The purpose of this review of the literature is to examine the by yaofenjin

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									The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the empirical research on the

   relationship between a college degree and the effectiveness of police officers.


                                    Damon Ing

                         University of Texas at Brownsville




       Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for EDCI 6300

                                     Fall 2006

                                  November, 2006




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       In the beginning of 1908, the father of modern policing, August Vollmar created

the first known formalized training in law enforcement. He started a movement that

would explore the relationship between police officer education and their effectiveness.

He believed that the law enforcement profession should be educated, highly trained, and

professionalized. August Vollmar is credited with the creation of standardized policing

practices and the establishment of the first police training facility at the University of

California at Berkeley. Mr. Vollmar’s ideology continued throughout the years, but

slowly lost steam. The idea of educated police officers again sprouted in 1967 with the

creation and implementation of the Presidential Commission of Law Enforcement. With

the creation of the commission the question pertaining to law enforcement and education

started to be common knowledge between police administrators, legal experts, and

researchers. Today, one may hear the local nightly news, read newspaper articles, and

hear stories of police brutality, official oppression, or misconduct.


       The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the empirical research on

the relationship between a college degree and the effectiveness of police officers. This

review will begin with a generalized discussion of college educated officers and the

effect on their police service they provide. A study conducted by researchers pertaining to

the issues of higher education are discussed and the opinions of the regular police officer

concerning a college education. The opinions of police academy faculty and

administrators view on awarding that academic credit are also discussed. The effects of

citizen complaints, the use of deadly force, and the expectations of society are outlined.

The comparison between non-criminal justice majors and criminal justice majors are

analyzed. Finally, job desirability and attractiveness of obtaining a criminal justice degree



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is investigated, with the discussion of obtaining a graduate degree or higher education

attainment and if it is worth the effort. All of the following will be summarized and a

conclusion will be based on the information obtained in these reviews.


       The purpose of this empirical study(Stevens, 1999), was to determine if college

educated officers provided better police service than other officers. The first idea

originated with August Vollmer in 1916 (Stevens, 1999) who has been cited repeatedly as

the father of modern policing. August Vollmer believed that policing would be much

more enhanced by officers with higher education, and those with higher education would

be able to fulfill ethical police positions. In 1967 The Presidential Commission on Law

Enforcement (Stevens, 1999), advocated the need for police officers with baccalaureate

degrees. Today the argument continues, and two theories exist concerning the applied

versus the practical installations of education in law enforcement

       The methodology of this study was to begin with public surveys, departmental

surveys, and questionnaires to obtain quantitative analysis on the topic concerning

educated officers and the service they provide. The US Department of Justice conducted

all studies which involved college education and the effects on law enforcement

professionals. The sample size was determined on a simplistic random purposive

sampling. In the United States there are about 750,000 sworn officers serving at different

rank levels and at different departments. The US Department of Justice has a total of

18,800 police departments in the United States. Typically there are approximately 21

total officers including Sergeants, Corporals, and patrol officers assigned to every 10,000

residents in a perspective jurisdiction. Out of the total 18,800 departments in the United

States, 2,461 approximately 84 percent were male and 16 percent female. Officers were



                                                                                             3
chosen at random from 353 departmental agencies of various sizes. At the time of this

testing, no information on years of experience, or their level of education were available.

were tested (Stevens, 1999) .

       The data collection and randomized questioning of officers, showed that younger

officers had a higher level of concern for obtaining a higher educational degree. This was

a significant finding, due to the overwhelming 60 percent of officers questioned. It was

determined that approximately 82 percent of the officers with higher education had less

citizen complaints. Officers with a college education included, females, single persons,

non-whites, higher ranking officers. (Stevens, 1999) .

       It was determined that higher education has many benefits for police officers. It

develops a larger basis and discretion in which to make decision on the streets. (Stevens,

1999). It provides further skills and knowledge to increase maturity; it increases

responsibility for officers through course requirements and achievement, and allows

officers to learn more about the beginnings of the democratic process and the history of

the United States (Stevens, 1999).

       This conclusion is not to be misconstrued as the ideology that higher education

makes a poorly skilled officer a better one. Officers generally obtain a higher education

in order to pursue their career paths, and be able to make better decisions that are

expected of them by their departments, families, and the communities in which they

serve. Higher education should not replace experience, but instead it should complement

an officer’s skill level, and create a more experienced officer capable to making sound

decision during a routine call or life threatening situation




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Concerning the topic of education, a lot of issues may be involved in the comparison of

education and police service. The issues have been address in many studies, and the

following Illinois study will discuss and outline these issues. The purpose of this study is

to examine the effects of college educated police officers and the service they provide.

