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Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology ... - WebCT Online Courses

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									                 Psychology 336 : Abnormal Psychology                                                                                 Psyc 336 Abnormal Psychology
                    Spring 2011 – Dr. Michael Diehr                                                                                    Fall 2010 - Dr. Michael Diehr
                                                                                                             ! Course Website:
                                                                                                               " http://courses.csusm.edu/psyc336md
                                                                                                             ! Meeting Times:
                                                                                                               " Section 01 : UH371, M/W 8:30am-9:45am
                                                                                                               " Section 03 : UN371, M/W 7am - 8:15amClass
                                                                                                               " Office Hours: Mark 249 M 9:45-10:30, W 10am-11am
                                                                                                             ! Components:
                                                                                                               " Readings
                                                                                                               " Lecture
                                                                                                               " Quizzes & Exams
                                                                                                               " Clinical Experience / JournalClass participation / Group
                                                                                                                 Discussions

                                                          Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                       Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                              Course Format & Grading                                                                                   Clinical Experiences (CEs)
  ! Class Format:                                                                                            ! The Goal of CEs is to get real-world familiarity with people
    " Quiz (readings + lectures) Item                                                Points                    dealing with mental illness.
    " Review Quiz
                                 Class participation bonus                               up to               ! Ideally, you will be more than just an observer or spectator,
    " Lecture                                                                              20
    " Videos / Group                                                                                           but an actual participant.
                                 Quizzes (1 per chapter, 10                                   80
      Discussions                points each)
                                         (10-15 points each)
                                         Midterm                                            100              ! We will discuss the types of experiences that will qualify and
                                                                                                               I will help you arrange your participation at local agencies.
                                         Final                                              100
                                                                                                             ! Requirements for grade of “A”:
                                         Clinical Experience Journal                        100
                                                                                                               " Best: Six (6) or more one hour visits to an approved group
                                         Total                                              400                " OK: other experiences (reading, videos, rounds)
                                                                                                               " 10 page (2500 word) Journal


                                                          Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                       Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                           Relevance for non-psychologists                                                                 Chapter 1 : Introduction & History
  ! Recognize and understand most common psychological                                                                   Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context
    disorders in self, friends, family, and society.
  ! Understand and navigate the mental health system.
  ! Interpersonal skills development.
                                                                                                             !   Lecture
  ! Personal development / self-awareness.
                                                                                                             !   Reading
  ! Increased comfort with others.
                                                                                                             !   Video
                                                                                                             !   Group Discussions
                                                                                                             !   Homework -- Take Online Quiz




                                                          Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                       Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                           Myths and Misconceptions About                                                      Approaches to Defining Abnormal Behavior
                                 Abnormal Behavior                                                    !   Does Infrequency Define Abnormality?
  ! No Single Definition of Psychological Abnormality                                                 !   Does Suffering Define Abnormality?
  ! No Single Definition of Psychological Normality                                                   !   Does Strangeness Define Abnormality?
                                                                                                      !   Does the Behavior Itself Define Abnormality?
  ! Many Myths Are Associated With Mental Illness                                                     !   Should Normality Serve as a Guide?
    " Lazy, crazy, dumb
    " Weak in character
    " Dangerous to self or others
    " Illness and symptoms are constant and unremitting
    " Mental illness is a hopeless situation




                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                    Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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            Toward a Definition of Abnormal Behavior                                                                  The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
  ! Psychological Dysfunction                                                                                                     (DSM-IV-TR)
     " Breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral                                               ! Widely Accepted System
       functioning
                                                                                                        " Used to classify psychological problems and disorders
  ! Personal Distress
                                                                                                      ! DSM Contains Diagnostic Criteria for Behaviors That
     " Difficulty performing appropriate and expected roles
                                                                                                        " Fit a pattern
     " Impairment is set in the context of a person’s background
                                                                                                        " Cause dysfunction or subjective distress
  ! Atypical or Unexpected Cultural Response
                                                                                                        " Are present for a specified duration
     " Reaction is outside cultural norms
                                                                                                        " And for behaviors that are not otherwise explainable

  ! Shorthand “harmful dysfunction”




