VIEWS: 64 PAGES: 54 CATEGORY: Fitness POSTED ON: 8/25/2011
Shopping is the most popular pastimes of women is also a good aerobic exercise, and gym training equipment boring compared to shopping not only for women unknowingly exercise the body, but also a pleasant mood, best of both worlds fitness method, if the way to the good things it can Amoy.
Shopping is the most popular pastimes of women is also a good aerobic exercise, and gym training equipment boring compared to shopping not only for women unknowingly exercise the body, but also a pleasant mood, best of both worlds fitness method, if the way to the good things it can Amoy.
shopping generation by Ed Mayo = ^Äçìí=íÜÉ=k~íáçå~ä=`çåëìãÉê=`çìåÅáä= ^Äçìí=íÜáë=êÉéçêí= qÜÉ=k~íáçå~ä=`çåëìãÉê=`çìåÅáä=Ek``F=ã~âÉë=~= qÜáë=êÉéçêí=äççâë=~í=íÜÉ=áëëìÉë=Ñçê=óçìåÖ=éÉçéäÉ= éê~ÅíáÅ~ä=ÇáÑÑÉêÉåÅÉ=íç=íÜÉ=äáîÉë=çÑ=ÅçåëìãÉêë= ~åÇ=ïÜ~í=íÜÉó=íÜáåâ=~Äçìí=íÜÉáê=éä~ÅÉ=áå==ÅçåëìãÉê= ~êçìåÇ=íÜÉ=rhK== äáÑÉK=^ë=~=êÉëìäí=çÑ=íÜÉ=k``Ûë=êÉëÉ~êÅÜI=íÜÉ=óçìåÖ= éÉçéäÉ=Ü~îÉ=ëÉí=çìí=~=Ú`ÜáäÇêÉåÛë=~ÖÉåÇ~=Ñçê= táíÜ=ÅÜ~åÖÉë=áå=éêçîáëáçå=çÑ=ëÉêîáÅÉë=Äó= ÅçåëìãÉê=äáÑÉÛK==qÜáë=êÉéçêí=äççâë=~í=Üçï=íÜ~í= ÖçîÉêåãÉåí=~åÇ=Åçãé~åáÉëI=íÜÉêÉ=áë=~éé~êÉåíäó= ~ÖÉåÇ~=Å~å=ÄÉ=éìí=áåíç=~ÅíáçåI=áåÅäìÇáåÖ=Üçï= ãçêÉ=ÅÜçáÅÉI=~åÇ=ãçêÉ=í~äâ=~Äçìí=ãÉÉíáåÖ= é~êÉåíë=Å~å=ÜÉäéI=~äçåÖ=ïáíÜ=êÉÅçããÉåÇ~íáçåë=Ñçê= ÅçåëìãÉêëÛ=åÉÉÇëK=vÉíI=íÜÉ=êÜÉíçêáÅ=ÇçÉë=åçí=~äï~óë= ÖçîÉêåãÉåíK= ã~íÅÜ=éÉçéäÉÛë=ÉñéÉêáÉåÅÉW=ã~êâÉíë=Å~å=çéÉê~íÉ=áå= ï~óë=íÜ~í=~Åí=~Ö~áåëí=ÅçåëìãÉê=áåíÉêÉëíëX=~åÇ= qÜÉ=k``Ûë=êÉëÉ~êÅÜ=ï~ë=ÅçåÇìÅíÉÇ=ÄÉíïÉÉå= ÅçåëìãÉêë=ïÜç=~êÉ=Çáë~Çî~åí~ÖÉÇ=çê=áå~êíáÅìä~íÉ= lÅíçÄÉê=OMMQ=~åÇ=^éêáä=OMMR=ïáíÜ=óçìåÖ=éÉçéäÉ= Å~å=ÄÉ=áÖåçêÉÇK== ~ÖÉÇ=Ñêçã=NM=íç=NV=óÉ~êë=çäÇK=qÜÉêÉ=ïÉêÉ=íïç= ëí~ÖÉë=íç=íÜÉ=êÉëÉ~êÅÜW= qÜÉ=k``=ìëÉë=áíë=áåëáÖÜí=áåíç=ÅçåëìãÉê=åÉÉÇë=íç= ~ÇîçÅ~íÉ=ÅÜ~åÖÉK=tÉ=ÅçåÇìÅí=êáÖçêçìë=êÉëÉ~êÅÜ=~åÇ= pí~ÖÉ=NW=~=å~íáçå~ä=ëìêîÉó=Äó=opd_=E~Åêçëë=båÖä~åÇI= éçäáÅó=~å~äóëáë=íç=áåîÉëíáÖ~íÉ=âÉó=ÅçåëìãÉê=áëëìÉëI= pÅçíä~åÇ=~åÇ=t~äÉëF=çÑ=NIMMM=óçìåÖ=éÉçéäÉ=~ÖÉÇ= ~åÇ=ìëÉ=íÜáë=íç=áåÑäìÉåÅÉ=çêÖ~åáë~íáçåë=~åÇ=éÉçéäÉ= Ñêçã=NMJNVI=ÇÉëáÖåÉÇ=íç=Éñ~ãáåÉ=~ííáíìÇÉ=íç= íÜ~í=ã~âÉ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=Ü~ééÉåK=tÉ=ÇçåÛí=àìëí=êÉëéçåÇ=íç= ëÜçééáåÖI=Äê~åÇë=~åÇ=~Äáäáíó=íç=é~ó=Ñçê=áíÉãëK== éçäáÅó=ÇáëÅìëëáçåëI=Äìí=ëÜ~éÉ=ÑìíìêÉ=ÇÉÄ~íÉ=íÜêçìÖÜ= pí~ÖÉ=OW=^=ëÉêáÉë=çÑ=ãáåáJÖêçìé=ÇáëÅìëëáçåë= çìê=ÖêçìåÇÄêÉ~âáåÖ=íÜáåâáåÖK= áåîÉëíáÖ~íáåÖ=íÜÉ=ÅçããÉêÅá~ä=äáÑÉ=çÑ=ÅÜáäÇêÉå=~åÇ= ^å=çéÉå=~åÇ=Åçää~Äçê~íáîÉ=çêÖ~åáë~íáçåI=ïÉ=ëÉÉâ=íç= íÜÉáê=ÑÉÉäáåÖë=~Äçìí=~å=~ÖÉåÇ~=Ñçê=ÅÜ~åÖÉK=léáåáçå= ïçêâ=ïáíÜ=éìÄäáÅ=ëÉêîáÅÉ=éêçîáÇÉêëI=ÄìëáåÉëëÉë=~åÇ= iÉ~ÇÉê=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=ï~ë=ÅçããáëëáçåÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=k``=íç= êÉÖìä~íçêëK=tÉ=ÜçäÇ=êÉÖìä~ê=éçäáÅó=Ñçêìãë=ïÜáÅÜ= Å~êêó=çìí=Ñçìê=ãáåáJÖêçìé=ÇáëÅìëëáçåë=ïáíÜ=óçìåÖ= éêçîáÇÉ=ìë=ïáíÜ=~=ìåáèìÉ=çééçêíìåáíó=íç=ÉñÅÜ~åÖÉ= éÉçéäÉ=~ÖÉÇ=Ñêçã=NNJNS=óÉ~êë=çäÇK=qÜÉ=ÉñÉêÅáëÉ=~äëç= îáÉïë=~åÇ=íÉëí=çìê=íÜáåâáåÖK=== áåîçäîÉÇ=íÜÉ=óçìåÖ=éÉçéäÉ=âÉÉéáåÖ=~=Çá~êóLëÅê~é= Äççâ=~åÇ=í~âáåÖ=éÜçíçÖê~éÜë=íç=êÉÅçêÇ=áåëí~åÅÉë= lìê=êÉä~íáçåëÜáé=ïáíÜ=íÜÉ=aÉé~êíãÉåí=çÑ=qê~ÇÉ=~åÇ= ïÜÉå=íÜÉó=ÑÉäí=íÜÉó=ïÉêÉ=ÄÉáåÖ=ëçäÇ=áíÉãëK= fåÇìëíêó=Ó=çìê=ã~áå=ÑìåÇÉê=Ó=ÖáîÉë=ìë=~=ëíêçåÖ= ÅçååÉÅíáçå=ïáíÜáå=ÖçîÉêåãÉåíK=_ìí=ïÉ=~êÉ=êÉ~Çó=íç= ÅÜ~ääÉåÖÉ=~åó=çêÖ~åáë~íáçåI=éìÄäáÅ=çê=éêáî~íÉI=íÜ~í= ÇçÉë=åçí=ÖáîÉ=ÅçåëìãÉêë=~=Ñ~áê=ÇÉ~äK= tÉ=Ü~îÉ=äáåâÉÇ=çêÖ~åáë~íáçåë=áå=pÅçíä~åÇ=~åÇ= t~äÉëI=~åÇ=~=ÅäçëÉ=êÉä~íáçåëÜáé=ïáíÜ=ÅçääÉ~ÖìÉë=áå= kçêíÜÉêå=fêÉä~åÇK=tÉ=éä~ó=~=äÉ~ÇáåÖ=êçäÉ=ïáíÜáå= bìêçéÉ~å=~åÇ=ïçêäÇïáÇÉ=ÅçåëìãÉê=ÖêçìéëI= ÉåëìêáåÖ=íÜ~í=ÅêçëëJÄçêÇÉê=ÅçåëìãÉê=áëëìÉë=~êÉ= í~ÅâäÉÇ=~åÇ=íÜÉ=ÅçåëìãÉê=îçáÅÉ=áë=ÜÉ~êÇ=ïáíÜáå= ÖäçÄ~ä=áåëíáíìíáçåëK= mäÉ~ëÉ=ÅÜÉÅâ=çìê=ïÉÄëáíÉ=~í=ïïïKåÅÅKçêÖKìâ=Ñçê=çìê= ä~íÉëí=åÉïëK= tÉ=Å~å=çÑíÉå=ã~âÉ=çìê=éìÄäáÅ~íáçåë=~î~áä~ÄäÉ=áå= Äê~áääÉ=çê=ä~êÖÉ=éêáåíI=çå=~ìÇáç=í~éÉ=çê=ÅçãéìíÉê= ÇáëâK=mäÉ~ëÉ=Åçåí~Åí=ìë=Ñçê=ÇÉí~áäëK= hÉó=íç=ëçÅáçJÉÅçåçãáÅ=Öêçìéë== k~íáçå~ä=`çåëìãÉê=`çìåÅáä= OM=dêçëîÉåçê=d~êÇÉåë= ^======rééÉê=ãáÇÇäÉ=Åä~ëë= içåÇçå=ptNt=Mae= _=======jáÇÇäÉ=Åä~ëë= qÉäÉéÜçåÉ=MOM=TTPM=PQSV= c~ÅëáãáäÉ=MOM=TTPM=MNVN= `N=====içïÉê=ãáÇÇäÉ=Åä~ëë= ïïï åÅÅ çêÖ ìâ `O=====pâáääÉÇ=ïçêâáåÖ=Åä~ëë= mìÄäáëÜÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=k~íáçå~ä=`çåëìãÉê=`çìåÅáä= gìäó=OMMR= a=======tçêâáåÖ=Åä~ëë= «=k~íáçå~ä=`çåëìãÉê=`çìåÅáä= b=======qÜçëÉ=~í=íÜÉ=äçïÉëí=äÉîÉäë=çÑ==== ma=QPLMR= =========ëìÄëáëíÉåÅÉ= fp_k=N=UVVRUN=PV=N= ¡NQ=áåÅäìÇáåÖ=éçëí~ÖÉ=~åÇ=é~ÅâáåÖ= = shopping generation by Ed Mayo, Chief Executive, National Consumer Council Acknowledgements I benefited from comments, suggestions and input from a wide range of people. My thanks to Al Aynsley-Green, Sue Bloomfield, Madeleine Bunting, Jo Butcher, Philip Cullum, Sue Dibb, Gill Frances, Jeff French, Diane Gaston, Barbara Hearn, Jo Hillier, Alison Hopkins, Sheena Horgan, Deirdre Hutton, Jill Johnstone, John Kemmis, Susanne Lace, Jane Landon, Paul Lincoln, Nic Marks, Thomas Mayo, Frankie Mayo, Molly Mayo, Mary McLeod, Dawn Muspratt, Agnes Nairn, Pip O’Byrne, Courtney Plank, Chris Pole, Juliet Schor, Graeme Trayner, Frank Trentmann and Carolyne Willow. Thanks too to the children that took part in the mini-group discussions in our survey. Contents Summary and recommendations 2 1. A short history of children and shopping 5 2. Shopping generation: what young people told us 9 3. Children’s agenda on consumer life 34 4. How can parents help? 36 5. Putting the children’s agenda into action 38 Appendix: methodology 45 References 48 shopping generation N Summary and recommendations A new generation of young people aged 10 to 19 years-old are now avid shoppers. They have more pocket money, more influence over family spending and more sway over social trends. And yet, they are the least happy generation of the post-war era. They are relentlessly targeted by companies and advertisers, operating on occasion with the ethics of the playground bully. Their vulnerabilities are sold back to them through magazines and marketing. They feel that providers, from mobile phone companies to newsagents, rip them off - that they live in a hostile commercial world, playing to their insecurities. These are not the claims of any pressure group or single interest campaign, but what young people themselves have told us. Young Britons represent a £30 billion commercial market, but it is clear that all is not well. The National Consumer Council’s (NCC) survey of children as young consumers, drawing on quantitative and qualitative research, suggests that: • A new shopping generation has emerged. Across today’s children, the vast majority (80 per cent) enjoy shopping and going to the shops and care a lot about their games and other possessions (71 per cent). • Perhaps surprisingly, British children are more consumer-oriented that their American counterparts. Children in Britain are more brand aware and less satisfied than US children with what they have to spend. • Even the youngest in our survey are already keen consumers. Almost eight in ten (78 per cent) 10-12 year olds already say they enjoy shopping. More than two in three like collecting the latest things that others are collecting. Nearly half of 10-12 year olds think that the brand is important when they buy and the average ten year old has internalised 300 to 400 brands – perhaps twenty times the number of birds in the wild that they could name. • Greater London emerges as the most materialist region. Children in the West Midlands appear to achieve the best balance, open to opportunities as consumers while remaining more contented. • Children do experience stress from the scale and extent of commercial marketing: O======shopping generation a) Young people feel pressure to have the latest ‘in vogue’ items. Girls in particular, experience feelings of inadequacy and discomfort as a result of ‘images of perfection’ promoted by advertising. b) Advertising, it appears, can make you unhappy. The more consumerist children were – the ones who were ‘brand aware’, cared about their possessions and liked collecting – the more likely they were to be dissatisfied more widely. c) Advertising makes poverty bite. The children that have the least, in socio-economic groups C2 and DE, are most interested in consumer and materialist concerns. This ‘aspiration gap’ is most marked in the poorest households. Their parents try hard to respond - poorer children tend to get more pocket money and will get crisps and snacks in their lunch boxes – but these are the children most likely to be disappointed when birthdays come round. • Young people feel they face discrimination and get treated as second-class customers, compared to adults, by shops and companies. Seven out of ten children feel they are being ‘ripped off’ by companies (71 per cent). Mobile phone companies are rated very low for service by young consumers, worse than doorstep salesmen. • Young people want more honesty and respect, and tighter curbs and controls on marketing. qÜÉ=ÑçìêJéçáåí=ÅÜáäÇêÉåÛë=~ÖÉåÇ~=çå=ÅçåëìãÉê=äáÑÉ== 1. Be honest and upfront about products and services. 2. Treat young people with respect and take them seriously. 3. Curb the use of inappropriate advertising aimed at younger people. 4. Put tighter controls on the marketing of products that are bad for young people. shopping generation P oÉÅçããÉåÇ~íáçåë= To implement the children’s agenda, the NCC recommends: 1. action by regulators to triple the level of fines on business mis-selling to children (Be honest and upfront about products and services); 2. a Children’s Well-Being Index to be published by the Treasury, to track children’s life satisfaction (Treat young people with respect and take them seriously); 3. new powers for Ofcom to enforce ‘British Board of Film Censors’-style content labelling to help parents choose between appropriate and inappropriate entertainment content for children (Curb the use of inappropriate advertising aimed at younger people); 4. ending the abuses of internet marketing to children, by classifying children’s personal information as sensitive, requiring parental consent (Put tighter controls on the marketing of products that are bad for young people). Q======shopping generation 1. A short history of children and shopping Children have always had an active involvement in economic and commercial life, both as workers and consumers. The children of the nineteenth century streets, for example, come alive in the books of Charles Dickens. Dickens’s children were often orphans, with no-one to care for them. They stole or picked pockets to buy food and slept in outhouses or doorways. They did jobs to earn money. They sold lace, flowers, muffins or matches in the street. They worked as crossing-sweepers, clearing a way through the mud and horse manure of the main roads to make way for ladies and gentlemen. The worst excesses of nineteenth century life for children were restrained by an Act passed in 1842, and associated legislation, sponsored by the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury. Children were freed from a wide variety of commercial abuses, from working down mines to cleaning up chimneys. Throughout the twentieth century, children were avid consumers of sweets, comics, movies and books. And any school playground today still operates as a showcase for the variety of entrepreneurial practices that children engage in – trading cards and toys, swapping food from lunchboxes, swapping favours. The NCC exists to champion the rights of consumers. We have looked at the needs of children at key points in time, including the needs of children in care, the first UK Code controlling marketing to children in schools, and, most recently, our work on children, food and health that helped to shape the Government’s 2004 Public Health White Paper. The question that this report addresses is whether, in the very different setting of today’s fast-paced, highly commercialised world, society can still learn from the concerns of Charles Dickens and Earl Shaftesbury. It is not enough, perhaps, for children to be active in economic life. It is time that they are able to shape the terms on which they participate. == shopping generation R = = eáëíçêó=çÑ=ÅÜáäÇêÉåÛë=ëÜçééáåÖ= 1760 William Hamley, a Cornishman from Bodmin, arrives in London to open a toy store, Noah’s Ark. 1895 Coca-Cola’s first celebrity spokesperson, Music Hall performer Hilda Clark, appears in advertisements. 