These statistics are taken from police departments located in the State of Illinois. This

topic has been studied continuously from the mid- 1960s and there still has not been an

agreement on the findings. The research question was the same just with a continued

study within the police and fire departments in the State of Illinois. Is higher education

directly responsible for better police service? The sample selection and target sample

consisted of 1,137 officers from both the fire and police commissioned services. Only

those larger departments with municipalities serving more than 10,000 residents were

considered for evaluation. The data collection consisted of a multi-stage, weighted

sampling procedure designed to give an agency a probability of inclusion proportionate to

its size, forty-two departments were selected for inclusion. (Heininger, 1985)

       The basic description of the sample included officers from thirty two departments,

with 93 percent being white, 2.8 percent being black, and 2 percent for all other races.

(Heininger, 1985) A total of response rate of 47 percent was achieved by the study, with

all surveys being completed by officers with more than eight years experience. A total of

1,137 questionnaires were sent out to different agencies. A total of 537 questionnaires

were returned, and officers surveyed represented thirty two of the thirty three agencies

tested. The findings concluded there was no clearly evident increase or decrease in job

satisfaction with the attainment of increasingly higher degrees, statically speaking,

education did not seem to have a significant relationship with job satisfaction




                                                                                             5
(X2=3.649;df==3;m.s) (Heininger, 1985) The study was based on the conclusion that job

satisfaction was directly proportionate to better police service. The findings in this study

found no direct effects from officers having college degrees and their level of service. It

should be also noted that the study determined that college degrees did not play a factor

in patrol officer’s advancement, while the other was true for command staff. The

researchers have concluded that officers in Illinois found education to be important for

advancement; there were other self motivating factors that influenced their decision to

obtain a degree. I would agree with these findings, that education does play a significant

role in law enforcement. The law enforcement market is not seeing an influx of more

degreed officers. Eventually with the maturity of education in law enforcement, a degreed

officer will become the norm. I do not however believe that a degree will influence an

officer’s level of service. However, I do believe that an education will provide officers a

deeper insight and knowledge base of his job requirements. This in itself will create

better police service and create higher job satisfaction.

       The topic of higher education in law enforcement has had many researchers

disagreeing on their individual findings. I have included studies pertaining to this topic,

but have also included the opinions of the importance of a college degree, from the patrol

officer’s viewpoint. The current debate over education and law enforcement will continue

for years to come. It has been accepted by current criminal justice professionals, that

there are direct correlations between education and police work, although they can not

agree with the findings. It seems to me that depending on the research findings the results

can be totally different and are directly influenced by other variables. These variable

differences noted were, organizational structure, culture, and style of policing may also




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have influences on job satisfaction. The research questions posed in this study is how

police officers opinions influence decisions on obtaining a college degree.

       The research design utilized was a direct series of questioning at a patrol room

briefing. These questions were asked to sworn officers in seven different metropolitan

areas of Oklahoma. The sample selection procedures were simplistic in nature. A total of

370 patrol officers participated in the study: 44 were female and 326 were male. The

mean age was 35 with an average of 9.62 years of service.(Bruns, 2005) The racial/ethnic

mix was 87% Caucasian, 7.6% African American, 2.2% Hispanic, 1.6% Asian American,

and 1.9% American Indian.(Bruns, 2005) The research findings were that a total of 89%

had more than a high school diploma with 27% with an awarded Associates degree. A

total of less than 10% had higher than a Bachelors degree.

       When asked if they found education to be important in law enforcement, an

overwhelming 83 percent stated yes. It appears from this sample that a college education

was important whether it be the attainment of an associates degree (14%), bachelor’s

degree (31%), master degree (30%), doctorate degree (2%), and law degree (5%). (Bruns,

2005) A total of 58% of the officer surveyed reported being satisfied in their job and 26%

stated they were not. Over the officers surveyed 10 believe education was not important

12% believed a high school diploma is sufficient, 16% believed some college would be

ample, and 24% believed a bachelor’s degree would be sufficient. (Bruns, 2005) The

author has concluded that a total of 22% of the police departments included in this survey

neither supported educational endeavors nor associated promotion with education. More

officers are now obtaining high degree requirements, while the majority of officers

believe that a college degree is not important for the proper function of the police job. I




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have concluded that education is important to progressive police work. Against the

majority of the opinion, I believe that although education is not attached to promotion, it

will still assist the officer more than if he did not have a degree. An officer, who chooses

to invest in his future, can never be a wrong decision.

