   that make up the bottom of the marine food-chain. Little plankton may be able to change the weather,
   and longer term climate, in ways that serve them better. It's almost hard to believe, but new NASA-
   funded research confirms an old theory that plankton can indirectly create clouds that block some of
   the Sun's harmful rays. The study was conducted by Dierdre Toole of the Woods Hole Oceanographic
   Institution (WHOI) and David Siegel of the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). The study
   finds that in summer when the Sun beats down on the top layer of ocean where plankton live, harmful
   rays in the form of ultraviolet (UV) radiation bother the little plants. When they are bothered, or
   stressed, plankton try to protect themselves by producing a compound called dimethylsulfoniopropionate
   (DMSP). Though no one knows for sure, some scientists believe DMSP helps strengthen the plankton's cell
   walls. This chemical gets broken down in the water by bacteria, and it changes into another substance
   called dimethylsulfide (DMS) DMS then filters from the ocean into the air, where it reacts with oxygen,
   to form different sulfur compounds. Sulfur in the DMS sticks together in the air and creates tiny dust-
   like particles. These particles are just the right size for water to condense on, which is the beginning of
   how clouds are formed. So, indirectly, plankton help create more clouds, and more clouds mean less direct
   light reaches the ocean surface. This relieves the stress put on plankton by the Sun's harmful UV rays.
   For years now scientists have been studying related processes in the lab, but this is the first time scientists
   have shown how variations in light impact plankton in a natural environment. The research was done in the
   Sargasso Sea, off the coast of Bermuda. Previous research also found that the cloud producing
   compound peaks in the summer in the ocean, when UV rays are high, but plankton numbers are at
   their lowest. "Plankton levels are at a minimum in the summer but DMS is at its peak," said Toole. In the
   warmest months, the top layer of the ocean warms as well. This heating of the top 25 meters (around 80 feet)
   creates a contrast with cooler deeper layers. The deeper layers hold many of the nutrients that plankton
   need to live on. Like how oil separates from water, the warmer upper layer creates almost a barrier
   from the cooler lower layers and less mixing occurs. Also, the shallow upper layer exposes the plankton to
   more UV light. Under conditions where there are low nutrients in the water and levels of UV light are high,
   plankton create more DMS. DMS levels peak from June through the end of September. During the season,
   the study found that a whopping 77 percent of the changes in amounts of DMS were due to exposure to UV
   radiation. The researchers found it amazing that a single factor could have such a big affect on this process.
   "For someone studying marine biology and ecology, this type of variation is absolutely incredible," Siegel
   said. The researchers were also surprised to find that the DMS molecules completely refresh themselves after
   only three to five days. That means the plankton may react to UV rays quickly enough to impact their
   own weather. Toole and Siegel were surprised by the lightning-fast rate of turnover for DMS. To give
   an example for comparison, when carbon dioxide gets into the atmosphere where it acts as a greenhouse gas
   and traps heat, it may last for decades. Toole adds that the cycles that break down DMS scream along at
   these very fast rates, even though overall amounts over the course of the year remain pretty stable with
   a slow increase over summer and a gradual decline over winter. The next step for the researchers will be
   to see how much the added clouds from plankton actually impact climate. By figuring out how plankton react
   to light, scientists now have the information they need to use computer models to recreate the impacts of
   plankton on cloud cover. Since the white clouds can reflect sunlight back out to space, the researchers believe
   the plankton-made clouds may have some affect on global temperatures. This is important in light of man-
   made greenhouse gas production that warms the planet, and ozone depletion that allows more life-threatening
   UV radiation to strike Earth.
BMORE 2008                                      OTEC NEG                                                         LAG
Page 26 of 28

Plankton is absolutely critical to planetary survival
Strieber 2004- Anne Strieber- Editor of The Ocean is Saving Us—For Now - 22-Jul-
2004– Online- Accessed 8-19-04
    Scientists have discovered that nearly 50% of the carbon dioxide that humans have pumped into the
    atmosphere over the last 200 years has been absorbed by the ocean. This means that greenhouse gases aren't
    as high as they would be otherwise, meaning global warming has been slowed down—for now. But what effect
    does all this CO2 have on the fish so many people need to survive? NOAA's Christopher Sabine says, "If
    the ocean had not removed 118 billion metric tons of carbon between 1800 and 1994, the CO2 level in the
    atmosphere would be about 55 parts per million greater than currently observed." During the next few
    thousand years, it’s estimated about 90% of the man-made CO2 emissions will end up in the ocean. At the
    moment the oceans hold only about a third of the CO2 that they can, so they'll be able to continue to soak it up
    in the future, but at what cost to their health? The heavy concentration of carbon dioxide in the oceans has
    makes it harder for corals, some mollusks and some plankton to pull carbonate ions from the water to
    form shells, which are made of calcium carbonate. In areas where CO2 concentrations are particularly
    high, their shells begin to dissolve. Researcher Victoria Fabry says, "Based on our present knowledge, it
    appears that as seawater CO2 levels rise, the skeletal growth rates of calcareous plankton will be reduced—as a
    result of the effects of CO2 on calcification." This CO2 isn't distributed evenly, because CO2 gets into the
    ocean at the surface and mixes with the rest of the water slowly. This means that most CO2 is found near the
    surface of the ocean, or in seas that are shallow. Sabine says, "About half of the…CO2 (produced by human
    activity)…over the last 200 years can be found in the upper 10% of the ocean." Will it affect more sea
    creatures as it slowly mixes with the rest of the water? Do we really need the shelled creatures of the sea?
    They are part of a food chain which could eventually lead to a shortage of the fish the world depends on
    for food. And plankton creates about 50% of the world's oxygen, so without it, we’ll quickly come to the
    end of the world.