1899 Meccano launched. 1928 First talking cartoon, Steamboat Willie, included Mickey Mouse. 1937 Disney licenses Snow White’s image before the film is released, creating demand for Snow White goods. 1946 Muffin the Mule starts, the first great star of British children’s television. 1951 Mr Potato Head is the first toy advertised on television. 1959 Mattel launches Barbie doll, the first teenage fashion doll. 1966 Action Man, the UK version of Palitoy’s GI Joe, is launched. 1977 Star Wars the movie introduces a new level of mass merchandising. 1982 Atari’s Pac-Man hits the shelves. 1995 Gary Lineker makes his first advert for Walkers crisps. 1996 Children’s programming starts in multi-channel homes, with Fox Kids. 1997 Po, Laa-Laa, Tinky Winky and Dipsy (the Teletubbies) appear on BBC. 2001 The first four Harry Potter books notch up sales of 66 million worldwide. 2005 The games console war hots up, with new releases from Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo. = S======shopping generation qÜÉ=ÅÜáäÇêÉåÛë=ã~êâÉí= The NCC was recently asked to look at the case of an 8-year-old girl, Ellis Scott, in Nottingham, who was sent an offer, pre-selected, for a credit card. A voracious credit market regularly throws up examples like this. A previous case involved a card being erroneously offered to an Alsatian dog! The children’s market is real and substantial: • There are close to eleven million children in the UK under the age of 15 – 5.6 million boys and 5.4 million girls (1). • One million children aged from 5 to 9 years old now own a phone – double the number two years ago. The average age for a child to have a first mobile is now 8 years old (2). Almost 60 per cent of secondary school children and 20 per cent of primary school children own mobile phones (3). • Eight in ten children (aged 5 to 16) have their own TV and over half have a video recorder / DVD in their room (4). One in five has access to the internet in their own room (5). • Each year children (under 16) spend their own money on: snacks and sweets (£680m), clothing (£660m), music and CDs (£620m), footwear (£400m), software (£350m), magazines (£250m) and toiletries (£83m) (6). • The children’s clothing market is worth £6bn (7). Sales of toys in the UK are £2 bn (8). If the UK market is comparable with the USA, we can estimate that children have an average of seventy new toys a year (9). • In major household purchases, such as for cars, holidays and leisure, children now have an influence over parents’ decisions (10). • This adds up to total child-oriented market estimated at £30bn (11). Children are active consumers. In the field of computer games, children are co- creators of new games, helping to test pre-release versions in online communities. In the field of technology, they are often innovation leaders. Over half, for example, would like to use their mobile phones to make ‘micro-payments’, for bus tickets or vending machine goods (12). They are also determined consumers. Pester power is alive and well. If parents say no, the most frequent tactic used by children is described by researchers as ‘direct action’ shopping generation T – like losing their temper or crying. Around six out of ten children say they pester their parents to get what they want and that they get annoyed or slam doors if the answer is ‘no’ (13). Companies have been quick to recognise market opportunities. Children’s tastes drive market trends. Levi Strauss was first to recruit ‘cool’ kids to advise them but it is now common practice to attract ‘kid engineers’. Brainstorming among young consumers is supposed to have led Heinz to produce its ‘E-Z squeeze’ bottles. As a result, children increasingly command the focus and attention of advertisers and brand strategists. This has helped to inspire a celebratory narrative of the UK’s active, media-savvy young consumers. But it has also started to generate controversy. Walkers Crisps’ campaign for Wotsits, for example, has been criticised by MPs on the grounds that it ‘deliberately sought to undermine parental control over children's nutrition’. Advertisers estimate that the association with Gary Lineker has been worth sales of an extra 114m packets of crisps over just two years (14) . Felicity Lawrence, the campaigning author and journalist, picked up on a submission by advertising agency Leo Burnett to the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising for one of its ‘effectiveness awards’ in 2002. It explained how its campaign for Kellogg's Real Fruit Winders ‘entered the world of kids in a way never done before’, and managed to ‘not let mum in on the act’. The product is one-third sugars, and has been awarded a ‘Tooth Rot’ award by the Food Commission (15). A survey by the National Family and Parenting Institute in 2003 suggested that 84 per cent of parents now believe that there is too much marketing aimed at children. Even so, with new techniques on the rise, such as ‘peer-to-peer’ and ‘viral marketing’ which encourage people to pass marketing messages on to others, and product placement embedded into video games, even the most informed parents would be shocked to learn the full extent and sophistication of such marketing targeted at their kids. Our aim, though, was not to repeat this and other work that has demonstrated and amplified parental concern about marketing. Our interest was in asking the consumers – that is, the young people – themselves about their attitudes to shopping and views on consumer life. U======shopping generation 2. Shopping generation: what young people told us ‘It reminds me of chocolates. When you’ve bought something and you feel proud, like it releases a happy hormone.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) qÜÉ=êÉëÉ~êÅÜ= The NCC’s research with children ran between October 2004 and April 2005. We wanted to explore young people’s understanding and views on consumer life. The first stage was a national survey, across England, Scotland and Wales, of 1,000 young people aged 10 to 19 years-old, run by RSGB. The survey was designed to probe issues such as their attitude to shopping and brands and how they felt about their family’s ability to pay for things. In designing the survey, we drew on the pioneering research of sociologist and author, Juliet Schor, in the USA (16) . Of course, such an age range covers many differences. The labels and definitions across this age group are many and varied, so we talk about ‘children’ as a short-hand only (17). But childhoods differ across not just age, but also social class, geography, gender, ethnicity and ability/disability. The second stage was a series of focus groups, designed to explore, in more qualitative depth, the commercial life of children, how they felt about this and what their agenda for change might be. The NCC commissioned Opinion Leader Research to run four mini-group discussions with girls and boys aged 11-16. Those involved also completed a diary/scrap book to record the times someone tried to sell to them, how this made them feel and what they did as a result. This added a behavioural perspective to the research. And they used a disposable camera to record pictures of when people tried to sell to them. Like any research of this form, it paints a snapshot in time and is stronger in revealing the opinions of children than it is their behaviour over time, which might require observational or ethnographic research. lîÉêîáÉï== The results paint a picture of children who see themselves as enthusiastic consumers. They are engaged by and responsive to marketing. Consumer life matters to them. shopping generation V They enjoy shopping and care about their possessions. They also feel pressure to have the latest ‘in vogue’ items. They do not think of themselves as naïve, but see methods of selling to young people as often intrusive and inappropriate. Girls in particular, experience feelings of inadequacy as a result of ‘images of perfection’ promoted by advertising. Many young people feel they are being ‘ripped off’ by companies. They feel they get treated very differently to adults by shops and companies. The scrapbooks and photos taken by the children in the research highlight the volume of marketing activity that young people are exposed to on a daily basis. They accepted this as normal and their response to the commercial world around was characterised by cynicism. When it came to what they would want to see in relation to marketing and consumer life, they want more honesty and respect, and tighter curbs and controls. ÚqïÉÉåëÛ=~åÇ=qÉÉåë= Even the youngest UK children in the survey are already keen consumers. Of those aged 10-12: • 84 per cent care a lot about their games and ‘other stuff’; • 78 per cent like shopping and going to the shops; • more than two in three like collecting the latest things that others are collecting; • two-third like clothes with popular labels; • nearly half think the brand is important when they buy. This age group falls into the category of ‘tweens’, so-called because they are classified by marketers as falling ‘between’ early childhood and teenage years. Martin Lindstrom, author of Brandchild, defines ‘tweens’ as those aged 8-14 (18) . Attachment to brands and labels starts young. The average ten-year-old has internalised 300 to 400 brands – perhaps twenty times the number of birds in the wild that they could name (19). Pester power may be at its height among tweens (20). Brand awareness remains high among all the age-groups, but it seems to peak in the early teens. An interest in clothes with popular labels is at its most intense in the 13- 15 age range, with three-quarters of children interested (21). NM======shopping generation Those who are working full or part-time (i.e. have their own money) are less likely than those in full-time education (or indeed those who are neither working nor at school) to feel that other kids have more possessions and to wish their parents earned more and could afford more or gave them more to spend. Caring a lot about games ‘and stuff’ declines as children get older (from 84 per cent of 10-12 year olds to 54 per cent of 18-19 year olds). The latest Halifax ‘pocket money survey’ shows that those aged 7-11 get £6.31 a week on average, while those aged 12-16 get £9.15 – or nearly 50 per cent more. Boys get 50 pence more pocket money than girls each week. The average pocket money across Britain is £7.82 per week, adding up to a collective yearly children’s spending power of £70m (22). Older children tend to add to their income through paid work. Older figures from Wall’s Monitor, which surveys children aged 5-16, showed that in 2001 children over the age of 14 boosted their earnings from odd jobs to give them an average weekly income of £12.64, nearly double that of the 11-13 year-olds and nearly three times that of the 8-10 year olds (23). Two in five children (11-16) do some form of paid work outside the home, working for an average of just under five hours a week (24). Of course, young people’s interests and priorities are bound to change as they grow up. In this context, going out to work appears to increase interest in brands and labels, but to reduce feelings of envy. Perhaps because they are spending their own money, they are more sensitive about their consumer rights. Those working full or part time are the most likely to have felt ripped off. _çóë=~åÇ=Öáêäë= There were a few major differences between boys and girls in our survey. A slightly higher proportion of boys than girls wished their parents earned more money (53 per cent of boys, 46 per cent of girls). Shopping was seen as much more of a ‘girl thing’ – 94 per cent of girls like going shopping against 68 per cent of boys. Boys are more likely to care a lot about their games and ‘other stuff’ (80 per cent of boys against 61 per cent of girls). So it may be that male interest in shopping manifests itself in ‘collecting’ things, which rates high among younger boys in our survey. For all that they are less keen on shopping, boys are, if anything, more keen than girls to get the ‘right’ things when they do buy. Compared with 67 per cent of girls, 73 per cent of boys say they like clothes with popular labels. Fifty-nine per cent of boys say that the brand name is important to them when they buy something, compared to 46 per cent of girls. shopping generation NN This may be down to what boys and girls spend their money on. According to Mintel research, boys aged 13-14 are the biggest spenders on computer games, sports and hobbies and this is also the age at which they start to display interest in technology. Big brand names dominate computer games and sports gear and these, as well as high- tech toys, tend to be ‘bigger-ticket’ items. At the same age, girls are buying clothing, which may be branded and expensive, but they are also buying ‘cheaper-ticket’ items such as toiletries and cosmetics (25). This may also influence their attitudes to the non-essential nature of a lot of consumption: 83 per cent of girls agree that people buy things they don’t really need against 74 per cent of boys. fí=ã~ííÉêë=ïÜÉêÉ=óçì=äáîÉ= There were clear differences across the regions. Greater London emerges as the most materialist area. Fifty-six per cent of Greater London children say that they wish their family could afford to buy them more of what they want. Forty-seven per cent of children in the North say the same, compared to an average of 41 per cent. Greater London is the only region in which a majority of children report that they like to watch adverts – being over twice as likely as children elsewhere to enjoy adverts. Children in the West Midlands appear to achieve the best balance, open to opportunities as consumers while remaining more contented. They are the least envious, and the least likely to wish their family could afford to buy them more. They are less concerned to collect what others are collecting and the least likely to care what kind of car the family has. But they are far from anti-consumerist. They are fashion conscious, being among the keenest on clothes with popular labels and brands. And they are concerned with their rights as consumers. East Midlands is the rip-off region of Britain, according to children there. An astonishing 91 per cent of children believe they have been ripped off when they have bought something themselves. Scottish children appear to be among the least interested in brand names, the least concerned what car their parents drive. But, perhaps because they get the highest pocket money (£9.23 per week) in the UK (26), they are among the most likely to say that they enjoy shopping and going to the shops and that they enjoy collecting the things that others are collecting. Children in Wales, in contrast, felt the poorest, being most likely to wish that their parents earned more and that their parents gave them more money. They may have good reason. Only around one in four children in Wales say they get pocket money (27). Children in Wales are half as likely as other parts of Britain to enjoy watching adverts. NO======shopping generation eçï=ïÉ=Åçãé~êÉ=íç=íÜÉ=rp^= A similar, overwhelming, proportion of children in both Britain and the USA say that they enjoy shopping and that they care a lot about their games ‘and other stuff’. Over two in three children in both countries enjoy collecting things. However, perhaps surprisingly, British children emerge overall as more consumer- oriented that their US counterparts. Children in Britain are more brand aware and less satisfied with what they see as the limited amount of money they have to spend. In the USA, one in three children say they feel that other kids have more possessions than they do, compared to one in four in Britain. But US children appear to be more accepting of this, and less envious, in terms of wishing that their family could do more to help them to afford more. British children are significantly more enthusiastic about advertisements than US children. Some might argue that this means that UK advertising is superior, but a less partial explanation could be the profusion of advertising channels in the US (28). The NCC survey suggests that children who do not have extra channels are more likely to say they like watching adverts – 37 per cent against 27 per cent of those with cable and satellite TV. shopping generation NP Table 1: Consumer involvement in the UK versus US - children aged 10-12 (OV) UK USA Net: Net: Net: Net: agree disagree agree disagree I feel that other kids have more stuff than I do 25 56 33 67 I wish my family could afford to buy me more of what I want 47 42 33 67 I wish my parents gave me more money to spend 61 28 47 53 I care a lot about my games and other stuff 84 11 85 15 I like clothes with popular labels 66 22 52 48 When I buy something the brand name is important to me 46 42 40 60 It doesn't matter to me what kind of car my family has 64 25 71 29 I like shopping and going to the shops 78 18 76 24 I wish my parents earned more money 56 28 35 65 I like collecting the latest things that others are collecting 68 22 72 28 I like watching adverts 36 56 25 75 `çåÅÉêåë= So, in our land of shopkeepers, a new shopping generation has emerged. Across ‘tweens’ and teens, the vast majority (80 per cent) enjoy shopping and going to the shops and care a lot about their games and ‘other stuff’ (71 per cent). But the rise of a shopping generation comes at a cost and there are five issues of concern raised by children that emerge from the research. `ÜáäÇêÉåÛë=ÅçåÅÉêåë= • Commercial overload • Intrusive and inappropriate marketing • Poverty: the aspiration gap • Pressure to consume • Ripped off, put down. NQ======shopping generation = `çããÉêÅá~ä=çîÉêäç~Ç= ‘I don’t want to be a shopaholic but I just spend money all the time. Nothing I can do…’ (11- 13 year-old girl, C2D) ‘There was this advert for straighteners. They were saying oh yeah it makes your hair look wonderful…then they’re not saying what actual damage it’s going to do to your hair.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) ‘She’s a little bargain hunter, and she loves shopping. She has a passion for it.’ (14-16 year- old girl, BC1) The scrapbooks and photos that children took confirm that they are exposed to a constant stream of marketing activity, from opening cereal in the morning to opening their eyes on the street. As one girl put it: ‘Adverts are good because they keep people updated and give people a chance to enjoy the pleasures in life.’ (14-16 year-old girl, C2D). Yet most do not see themselves as particularly attached to publicity for the things they like to consume. Only three out of ten say that they like watching adverts. On the other hand, they can believe that people are trying to sell to them almost constantly, something that can result in cynicism. A commercial overload feeds a desensitisation and a mistrust of the motives of those trying to reach out to them. • ‘Beyonce is modelling skincare products, so you think, oh her skin’s lovely let’s go out and buy it, but they’ve probably just airbrushed the picture to make her look really good.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) • ‘I don’t read these (magazines) cos actually they just keep trying to sell you stuff. Over half of it was trying to sell you stuff.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) • ‘I don’t like adverts. I think you need to be left to make up your own mind about things. I don’t like the ones that are too much in your face…if yours is the best thing then I’ll go for it, won’t I?’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) Becoming a ‘shopaholic’ is seen as one possible outcome of this pressure. If so, many British children have been primed to become a new generation of shopping addicts. Shopaholics were thought of as constantly wanting something new, wanting things that you do not need. It is notable, though, that boys think that it is only girls who are ‘shopaholics’. shopping generation NR Comments about what a ‘shopaholic’ is include: • ‘Like some people, if they’ve seen someone else walking down the street in the same shoes, then they go and buy a new pair, even though they’ve only worn them once or twice.’ (11-13 year-old boy, C2D, London) • ‘Someone who can’t stop spending money’ (14–16 year-old girl, BC1, London) • ‘They just buy lots of things they want at the time but afterwards they don’t really want it’ (11-13 year-old girl, C2D, Birmingham) The idea of compulsive shopping is far from new. Sir Elton John is famous for his legendary spending sprees, reportedly spending £250,000 a week on credit cards (30). Shopaholics in history range from Marie Antoinette in the eighteenth century to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and Imelda Marcos in the last. But is this the preserve of listless rich, or in an age of conspicuous consumption, has the idea of ‘shop ‘til you drop’ revealed by our research taken on a new, and younger, guise? There is evidence that some aspects of addiction among the young are on the rise. Professor Mike Hulme from the University of Lancaster has surveyed more than 150,000 mobile phone users. He concluded in 2004 that the number of ‘phone addicts’ – including what he calls the 'm-ager', a new breed of phone-addicted teenager – is doubling every twelve months. These are people unable to cope if they are more than six feet away from their phone (31). Mobile phones, and increasingly i-pods, are emotional and aspirational consumer products for children. They symbolise freedom, growing up, independence and fun. Adults rate mobile phones top for their convenience, whereas children rate convenience as the least important benefit (32). A CBBC discussion in late 2004, prompted by the NCC’s research, suggested that shopping was an enjoyable way to spend time for many children, and problematic only in so far as you ended up buying what you didn’t need. • ‘I think it's pretty normal for kids to be 'shopaholics', especially GIRLS! Girls, like myself, love to shop, and if there weren't shopaholics shops would have no business! And, what's wrong with being a shopaholic?’ said Suzie, 14, from Sussex. NS======shopping generation • ‘I'm 10, what's the problem? I LOVE shopping for cool clothes. If it's a money thing then well, the National Consumer Council can't do much about that. But the things in the shops need buying!’ said Becky, 10, from Oswestry. • ‘I love shopping. But I just spend it on things that I don't need.’ Natasha, 13, from Manchester • ‘I love shopping if it was up to me I'd do it all the time!’ Lowies, 12, from Walsall • ‘I think shopping is great. It’s a fab socializing activity with friends or family and it’s great to find a bargain, but I do think some people can go over the top.’ Mark, 12, from Shrewsbury (33). But ‘shopaholics’ are just one extreme; others are simply not interested in shopping at all. Indeed, our survey shows there is also a substantial minority of those aged between 10 and 19 for whom the consumer society appears to hold little appeal. Our survey suggests that: • more than a third of children don’t care about brand names and one in five don’t like clothes with popular labels; • nearly a third don’t wish their parents earned more money; • one in five doesn’t care a lot about their games and possessions; • one in three don’t like collecting the latest things that others are collecting; • a majority - nearly six in ten - do not care what kind of car the family has. It may be that being a shopaholic is one of the few disorders that it’s OK to laugh at - a smiled-upon addiction. And yet, when it does turn negative, a commercial overload comes at a real cost. Dr Adrienne Baker, a senior lecturer in psychotherapy at Regents College, runs a clinic for shopping addiction. She estimates that 2-8 per cent of consumers in the UK are shopaholics. ‘It masks a great deal of pain,’ she says. ‘It’s a symptom of low self-esteem, of bleakness, of aloneness even in the midst of people, often of depression.’ fåíêìëáîÉ=~åÇ=áå~ééêçéêá~íÉ=ã~êâÉíáåÖ= ‘Today I was approached and asked if I would like to buy a mobile phone….I don’t like it….you immediately feel pressurised’ (Scrapbook extract 11-13 year-old girl, C2D) shopping generation NT ‘I have seen a lot of things I don’t really want to see, as in a weekly magazine I collect. There are lots of rude things.’ (11-13 year-old boy, C2D) In our mini-group discussions, young people expressed the view that companies often resort to intrusive methods to sell to them. It makes them feel uncomfortable, pressurised and stressed. • ‘I was walking down the street and they (mobile phone salespeople) just came up to me. I really don’t like it because they put loads of pressure on you and you just want to go away’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) • ‘When you’re approached in the street, it just makes you feel a bit vulnerable’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) • ‘Phone your house, like constantly, it drives me mad’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) High on the list of intrusive sales methods is internet-based selling, such as pop-ups. According to a survey by Professor Sonia Livingstone, London School of Economics and Political Science, 19 per cent of children have internet access in their bedroom. Most are online for less than an hour, but one on four use it for longer, including one in twenty that use it for more than three hours a day on average. Forty-four per cent of children (aged 9 - 19) using the internet weekly have completed a quiz online. And 17 per cent have sent pictures or stories to a website (34) . A Kids.net survey in 2000 suggested that up to a quarter of children may have been upset by online content, but that few reported this to an adult. Professor Livingstone quotes one interviewee, Nina, 17 from Manchester, who said ‘my little sister, she’d type in like her favourite artist or band, and porn sites just come up that had their name on it…Boyzone…Spice Girls…She was eleven at the time.’ (35) In our mini-group discussions, children felt that companies use inappropriate ways to sell to them, including selling goods to them they often want but can not buy, such as ‘over-18’ films. They report that sexual images in advertising also cause embarrassment and are used excessively. • ‘Like stupid things now, all the adverts basically around sex, like even deodorants and tic-tacs, they’ve got nothing to do with it’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) NU======shopping generation • ‘Like magazines, like Nuts and things. On the front page there’s a really dirty picture and if you’re like ten and you’re watching it, you don’t really want to see it.’ (11-13 year-old boy, C2D) Similarly, 57 per cent say that they have come into contact with online porn, most of it accidentally such as in the form of pop-ups. One in four has received pornographic spam. One in three report having received unwanted sexual content or nasty comments online or by text message, though only seven per cent of parents are aware that their child has received sexual comments and only four per cent that their child has been bullied online (36). Online privacy has been a concern for parents and children’s charities. Many children’s websites collects personal information from children, with no effective check for parental consent (37). Childnet International has done excellent work to help make the internet safe for children, from chatrooms to mobile downloads. In our research, children appeared to frame privacy as issues of nuisance, intrusion and discomfort with inappropriate content. Under voluntary rules drawn up with groups including the National Family and Parenting Institute, mobile phone companies restrict ‘adult services’ to users that can prove that they are 18 or over. However, beyond ‘x-rated’ services, this does little to limit age-inappropriate content or intrusive marketing by phone to children. From a parental perspective, age verification is also no guarantee of protection. In relation to drinking, children have developed what appears to be a wide variety of creative schemes that attempt to circumvent age requirements. And in 2004, GamCare, Citizencard and the Children's Charities' Coalition on Internet Safety, tested 37 online gaming sites to see if a child could set up an account. On their behalf, a 16 year-old girl tried to register with 37 gambling websites. Only seven refused her registration (38). Codes of practice on marketing to children To explore what companies say about intrusive and inappropriate selling techniques and other issues of concern, the NCC has conducted a review of current codes of practice on marketing to children. The key findings are: • There are different levels of codes. They range from the statutory to the voluntary and vary across products, from alcohol to food, and across different modes of communication, such as broadcast and non-broadcast media. shopping generation NV • Codes tend to borrow from each other. They are focused on preventing outright harm and the deception of children. They have, in general, less to say in terms of restricting the ways in which marketing promotions can influence children. • A positive exception, that limits promotions that play on the vulnerability of consumers, is from the Portman Group, an industry body focusing on alcohol. This rules out any advertising, marketing or promotion that suggest ‘any association with sexual success, or that the product can lead to social success or popularity’ (39). • A trawl of company websites suggests that there is little in the way of company voluntary codes of good practice. Some of the food and drink companies and the BBC are honourable exceptions. • Where companies do set age restrictions, they vary extensively on the age chosen, typically at any stage from ages 6 to 12. • It is not just companies involved in marketing. Some charities operate on the edge of acceptable practice in relation to children (40). • When monitoring compliance, codes do not say how and whether they consult children themselves. It is hard to judge whether a promotion encourages children to pester their parents or makes them feel ‘uncool’ for lacking a product, without understanding how children themselves see them. • The codes fail to set effective terms on celebrity endorsements and the use of cartoon characters in promotions such as for food. Cartoon characters are of particular influence in relation to younger children. • The codes address marketing focused exclusively on children, rather than starting from the perspective of children and recognising that they are regularly exposed to media aimed at the family or even an adult audience. • The codes are not designed and not able to deal with the overall scale of marketing to children. The provisions of codes as a whole are designed to deal with individual advertisements, not the cumulative effect of marketing campaigns. • Restrictions, whether official or voluntary, rarely apply to the full range of marketing activity, and in particular new media such as the internet (41). OM======shopping generation Website content that is not actual advertising is excluded, and yet many companies’ children’s websites are clearly marketing tools, helping to win customer loyalty (with activities to pursue, communities to join) and showcase merchandise. As 38 per cent of children (aged 9-19) trust most of the information on the internet, this is a major omission (42). As the European Heart Network puts it in relation to diet and health, ‘the internet is virtually unregulated in terms of food promotions’ (43). mçîÉêíóW=íÜÉ=~ëéáê~íáçå=Ö~é= ‘I just kept asking her, and in the end she just gave up and got it.’ (11-13 year-old boy, C2D) “I like going shopping … but like it’s really boring and that with like my Mum and brothers and that cos they like say can we hurry up now? Can we do this? Can we do that? And I’m like no.” (11-13 year-old girl, C2D) “[I feel depressed] when I don’t have enough money to get it.” (11-13 year-old boy, C2D) The commercialised society is not just about what you have. It is also about what you don’t have. One of the most significant findings from the survey is that the children that have the least want things the most. This aspiration gap is most marked in the most disadvantaged households, in socio-economic groups C2 and DE, whose children are most interested in consumer and materialist concerns. All the children we surveyed tended to know what they want and having the right things matters to them. Seven out of ten like clothes with popular labels and more than half consider the brand name important when they buy something. And they are influenced by their peers: more than half like collecting the latest things that others are collecting. But having the right thing comes at a price and half of these youngsters wish they, or their families, had more money to pay for them: 50 per cent agree with the statements ‘I wish my parents gave me more money to spend’ and ‘I wish my parents earned more money’. Yet, the homes where the children were the keenest consumers in terms of liking brands and labels were also the homes where money could expect to be tightest. Unsurprisingly, perhaps, these were also the youngsters expressing the most discontent with family spending. While the vast majority of all 10-19 year-olds in all classes like shopping, youngsters in lower-income groups were the most likely to be ‘brand aware’ (44). They are more shopping generation ON bothered about the make of the family car. They find brand names important and they want clothes with popular labels. Advertising helps to feed such aspirations: • “This advert’s quite cool because it makes you think you could totally change yourself, become a different person for the day.” (On advert for shower cream, 14-16 year- old girl, C2D) • “[This advert] made me think my mum should have a night out.” (11-13 year-old boy, C2D) • “It made me feel like I wanted it for the family.” (On advert for BMW, 11-13 year-old boy, C2D) Children from single-parent households, and households with no parent working, also follow a similar pattern. Children in single-parent homes were also slightly more likely to say that they cared about their games ‘and other stuff’ - 75 per cent agreed. A consumer orientation is likely to be a symptom, rather than a cause, of poverty. It has long been recognised that not wearing the ‘correct clothes’ can lead children to embarrassment and bullying (45). Parents struggle hard to protect their children from shame – and make sure that their children’s lunchboxes are as full as their classmates. In this way, snacks like crisps or chocolates are not seen as luxuries but a way for their children to participate in conventional behaviour. This ‘social psychology’ of food, coupled with low prices and extensive marketing for less healthy products, is one reason that children on low income have, in general, have diets low in fresh fruit and high in fat. Child obesity, of which there has been a three-fold increase over the last 25 years, faster than in the USA, is one of the clearest markers of poverty. Our research suggests that the stronger desire for the (usually) more expensive labels, combined with the reality of lower family income, generates significantly higher levels of discontent. • 75 per cent of C2DE children like clothes with popular labels, against 61 per cent of ABs; • 55 per cent of C2DEs say that the brand name is important to them when they buy something, compared to 47 per cent of ABs. OO======shopping generation • 56 per cent of C2DEs wish their parents earned more money, compared to 27 per cent of ABs; • Just under one in two C2DEs wish their family ‘could afford to buy me more of what I want’ (compared to less than one in three ABs); • 54 per cent of C2DEs wish their parents gave them more money to spend (compared to 45 per cent of ABs). Interestingly, this connects with research that suggests that, when they do get it, children in poorer households get more pocket money than others – particularly at primary school stage. These same children are also most likely to say that they get too little pocket money. And they expect to be disappointed when birthdays come around (46). This aspiration gap does have long-term implications. Poorer children are more likely to leave school early. Keen to enter the adult consumer world, they are, compared to better off children, more concerned to get a job and less concerned to build a career. The short-term gain is outweighed over time by the long-term costs of leaving education early. This is poverty twisting the knife. In a consumer society, marketing and media that tells others what they can have, tells you what you can’t. Inevitably, every new product that promotes inclusion, whether the trainers on your feet or the clothes you wear, can also create exclusion. As Camilla Batmanghelidjh, founder of Kids Company in Southwark, says ‘The poverty in Britain is worse than in poor countries because it is so isolating. The discrepancy is staring you in the face all the time – on TV, in the shops.’ Batmanghelidjh talks of the children she works with and ‘the urgency of returning their childhood to them’ (47). While many of the worst forms of poverty have been eradicated, these are its new, contemporary variants, coupling the lack of money with the lack of dignity. It is not enough to be poor in today’s world. You have to feel it. shopping generation OP mêÉëëìêÉ=íç=ÅçåëìãÉ= ‘Also, you know when you have those feelings, you’re having an off-day, but everything seems to point at the thing that you’re annoyed at, it’s like everything. That’s irritating, but that’s just a coincidence. When there’s lots of beautiful women on TV saying how beautiful they are, and you’ve got loads of people around. But I suppose that’s just when you’re having an off- day.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) ‘So it’s quite irritating when they’re advertising lip gloss or something, and they’ve always got perfect hair and their skin’s so smooth. It’s just like what are you advertising.’ (14-16 year- old girl, BC1) ‘I hate it. I have to have saved up for six weeks before I can actually go shopping, cos then when you can go shopping and it can be a spree as opposed to, yeah, I can’t buy that. And then you’re faced with all these new, different products, skirts and stuff, and you’re like I can’t buy it.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) The psychological implications for children of a commercial overload run further. In her research with children in the USA, Juliet Schor found that the more commercially aware children – the ones who cared about their possessions, were brand aware and liked collecting – were also the most likely to be dissatisfied. The same connection appears to hold in the UK (48). To explore this, we divided those that responded into ‘brand aware/less brand aware’ and ‘satisfied/dissatisfied’ (49). These groups correlate well with other aspects of consumer involvement. The results suggest that the more commercially aware children – the ones who were ‘brand aware’, cared about their possessions and liked collecting – were also the most likely to be dissatisfied. Fifty-nine per cent of brand- aware children are dissatisfied compared to 47 per cent of less brand aware children. At a more detailed level, those that were dissatisfied were the more commercially aware in that they were more likely to care about their possessions, to like labels, to think brands are important and to like collecting. And they were more likely to have felt ripped off. OQ======shopping generation Table 2: Consumer attitude and dissatisfaction Statement Dissatisfied Satisfied respondents respondents I care a lot about my games and ‘other stuff’ 76 per cent agree 65 per cent agree I like clothes with popular labels 82 per cent agree 64 per cent agree When I buy something the brand name is 63 per cent agree 49 per cent agree important to me I like collecting things that others are 69 per cent agree 43 per cent agree collecting There have been times when I feel I have 77 per cent agree 64 per cent agree been ripped off when I’ve bought something myself Now what causes what? If you are dissatisfied, are you drawn to consumer involvement? Or, if you are actively involved as a young consumer, are you drawn to dissatisfaction? From her extended analysis, which included aspects of children’s well-being, Juliet Schor concluded that, at least in the USA, it is a one-way relationship. ‘High consumer involvement is a significant cause of depression, anxiety, low self- esteem and psychosomatic complaints. Psychologically healthy children will be made worse off if they become more enmeshed in the culture of getting and spending. Children with emotional problems will be helped if they disengage from the worlds that corporations are constructing for them. The effects operate in both directions and are symmetric i.e. less involvement in consumer cultures leads to healthier kids and more involvement leads to kids’ psychological well-being to deteriorate.’ (50) The cause that she identifies is marketing to children. Commercial marketing positions itself in between the parent and the child. Advertising and promotions create utopian spaces for imagination and fantasy, but abuse the creativity they deploy by positioning the marketer with the child against the parent. shopping generation OR Higher levels of consumer involvement result in worse relationships with parents, which in turn knock on to children’s well-being. Relating poorly to their parents leads children to a higher incidence of depression and anxiety and to lower self-esteem. But if consumer involvement for children is not retail therapy, but therapy-inducing retail, then these findings are of relevance to one of the most disturbing trends in modern society. This is the rise of mental health disorders among children. • A 25-year study of adolescent mental health by the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London and the University of Manchester, published in 2004, found that, compared to 1974 figures, today's 15-year-olds are more than twice as likely to display behavioural problems such as lying, stealing and disobedience, and are 70 per cent more likely to experience emotional problems such as anxiety and depression. • Some 10 per cent of children aged between 11 and 15 have a clinically recognised mental disorder. Among 16- to 19-year-olds, it is even worse – 13 per cent have neurotic disorders. 14 per cent of those in social class five suffer, compared with 5 per cent in social class one (51). • While the evidence base on the numbers of teenagers that harm themselves is patchy, one estimate, from the Mental Health Foundation, is that nearly half a million teenagers are self-harming (52). • Attempted suicides among teenagers has reached 60–70,000 a year. As many as two or three girls in every 100 make a suicide attempt at some time during their teenage years. Suicide is the second most common cause of death in 15- 34 year old males, and there has been 75 per cent increase in suicide rates in young men aged 15-24 since 1982 (53). • In 2004, Childline counselled more than 14,000 15-year-olds (54). It appears that today’s shopping generation is the least happy of the post-war era. Of course, it is still possible that mental health disorders are more readily diagnosed than before. But even so, as Gary Bayliss, of the mental health charity Young Minds, says starkly: ‘What we are doing to our teenagers is a question we must find the answer to.’ (55) From a less academic but well-informed source, Chantelle Horton, assistant features editor of teen magazine Bliss, which has a core readership of 15-year-olds, says ‘Today's 15-year-olds worry about the same things 15-year-olds have always worried about - boys and sex and spots. But I think they also have other things to worry about OS======shopping generation – they worry more about being cool, and about cash and material goods … I think they feel a bit lost, and worried, particularly about the future.’ (56) More than a third of 2000 14 to 15-year-old girls questioned by Bliss magazine said they have felt unhappy or miserable. Top of the list for making them feel stressed was feeling they have to look good. More than one in six said they have been bullied, mostly because of what they looked like, while other reasons including being too clever and the clothes they wear (57). The scrapbooks of adverts put together by children in our research confirm that children are encouraged to look good, not to be clever. At an even younger level, 71.4 per cent of seven-year-old girls want to be slimmer, according to a study in the March 2005 British Journal of Developmental Psychology. Most thought this would make them more popular (58). Of course, more in-depth research on the connection between consumer life and mental health would help. But our research in the mini-group discussions tends to confirm the Bliss analysis, including the way that the use of celebrities and models in advertising can negatively affect older girls’ self perceptions. Some liked and appreciated the use of celebrities. ‘I liked these [magazine adverts] because it said your hair could look like Beyonce’s or your nails like Christina’s. I would like to buy [them]’ commented one 11-13 year-old girl (C2D). Other responses from girls pointed to feelings of their own inadequacy in comparison. • ‘There’s lots of beautiful women on TV saying how beautiful they are’ (14-16 year- old girl, BC1) • ‘You know when you’re in a dressing room and it’s looks so pretty on the model and it’s like it doesn’t look like that on me. That makes me really angry and makes me want to stop shopping.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) There was also some cynicism towards use of celebrities: • ‘I think if you use stars and status as a way of selling it makes me think that if you’ve got to get a star to do it then your product obviously isn’t able to sell itself.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) • ‘Everyone thinks ‘Beyonce is advertising skin cream and her skin is perfect so it must be good’ when actually she didn’t use the product and is only doing it for money’ (Scrapbook extract, 14-16 year-old girl, BC1) shopping generation OT While children enjoy the experience when they are a consumer, it is clear that the pressures to consume from the hyper-stimulated world of children’s commercial culture may be a contributory factor to rising mental ill-health. If so, this is likely to happen in the following ways: • Excessive marketing that can help to disrupt the parent/child relationship. • Consumer pressures that are highest for children from the poorest households, contributing to the psychology of poverty. • Promises made by marketing that cannot be delivered create cynicism or disappointment. • For some, marketing conveys images that feed frustration and reduced self-esteem. Nancy Shalek, president of the Shalek Agency, puts it more simply and candidly when she says that: ‘advertising at its best is making people feel that without their product, you’re a loser. Kids are very sensitive to that. If you tell them to buy something, they are resistant. But if you tell them that they’ll be a dork if they don’t, you’ve got their attention. You open up emotional vulnerabilities and it’s very easy to do with kids because they’re the most emotionally vulnerable.’ (59) Choosing Health: making healthy choices easier, Department of Health, 2004 OU======shopping generation = oáééÉÇ=çÑÑI=éìí=Ççïå= ‘The way you dress and that they think you’re going to rob something or someone.’ (11-13 year-old girl, C2D) ‘I bought a ring, a different ring to that one, but it weren’t the right size and took it back and they were saying can’t take it back, you should have kept the receipt, and I had the receipt and they were saying that’s not the receipt, that’s not our name and everything. I just lost the plot myself. Give me my money back, otherwise I’m taking you to court.’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) ‘When you go in, you can see them looking at you like hmm, I bet she hasn’t got any money to spend in here, she’s going to steal something, and everyone looks at you.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) Ripped off Seven out of ten children we surveyed reported that they have felt ripped off at times when they’ve bought things (71 per cent). In the mini-group discussions, we explored how this might be. There were two primary set of concerns. The first were to do with feeling let down by what they got. The sense that they were being ‘ripped off’ often revolves around the false expectations set by advertising. Experience has taught them products often don’t live up to the ‘hype’. Girls are cynical, for example, about hair and beauty product advertising. ‘All these shampoos and conditioners don’t really do anything’ said a 14-16 year-old girl (BC1). Similarly, boys are cynical about computer games. ‘I think wow this looks really good, the graphics are good and then you play and it wasn’t like this when I saw it on TV.’ (14- 16 year-old boy, BC1) Misleading pricing also leads to young people feeling ripped off – and the feeling they are ‘paying over the odds’ for goods: • ‘Trainers….they cost like a fiver to make and they sell them for 150….they’re just trying to rip you off’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) • ‘I went into Monsoon and it was like £80 for a hat! You can get one for like £4 in another shop and what’s the difference?’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) • ‘Yeah, like PlayStation or the PS3 what’s just come out. It’s like £240 to buy brand new but next year it will be half-price’ (11-13 year-old boy, C2D) shopping generation OV Offers and special deals that are ‘too good to be true’ anger young people. They often revolve around conditions in the small print, such as around offers for mobile phone ringtones: • ‘It’s a rip off cos it says 35p for a ring tone but you send off for that they keep sending you text messages that cost you money’ (11-13 year-old girl, C2D) • ‘Things on TV….you go there and it’s like a totally different price, it’s twice the price what it said on TV’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) • ‘There’s always tiny writing at the bottom. They just tied me up to this subscription that I didn’t want.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) • ‘I texted in, and they put me on to this subscription thing, and I’m getting a ring tone every week, and I don’t actually want them. I only wanted one. Yeah, they keep charging you.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) In other research conducted by the NCC in 2004, we asked consumers who they rated lowest in terms of service providers (60). One in five 16-24 year-olds were dissatisfied with mobile phone companies – higher than other age groups. As a result, mobile phone companies were ranked rated worse than door to door salesmen. The Halifax Pocket Money Survey also gathered children’s views on what they regarded as over-priced. Mobile phones came top. Other items ranked as too expensive included CDs/tapes, computer games and equipment, gifts and magazines (61). In other research for the Youth, Citizenship and Social Change programme, the financial services sector is viewed as unsympathetic and not geared to help young people on financial matters (62). PM======shopping generation Table 3: What children buy per week 2002-04 aged 10-12 aged 13-15 Boys Girls Boys Girls Confectionery, snacks and drinks £2.20 £2.40 £3.20 £3.20 Other food purchases £2.10 £2.10 £3.80 £3.40 Clothing and footwear 70p £2.00 £2.50 £5.30 Personal Care 10p 40p 20p £1.20 Magazines, newspapers, books and stationery 70p 90p 60p £1.10 Music 30p 40p £1.20 £1.00 Other entertainment (videos, DVDs) 20p 10p 40p 20p Games, toys, hobbies, pets £2.50 90p £2.60 50p Sporting and cultural activities 80p 80p £1.60 £1.20 Travel 30p 30p 60p 60p Mobile phones and charges 20p 40p 90p £1.50 Other expenditure 70p £1.10 £1.60 £2.20 Total (£ per week) £10.80 £11.70 £19.30 £21.50 Family Spending: a report on the 2003-04 Expenditure and Food Survey Office for National Statistics (SP) Put down The second major set of issues relating to the treatment of young people by companies focused on being ‘put down’. In the research for this report, the young people we spoke to felt passionate that they are being discriminated against. They feel that they are treated differently, as second- class consumers: • ‘They don’t respect us as much, they don’t listen as well’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) shopping generation PN • ‘They take advantage of you. Cos we’re younger and they don’t think we’re going to do anything about it. We don’t have any respect as a customer’ (11-13 year-old girl, C2D) • ‘A lot of them take advantage of you. Say like you want to buy one game, oh, pay £15 more and you can get two. If you’re with your parents they wouldn’t do that’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) • ‘I went to get a key cut because I needed another key, and I went in and they just ignored me, I just stood at the thing for ages, waiting, and I just thought forget this, and I went to another place.’