       There are two types of education a police officer can receive; these are formalized

university education and Technical training received as a police academy. Both of these

variables are researched and ask faculties at various police academies if credit should be

awarded for technical police training. Another debate in the criminal justice field is the

awarding of credits for professional experiences in law enforcement. In other words, this

is the awarding of credit, for those officers who have fulfilled a set of required

prerequisites by working directly in the field. Another consideration would be the

awarding of college credit for professional training obtained at a law enforcement course

or a police academy. Prior studies have had a wide range of correlation concerning the

award of credits by two year universities as compared to four year universities. Two year

universities not only prepare the student for the workforce, but also for transfer to a four

year university. This study was conducted in part with the Illinois Law Enforcement

Training and Standards Board (ILETSB). The ILETSB believes that graduating for an

accredited police academy program is equivalent to attending a regular college course.

Researchers studied the variables concerning the differences between the police academy

and its equality to college courses.

       Students in the academy would learn the same topics in law enforcement such as

criminal procedural law, criminal law, and introduction to policing law. The Illinois Law

Enforcement Training and Standards board determined that classes are the same caliber




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that is currently being taught to students in the university, and also have the same lesson

plans. The research question that is being address is whether academia is equal to

learning obtained in the police academy. The research design was simplistic in nature,

and involved sending out questionnaires to those who were currently teaching in the

criminal justice field. The totals were obtained by sending questionnaires to a total of 200

law enforcement instructors. The authors used a combination of websites, email and

telephone calls to identify full-time instructors. (Schafer, 2005) All identified instructors

were sent out a mailed packet with a cover letter, informed consent information, the

survey and a pre-paid envelope. (Schafer,2005)

       A variation of Dillman's (1978) total design method was used to enhance response

rates. (Schafer, 2005) A reminder postcard was sent to those who did not return the first

issued questionnaires. Out of the total 200 instructors that were surveyed, 8 of the surveys

were deemed ineligible, and 113 returned their surveys. This was a 59 percent response

rate which was sufficient to be surveyed. All surveys were conducted under the Likert

method of surveys. The research analysis focused on three different questions. Does the

police academy equate to college, Second if a college grants credit for life experience,

does it dilute the integrity of the criminal justice program. Third should college credit be

issued for life experience in law enforcement. A noted finding in this study was that there

was an overwhelmingly Caucasian representation in the sample and all tended to be 30 or

older. The research findings ascertained if academia is equivalent to the police academy.

The mean score on the scale for those agreeing that giving academic credit for academy

experiences was 20.44 (scale range of 7-35) (Schafer,2005) For those disagreeing with

the statement, the mean score was 25.75; (f=11.39, t= -5.33, p < .01) (Shcafer,2005)




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       Those faculty members with law enforcement experience believed that the policy

academy is at the same level as an academia background. Researchers believed that law

enforcement education has yet to be standardized and therefore many beliefs lie on the

personal beliefs of the instructors that teach in the criminal justice field. Most universities

in the Dallas/Ft. Worth metroplex are officering anywhere from 24-60 hours for a

graduate from a police academy. The information gained in the police academy is the

exact information one would obtain in a regular school class. Therefore would it not be

acceptable to accept the police academy as regular academia and award credit hours to

those who attended.

       After exploring the various views on educating the patrol officer, what are some

of its effects on the people in which they are held accountable. Does a higher educated

officer receive less citizen complaints? This article was concerning the effects of police

officers who obtained a secondary education prior to being hired, and if any effects were

observed concerning the amount of complaints they receive. This study spanned over 10

years and was conducted by analyzing files on 500 working officers from a large

metropolitan police department. Less citizen complaints were received involving those

officers with a secondary education. The use of Pearson correlations, analysis of

covariance, and multiple regressions has provided favorable results concerning the

occurrence of citizen complaints against officers who did and did not have college

degrees. Previous studies have also studied the possibility of the officer’s social

economic status as an influence on his contact with citizens. During this study all

officers’ identities where anonymous, and were not know to the researchers. A total of

500 officers from a large department were studied. Citizen complaints were taken out of




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officer folders and compared to their education attainment of a degree. The total amount

of received surveys, were then divided in different categories, depending on college

degrees.