Plankton saves Us from the ice age
Strieber 2003- Anne Strieber- Editor of Plankton Prevents Ice Ages - 03-Nov-2003 –
Online- Accessed 8-19-04
   We wrote that runaway icebergs are killing plankton in the Antarctic by blocking the sun from
   reaching the surface of the water. This is bad news for more than penguins, because scientists think,
   eons ago, these tiny shelled sea creatures ended a 200 million year era of extreme ice ages and have
   protected the Earth from repeating this cycle ever since. Duncan Graham-Rowe writes in New Scientist
   that before the evolution of the plankton, polar ice caps covered much of the Earth. Plankton incorporate
   carbon dioxide into their calcium carbonate shells, removing extra CO2 from the atmosphere.
   Chemical processes in the sea then dissolve the calcium carbonate from these shells, changing the
   acidity of the water. This increases the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide that can dissolve in the
   ocean, helping to prevent global warming. As Art Bell and Whitley Strieber explain in The Coming Global
   Superstorm, too much warming can lead to abrupt climate change, producing an ice age. At first, global
   warming raises the sea levels, but if freshwater from melting polar regions dilutes the warming gulf
   stream, it will drop down, leaving the northern hemisphere much colder. This would cause the ice caps
   to increase once more, leading to lower sea levels, which would cause much of the plankton to die off.
   Increased ice cover would also reflect sunlight, rather than absorbing it, increasing the cooling effect. But so
   far, plankton has saved us—since its arrival millions of years ago, there have been no major ice ages.
Whitman College                                                                                                    27
185c12ce-275a-44f0-8073-50c45f699143.doc 8/25/11                                                                        File Title

                                                Oil DA links
Also, OTEC would completely replace fossil fuels as a source of energy and provide
renewable energy to the entire world population.
Braun 2002 (Harry, Chairman of the Hydrogen Political Action Committee,
   The oceans contain 98 percent of the Earth's water, and they make up over 70 percent of the Earth's
   surface area that receives solar radiation. This makes the oceans the largest solar collector on the Earth,
   and it has cost nothing to build. Moreover, half of the Earth's surface lies between the latitudes 20
   degrees North and 20 degrees South, which is mostly occupied by the tropical oceans where ocean
   thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants could efficiently operate. According to calculations by Clarence
   Zener, a professor of physics at Carnegie- Mellon University, the potential energy that could be extracted by
   OTEC plants located in the tropical ocean areas would be approximately 60 mil-lion megawatts. Assuming
   the OTEC systems would have an operating capacity of about 80 percent, they would be able to
   generate over 400 billion megawatt-hours per year, which is more than three times the current total
   human annual energy consumption of roughly 150 billion megawatt-hours. Thus, OTEC systems could,
   in and of themselves, have the potential to generate enough electricity and/or hydrogen literally to run
   the world -- without using any of the earth's remaining fossil fuel reserves.

OTEC is key to reduce oil dependency

Krock and Oney- 2003- Jürgen Krock - Professor in the Department of Ocean Engineering of the
University of Hawaii- Stephen K. Oney- OTEC researcher for the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii –
OCEES online- 8-18-04

   The transition from fossil fuels to a hydrogen based world economy will take time. The reduction of
   dependency upon foreign governments and organizations that dictate the price and availability of a
   diminishing resource is essential. Wars and political turmoil are often based upon the procurement of
   petroleum resources. The advent of a hydrogen based economy will reduce global competition for resources
   such as fossil fuels. International cooperation amongst energy corporations to develop the OTEC
   resource will actually lead to increases in jobs in heavy industry. Fuel route shipping distances in an
   OTEC based hydrogen economy will be significantly shorter relative to current shipping distances
   experienced transporting fossil fuels from origin to ports of the world's energy consumers. This will
   further reduce costs. The existing infrastructure of our fossil fuel based world economy will simply be
   modified to use hydrogen tankers and hydrogen storage facilities and pipelines. Additionally, the markets for
   automobiles and hydrogen distribution to end users will remain essentially the same. Developing countries,
   lacking in extensive fossil fuel distribution systems, will find whole new markets for this energy system, as
   they implement regional distribution of hydrogen. Existing infrastructure will need to convert to this new
   energy delivery medium, but fundamentally this will be a modification of existing technology.
Whitman College                                                                                                        28
185c12ce-275a-44f0-8073-50c45f699143.doc 8/25/11                                                                            File Title

OTEC would replace fossil fuels for developing nations.
Robert Cohen APRIL 1, 1992 Ph.D. from Cornell University REVITALIZING THE U.S.
    Attractive early OTEC electrical markets are found in land-based locations where OTEC-derived
    electricity can be generated on shore and substituted for presently oil-derived electricity. Such U.S.
    OTEC markets include Guam, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, and there is a large, near-term
    OTEC electrical market in many developing countries having access to the major oceans. A Science
    Applications International Corp. study report by Dunbar (Potential for ocean thermal energy conversion as a
    renewable energy source for developing nations, 1981) documents many attractive early markets where
    OTEC-derived electricity could be substituted for presently oil derived electicity or used to expand the
    electrical supply. That report indicates that there are about 60 developing nations -- including Brazil-- with
    access to a viable ocean thermal energy resource within their exclusive economic zones. The Dunbar study
    also identified about 30 territories of developed nations -- such as Puerto Rico, Tahiti, and the Virgin Islands
    -- which are similarly situated. For each megawatt of existing oil-derived electricity replaced by OTEC
    generation, about 40 barrels per day of oil would be conserved. An early market penetration of some
    50,000 megawatts could be achieved in such locations, amounting to a daily global savings of 2 million
    barrels of oil. Also, likely coproducts of OTEC plants and of OTEC technology have considerable potential
    in developing countries. They include coastal cooling, fresh water production, mariculture, solar ponds, and
    bottoming cycles.

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