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) • ‘I felt like they felt that they had more important people to deal with, like adults and that.’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) The same may be true for public services. Sir Ian Kennedy, in his review in 2001 of failings in children's heart surgery, condemned the failure of professional staff to talk to children. Arguably, a formidable array of other public services talks at children. Services are rarely integrated from the perspective of a child. For example, services such as programmes to stop smoking, young parents’ support service, child talk, mental health helplines, armed services, alcohol and drugs services, Connexions, Gateway, school nurses, youth offending teams, ‘5 a day’, and advice for teenage pregnancy, tobacco, chlamydia screening, fireworks, and so on (64). The Home Office conducted a one-day count on 10 September 2003, which yielded over 66,000 reports of anti-social behaviour recorded by public services. Around 60 per cent of these were believed to have been down to the actions of young people. With the new use of anti-social behaviour orders, the number of juveniles in custody has doubled over the past decade (65). According to the United Nations, the UK ‘still locks up more children than most other industrialised countries.’ (66) Ministers talk of rebuilding a culture of ‘respect’, while shopping centres ban children from wearing the same ‘hoodies’ that their own shops sell. Yet, every year, one in three children age 10-15 are victims of a crime (67). Over one-third of teenagers say they have been offered drugs (68). Drugs, street crime and the rising gang culture are all areas where young people have a major stake, not just as perpetrators but also as victims. There are also important, though rarely acknowledged, connections between crime and a society that promotes high levels of consumption. The high incidence of mobile phone theft is connected to the need to have the latest handset and the latest features. PO======shopping generation The most common reasons given by young people who commit crimes are boredom, to get money or to be able to conform to peer behaviour (69). Clearly, there is a larger set of issues at work here. And yet for companies, service providers or indeed politicians, to paint children as second-class citizens and as would- be criminals is as irrational, and ought to be as offensive, as any other form of discrimination. Not respected Ignored Talked down to Young Not taken Patronised seriously Not treated as equal shopping generation PP 3. Children’s agenda on consumer life We asked the children that participated in the mini-group discussions to put together a set of guidelines for companies on how to sell to younger people. It is a small sample of views rather than a national petition. But the results are as sophisticated, balanced and meaningful as anything that adults and marketing and policy experts might have designed. The ideas revolved around four themes: • Be honest and upfront about products and services • Treat young people with respect and take them seriously • Curb the use of inappropriate advertising aimed at younger people • Put tighter controls on the marketing of products that are bad for young people. _É=ÜçåÉëí=~åÇ=ìéÑêçåí=~Äçìí=éêçÇìÅíë=~åÇ=ëÉêîáÅÉë= Children said that: • ‘[Advertising should] tell you all the information and how much it’s going to cost you’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) • ‘Put more information about the product, make it simple and straightforward and don’t lie or make promises you can’t keep’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1,) • ‘Try to make it more understandable.’ (11-13 year-old girl, C2D) qêÉ~í=óçìåÖ=éÉçéäÉ=ïáíÜ=êÉëéÉÅí=~åÇ=í~âÉ=íÜÉã=ëÉêáçìëäó= They said: • ‘[young people should be treated] equally. Don’t put you down…look down on you’ (11-13 year-old boy, C2D) • ‘I think they should treat you like equals, cos you’re all customers to their shop’ (11-13 year-old girl, C2D) • ‘Be more friendly to customers.’ (11-13 year-old girl, C2D) PQ======shopping generation `ìêÄ=íÜÉ=ìëÉ=çÑ=áå~ééêçéêá~íÉ=~ÇîÉêíáëáåÖ=~áãÉÇ=~í=óçìåÖÉê=éÉçéäÉ= They said: • ‘I think you should separate adult advertising with children’s advertising’ (11-13 year- old boy, C2D) • ‘I don’t think they [young people] should see it [sexual images in advertising] because then they’re going to do them things.’ (11-13 year-old girl, C2D) • ‘Stop trying to sell us things that we can’t have.’ (14-16 year-old boy, BC1) mìí=íáÖÜíÉê=Åçåíêçäë=çå=íÜÉ=ã~êâÉíáåÖ=çÑ=éêçÇìÅíë=íÜ~í=~êÉ=Ä~Ç= Ñçê=óçìåÖ=éÉçéäÉ= They said: • ‘There should be a limit to what food they promote. Two out of three kids adverts are about food’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) • ‘The TV adverts should change the adverts on junk food because too many kids … get addicted to the fatty foods.’ (11-13 year-old boy, C2D) • ‘Please, please, please begin to promote healthy foods.’ (14-16 year-old girl, BC1) shopping generation PR 4. How can parents help? It is natural for older generations to be concerned about the upbringing of the young. Not all their concerns will be shared by children. Research by Ofcom’s Consumer Panel, for example, found that adults ‘are largely concerned for the younger generation and how they may come to lose the art of face-to-face communication as they will be so used to conversing with others via their mobile phones.’ (70) Stephen Kline, author and Professor of Communication at Canada’s Simon Fraser University, is sceptical of such concerns. He argues that children are often: ‘objects of ‘media panics’ not merely because they are often media pioneers; not merely because they challenge social and cultural power relations, nor because they symbolise ideological rifts. They are panic targets just as much because they inevitably represent experiences and emotions that are irrevocably lost to adults.’ (71) Newspaper coverage helps to inform, and reinforce, such concerns. Sir William Stewart, for example, conducted an official review of the safety of mobile phones. He found himself in the news as much for stopping his grandchildren from using them on health grounds, as for the substance of his report. Yet, there clearly are concerns over the consumer life of children that connect parents and children. Parents are well aware of the influence of the consumer society (72). And there is extensive evidence that parents accept that the primary responsibility for children rests with them. This looks as if it is about new parenting skills. How do you bring up children in the context of a fast-moving, acquisitive consumer world? Or perhaps it is simply a new context for old parenting skills – a new chapter in the tussle of control and freedom between parent and child. The truth is that parental control is not easy. In relation to the internet, four out of ten parents check up on their children’s use afterwards. Nine out of ten parents do not allow their children to give out personal information and two out of three parents ban use of chat rooms (73). And yet many a tech-savvy teenager knows how to obscure online footsteps. Blocking and filtering too is available, but not entirely reliable. Even among parents that use the internet, only 15 per cent say that they know how to install filtering software (74). PS======shopping generation One way to build the skills of children is to work with their interests as consumers, rather than against them. A comprehensive review of children’s ‘media literacy’ by David Buckingham, Centre for the Study of Children, University of London, comments that education efforts designed as ‘counter-propaganda’ to commercial media are less successful than approaches that start from an engagement with the capacity and interests of children in the use of media (75). Being a young consumer means being able to have fun and try new things, while having a safety net (parents) if things go wrong. It can be a way to play. For parents, pre-pay mobiles may be a good way of helping children to learn to budget. Regular pocket money, similarly, is a good way of helping children to learn about money and its management. It seems helpful for parents to take an interest in how their children participate in commercial life, such as sitting with them when watching television, or talking to them about what they have seen or played online. Other good practice could include parents agreeing ‘house rules’ with their children, setting limits and protocols about mobile phone usage and online access. But there is little formal support for parents in relation to these and the concerns raised in this report (76). Indeed, Harvard University’s Susan Linn contends that we have put parents in the position of ‘playing David to the corporate Goliaths’ (77). Accepting the commonsense principle of parental responsibility does not mean a belief that only parents should be held accountable. shopping generation PT 5. Putting the children’s agenda into action Children’s issues have made their way up the official policy agenda in recent years. Significant advances have been made, including: a National Service Framework for children’s health and care; commitments to reduce child poverty; the appointment of the Children’s Minister; the expansion of early years services; clearer inspection of children’s services; the development of a Youth Green Paper; and the appointment by a panel of children of England’s first Children’s Commissioner, Professor Aynsley Green, to join Commissioners in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. To date, the policy framework has revolved around the role of public services in supporting parents and children. The issues highlighted from our research suggest that what has been overlooked is an engagement with the commercial environment that plays such a significant role in shaping children’s life chances and wellbeing. We recommend that the Department for Education and Skills (DfES), under the auspices of the Minister for Children, Young People and Families, take action to address this by undertaking