                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                    Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                            DSM-IV-TR - Five Dimensions                                                                        Abnormal Behavior Defined
  ! Axis I - Clinical Syndromes / Disorders                                                           ! Definition
    " e.g. Major Depressive Disorder, Schizophrenia...                                                   " A psychological dysfunction associated with distress or
  ! Axis II - Pervasive / Permanent Problems                                                               impairment in functioning that is not typical or culturally
    " e.g. Personality Disorders, Developmental Disability                                                 expected
  ! Axis III - Medical Conditions                                                                     ! Labels and terminology
  ! Axis IV - Psychosocial / Environmental Problems                                                      " Psychological disorder or psychological abnormality
  ! Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)                                                      " Mental illness is a less preferred term
                                                                                                      ! Psychopathology
                                                                                                         " Is the scientific study of psychological disorders




                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                    Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                  Approaches to the Scientific Study of                                                 Dimensions of the Scientist-Practitioner Model
                        Psychological Disorders
  ! Mental Health Professionals
    " The Ph.D.’s: Clinical and counseling psychologists
    " The Psy.D. ’s: Clinical and counseling “Doctors of
      Psychology”
    " M.D.’s: Psychiatrists
    " M.S.W.’s: Psychiatric and non-psychiatric social workers
    " MN/MSN’s: Psychiatric nurses
    " The lay public and community groups
  ! United by the Scientist-Practitioner Framework




                                                 Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011    Figure 1.2 Functioning as a Scientist-Practitioner.   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                          Scientist-Practitioner and                                                                         Prevalence and Incidence
                     Clinical Description of Abnormality                                            ! Prevalence: % of population currently with the disorder
  ! Begins with the Presenting Problem
  ! Clinical Description
     " Aims to distinguish clinically significant dysfunction from                                  ! Incidence: % of population who develop the disorder in a
       common human experience                                                                        given year
  ! Describe Prevalence and Incidence of Disorders
  ! Describe Course of Disorders
     " Episodic, time-limited, or chronic
  ! Describe Onset of Disorders
     " Acute vs. insidious
  ! Prognosis
     " Good vs. guarded


                                                 Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                          Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                Causation, Treatment, and Outcome in                                                                   The Past: Historical Conceptions of
                           Psychopathology                                                                                    Abnormal Behavior
  ! Etiology                                                                                        ! Major Psychological Disorders Have Existed
     " What contributes to the development of psychopathology?                                        " In all cultures
  ! Treatment Development                                                                             " Across all time periods
     " How can we help to alleviate psychological suffering?                                        ! Causes and Treatment of Abnormal Behavior Varied Widely
     " Includes pharmacologic, psychosocial, and/or combined                                          " Across cultures
       treatments                                                                                     " Across time periods
  ! Treatment Outcome Research                                                                        " Depending on prevailing paradigms or world views
     " How do we know that we have helped?                                                          ! Three Dominant Traditions Include
     " Limited in specifying actual causes of disorders                                               " Supernatural
                                                                                                      " Biological
                                                                                                      " Psychological


                                                 Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                          Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                 The Past: Abnormal Behavior and the                                                The Past: Abnormal Behavior and the Biological
                        Supernatural Tradition                                                                       Tradition
  ! Deviant Behavior as a Battle of “Good” vs. “Evil”                                             ! Hippocrates’: Abnormal Behavior as a Physical Disease
    " Causes included demonic possession, witchcraft, sorcery                                       " Hysteria: “The Wandering Uterus”
    " Mass hysteria (St. Vitus’ dance or Tarantism)                                               ! Galen Extends Hippocrates Work
    " Treatments included exorcism, torture, beatings, and                                          " Humoral theory of mental illness
      crude surgeries                                                                               " Treatments remained crude
  ! Other Worldly Causes of Deviant Behavior                                                      ! Galenic-Hippocratic Tradition
    " Movement of the moon and stars                                                                " Linked abnormality with brain chemical imbalances
    " Paracelsus and lunacy                                                                         " Foreshadowed modern views
  ! Middle Ages
    " Both “outer force” views were popular
    " Few thought of abnormality as a physical disease


                                               Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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    The Past: The Biological Tradition Comes of Age                                                         The Past: Consequences of the Biological
  ! General Paresis (Syphilis)                                                                                             Tradition
     " Several unusual psychological and behavioral symptoms                                      ! Mental Illness = Physical Illness
     " Pasteur discovered the cause – A bacterial microorganism                                   ! The 1930’s
     " Led to penicillin as a successful treatment                                                  " Biological treatments were standard practice
     " Bolstered the view that mental illness = physical illness                                    " Insulin shock therapy, ECT, and brain surgery
     " Provided a biological basis for madness                                                    ! The 1950’s
  ! John Grey                                                                                       " Medications were becoming increasingly available
     " Championed biological tradition in the USA                                                   " Neuroleptics (i.e., reserpine) and major tranquilizers