       The ages of the officers ranged from 26-46 and race did not play a factor on

officer selection. The researchers found that 307 out of the 500 officers did not have a

degree. A total of 193 out of the 500 officers were found to have attained a higher degree,

but out of this group none had a master’s degree. The Pearson correlation determined that

college units were significantly related to complaints (r=-.12, p<.05).(Wilson,1999) It

was even discovered that a large amount of officers tested, possessed enough credit units

to obtain a degree, but did not obtain one. It was determined that there was a large

amount of difference between officers with a bachelor’s degree as compared to those

with an associate’s degree. It was concluded in the article that even if there happen to be

no influence or correlation between officers with degrees and citizen complaints higher

education is still important in law enforcement. Law enforcement is a profession that is

constantly changing and requires critical thinking and performing complex task.

Therefore education is still an important consideration when going into law enforcement.

       The most examined and researched question in law enforcement today is the use

of deadly force in law enforcement. The purpose of this research (Sherman, 1981) is to

study the effects of higher education on police use of force. (Sherman, 1981) Without

formal studies or research, those in the law enforcement area of study have found that the

use of force was equally found in both degreed officers and non-degreed

officers.(Sherman, 1981) The researchers studied the effect of college pertaining to the

use of force and the following approaches were analyzed. The first considered that




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college educated officers are less likely to use their guns in a given situation because of

increased self control. The second was the approached that college educated officers were

more likely to used deadly force, due to an increased sense of duty. The research design

chosen was an anonymous survey that was conduct in the Kansas City Missouri Police

department. A sample size of 239 officers out of the department with more than one year

experience was tested. Only a total of eight out of the 239 officers had more than one

year patrol experience. Two qualitative measures were used, the first were that the

shootings were justified the second was that the force was used correctly in the

preservation of life.

        A survey was completed by all participants and certain categories were used for

this study. The following categories were the officer’s age, years of service, and

education level. The findings of the study were both interesting and fragmented. The

Kansas City Police Department was considered one of the most educated at this time.

There were no strong conclusions deducted from the figures collected.(Sherman, 1981)

The control categories for age were 21 to 24, 24 to 30, and over 30; the control categories

for length of service were less than one year and more than one year. (Sherman, 1981)

The researchers concluded that any interpretation of these findings should be made with

caution. The researchers believe that until more officers gained more tenure, test results

would be skewed. The researchers also believe that an officer’s youth and inexperience

may counteract any effects of education. Shooting rates may also be different from those

who have graduated from a small liberal arts college as those compared to a community

college technical program. What can be concluded from this study is that at the present

time there are probably an insufficient number of college graduates in most police




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departments to conduct meaningful multivariate analyses of the effects of higher

education on police behavior. I have concluded that the researchers in this study are

correct in assuming that police behavior is not only influenced by one fact, but as a

relationship with many factors. Since law enforcement is facing an influx of educated

officers since the 1980’s more time must pass to be able to observe more tenured officers

in order to obtain more accurate results.

       The conclusion obtained in the previous two studies pertaining to educated police

officers and their interaction with citizens, does it make a difference. Is there a promise of

a more humanistic approach to policing, and what society’s expectations of an educated

police officer are. This study is conducted to research the effect of a college education on

annual income, job satisfaction and job performance among criminal justice majors. For

many years criminal justice experts have studied the direct effects of a baccalaureate or

higher degree. It has been long accepted that officers with degrees display greater

restraint, are less authoritarian, and are more productive. In previous studies they have

concluded that a college education, including a master’s degree did not impact work

performance. The local citizens when asked believed that college degrees made police

more professional and more courteous. Administrators of different police departments

have stated that degreed officers have more advantages than dis-advantages.

       The focus is the question of whether a master’s degree as compared to a

bachelor’s degree is worth the investment. The subjects were criminal justice graduates

of a major university in the southern United States, covering a 10- year testing period.

