BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 1 of 28 Neg Neg .................................................................................................................................................. 1 AT- Hurricanes add on................................................................................................................. 2 OTEC fails- Susceptible to storms .............................................................................................. 3 Technical solutions for over fishing fail ...................................................................................... 4 OTEC NEGATIVE ........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.5 THERE ARE ONLY A FEW SITES GOOD FOR OTEC: NO PROOF OF FEASIBILITY ...................................5 OTEC ENERGY IS TOO COSTLY. IT CAN‘T COMPETE WITH OTHER ENERGY SOURCES ......................6 OTEC IS BAD FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENT ...................................................................................................7 PROBLEMS WITH COLD WATER PIPE FOIL OTEC .........................................................................................8 OTEC‘S UP-FRONT COST IS TOO GREAT, STOPS INVESTMENT AND SUCCESS ......................................9 PRACTICAL AND TECHNICAL BARRIERS THWART OTEC SOLVENCY .................................................. 10 OTEC LEADS TO NON-NATIVE AQUACULTURE AND AGRICULTURE .................................................... 11 OTEC LEADS TO DETRIMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES ............................................................ 13 NO RISK OF WATER WAR- EMPIRICALLY DENIED..................................................... 14 NO WATER WAR- EGYPT...................................................................................................... 15 NO INDIA-PAKISTAN WATER WAR ................................................................................... 16 No Middle East Water War ....................................................................................................... 17 AT- MIDDLE EAST WAR GOES NUCLEAR ....................................................................... 18 Deep Ocean Water Pumps CP ................................................................................................... 19 AT- Cutting fossil fuels key to solve GW .................................................................................. 20 AT- impact turn .......................................................................................................................... 21 Solvency extensions ..................................................................................................................... 22 AT- hurricanes add on................................................................................................................ 23 Plankton is key to stop global warming/ Plankton Good impacts .......................................... 24 Oil DA links ................................................................................................................................. 27 BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 2 of 28 AT- Hurricanes add on Global warming does not increase the frequency of hurricanes Martin Merzer, Miami Herald staff - April 4, 2008 - Some researchers see no link between global warming, hurricane activity- lexis We're in a busy period of hurricane activity that will inflict unimaginable damage, but global warming is not the cause, leading researchers told the nation's foremost forecasters and other experts Friday. Chris Landsea, a respected researcher and the National Hurricane Center's science officer, told attendees of the National Hurricane Conference that there is no conclusive evidence that global warming has significantly enhanced or otherwise affected the number or intensity of hurricanes. "Any trend we see due to global warming has very little impact, has caused very tiny changes, and might actually be slightly reducing the activity we see in the Atlantic," Landsea told the group, which numbered 2,100 earlier in the week, though some left before the global warming session began. But overall, hurricane seasons will remain relatively active and they will become increasingly costly, researchers said. Insurance experts warned Friday that the nation soon will absorb a hurricane that causes more than $100 billion in damage, and Landsea has estimated that a Category 5 hurricane could produce at least $140 billion in damage to South Florida. But that, he and others said, has virtually nothing to do with global warming. Landsea noted that former vice president Al Gore's award-winning ``An Inconvenient Truth,'' which has galvanized attention to global warming, is promoted by a book cover and movie poster that show a hurricane emerging from a smokestack _ and spinning in the wrong direction. "So you might conclude that the hurricane science depicted in Mr. Gore's book just might have some inaccuracies," Landsea said. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 3 of 28 OTEC fails- Susceptible to storms OTEC is a set up for energy disaster- A big storm would wipe out OTEC plants BECCA FRIEDMAN- Harvard political review staff- February 26, 2006 - An Alternative Source Heats Up- Examining the future of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion- Online- http://hprsite.squarespace.com/an-alternative- source-heats-up/ Moreover, OTEC is highly vulnerable to the elements in the marine environment. Big storms or a hurricane like Katrina could completely disrupt energy production by mangling the OTEC plants. Were a country completely dependent on oceanic energy, severe weather could be debilitating. In addition, there is a risk that the salt water surrounding an OTEC plant would cause the machinery to ―rust or corrode‖ or ―fill up with seaweed or mud,‖ according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory spokesman. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 4 of 28 Technical solutions for over fishing fail Technical solution to fish stock depletion fail, only limiting fishing solves Robert Morley- Columnist theTrumpet.com—06/03/08- Where Have All the Fish Gone?- Online- http://www.thetrumpet.com/index.php?q=5197.3473.0.0 Unfortunately, the reality is that mankind seems to mismanage just about everything it puts its hands to. Yes, increasing knowledge and advancing technology have led to increased fish captures, food consumption and living standards for many of the world‘s people. Advanced sonar, gps-driven, computerized oceangoing behemoths have learned to efficiently comb the seas and maximize fish capture—but at what cost? Have we sacrificed our future food supply for short-term abundance? What a paradox. Increasing knowledge and scientific advancement not only isn’t keeping current problems in check, it is helping create new ones. We build bigger, more efficient ships to capture more fish to feed the world, and we end up destroying our fisheries. Herbert W. Armstrong, in an August-September 1970 Plain Truth article, referred to this paradox: ―Knowledge production is supposed to be the way to cure all our evils. Given sufficient knowledge, the great minds have assured us, we shall have the solution to all humanity’s problems, ills and evils.‖ But more knowledge is not solving the world’s problems. The world’s fisheries are a sad example—greater technology is just helping humankind damage the environment faster than ever. Unfortunately, overexploitation of resources and the destruction of the environment is the story of mankind—it is the story of the cod, our forests and soils, our fresh water—and if things don‘t change, it will be the story of the oceans. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 5 of 28 THERE ARE ONLY A FEW SITES GOOD FOR OTEC: NO PROOF OF FEASIBILITY ( )GEOGRAPHY LIMITS OTEC SUCCESS, AND THERE IS NO PROOF OF FEASIBILITY State of Hawaii OTEC Fact Sheet, September 18, 2002, accessed July 25, 2003, http://www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/ert/otec_hi.html#anchor351481 OTEC plants must be located where a difference of about 40° Fahrenheit (F) occurs year round. Ocean depths must be available fairly close to shore-based facilities for economic operation. Floating plant ships could provide more flexibility. Although extensive and successful testing of OTEC has occurred in experiments on component parts or small scale plants, a pilot or demonstration plant of commercial size needs to be built to further document economic feasibility. ( ) OTEC IS NOT COST-COMPETITIVE, AND ONLY WORKS AT LIMITED SITES EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 2003, http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/nb1.html Like tidal power plants, OTEC power plants require substantial capital investment upfront. OTEC researchers believe private sector firms probably will be unwilling to make the enormous initial investment required to build large-scale plants until the price of fossil fuels increases dramatically or until national governments provide financial incentives. Another factor hindering the commercialization of OTEC is that there are only a few hundred land- based sites in the tropics