                                               Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                       The Past: Abnormal Behavior and                                                                 The Past: Abnormal Behavior and
                          the Psychological Tradition                                                                    the Psychoanalytic Tradition
  ! The Rise of Moral Therapy                                                                     ! Freudian Theory – Overview and Development
    " Overview – Not moral in the usual sense of the word                                         ! Structure and Function of the Mind
    " Normalizing treatment of mentally ill                                                          " Id (pleasure principle; illogical, emotional, irrational)
  ! Key Figures                                                                                      " Ego (reality principle; logical and rational)
    " Philippe Pinel and Jean-Baptiste Pussin                                                        " Superego (moral principles; keeps Id and Ego in balance)
    " William Tuke -- Followed Pinel’s lead in England                                            !
    " Benjamin Rush -- Led reforms in the United States
    " Dorothea Dix – Led mental hygiene movement
  ! Reasons for the Falling Out of Moral Therapy
  ! Emergence of Competing Alternative Psychological Models



                                               Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                       The Past: Abnormal Behavior and                                                                                  The Past: Abnormal Behavior and
                         the Psychoanalytic Tradition                                                                                     the Psychoanalytic Tradition
  ! Defense Mechanism:                                                                                             ! Level 1 - Pathological
    " When the Ego Loses the Battle with the Id and Superego,                                                         " Denial, Distortion, Splitting
      the process by which the conflict is resolved short-term                                                     ! Level 2 - Immature
                                                                                                                      " Acting out, Fantasy, Idealization, Passive aggression,
  ! May be mature (healthy) or immature (unhealthy)                                                                     Projection, Somatization
                                                                                                                   ! Level 3 - Neurotic
                                                                                                                      " Displacement, Dissociation, Hypochondriasis,
                                                                                                                        Intellectualization, Rationalization, Reaction Formation,
                                                                                                                        Regression, Repression, Undoing
                                                                                                                   ! Level 4 - Mature
                                                                                                                      " Altruism, Anticipation, Humor, Identification, Introjection,
                                                                                                                        Sublimation, intentional thought suppression

                                                                Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                       Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                                                                                                                                       Later Neo-Freudian Developments
                           Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
                                                                                                                                           in Psychoanalytic Thought
 Stage             Ages      Erogenous Consequences                                                                ! Anna Freud and Self-Psychology
                             Zones     of Fixation
                                                                                                                     " Emphasized the influence of the ego in defining behavior
 Oral              0-1       Mouth       behaviors: gum, smoking
                                                                                                                   ! Melanie Klein, Otto Kernberg, and Object Relations Theory
                                         personality: passive, immature,
                                         manipulative                                                                " Emphasized how children incorporate (introject) objects
 Anal              1-3       Bowel/      obsession with neatness / control, or                                       " Objects -- Images, memories, and values of significant
                             Bladder     opposite: reckless, defiant, disorganized
                                                                                                                       others
                             control
 Phallic           3-6       Genitals    Oedipus complex - “castration anxiety”                                    ! Neo-Freudians
                                         Electra complex - “penis envy”                                              " De-emphasized the sexual core of Freud’s Theory
 Latency           6-        (dormant)   (rare) sexually unfulfilled                                                 " Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, and
                   puberty                                                                                             Erik Erickson
 Genital           puberty! Sexual       frigidity, impotence, unsatisfying
                   death    interests    relationships


                                                                Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                       Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                             Psychodynamic Therapy                                                                                            Personal Revelations
  ! Talk Therapy                                                                                                   ! Discussion of life experiences is encouraged
     " Unearth the hidden intrapsychic conflicts                                                                   ! Courtesy, respect, privacy are requested
     " “The real problems”
  ! Therapy Is Often Long Term                                                                                     ! Students will be expected to follow APA Ethical Rules
  ! Techniques                                                                                                       (Standard 4) for in-class and CEs.
     " Free Association and Dream Analysis
  ! Examine Transference and Counter-Transference Issues
  ! Efficacy Data are Limited                                                                                      ! No true privacy exists, use caution.




                                                                Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                       Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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      APA Ethics Code 4: Privacy and Confidentiality                                                                                                                                                                               APA Ethics Code 4: Summary
      4.01 Maintaining Confidentiality
      Psychologists have a primary obligation and take reasonable precautions to protect confidential information obtained through or stored in any medium, recognizing that the                           ! Maintain Confidentiality
      extent and limits of confidentiality may be regulated by law or established by institutional rules or professional or scientific relationship. (See also Standard 2.05, Delegation of
      Work to Others.)