(Carlan, 1999) The sample consisted of all Masters Degree alumni (n=90) and a stratified

random sample of bachelors degree alumni (n=200) consisting of 10 males and 10




                                                                                            13
females randomly selected from each of the 10 years in the study. (Carlan, 1999) The

samples were taken from a moderate-sized city (population less than 50,000) and were

mailed questionnaires accompanied by self address and postage paid envelopes. The

questionnaire focused on questions such as officer’s years of work experience, their date

of graduation, and their educational goals. The findings were collected from a total of 113

returned questionnaires out of 290 mailed. A second reminder mailing was conducted and

only a total of 9 were returned, which were included in the 113 figure. A total of 24

questionnaires were excluded, due to incomplete information or failure to meet the

criteria. (Carlan, 1999)

       Multiple regression, t-test, analysis of variance, and chi square were used for data

analysis. Another note taken during the study was that the average age for those obtaining

a masters degree was 39.61 years of age and a total work experience of 15.16 years. The

findings that were reported are positive for the graduates obtaining a masters degree. The

longer term value of a master’s degree is a wise investment, as shown in this study

obtained in the questionnaires. (Carlan, 1999). The researchers concluded that it appears

important for those to obtain a higher degree so that they can contribute to the

professionalism movement. After a qualitative analysis of the returned questionnaires,

test subjects reported that the master degree is more economical and rewarding than a

bachelor’s degree. (Carlan, 1999) I have concluded that a master’s degree may cost those

obtaining it a substantial initial investment. However, after obtaining a masters degree

they can increase their income, by approximately 47-53 percent. If money is not a factor

for obtaining a masters degree, those who participated in this study reported the rewards

can be enormous after obtaining a masters degree..




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       How does the criminal justice field as a whole fare with other degree plans. This

study begins with an evaluation of two summer introductory statistical classes. They

wanted to measure the performance of both criminal justice and non-criminal justice

majors. As bachelors degrees in criminal justice begin to be the most sought after classes

at colleges, measurement of performance is needed. According to a recent survey

conducted by Sallie Mae, more than 300 colleges and universities have started criminal

justice programs of some sort. The criminal justice field has grown in popularity and

study through empirical research has greatly increased. The need for evaluation of

criminal justice majors as compare to non criminal justice majors has surfaced. It is

interesting to note that neither income, nor race had any proportionate effect on academic

achievement. Other factors that did effect academic achievement were personal

background, age, gender, and parental education level. In previous empirical research

studies, two shortcomings were noted.

       First the evaluation of academic achievement was measured across the board

without specific guidelines or majors considered. The second was that the only form of

measurement used was the students GPA. This study seeks to answer the question, who

displays more academic achievement in a statistics course, criminal justice majors or non

criminal justice majors. The sample and selection procedures included a variety of majors

including, but not limited to, biology, nursing, public affairs, and general studies.

(Proctor, 2006) A total of five dependant variables were used to obtain a conclusion from

this study. The first was the use of a 7- point objective test consisting of 35 multiple

choice and true/false questions. (Proctor, 2006) The second variable tested was students

were given three scenarios on their final exam. Each student was required to calculate




                                                                                           15
and interpret a dependant samples t-test, correlation, and single-factor ANOVA. (Proctor,

2006) The third asked simple questions relating to their perceptions and understanding of

statistics. The fourth consisted of a test measuring step by step procedures for calculation

complex problems. The final variable was overall course grade measured as a

dichotomous variable of A/B or C/D. (Proctor, 2006)

       The research findings found that both major and GPA emerged as significant

predictors (F =2.32, df =6, p=.05) The knowledge displayed by criminal justice majors

indicated an increase of conceptual knowledge and an increase in GPA ranking. The

results of the study found that criminal justice majors were significantly less than that

exhibited by non criminal justice majors. The criminal justice majors rated their

understanding of statistics higher than their test score provided. There are several

conclusions that can be derived from this study. It may be possible that criminal justice

majors are weaker in quantitative reasoning skills. Another reason for not achieving at an

academic level is that many students may be drawn to criminal justice believing that it is

one of the easier majors to obtain. I have concluded that criminal justice majors may have

a pre determined expectation of the major. This belief is wrong, considering the

information and process is the same as any other degree. There may be a difference

between qualitative and quantitative rationale between students taking test of any sort.

       After an officer receives academic achievement in his field, what can he expect.

What are the occupational and promotional attractiveness to achieving a higher

education. The purpose of this study Courtright (2004) examines the attractiveness of

criminal justice occupations as they relate to a sample size of students in the United

States. Criminal Justice majors found law enforcement as highly attractive and more




                                                                                            16
interesting than corrections professions. Very little research has been conducted to study

the career planning of police officers and the obtaining of a degree. In past studies it have

been determined that criminal justice majors either prefer a job as a police officer or have

aspirations of going into federal law enforcement. It has been determined that police

officers entered the field for a variety of different reasons. They were interested in

helping people, job excitement, or the other benefits of law enforcement. Even with the

large amount of study concerning police officers with degrees, and their job performance,

there is still no clear cut conclusion. The current national standards for police

accreditation, Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA)

eliminated the higher education standards total Courtright, 2004).