where deep-ocean water is close enough to shore to make OTEC plants feasible. ( ) ONLY A FEW SITES IN THE ENTIRE WORLD MEET OTEC’S NECESSARY CRITERIA L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol.12, No.4, Winter 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol12-4.htm Comparing production costs of electricity and desalinated water can identify scenarios under which OTEC should be economical, relative to conventional technologies. Table 1 summarizes results obtained for the capital costs given in Figure 5 using a fixed rate of 10 percent, 20 year loan, and OTEC plant availability of only 80 percent. Operation and maintenance costs corresponding to approximately 1.5 percent of the capital cost are used. One scenario corresponds to small island nations, where the cost of diesel-generated electricity and fresh water is such that a small, 1 MW land-based OC- OTEC plant, with water production, would be cost-effective today. However, only a few sites throughout the world meet this scenario. ( ) SITE PROBLEMS MEAN OTEC DEVELOPMENT MUST BE MID-OCEAN AND UNFEASIBLE Thomas H. Daniel, Ph. D., Scientific/Technical Director, Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol.13, No.3/Autumn 2002, accessed July 28, 2003, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol13-3.htm Though the OTEC resource is very large, it exists mostly where people don't. There are at most a few hundred land-based sites where deep water is close enough to shore in the tropics to make land-based OTEC plants feasible. Any significant development of the resource will, therefore, require siting of plants in mid-ocean. Not only is the cost of working at sea higher than on land, but there are also problems with transmitting energy generated offshore to land-based populations. Deep sea cables would be very expensive and are not efficient for long range power transmission, and alternative transmission schemes, such as microwave transmission via reflecting satellite, aren't feasible with current technology. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 6 of 28 OTEC ENERGY IS TOO COSTLY. IT CAN’T COMPETE WITH OTHER ENERGY SOURCES ( ) ECONOMICS PREVENT LARGE-STYLE DEPLOYMENT OF OTEC EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 2003, http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/nb1.html Then, the Natural Energy Laboratory in 1999 tested a 250-kW pilot OTEC closed-cycle plant, the largest such plant ever put into operation. Since then, there have been no tests of OTEC technology in the United States, largely because the economics of energy production today have delayed the financing of a permanent, continuously operating plant. ( ) OTEC ENERGY WOULD BE MUCH MORE COSTLY State of Hawaii OTEC Fact Sheet, September 18, 2002, accessed July 25, 2003, http://www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/ert/otec_hi.html#anchor351481 OTEC-produced electricity at present would cost more than electricity generated from fossil fuels at their current costs. The electricity cost could be reduced significantly if the plant operated without major overhaul for 30 years or more, but there are no data on possible plant life cycles. ( ) OCEAN ENERGY SYSTEMS CANNOT COMPETE ECONOMICALLY EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 2003, http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/nb1.html Another challenge with ocean energy systems is economics. It doesn't cost much to operate ocean energy facilities, but they are very expensive to build. For example, construction costs for tidal power plants are high, and payback periods are long. The cost of a proposed tidal power plant across the Severn River in the United Kingdom is estimated at about $12 billion, far more expensive than even the largest fossil fuel power plants. As a result, the cost per kilowatt-hour of tidal power is not competitive with conventional fossil fuel power. ( ). GOVERNMENT OTEC DESIGNS CANNOT POSSIBLY COMPETE WITH FOSSIL FUELS Robert J. Nicholson, III, Sea Solar Power International, LLC., U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Meeting Washington, D.C., January 24, 2003, accessed July 28, 2003, oceancommission.gov/publicomment/ janmtg/nicholson_comment.pdf It is true that hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent by the US Department of Energy attempting to design an OTEC plant that Sea Solar Power had already designed. This effort was funded by D.O.E., orchestrated by a research group in Hawaii which relied primarily on the aerospace industry for detailed engineering which was flawed from the beginning. They designed the cycle as if it were a high temperature power plant using standard off the shelf components. The size and cost was so extravagant that it could not possibly compete with fossil fuels. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 7 of 28 OTEC IS BAD FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENT ( ) OTEC CONSTRUCTION HURTS CORAL REEFS AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTS State of Hawaii OTEC Fact Sheet, September 18, 2002, accessed July 25, 2003, http://www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/ert/otec_hi.html#anchor351481 Construction of OTEC plants and laying of pipes in coastal waters may cause localized damage to reefs and near-shore marine ecosystems. Some additional development of key components is essential to the success of future OTEC plants (e.g., less-costly large diameter, deep sea water pipelines; low-pressure turbines and condensers for open-cycle systems; etc.) ( ) ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS FROM OTEC EXIST IN CONSTRUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 2001, accessed July 28, 20 03, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol12-3.htm Other potentially significant concerns are related to the construction phase. These are similar to those associated with the construction of any power plant, shipbuilding and the construction of offshore platforms. What is unique to OTEC is the movement of seawater streams with flow rates comparable to those of rivers and the effect of passing such streams through the OTEC components before returning them to the ocean. The use of biocides and ammonia are similar to other human activities. If occupational health and safety regulations like those in effect in the USA are followed, working fluid and biocide (most probably anhydrous ammonia and chlorine) emissions from a plant should be too low to detect outside the plant sites. A major release of working fluid or biocide would be hazardous to plant workers, and potentially hazardous to the populace in surrounding areas, depending on their proximity. Both ammonia and chlorine can damage the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes, and can inhibit respiration. Should an accident occur with either system, the risks are similar to those for other industrial applications involving these chemicals. ( ) OTEC WILL KILL MARINE ORGANISMS LIKE PLANKTON L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol12-3.htm Organisms impinged by an OTEC plant are caught on the screens protecting the intakes. Impingement is fatal to the organism. An entrained organism is drawn into and passes through the plant. Entrained organisms may be exposed to biocides, and temperature and pressure shock. Entrained organisms may also be exposed to working fluid and trace constituents (trace metals and oil or grease). Intakes should be designed to limit the inlet flow velocity to minimize entrainment and impingement. The inlets need to be tailored hydrodynamically so that withdrawal does not result in turbulence or recirculation zones in the immediate vicinity of the plant. Many, if not all, organisms impinged or entrained by the intake waters may be damaged or killed. Although experiments suggest that mortality rates for phytoplankton and zooplankton entrained by the warm-water intake may be less than 100 percent, in fact only a fraction of the phytoplankton crops from the surface may be killed by entrainment. Prudence suggests that for the purpose of assessment, 100 percent capture and 100 percent mortality upon capture should be assumed unless further evidence exists to the contrary. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 8 of 28 PROBLEMS WITH COLD WATER PIPE FOIL OTEC ( ) COLD WATER PIPE PROBLEMS PREVENT COMPETITIVE ENERGY PRODUCTION Thomas H. Daniel, Ph. D., Scientific/Technical Director, Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol.13, No.3/Autumn 2002, accessed July 28, 2003, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol13-3.htm The OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) must transport large volumes of deep seawater to the plant from about 1000 m depth. For shore-based plants, the CWP must be at least 3 km long, even with the steepest bottom slopes known. Small pipeline diameters are inherently inefficient, due to friction losses and temperature increase. Because of this and the fact that the CWP represents almost 75% of the cost of current plant designs, optimization studies conclude that plants smaller than about 50 MW cannot compete economically with other present energy alternatives. A 50 MW plant will require about 150 m3/s of deep seawater, necessitating a pipeline with an inside diameter of at least 8 m. Current technology requires costly reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) or even more expensive fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) materials for pipelines of this diameter. ( ). OTEC COLD WATER PIPES COULD FAIL, WHICH IS AN ENGINEERING PROBLEM L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol12-3.htm The design of OTEC CWPs, mooring systems and the submarine power cable must take into consideration survivability loads as well as fatigue induced loads. The first kind is based on extreme environmental phenomena, with a relatively long return period, that might result in ultimate strength failure while the second kind might result in fatigue-induced failure through normal operations. ( ) EMPIRICALLY, PROBLEMS WITH THE COLD WATER PIPE KILL OTEC PROJECTS L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Summer 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol12-2.htm Claude's cycle is also referred to as open-cycle OTEC (OC-OTEC) because the working fluid flows once through the system. He demonstrated this cycle in 1930 in Cuba with a small land-based plant making use of a direct contact condenser (DCC). Therefore, desalinated water was not a by-product. The plant failed to achieve net power production because of a poor site selection (e.g., thermal resource) and a mismatch of the power and seawater systems. However, the plant did operate for several weeks. This was followed by the design of a 2.2 MW floating plant for the production of up to 2000 tons of ice (this was prior to the wide availability of household refrigerators) for the city of Rio de Janeiro. Claude housed his power plant in a ship (i.e., plantship), about 100 km offshore. Unfortunately, he failed in his numerous attempts to install the vertical long pipe required to transport the deep ocean water to the ship (the cold water pipe, CWP) and had to abandon his enterprise in 1935. His failure can be attributed to the absence of the offshore industry, and ocean engineering expertise presently available. His biggest technological challenge was the at-sea installation of a CWP. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 9 of 28 OTEC’S UP-FRONT COST IS TOO GREAT, STOPS INVESTMENT AND SUCCESS ( ) OTEC REQUIRES HUGE INVESTMENT AND WILL ALMOST CERTAINLY LOSE MONEY Thomas H. Daniel, Ph. D., Scientific/Technical Director, Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol.13, No.3/Autumn 2002, accessed July 28, 2003, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol13-3.htm OTEC is inherently a large-scale technology, requiring a large capital investment up front. The size of the investment dictates that, even though the process requires no fuel and will have relatively low operating costs, the investment will only be recouped over a number of years. The economic viability of OTEC is thus determined by factors such as the financing cost, the plant life-cycle and the future cost of competing energy sources. If an OTEC plant could be guaranteed to operate for 30 years without major overhaul, conservative projections of energy cost and interest rates predict a 30% return on investment, and investors would be eager to invest. However, it is not possible to predict the life cycle of a 50 MW plant from the limited intermittent operation of the largest plant built thus far, the 250 kW open cycle experiment at NELHA. World Bank advisors have determined that a pilot plant of about 5 MW operating for 5 years would be needed to justify investment in the full-scale technology. Such a plant would still be very expensive, however, and it would almost certainly lose money. ALL TYPES OF OTEC PLANTS ARE EXTREMELY EXPENSIVE EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 20 03, http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/nb1.html Bringing costs into line is still a huge challenge, however. All OTEC plants require an expensive, large diameter intake pipe, which is submerged a mile or more into the ocean's depths, to bring very cold water to the surface. This cold seawater is an integral part of each of the three types of OTEC systems: closed-cycle, open-cycle, and hybrid. BUILDING OTEC WOULD BE DIFFICULT AND EXPENSIVE Practical Ocean Energy Management Systems, OCEAN THERMOCLINE TECHNICAL FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS, December 2002, accessed July 28, 2003, http://www.poemsinc.org/FAQOTEC.html The new designs for OTEC are still mostly experimental. Only small-scale versions have been made. The largest so far is near Japan, and it can create 100 kilowatts of electricity. Another small-scale OTEC is off the coast of Hawaii, producing 50 kilowatts of electricity. If a successful OTEC is built, it is planned to produce 2 megawatts of electricity. However, a full scale OTEC would cost many millions of dollars, and it would be very difficult to build. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 10 of 28 PRACTICAL AND TECHNICAL BARRIERS THWART OTEC SOLVENCY OTEC HAS MULTIPLE PROBLEMS WITH MAINTENANCE AND EFFICIENCY: IT ISN’T READY Dohn Riley and Mark McLaughlin, Alternative Energy Institute, TURNING THE CORNER: ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY, 2001, http://www.altenergy.org/Renewable/Tidal_Thermal/tidal_thermal.html, accessed July 28, 2003. Researchers believe it will be quite some time before OTEC technology is in a position to partially phase out the use of fossil fuels in limited regions of the world. The large amount of equipment, chronic maintenance problems, and very low efficiency rates suggest that OTEC power generation will not be replacing fossil fuels any time soon. OTEC NEEDS REFINING AND TESTING BEFORE IT CAN EVEN BE CONSIDERED Seth Bechis, senior concentrating in Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard, HARVARD SCIENCE REVIEW, Winter 2002, p. 72. On the down side, OTEC electric plants are more expensive to run than current coal and oil stations, and the required materials such as durable, deep water pipelines, turbines and pumps need to be refined. Finally, the plants must be located in areas where there is a sharp dropoff in ocean depth, in order to maintain a thermal gradient year-round. Hawaii and some Caribbean islands are well suited for this purpose. For now, the technology remains to be tested in a full-scale model. NO OTEC ENERGY TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE MEANS ARE TRULY COST- EFFECTIVE L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol.12, No.4, Winter 2001, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol12-4.htm, accessed July 28, 2003. Several means of energy transport and delivery from plants deployed throughout the tropical oceans have been considered. OTEC energy could be transported via electrical, chemical, thermal and electrochemical carriers. The technical evaluation of non-electrical carriers leads to the consideration of hydrogen produced using electricity and desalinated water generated with OTEC technology. The product would be transported, from the OTEC plantship located at distances of 1,600 km (selected to represent the nominal distance from the tropical oceans to major industrialized centers throughout the world) to the port facility in liquid form to be primarily used as a transportation fuel. A 100 MW-net plantship can be configured to yield (by electrolysis) 1300 kg per hour of liquid hydrogen. Unfortunately, the production cost of liquid hydrogen delivered to the harbor would be equivalent to a $250 barrel-of-crude-oil (approximately 10 times present cost). The situation is similar for the other energy carriers considered in the literature. Presently, the only energy carrier that is cost-effective for OTEC energy is the submarine power cable. ANY CLAIMS ABOUT LARGE-SCALE OTEC ARE SUSPECT WITHOUT A LARGER PRE- COMMERCIAL PLANT L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Summer 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol12-2.htm Tropical and subtropical island sites could be made independent of conventional fuels for the production of electricity and desalinated water by using plants of appropriate size. The larger question of OTEC as a significant provider of power for the world can not be assessed, beyond the experimental plant stage, until some operational and environmental impact data is made available through the construction and operation of the pre-commercial plant mentioned above. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 11 of 28 OTEC LEADS TO NON-NATIVE AQUACULTURE AND AGRICULTURE AQUACULTURE IS THE KEY BYPRODUCT OF OTEC EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2003, http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/nb1.html, accessed July 28, 2003. Aquaculture is perhaps the most well-known byproduct of OTEC. Cold-water delicacies, such as salmon and lobster, thrive in the nutrient-rich, deep, seawater from the OTEC process. Microalgae such as Spirulina, a health food supplement, also can be cultivated in the deep-ocean water. OTEC IS KEY TO AQUACULTURE WHICH INTRODUCES NON-NATIVE SPECIES John P. Craven, Common Heritage Corporation, and Thomas H. Daniel, Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, THE CURRENT STATUS OF DEEP OCEAN WATER APPLICATIONS, Prepared for 24th Meeting of the UJNR Marine Facilities Panel: November 4-12, 2001, Honolulu, Hawaii, accessed July 28, 2003, http://www.dt.navy.mil/ip/mfp/24th_US_Papers/OERD_Craven_Daniel.doc Aquaculture represents the primary use of deep ocean water today. The demand for aquacultural products is increasing, and the inherently smaller seawater requirements compared to OTEC make aquaculture enterprises more realizable with present pipeline technology. As noted many times previously, deep ocean water has three primary characteristics that make it especially useful for aquaculture: it's cold, it's clean and it's nutrient rich. The low temperature makes it possible to grow plants and animals (such as nori and Maine lobster) that don't normally grow in the tropics, but the primary value of the coldness comes from the temperature control that can be achieved by mixing with warm surface water. The low pathogen levels and high nutrient levels are both useful characteristics of the deep water for aquaculture, but neither is as important commercially as is ability to control temperature at low cost. OTEC LEADS TO AGRICULTURE OF NON-NATIVE SPECIES EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2003, accessed July 28, 2003, http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/nb1.html OTEC technology also supports chilled-soil agriculture. When cold seawater flows through underground pipes, it chills the surrounding soil. The temperature difference between plant roots in the cool soil and plant leaves in the warm air allows many plants that evolved in temperate climates to be grown in the subtropics. The Natural Energy Laboratory maintains a demonstration garden near its OTEC plant with more than 100 different fruits and vegetables, many of which would not normally survive in Hawaii. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 12 of 28 OTEC BASED AQUACULTURE KILLS BIODIVERSITY EMPIRICALLY, TROPICAL AQUACULTURE LEADS TO SUPERWEEDS WHICH KILL NATIVE SPECIES Jan TenBruggencate, Science Writer, HONOLULU ADVERTISER, February 8, 20 03, p. A1. Acanthophora spicifera, the most widespread of the five top alien algae, covers 11 percent to 50 percent of the sea floor off certain areas of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui and a single small area off the Big Island's Hamakua Coast. Hypnea musciformis, a feathery limu brought in for aquaculture, is found most heavily on Maui, with one dense population on south Kaua'i and smaller amounts on south O'ahu. Several species of Kappaphycus are thick in Kane'ohe Bay, where it is expanding fast. The weed is so rigid it can damage corals by abrasion as well as shading them out. Avrainvillea amadelpha, with bright green, leathery leaves, competes directly with the Islands' only native seagrass on sandy bottoms off south O'ahu and in one location off south Kaua'i. Hunter said all but the Acanthophora were introduced for aquaculture. Some, such as Gracilariaare, are eaten without processing, although the native manauea and less aggressive introduced ogo are considered tastier. Some seaweeds are processed into agar — used in laboratories to grow bacteria and in food production as a thickening agent — and carageenen, widely used as a gelling agent and to make ice cream and yogurt smoother. Acanthophora is believed to have arrived in Hawai'i on the bottom of a barge from Guam in 1950. "All of these are superweeds," Hunter said. In addition to trashing the marine environment and impacting native species and valued fish, the weeds pile up on shore after storms, marring beaches. ALIEN SPECIES FROM AQUACULTURE KILL BIODIVERSITY, SUCH AS CORAL Jan TenBruggencate, Science Writer, HONOLULU ADVERTISER, February 8, 20 03, p. A1. Co said alien marine algae is a statewide concern, though unrelated to a separate battle being waged against the noxious aquatic weed Salvinia molesta, a fast-growing freshwater plant — not an alga — that is clogging up Lake Wilson. "The five major problematic limu in the Hawaiian Islands are a real threat to the coral reef systems. Gracilaria salicornia, for example, will quickly overgrow corals and less aggressive marine algae, outcompeting them for space," Co said. ALIEN SPECIES KILL THE ECONOMY, ENVIRONMENTAL BIODIVERSITY AND HEALTH Darryl Johnson, U.S. Ambassador to Thailand, Opening the South/Southeast Asia Workshop on Alien Invasive Species, U.S. EMBASSY PRESS RELEASE, #087/02, August 14, 20 02, accessed July 28, 2003, http://www.usa.or.th/news/press/2002/nrot087.htm Invasive alien species are defined as non-native species whose introduction to a new ecosystem can cause economic or environmental harm or harm to health. They are estimated to cost the U.S. over $137 billion annually and have emerged as a global environmental threat second only to habitat loss in their impact on biological diversity. INVASIVE SPECIES FROM AQUACULTURE KILL UNIQUE ECOSYSTEMS Darryl Johnson, U.S. Ambassador to Thailand, Opening the South/Southeast Asia Workshop on Alien Invasive Species, U.S. EMBASSY PRESS RELEASE, #087/02, August 14, 20 02, accessed July 28, 2003, http://www.usa.or.th/news/press/2002/nrot087.htm In other instances, non-native species are introduced into the environment for specific purposes - such as for use in erosion control or aquaculture production - and later turn out to be problematic. Our challenge is to decide how to live in an increasingly fast-paced and borderless world without destroying unique ecosystems, damaging crops, or threatening human health. And, as one of today's participants [Dr. Jeff Waage] said, "Invasive species are not just an agricultural issue, not just an environmental issue; they are a development issue." This is so because the countries hardest hit are those that can least afford it: countries where food is grown for subsistence, not as a commodity. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 13 of 28 OTEC LEADS TO DETRIMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES OTEC LEADS TO OCEAN MINING EREC reference brief, produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2003, http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/nb1.html, accessed July 28, 2003. OTEC may one day provide a means to mine ocean water for 57 trace elements. Most economic analyses have suggested that mining the ocean for dissolved substances would be unprofitable because so much energy is required to pump the large volume of water needed and because of the expense involved in separating the minerals from seawater. But with OTEC plants already pumping the water, the only remaining economic challenge is to reduce the cost of the extraction process. OTEC WILL RELEASE TRACE METALS WHICH COULD DAMAGE MARINE ORGANISMS L. A. Vega, Ph. D., University of Hawaii, IOA Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 20 01, accessed July 28, 2003, http://ioa.erl.itri.org.tw/vol12-3.htm Metallic structural elements (e.g., heat exchangers, pump impellers, metallic piping) corroded or eroded by seawater will add trace elements to the effluent. It is difficult to predict whether metals released from a plant will affect local biota. Trace elements differ in their toxicity and resistance to corrosion. Few studies have been conducted of tropical and subtropical species. However, the sheer size of an OTEC plant circulation system suggests that the aggregate of trace constituents released from the plant or redistributed from natural sources could have long-term significance for some organisms. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 14 of 28 NO RISK OF WATER WAR- EMPIRICALLY DENIED WATER WARS DISCOURSE IS FLAWED- THERE HAS NOT BEEN ON RECORDED ―WATER WAR‖ Volker BOEGE AND Mandy TURNER – 2006 A Joint Project of the Finnish Institute of International Affairs & the Centre for International Cooperation and Security - Conflict Prevention, Management and Reduction in Africa - Access to freshwater and Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution in Africa – Online- http://www.upi-fiia.fi/document.php?DOC_ID=169. There have been serious tensions between upstream and downstream or bordering riparians of the Nile River, the Euphrates and Tigris, the Jordan River, the Amu-Darja and Syr-Darja. The ―water wars‖ discourse repeatedly refers to these cases. However, in doing so, a highly distorted picture has been presented. Despite the vast number of transboundary river systems (260 worldwide, 63 on the African continent) there have been no serious conflicts to date, and even in the most conflict-prone cases violence has been avoided. The ―Basins at Risk‖ (BAR) project at Oregon State University conducted comprehensive empirical work on the issue of international water courses and conflict. The findings of this project, presented in the ―Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database‖ (TFDD), have put the ―water wars‖ thesis into perspective. The project assessed all reported events of conflict and cooperation over water resources between two or more states from 1948 to 2000. It found that of the 1,831 interactions between riparians, the vast majority (1,228) were of a cooperative nature. Indeed, over the past 50 years approximately 200 treaties on the common use of shared water courses have been put into effect. Of the 507 conflictive