      4.02 Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! Discuss Limits of Confidentiality
      (a) Psychologists discuss with persons (including, to the extent feasible, persons who are legally incapable of giving informed consent and their legal representatives) and
      organizations with whom they establish a scientific or professional relationship (1) the relevant limits of confidentiality and (2) the foreseeable uses of the information generated
      through their psychological activities. (See also Standard 3.10, Informed Consent.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             " Threats to self, others, harm of child or elder
      (b) Unless it is not feasible or is contraindicated, the discussion of confidentiality occurs at the outset of the relationship and thereafter as new circumstances may warrant.

      (c) Psychologists who offer services, products, or information via electronic transmission inform clients/patients of the risks to privacy and limits of confidentiality.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! Permission for Recording
      4.03 Recording
      Before recording the voices or images of individuals to whom they provide services, psychologists obtain permission from all such persons or their legal representatives. (See also                 ! Minimize use of PI information in reports
      Standards 8.03, Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research; 8.05, Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research; and 8.07, Deception in Research.)
      4.04 Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy
      (a) Psychologists include in written and oral reports and consultations, only information germane to the purpose for which the communication is made.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! Disclosures Allowed
      (b) Psychologists discuss confidential information obtained in their work only for appropriate scientific or professional purposes and only with persons clearly concerned with
      such matters.                                                                                                                                                                                       ! Use of information for Teaching purposes
      4.05 Disclosures
      (a) Psychologists may disclose confidential information with the appropriate consent of the organizational client, the individual client/patient, or another legally authorized
      person on behalf of the client/patient unless prohibited by law.

      (b) Psychologists disclose confidential information without the consent of the individual only as mandated by law, or where permitted by law for a valid purpose such as to (1)
      provide needed professional services; (2) obtain appropriate professional consultations; (3) protect the client/patient, psychologist, or others from harm; or (4) obtain payment for
      services from a client/patient, in which instance disclosure is limited to the minimum that is necessary to achieve the purpose. (See also Standard 6.04e, Fees and Financial
      Arrangements.)
      4.06 Consultations
      When consulting with colleagues, (1) psychologists do not disclose confidential information that reasonably could lead to the identification of a client/patient, research
      participant, or other person or organization with whom they have a confidential relationship unless they have obtained the prior consent of the person or organization or the
      disclosure cannot be avoided, and (2) they disclose information only to the extent necessary to achieve the purposes of the consultation. (See also Standard 4.01, Maintaining
      Confidentiality.)

      4.07 Use of Confidential Information for Didactic or Other Purposes
      Psychologists do not disclose in their writings, lectures, or other public media, confidential, personally identifiable information concerning their clients/patients, students,
      research participants, organizational clients, or other recipients of their services that they obtained during the course of their work, unless (1) they take reasonable steps to disguise
      the person or organization, (2) the person or organization has consented in writing, or (3) there is legal authorization for doing so.




                                                                                                                                        Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                                                                           Homework                                                                                                                                  Humanistic Theory and the Psychological
  !   Please take the online Quiz for chapter #1                                                                                                                                                                                   Tradition
  !   Print out your score sheet (1 page) and bring to next class                                                                                                                                         ! Major Players
  !   Full credit (10 points) for completion.                                                                                                                                                                " Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Fritz Perls
  !   Due start of next class.                                                                                                                                                                            ! Major Theme
                                                                                                                                                                                                             " That people are basically good
                                                                                                                                                                                                             " Humans strive toward self-actualization
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! Treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                             " Therapist conveys empathy, unconditional positive regard
                                                                                                                                                                                                             " Minimal therapist interpretation
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! No Strong Evidence That Humanistic Therapies Work




                                                                                                                                        Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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            The Behavioral Model and the Psychological                                                                                                                                                                  From Behaviorism to Behavior Therapy
                            Tradition                                                                                                                                                                     ! Reactionary Movement
  ! Classical Conditioning (Pavlov; Watson)                                                                                                                                                                 " Against psychoanalysis and non-scientific approaches
    " Ubiquitous form of learning                                                                                                                                                                         ! Early Pioneers
    " Pairing neutral stimuli and unconditioned stimuli                                                                                                                                                     " Wolpe – Systematic desensitization
    " Conditioning was extended to explain fear acquisition                                                                                                                                                 " Lazarus – Multi-modal behavior therapy
  ! Operant Conditioning (Thorndike; Skinner)                                                                                                                                                               " Eysenck – Conditioning therapy
    " Another ubiquitous form of learning                                                                                                                                                                   " Beck – Cognitive therapy
    " Voluntary behavior is controlled by consequences                                                                                                                                                      " Bandura – Social learning / cognitive-behavior therapy
  ! Both Learning Traditions                                                                                                                                                                              ! Behavior Therapy
    " Greatly influenced the development of behavior therapy                                                                                                                                                " Tends to be time-limited, direct, here-and-now focused
                                                                                                                                                                                                            " Behavior therapies have widespread empirical support