       There has been an ongoing myth in the law enforcement community. This myth

has spread throughout the law enforcement community, that a degree is useless in the

criminal justice system. This ideology is not only false, but it is made without any formal

empirical evidence to support it. This research explores the relationship between punitive

ness and occupational attractiveness of the law enforcement profession. The research

design adopted for this study was a survey collection of numerical values. The random

sample was used to allow for the calculation of the total sample. The research samples

include police departments with more than 500 officers and those with less than 500

officers. Due to the relatively small number of African-American, Hispanic, and other

minority students in the sample (n=50), the variable measuring race was recoded as a

dichotomous variable: white and minority. (Courtright, 2004) The overall sample

consisted of 54.6% male (n=345) and 45.4% female (n=287). (Courtright, 2004)




                                                                                          17
       To measure the occupational attractiveness the researchers used a questionnaire to

ask police officers what their specific career aspirations were. They included all law

enforcement professions except judges and lawyers. On the questionnaires they were

asked to answer questions with a range of 0 to 10. To measure the punitive ness of the

questions, they asked a total of 15 questions and were rated on a punitive ness scale. The

reliability achieve by this survey was within the respectable to very good range

(Cronbach’s alpha = .85) The researches findings theorized that changes of the following

variables may be seen upon different grade levels. There was a direct correlation found

between those students who were CJ majors and also found law enforcement jobs highly

attractive. Again as with other research conducted, race played no role in to job

attractiveness. Punitive ness was found to be equivalent between student reactions and

profession attractiveness. The researchers concluded that their suspicions were confirmed

and warranted further researcher. (Courtright, 2004) They did observe an effect

depending on the student’s grade level to attractiveness and punitiveness. It should also

be noted that upper classmen found less attractiveness and punitive ratings as compared

to freshman students.

       A hypothesis was offered, concerning the students, stating the more study the

student had in the criminal justice field, the more knowledgeable they were concerning

their future professions. I have concluded that the reason the effects were noted in grade

level, comes from experience. In many criminal justice degree programs the student is

required to fulfill an internship at a law enforcement agency. This is the student grasp

hands on, experience in the law enforcement field. All internships are granted toward the

junior and senior year of college. The more education and study a student has the less




                                                                                            18
punitive and attractive a job can be. An example can be seen in new officers just getting

into law enforcement. Productivity between new officers and veteran officers can be seen

in measurements such as years of service. Hopefully with more study, criminal justice

educators can positively influence criminal justice students in the proper manner

       When an officer obtains his chosen goal of academic achievement, where is he to

go after that. Would are his outcomes and should he proceed to graduate education. Is the

obtaining of a graduate degree a rewarding and wise investment? This study is conducted

to research the effect of a college education on annual income, job satisfaction and job

performance in criminal justice majors. For many years criminal justice experts have

studied the direct effects of a baccalaureate or higher degree. It has been long accepted

that officers with degrees display greater restraint, are less authoritarian, and are more

productive. In previous studies they have concluded that a college education, including a

master’s degree did not impact work performance. The local citizens when asked

believed that college degrees made police work more professional and seemed more

courteous. Administrators of different police departments have stated that degreed

officers have more advantages than dis-advantages. This study provides an analysis of

some questions raised by administrators.

       The focus is the question of whether a master’s degree as compared to a

bachelor’s degree is worth its weight. The research design was criminal justice graduates

of a major university in the southern United States, covering a 10- year testing period.

(Carlan, 1999) The sample consisted of all Masters Degree alumni (n=90) and a stratified

random sample of bachelors degree alumni (n=200) consisting of 10 males and 10

females randomly selected from each of the 10 years in the study. (Carlan, 1999) The




                                                                                             19
samples were taken from a moderate-sized city (population less than 50,000) and were

mailed questionnaires accompanied by self address and postage paid envelopes. The

questionnaire focused on questions such as work experience, date of graduation, and

educational success. The findings were collected from a total of 113 returned

questionnaires out of 290 mailed. A second reminder mailing was conducted and only a

total of 9 were returned, which were included in the 113 figure. A total of 24

questionnaires were excluded, due to incomplete information or failed to meet the studies

criteria.