events registered, only in 37 cases was violence used and only 21 of these included military action. Of these 21 cases (out of 1,831) 18 involved Israel and its neighbours, hence a very specific conflict constellation. In the database not one single ―water war‖ can be found.16 BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 15 of 28 NO WATER WAR- EGYPT NO RISK OF ESCALATION- EGYPT Volker BOEGE AND Mandy TURNER – 2006 A Joint Project of the Finnish Institute of International Affairs & the Centre for International Cooperation and Security - Conflict Prevention, Management and Reduction in Africa - Access to freshwater and Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution in Africa – Online- http://www.upi-fiia.fi/document.php?DOC_ID=169. The prominent case of the Nile River basin, which provides an example of a ―water war‖ danger, is shared by 10 countries in Northern and Eastern Africa. It is often regarded to be a special case as the entire economic development of the downstream riparian, Egypt, depends on the waters of the Nile. Egypt, which is the most powerful riparian state in economic and military terms, has declared the secure inflow of Nile water from beyond its boundaries a national security issue. In the past, there have been serious disagreements between Egypt and upstream riparians (Ethiopia in particular) about the division of Nile water, which in situations of serious stress (drought), has led to threats of military action. However, the danger of war has diminished due to cooperation efforts in the basin (see 5.2 below).23 BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 16 of 28 NO INDIA-PAKISTAN WATER WAR INDIA-PAKISTAN TENSIONS WON’T EXPLODE-RESTRAINED REACTIONS TO THE GUJARAT SHOOTINGS PROVE THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 9/26/2002 In May, when Islamic terrorists attacked a bus full of civilians near an Indian army base in Kashmir state, Indian leaders pledged to retaliate, and told the Army to be prepared to sacrifice their lives in an all-out attack. But when two Islamic gunmen shot their way into a Hindu temple in Gujarat state late Tuesday afternoon, killing 32 worshipers before being killed by Indian commandos, the same Indian leadership was much more restrained. While most officials blame Pakistan, none have called for military reaction, let alone war. Indian President Abdul Kalam, for example, appealed to different religious groups to remain peaceful. "We should unitedly defeat all the evil designs against our country," he said. "Our police and security forces are fully capable of defeating all forms of terrorist attempts against our country." After months of beating the drums of war over what it sees as Pakistani-funded terrorist attacks, India has suddenly changed its tactics. Growing closeness with the West and increased isolation of its enemies - particularly Pakistani-based Islamic militant groups - have left India more confident in its fight against domestic and cross-border terrorism, analysts say. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 17 of 28 No Middle East Water War No Risk of water wars in the Middle East South China Morning Post- May 17, 2007 - Running on empty- -lexis While tensions are high, some say the water conflict forces opposite sides to co-operate. Of all the Palestinian- Israeli committees established under the 1995 Oslo peace agreement, only the joint water committees continue to meet regularly and co-operate. "The idea of water wars is sexy and appealing but it's media hype," said Israel Foreign Ministry deputy director-general for Middle East Affairs Yaakov Keidar. "If you have scarce resources it won't do any good to fight over them; you will only re-divide the scarcity." Palestinian Friends of the Earth Middle East director Nader Al Khateeb agreed. "I totally disagree with any suggestion of war over water. It doesn't make sense because war cannot solve the water problem. Peace will." Former Israeli water policy adviser Mr Kinarty said: "It took thousands of hours and endless patience to reach an interim peace agreement. But I have endless patience because I know peace is better than war. I've fought wars and I lost a child to war. Peace is always better." In the Palestinian-Israeli water row, some say the solution lies in rebalancing the supply inequity, addressing sewage treatment and curtailing illegal drilling. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 18 of 28 AT- MIDDLE EAST WAR GOES NUCLEAR MIDDLE EAST WAR WON’T ESCALATE Professor Li SHAOXIAN, expert in the Middle East and a senior researcher in the Institute of Contemporary International Relations, 8-17-2001, http://www.china.org.cn/english/2001/Aug/17671.htm Although the situation in the Middle East is alarming, it will not start a war. The main reasons are: First, both the international community and international environment will not allow another Middle East war to break out. Peace and development is still the theme of today‘s world. No big power wants to see a new war between Arab and Israel in this area so crucial to oil production. Second, war is not in line with the interests of several countries in the Middle East. None of the Israelis (including Sharon himself) wants war, because war would again put the very existence of the country in danger; Yasser Afrafat, as well, does not want war, because war would turn his 10 years peace efforts into nothing; Egypt and Syria, the other two big powers in Middle East, do not want war either. The president of Egypt Hosni Mubarak firmly rejected the possibility of war in an interview with Israeli TV. Bashar al-Assad, the new president of Syria, has put most his attention on domestic affairs. Third, the countries and extremists who do want to see war have neither the capablities or means for war. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 19 of 28 Deep Ocean Water Pumps CP Text: The United States Federal Government should construct 10,000 Deep Ocean water pumps in the Gulf of Mexico with the intent of using plankton to sequester CO2. The pumps should be built in conjunction with state and local government and the business community to find ancillary economic opportunities from the Water pumps. We’ll clarify. Observation2- not topical- we provide no incentives for the development of fossil fuel. Observation 3- Competition- the Counterplan competes via net benefits. All our disads based on cutting fossil use our net benefits to the CP. Observation 4. Solvency- A large scale deployment of deep ocean water pumps would solve global warming, allowing the earth to heal itself Roger Highfield, Science Editor for the telegraph (UK) - 26/09/2007- James Lovelock's plan to pump ocean water to stop climate change- Online- http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2007/09/26/sciwater126.xml A plan to save our world from extreme climate change by pumping cold water from the depths of the oceans is outlined today by James Lovelock, the scientist who inspired the greens. James Lovelock is best known for his ideas that portray Earth as a living thing , a super-organism - named Gaia, after the ancient Earth goddess - in which creatures, rocks, air and water interact in subtle ways to ensure the environment remains stable. Today Lovelock, of Green College, Oxford University, outlines an emergency way to stimulate the Earth to cure itself with Chris Rapley, former head of the British Antarctic Survey who is now the director of the Science Museum, London. They believe the answer lies in the oceans, which transport much more heat than the atmosphere and, covering more than 70 per cent of the Earth's surface. They propose that vertical pipes some 10 metres across be placed in the ocean, such that wave motion would pump up cool water from 100-200 metres depth to the surface, moving nutrient-rich waters in the depths to mix with the relatively barren warm waters at the ocean surface. This would fertilise algae in the surface waters and encourage them to bloom, absorbing carbon dioxide greenhouse gas while also releasing a chemical called dimethyl sulphide that is know to seed sunlight reflecting clouds. "Such an approach may fail, perhaps on engineering or economic grounds", they say, adding that the effects on the acidity of the ocean also have to be factored in. None the less, "the removal of 500 gigatons (500 billon tons) of carbon dioxide from the air by human endeavour is beyond our current technological capability. "If we can't 'heal the planet' directly, we may be able to help the planet heal itself." One version of the scheme sees around 10,000 pipes in the Gulf of Mexico, they told The Daily Telegraph. But until there are some trials, "there is no way one can come up with a figure on atmospheric carbon dioxide reduction per pipe let alone temperature reduction," said Dr Rapley. Artificially Cold water up-drafts solve for fishing stocks too Kirke- 2003- Brian Kirke- School of Engineering, Griffith University- Enhancing fish stocks with wave-powered artificial upwelling 27 August 2003. - Available online- There is now growing interest in the prospect of emulating this natural upwelling process and increasing ocean fish production in areas where there is no natural upwelling, by pumping large quantities of nutrient-rich DOW from depths of some hundreds of metres up to the euphotic zone. The density difference between the surface and deep water is only about 2–3 kg/m3, and although this is enough to prevent nutrients reaching the surface by natural mixing, the mechanical energy required to overcome it is relatively small, as will be shown below. Large amounts of nutrient-rich deep ocean water could therefore be pumped up with a relatively small amount of power. If a low cost, low maintenance technology for pumping the water up and maintaining it within the photic zone without excessive dilution can be found, locations close to markets could be chosen for artificial upwelling, thereby reducing harvesting costs. The use of wave energy for pumping would reduce the energy in the waves in the area, thereby creating a relatively calm and comfortable environment for fishing. This would be beneficial in an area such as the mid-west coast of Western Australia, where "strong southerly winds that persist throughout most of the year…result in many lost fishing days" and "quite large scale seas (>2 m)…can make fishing and research operations difficult" . It may also be possible to reduce coastal erosion by careful selection of sites for wave energy extraction. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 20 of 28 AT- Cutting fossil fuels key to solve GW Deep ocean water pumps ameliorate fossil fuel use by cutting air conditioning costs Prof. Joe Cummins- 28/07/06- The Blue Revolution: Air Condition and Energy from Deep Waters of Lakes and Oceans- Online- http://www.i-sis.org.uk/DeepWaterEnergy.php Many great cities around the world are located near ocean shores or deep lakes. The cities of Toronto, Stockholm and Honolulu, and the Cornell University campus are showing the world what can be done using cold deep water to power the cooling of large buildings, providing a large saving in energy and cutting down on carbon emissions and pollution from energy generating plants. Toronto initiated the cooling system in 2004 by the company Enwave District Energy Ltd. A five-kilometre long pipe draws cold (4 C) water from the depths (83 metres down) of Lake Ontario to Toronto Island (just offshore of Toronto) where the water is filtered and treated with chlorine as it is delivered to taps in homes and businesses. After treatment, the very cold water flows to a city plant that employs a heat exchanger to transfer heat from the water to cool a closed cooling water loop that circulates to the distribution network, where more heat exchangers cool the water circulating through the air conditioning systems in the office towers. The system will meet up to about 40 percent of the city‘s cooling needs. Toronto, like most Midwestern Cities, has very hot and humid summers, which put a huge demand on the electrical supply, so that the lake cooling system brings very welcome relief and protection against electrical ‗brown out‘. Cooling is provided for office towers, sports and entertainment facilities and waterfront developments. Currently, government buildings including the Ontario legislative complex are being modified for lake-water cooling [1-3]. Cornell University draws cold water from a nearby deep lake, Lake Cayuga. The water is pumped to a heat exchanger at the shore where the campus and a school share a cooling loop, and the warm water from the buildings flows down to push cool water up to the campus. The system is both elegant and cost effective . BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 21 of 28 AT- impact turn Even if the risks are high, the risks of global warming mandate them. The fact that deep ocean water is a natural process limits its potential negative impacts Roger Highfield, Science Editor for the telegraph (UK) - 26/09/2007- James Lovelock's plan to pump ocean water to stop climate change- Online- http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2007/09/26/sciwater126.xml "The Earth is fast becoming a hotter planet than anything yet experienced by humans," they write, explaining that natural processes that would normally regulate climate are being driven to amplify warming, so that higher temperatures can, for example, stimulate the release of more methane from wetlands and amplify the warming. "Such feedbacks, as well as the inertia of the Earth system and that of our response, make it doubtful that any of the well-intentioned technical or social schemes for carbon dieting will restore the status quo. "We need a fundamental cure for the pathology of global heating. Emergency treatment could come from stimulating the Earth's capacity to cure itself." Scientists have put forward several proposals to reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the planet's surface, including the use of light-reflecting sulphate particles in the atmosphere and installing mirrors in orbit around the planet. Using radical techniques to "engineer" Earth's climate by blocking sunlight could cool our overheated planet but present great risks that could well worsen global warming should they fail or be discontinued, warned one recent study by Ken Caldeira of the Carnegie Institution's Department of Global Ecology. "Geoengineering schemes have been proposed as a cheap fix that could let us have our cake and eat it, too. But geoengineering schemes are not well understood. Our study shows that planet-sized geoengineering means planet-sized risks." However, Dr Rapley said in response: "The attraction of this approach is that the dangers of "unexpected consequences" are low, because we are advocating stimulating and enhancing an entirely natural process." BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 22 of 28 Solvency extensions Power alone from OTEC may not be cost effective, but a combination of all positive attributes is very lucrative Davidson- 2000- Jack R. Davidson- VICE PRESIDENT AND CEO-GREEN COMMON HERITAGE CORPORATION- WAITING FOR THE BLUE GREEN REVOLUTION Online- http://www.aloha.com/~craven/chcmedia/jrdpaper.html To meet the need for supplemental fresh water on coastal deserts, Dr. Craven invented the Hurricane Tower (now patented). This DOW rain-maker is based on the same principles as a hurricane. Proof of concept has been established and more extensive tests are under way. CHC has also added a DOW chilled building to its demonstration facility. This Chill House, made from a 40' container, provides for cool, short term storage of agricultural and aquacultural produce. When the DOW system components (fresh water production, air- conditioning, produce cooling, agriculture and aquaculture) are linked sequentially, this becomes a very cost effective process. Deep ocean water coming to the surface increases plankton stocks, accounting for 90% of the worlds fish production Kirke- 2003- Brian Kirke- School of Engineering, Griffith University- Enhancing fish stocks with wave-powered artificial upwelling - 27 August 2003. - Available online- Most marine animals and plants live in the top 40 m of the water column . When they die, there remains sink. In shallow coastal waters the nutrients can be recycled and these areas can be highly productive. But if the water is deeper than about 40–100 m, they sink below the euphotic zone, enriching the deep ocean water (DOW) but becoming unavailable to phytoplankton, which form the lowest trophic level of the marine food chain and require light to grow. The nutrients can then re-enter the food chain only where this nutrient-rich DOW is brought to the surface. This does not generally happen in warm and temperate regions of the oceans due to the density difference between the warm surface water and the cold DOW. As a result most tropical and temperate oceans have low productivity . But in cold waters at high latitudes and in regions where currents bring cold polar water from the high latitudes, the ocean surface temperature drops to about 4°C and its density is similar to that at the bottom. The nutrient- rich DOW is then easily brought to the surface by turbulent mixing. Upwelling of DOW also occurs near some coasts, especially the west coasts of Southern Africa and South America due to ocean circulation. These regions of natural upwelling correspond to some of the most productive ocean fishing grounds of the world, contributing 90% of global ocean natural production . BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 23 of 28 AT- hurricanes add on Cold water pumps solve hurricanes and fish stocks Roger Highfield, Science Editor for the telegraph (UK) - 26/09/2007- James Lovelock's plan to pump ocean water to stop climate change- Online- http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2007/09/26/sciwater126.xml "The whole idea is to stimulate some action to find out," he said. "To get an idea of orders of magnitude, the net drawdown of the ocean is estimated to be 2 gigatons per year (compared with human emissions of eight gigatons per year), but only part of that is by the biological pump we are seeking to enhance, and only a fraction of that (maybe as low as 10 per cent) finally sinks to the bottom and is trapped in the sediments (although holding it in the deep ocean helps for a while). "So one would have to work hard to get a net sequestration of a gigaton a year - but every little helps. " Lovelock added: "Let's not be pessimistic about the possibilities of the pipes or they might never be tried. Do not forget that they cool the top layer as well as fertilizing it. "In the Gulf this alone may be important for reducing the severity of hurricanes. It is local self interest such as hurricane prevention and the restoration of fisheries that may pay for the project." And they conclude in Nature: "The stakes are so high that we must try such schemes, even if they may fail. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 24 of 28 Plankton is key to stop global warming/ Plankton Good impacts Plankton help slow global warming by increasing cloud cover- Like a butterflies wings starting a hurricane, plankton can be critical to the earths climatic regulation Asaravala-2004- Amit Asaravala- Wired.com staff- Plankton Cool Off With Own Clouds - Online- http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,64239,00.html Phytoplankton may be small, but that doesn't mean they can't do big things -- like change the weather to suit their needs. A recent study funded by NASA's Earth Science Department shows that the tiny sea plants release high quantities of cloud-forming compounds on days when the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays are especially strong. The compounds evaporate into the air through a series of chemical processes that result in especially reflective clouds. This, in turn, blocks the radiation from bothering the phytoplankton. The findings not only confirm earlier theories that plankton are linked to the creation of clouds above the ocean but could also lead to a better understanding of how living things affect the Earth's climate. "The take-home message is that all the processes that are going on in the ocean and the climate are very tightly connected," said David Siegel, co-author of the study and director of the Institute for Computational Earth System Science in Santa Barbara, California. "This is really the impetus for other researchers to look into the whole cycle of how biology and climate interact." Siegel and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution researcher Dierdre Toole announced the results of their study in the May issue of the Geophysical Research Letters, a scientific journal. The two researchers performed the study on measurements taken off the coast of Bermuda. There, they found that the ocean levels of a compound called dimethylsulfoniopropionate, or DMSP, were directly related to the level of ultraviolet radiation reaching the phytoplankton that live near the ocean's surface. DMSP is an important link in the plankton-to-cloud cycle because, as it leaves the phytoplankton cells and enters into the water, bacteria break it down into a chemical called dimethylsulfide, or DMS. Evaporated water, in turn, carries the DMS into the air where the chemical reacts with oxygen to form various sulfur compounds. These compounds collect as dust particles that promote water condensation, which, finally, leads to cloud formation. The entire process takes place very rapidly, ensuring that the plankton aren't under the sun's rays too long. In their study, Siegel and Toole found that the upper layer of DMS in the atmosphere could be replaced in just a few days. That the process happens at all may be a sign that the Earth is better prepared to handle climate forces like the depletion of the ozone layer, which also blocks ultraviolet light, than previously thought. However, Siegel believes it's too early to make such assessments because it's unclear just how widespread the phenomenon is. It's also unclear just how much ultraviolet light and other forces the system can tolerate. The researchers now plan to create computer models that explore how the presence and absence of phytoplankton might change the climate. They also hope to add to their study by using information from NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-of- view Sensor mission, which collects data on shifts in visible light reaching the ocean's surface. It's possible that the extended work will show that phytoplankton do affect climate on a global scale, said Siegel. If that's the case, it's also possible that scientists who like to talk about the "butterfly effect" -- the theory that the flapping of a butterfly's wings in one part of the world could eventually lead to violent weather patterns in another -- may soon find that it's more hip to talk about the "phytoplankton effect." BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 25 of 28 Plankton in tropical oceans help to reflect sunlight by creating clouds Science daily- july 14, 2004- When Sun's Too Strong, Plankton Make Clouds Online- http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/07/040713081108.htm People say size doesn't matter, and that may be true for tiny plankton, those free-floating ocean plants that make up the bottom of the marine food-chain. Little plankton may be able to change the weather, and longer term climate, in ways that serve them better. It's almost hard to believe, but new NASA- funded research confirms an old theory that plankton can indirectly create clouds that block some of the Sun's harmful rays. The study was conducted by Dierdre Toole of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and David Siegel of the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). The study finds that in summer when the Sun beats down on the top layer of ocean where plankton live, harmful rays in the form of ultraviolet (UV) radiation bother the little plants. When they are bothered, or stressed, plankton try to protect themselves by producing a compound called dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Though no one knows for sure, some scientists believe DMSP helps strengthen the plankton's cell walls. This chemical gets broken down in the water by bacteria, and it changes into another substance called dimethylsulfide (DMS) DMS then filters from the ocean into the air, where it reacts with oxygen, to form different sulfur compounds. Sulfur in the DMS sticks together in the air and creates tiny dust- like particles. These particles are just the right size for water to condense on, which is the beginning of how clouds are formed. So, indirectly, plankton help create more clouds, and more clouds mean less direct light reaches the ocean surface. This relieves the stress put on plankton by the Sun's harmful UV rays. For years now scientists have been studying related processes in the lab, but this is the first time scientists have shown how variations in light impact plankton in a natural environment. The research was done in the Sargasso Sea, off the coast of Bermuda. Previous research also found that the cloud producing compound peaks in the summer in the ocean, when UV rays are high, but plankton numbers are at their lowest. "Plankton levels are at a minimum in the summer but DMS is at its peak," said Toole. In the warmest months, the top layer of the ocean warms as well. This heating of the top 25 meters (around 80 feet) creates a contrast with cooler deeper layers. The deeper layers hold many of the nutrients that plankton need to live on. Like how oil separates from water, the warmer upper layer creates almost a barrier from the cooler lower layers and less mixing occurs. Also, the shallow upper layer exposes the plankton to more UV light. Under conditions where there are low nutrients in the water and levels of UV light are high, plankton create more DMS. DMS levels peak from June through the end of September. During the season, the study found that a whopping 77 percent of the changes in amounts of DMS were due to exposure to UV radiation. The researchers found it amazing that a single factor could have such a big affect on this process. "For someone studying marine biology and ecology, this type of variation is absolutely incredible," Siegel said. The researchers were also surprised to find that the DMS molecules completely refresh themselves after only three to five days. That means the plankton may react to UV rays quickly enough to impact their own weather. Toole and Siegel were surprised by the lightning-fast rate of turnover for DMS. To give an example for comparison, when carbon dioxide gets into the atmosphere where it acts as a greenhouse gas and traps heat, it may last for decades. Toole adds that the cycles that break down DMS scream along at these very fast rates, even though overall amounts over the course of the year remain pretty stable with a slow increase over summer and a gradual decline over winter. The next step for the researchers will be to see how much the added clouds from plankton actually impact climate. By figuring out how plankton react to light, scientists now have the information they need to use computer models to recreate the impacts of plankton on cloud cover. Since the white clouds can reflect sunlight back out to space, the researchers believe the plankton-made clouds may have some affect on global temperatures. This is important in light of man- made greenhouse gas production that warms the planet, and ozone depletion that allows more life-threatening UV radiation to strike Earth. BMORE 2008 OTEC NEG LAG Page 26 of 28 Plankton is absolutely critical to planetary survival Strieber 