                                                                                                                                        Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

Friday, January 21, 2011                                                                                                                                                                           35   Friday, January 21, 2011                                                                     36
               The Present: The Scientific Method and                                                                  Institutionalization : 1900s to 1950s
                      an Integrative Approach                                                         ! Prior to 1950s : Large state-run mental hospitals
  ! Psychopathology                                                                                      " Severely mentally ill
    " Is multiply determined                                                                             " Severely developmentally disabled
    " One-dimensional models are Incomplete                                                              " by 1955 about 500,000 patients in USA (out of 165 million)
  ! Must Consider Reciprocal Relations Between
    " Biological, psychological, social, and experiential factors                                     ! Problems :
  ! Defining Abnormal Behavior                                                                           " “Treatment” was often just custodial -- food water safe
                                                                                                           environment
    " Is complex, multifaceted, and also has evolved
                                                                                                         " Under funded -- threadbare and shabby
  ! The Supernatural Tradition
                                                                                                         " Commitment / Release decisions made by family & doctors
    " Has no place in a science of abnormal behavior
                                                                                                           w/o formal legal procedures
                                                                                                         " Patients rights routinely violated
                                                                                                         " CIA / Government mind control experiments

                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                   Institutionalization : 1950s to 1960s                                                                            Ken Kesey
  ! Major Developments:                                                                               ! American author / novelist
    " Antipsychotic medications (Thorazine, Haldol)                                                   ! Worked at a mental hospital as an orderly
    " Civil Rights / Patients Rights Movements                                                        ! 1959 Volunteered for CIA’s MKULTRA studies
    " Counter cultural movement                                                                          " MKULTRA : mind control research using pharmacology &
       ! LSD and psychedelia                                                                               behavioral control, including LSD and Psilocybin
       ! Timothy Leary - Tune in Turn on Drop out                                                     ! Wrote novel “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” in 1962
       ! Ken Kesey - Merry Pranksters                                                                 ! Made into film starring Jack Nicholson in 1975
       ! Thomas Szasz - the Myth of Mental Illness
    " Publicizing of abuses in popular culture
       ! “One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest”




                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                           One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest                                                         DeInstitutionalization : 1960s to present
  ! Book / Movie                                                                                      ! Between 1955 and 1995, most states cut their long-term
  ! Portrays a large state hospital that is poorly run                                                  psychiatric hospital populations by 90% or higher.
  ! Many patients are committed against their will                                                    ! 50% to 70% of them had severe mental illness or brain
  ! “Treatment” is ineffective, abusive, vindictive                                                     damage
  ! Severe procedures (psychosurgery, ECT, overmedication) are
    used for behavior control & revenge                                                               ! President Jimmy Carter's Commission on Mental Health: "the
  ! Main character (who is not clearly mentally ill) rebels against                                     objective of maintaining the greatest degree of freedom,
    the system, is punished repeatedly, eventually gets a                                               self-determination, autonomy, dignity, and integrity of body,
    lobotomy (destroying his vibrant personality), and is killed in                                     mind, and spirit for the individual while he or she
    a “mercy killing” by another character.                                                             participates in treatment or receives services."
  !




                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                                   Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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                           DeInstitutionalization : LPS Act                                                         DeInstitutionalization : 1960s to present
  ! Lanterman-Petris-Short Act 1969
                                                                                                      ! Fall in hospital population
  ! Invoked much-needed changes in the process of
                                                                                                        is fairly well matched (after
    commitment.
                                                                                                        some delay) with rise in
  ! Provides for 72 hour and 14 day holds for evaluation, with                                          prison population
    separate review for forced medication.

                                                                                                      ! USA now has highest
  ! Probably went too far on the side of patients’ rights -- did                                        incarceration rate in the
    not provide effective long-term commitment policy/                                                  world
    procedures for those needing it.
                                                                                                      ! USA : 7.37 / 1000
                                                                                                      ! France: 1.0 / 1000
  ! Estimated that about 15% of prisoners are mentally ill, and
    about 25%-33% of homeless.



                                                     Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011                                               Psychology 336 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011

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