        The final data set consisted of multiple regression, t-test, analysis of variance, and

chi square were used for analysis. Another note taken during the study was that the

average age for those obtaining a masters degree was 39.61 years of age and a total work

experience of 15.16 years. The findings that were reported are positive for the graduates

obtaining a masters degree. The longer term value of a master’s degree is a wise

investment, as shown in this study obtained in the questionnaires. (Carlan, 1999). The

researchers concluded that it appears important for those to obtain a higher degree so that

they can contribute to the professionalism movement. After a qualitative analysis of the

returned questionnaires, test subjects reported that the master degree is more economical

and rewarding than a bachelor’s degree. (Carlan, 1999) I have concluded that a master’s

degree may cost those obtaining it a substantial initial investment. However, after

obtaining a masters degree they can increase their income, by approximately 47-53

percent. If money is not a factor for obtaining a masters degree, those who participated in

this study reported the rewards can be enormous after obtaining a masters degree.




                                                                                           20
       As with most criminal justice studies, a conclusion is based on the relative

evidence and reader opinion. The above reviews do not provide conclusive proof, they

only provided both quantitative and qualitative research to answer questions raised. With

the conclusion of public surveys, departmental surveys, and questionnaires, it was

declared that college educated officers do provide better police service. The Illinois study

determined that a degreed officer is quickly becoming the norm. Even with police

officers opinions showing a negative outlook on college education, the push in the

criminal justice arena leans towards education. Police academy administrators, faculty,

and the departments in which higher their cadets, believe that any education is

paramount. There was no correlation in either the frequency of citizen complaints, or the

use of deadly force. The citizen belief that a college education provides for more

humanistic policing has been proven to not be accurate. Research has found that the

beliefs between criminal justice majors and non-criminal justice majors are incorrect and

projects criminal justice majors the same as any other majors. Job desirability among

criminal justice majors is bright, yes selective. Most who obtain a criminal justice degree

do so for job advancement and to achieve in depth knowledge of their profession. The

continuation of education beyond a bachelor’s degree has been found to be very

rewarding and can be profitable to those who achieve this milestone.

       The implications of the above studies can point out that the effect of a college

degree and its effect on police services are indubitably Yes. In the above reviews, citizen

beliefs and opinions on college educations are provided evidence to show in

accurateness. The empirical research shows a positive opinion to the obtaining of a

college degree. Further research should be conducted on the current trend of police




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officers and their attainment of degrees. Most research has been conducted in the mid

80’s to late 90’s and should be more recent. There is a large disparity found between the

statistics obtained in the 1980’s as compared to the 1990’s. Little research has been

conducted recently past 2000. Current study is needed to obtain more solid evidence of

quantitative figures concerning obtaining college degrees and its effect on police service.




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Bibliography

       Stevens, D (1999).College educated officers: Do they provide better police service. Law

and Order. 47, 37.

       Heininger, Bruce (1985). Issues in Higher Education for Law Enforcement Officers: An

Illinois Study. Journal of Criminal Justice. 13,329-338

       Bruns, D (2005).Patrol Officers Opinions on the Importance of a College Degree. Law

and Order. 53, 96-100.

       Schafer, J (2005).Academe versus Academy: Faculty Views on Awarding Academic

Credit for Police Training. Journal of Criminal Justice Education. 16, 300-313.

       Wilson, H (1999).Post Secondary Education of the Police Officer and its effects on the

frequency of Citizen complaints. Journal of California Law Enforcement. 33, 3-10.

       Sherman, L (1981).Higher Education and Police Use of Deadly Force. Journal of

Criminal Justice. 9, 317-331.

       Carlan, P (2000). The Promise of Humanistic Policing: Is Higher Education Living Up to

Societal Expectation. American Journal of Criminal Justice. 24, 235-246.

       Proctor, John (2006). Academic achievement and statistical Knowledge: A comparison of

Criminal Justice and Non Criminal Justice majors. Journal of Criminal Justice Education. 17.

143-199.

       Courtright, K (2004).Job Desirability Among Criminal Justice Majors: Exploring

Relationships Between Personal Characteristics and Occupational Attractiveness. Journal of

Criminal Justice Education. 15, 311-324.

       Carlan, P (1999).Occupational Outcomes of Criminal Justice Graduates: Is the

Master's Degree a Wise Investment?. Journal of Criminal Justice Education. 10, 39-48.




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