2004- Anne Strieber- Editor of unknowncountry.com- The Ocean is Saving Us—For Now - 22-Jul- 2004– Online- http://www.unknowncountry.com/news/?id=3965 Accessed 8-19-04 Scientists have discovered that nearly 50% of the carbon dioxide that humans have pumped into the atmosphere over the last 200 years has been absorbed by the ocean. This means that greenhouse gases aren't as high as they would be otherwise, meaning global warming has been slowed down—for now. But what effect does all this CO2 have on the fish so many people need to survive? NOAA's Christopher Sabine says, "If the ocean had not removed 118 billion metric tons of carbon between 1800 and 1994, the CO2 level in the atmosphere would be about 55 parts per million greater than currently observed." During the next few thousand years, it’s estimated about 90% of the man-made CO2 emissions will end up in the ocean. At the moment the oceans hold only about a third of the CO2 that they can, so they'll be able to continue to soak it up in the future, but at what cost to their health? The heavy concentration of carbon dioxide in the oceans has makes it harder for corals, some mollusks and some plankton to pull carbonate ions from the water to form shells, which are made of calcium carbonate. In areas where CO2 concentrations are particularly high, their shells begin to dissolve. Researcher Victoria Fabry says, "Based on our present knowledge, it appears that as seawater CO2 levels rise, the skeletal growth rates of calcareous plankton will be reduced—as a result of the effects of CO2 on calcification." This CO2 isn't distributed evenly, because CO2 gets into the ocean at the surface and mixes with the rest of the water slowly. This means that most CO2 is found near the surface of the ocean, or in seas that are shallow. Sabine says, "About half of the…CO2 (produced by human activity)…over the last 200 years can be found in the upper 10% of the ocean." Will it affect more sea creatures as it slowly mixes with the rest of the water? Do we really need the shelled creatures of the sea? They are part of a food chain which could eventually lead to a shortage of the fish the world depends on for food. And plankton creates about 50% of the world's oxygen, so without it, we’ll quickly come to the end of the world. Plankton saves Us from the ice age Strieber 2003- Anne Strieber- Editor of unknowncountry.com- Plankton Prevents Ice Ages - 03-Nov-2003 – Online- http://www.unknowncountry.com/news/?id=3280- Accessed 8-19-04 We wrote that runaway icebergs are killing plankton in the Antarctic by blocking the sun from reaching the surface of the water. This is bad news for more than penguins, because scientists think, eons ago, these tiny shelled sea creatures ended a 200 million year era of extreme ice ages and have protected the Earth from repeating this cycle ever since. Duncan Graham-Rowe writes in New Scientist that before the evolution of the plankton, polar ice caps covered much of the Earth. Plankton incorporate carbon dioxide into their calcium carbonate shells, removing extra CO2 from the atmosphere. Chemical processes in the sea then dissolve the calcium carbonate from these shells, changing the acidity of the water. This increases the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide that can dissolve in the ocean, helping to prevent global warming. As Art Bell and Whitley Strieber explain in The Coming Global Superstorm, too much warming can lead to abrupt climate change, producing an ice age. At first, global warming raises the sea levels, but if freshwater from melting polar regions dilutes the warming gulf stream, it will drop down, leaving the northern hemisphere much colder. This would cause the ice caps to increase once more, leading to lower sea levels, which would cause much of the plankton to die off. Increased ice cover would also reflect sunlight, rather than absorbing it, increasing the cooling effect. But so far, plankton has saved us—since its arrival millions of years ago, there have been no major ice ages. Whitman College 27 185c12ce-275a-44f0-8073-50c45f699143.doc 8/25/11 File Title Oil DA links Also, OTEC would completely replace fossil fuels as a source of energy and provide renewable energy to the entire world population. Braun 2002 (Harry, Chairman of the Hydrogen Political Action Committee, September 20, ―OTEC CAN SAVE THE OCEANS‖) The oceans contain 98 percent of the Earth's water, and they make up over 70 percent of the Earth's surface area that receives solar radiation. This makes the oceans the largest solar collector on the Earth, and it has cost nothing to build. Moreover, half of the Earth's surface lies between the latitudes 20 degrees North and 20 degrees South, which is mostly occupied by the tropical oceans where ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants could efficiently operate. According to calculations by Clarence Zener, a professor of physics at Carnegie- Mellon University, the potential energy that could be extracted by OTEC plants located in the tropical ocean areas would be approximately 60 mil-lion megawatts. Assuming the OTEC systems would have an operating capacity of about 80 percent, they would be able to generate over 400 billion megawatt-hours per year, which is more than three times the current total human annual energy consumption of roughly 150 billion megawatt-hours. Thus, OTEC systems could, in and of themselves, have the potential to generate enough electricity and/or hydrogen literally to run the world -- without using any of the earth's remaining fossil fuel reserves. OTEC is key to reduce oil dependency Krock and Oney- 2003- Jürgen Krock - Professor in the Department of Ocean Engineering of the University of Hawaii- Stephen K. Oney- OTEC researcher for the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii – OCEES online-http://www.ocees.com/mainpages/Political.html-accessed 8-18-04 The transition from fossil fuels to a hydrogen based world economy will take time. The reduction of dependency upon foreign governments and organizations that dictate the price and availability of a diminishing resource is essential. Wars and political turmoil are often based upon the procurement of petroleum resources. The advent of a hydrogen based economy will reduce global competition for resources such as fossil fuels. International cooperation amongst energy corporations to develop the OTEC resource will actually lead to increases in jobs in heavy industry. Fuel route shipping distances in an OTEC based hydrogen economy will be significantly shorter relative to current shipping distances experienced transporting fossil fuels from origin to ports of the world's energy consumers. This will further reduce costs. The existing infrastructure of our fossil fuel based world economy will simply be modified to use hydrogen tankers and hydrogen storage facilities and pipelines. Additionally, the markets for automobiles and hydrogen distribution to end users will remain essentially the same. Developing countries, lacking in extensive fossil fuel distribution systems, will find whole new markets for this energy system, as they implement regional distribution of hydrogen. Existing infrastructure will need to convert to this new energy delivery medium, but fundamentally this will be a modification of existing technology. Whitman College 28 185c12ce-275a-44f0-8073-50c45f699143.doc 8/25/11 File Title OTEC would replace fossil fuels for developing nations. Robert Cohen APRIL 1, 1992 Ph.D. from Cornell University REVITALIZING THE U.S. OCEAN ENERGY R&D PROGRAM TESTIMONY TO THE ENERGY AND WATER DEVELOPMENT SUBCOMMITTEE http://csf.colorado.edu/authors/Cohen.Robert/Revitalizingoc.energyR&D.html Attractive early OTEC electrical markets are found in land-based locations where OTEC-derived electricity can be generated on shore and substituted for presently oil-derived electricity. Such U.S. OTEC markets include Guam, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, and there is a large, near-term OTEC electrical market in many developing countries having access to the major oceans. A Science Applications International Corp. study report by Dunbar (Potential for ocean thermal energy conversion as a renewable energy source for developing nations, 1981) documents many attractive early markets where OTEC-derived electricity could be substituted for presently oil derived electicity or used to expand the electrical supply. That report indicates that there are about 60 developing nations -- including Brazil-- with access to a viable ocean thermal energy resource within their exclusive economic zones. The Dunbar study also identified about 30 territories of developed nations -- such as Puerto Rico, Tahiti, and the Virgin Islands -- which are similarly situated. For each megawatt of existing oil-derived electricity replaced by OTEC generation, about 40 barrels per day of oil would be conserved. An early market penetration of some 50,000 megawatts could be achieved in such locations, amounting to a daily global savings of 2 million barrels of oil. Also, likely coproducts of OTEC plants and of OTEC technology have considerable potential in developing countries. They include coastal cooling, fresh water production, mariculture, solar ponds, and bottoming cycles.