a child and parent-centred review of children and commercialisation. Such a review should be wide-ranging and inclusive, exploring issues as fundamental as the kind of society, with what values, that children are to grow up in and how better to create this. The Children’s agenda on consumer life already points a number of ways in which decision-makers in business and government can take action. _É=ÜçåÉëí=~åÇ=ìéÑêçåí=~Äçìí=éêçÇìÅíë=~åÇ=ëÉêîáÅÉë= Given the scepticism displayed by the children in our survey, businesses will have to earn their trust rather than assume it. A reputation for honesty and straight-dealing can pay back, particularly for businesses selling branded products and services. One of the most positive ways in which people can help is by sharing their experience, good or bad, with other consumers. The NCC, for example, has pioneered proposals for a ‘trader information’ service to help do this, inspired in part by the emergence of ‘reputation systems’ on the internet that allow shoppers to rate companies online. Yet, there will always be cowboy businesses willing to be dishonest and to break the rules. An example of this, raised by children in our research, is the mis-selling of mobile ringtones. The problem is not that regulators lack the tools to tackle rogue businesses. The problem is that they are not used. A range of consumer protection measures have PU======shopping generation been introduced over recent years, including ‘Stop Now’ orders. They are likely to be strengthened in future by the UK version of another proposal championed by the NCC, the EU Unfair Commercial Practices Directive. To tackle deceptive practices and mis-selling to children, the regulators concerned need to be more proactive in monitoring what is going on. We recommend that regulators, such as the Office of Fair Trading, the expected new Consumer and Trading Standards Agency, Ofcom and ICSTIS, prepare a ‘Childrens’ Consumer Interest Assessment’, to identify and monitor issues of concern to children. We recommend, given the commercial opportunities in exploiting the relative vulnerability of children and the detriment that flows from it, that regulators indicate that they will triple the level of fines on business mis-selling to children, compared to those for adults. qêÉ~í=óçìåÖ=éÉçéäÉ=ïáíÜ=êÉëéÉÅí=~åÇ=í~âÉ=íÜÉã=ëÉêáçìëäó= The rights of children at different age levels vary in the UK and across Europe on a number of counts. The definition of a child ranges from under 12 years of age in the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden to under 21 years of age in Estonia. In England, it is an old principle of law that someone under the age of 18 years cannot be bound by a contract. And yet such an age limit might appear at odds with the consumer involvement of children aged 16 to 18. While there has been a wider debate around the rights of children in the UK, the ‘reverse ageism’ in everyday settings pointed to by children in our research has yet to be recognised by decision-makers. There has been virtually no discussion, for example, of young people in relation to the new Commission for Equality and Human Rights. We recommend that Children’s Commissioners in the UK take up and explore the issue of children’s experience as consumers. There is more recognition, of course, of what society can do to equip children through education. According to David Buckingham, the UK is relatively advanced, internationally, in the field of education for media literacy (78). Current activity includes the compulsory teaching of media education from Key Stage 3 of the National Curriculum. Media Smart, a modest, media literacy initiative of the advertising industry, is also often cited. At the same time, Buckingham’s study also pointed to gaps in knowledge and best practice that could be extended more widely. shopping generation PV While it is helpful that the regulator, Ofcom, has a mandate on media literacy, such literacy is just one of the life skills that children will need to acquire (79). It is one stage of development for children to be aware of marketing and its intent. It is quite another to have developed the skills to be able to navigate the commercial world as a consumer, comparing prices, risks and the value of what is on offer. The NCC has helped to develop consumer resources for teachers with the Institute for Citizenship and pioneered the case, with widespread support, for a national strategy for consumer education, now led by the Office of Fair Trading (80). This needs to be extended in a more systematic way for children. We recommend that the DfES draws up a Consumer Life Skills Audit for England, in partnership with the relevant sectoral regulators, setting out timescales, priorities and resources required for the UK to achieve a world-class educational framework for children in relation to the life skills they need as consumers in the market. This will connect with efforts to achieve a balance in terms of commercial exposure in the school and pre-school environment. Almost a decade ago the NCC published guidelines on Sponsorship in Schools, including a checklist for teachers, school boards and parents. These were updated, but with a degree of watering down, by DfES in 2002. To review these guidelines, our linked organisation, the Scottish Consumer Council, recently launched a public consultation in Scotland on sponsorship in schools. There may also be new ways of funding educational programmes. This could include returning to proposals floated by one of the NCC’s predecessors, the Molony Committee on Consumer Protection, for a tax on advertising. In Germany, for example, a new initiative increases taxes on the ‘alcopops’ that are widely consumed by young people (81). The tax revenues are then be used to promote work to prevent alcohol abuse among children. There is a need, too, for government to address the rise of mental ill-health among children and the concerns of children in poverty, outlined in this report. Child poverty emerges as a dynamic ceiling of what children lack, rather than a static floor of what they have. Government policy will therefore want to understand what the NCC has termed ‘market exclusion’ - and how a commercial world creates exclusion for some children as surely as inclusion for others. We recommend one way to promote such integration, which is for the Treasury to publish, on an annual basis, a ‘Children’s well-being index’. QM======shopping generation This would combine objective indicators of the state of children, together with subjective, survey-based data on how they experience the world, particularly across the key domains of their lives, such as: • family • school • friendships and peer relationships • self-esteem and body image • neighbourhood and community, and • consumer life. Internationally, a range of disciplines are contributing to an increasing rigour in the field of well-being studies (82). The UK sustainable development strategy also contains a commitment to “explore how policies might change with an explicit well- being focus” and a suggestion that a “comprehensive set of wellbeing indicators” might be developed to support the strategy (83). Starting with children might be the most straightforward approach. The Children’s Well-Being Index would be a way not just to track children’s quality of life, but to influence policy in favour of it. `ìêÄ=íÜÉ=ìëÉ=çÑ=áå~ééêçéêá~íÉ=~ÇîÉêíáëáåÖ=~áãÉÇ=~í=óçìåÖÉê= éÉçéäÉ= Education is a complement, but not an alternative, to controls on marketing. The way that children are targeted is clearly something of a turkey shoot. While the responsibility for addressing this starts with childrens’ parents, as Juliet Schor argues, ‘many advertisers speak with a forked tongue about parental responsibility. To the public they extol it. To their clients, they boast about their ability to exploit parental weakness’ (84). One goal for government and businesses is therefore to support rather than undermine the position of parents. Ofcom, for example, has been exploring how to label content across television, internet, the mobile and games industries. The entertainment industry has the most experience on this, including the age classifications for films and ‘parental advisory guidance’ on CDs. ‘British Board of Film Censors’-style content labelling would help parents and children choose between appropriate and inappropriate entertainment content. Even so, there is no one system yet on the horizon to relate content to what shopping generation QN age it may be appropriate for, for children. And Ofcom is not able to enforce a system, partly because internet content falls outside of its remit. We recommend that Ofcom be given specific reserve powers to enforce content labelling, in line with action taken by other regulators at an international level. Given concerns about the unregulated nature of internet promotions to children, we also recommend that consideration be given to widening the legislative powers of Ofcom (and its international equivalents) to oversee the regulation of related internet content. On mobile phones, we recommend that telecoms companies get together to offer a ‘children’s privacy option’ at point of sale. This could be implemented by retailers or built in technically into the phone registration process as an option for everyone to choose whether to sign up as a matter of course. This would offer greater control, both on marketing and the collection of personal information from children, than the current system which means that everything short of an x-rating is OK to peddle to children. More widely on privacy, two steps that we recommend that would help are: • In relation to children’s privacy the European data protection regime should classify personal data from children as sensitive data, requiring explicit parental consent. • The Information Commissioner should issue a Code of Practice on children’s privacy online, and explore options for raising awareness among children on privacy online (85). mìí=íáÖÜíÉê=Åçåíêçäë=çå=íÜÉ=ã~êâÉíáåÖ=çÑ=éêçÇìÅíë=íÜ~í=~êÉ=Ä~Ç= Ñçê=óçìåÖ=éÉçéäÉ= There is no evidence in our research that children want all advertising banned. But they argue for better rules on marketing to children. Such controls already exist, but our analysis is that there are ways in which they need to be improved, both by companies and by decision-makers such as Ofcom and the Advertising Standards Authority. These include action to: • restrict advertising and promotions directed to an audience of children for foods high in fat/ salt / sugar, including limits on advertising of these during key times of children viewing (86); QO======shopping generation • apply controls for such foods on the use of cartoon characters, celebrities, free gifts and other similar promotional techniques to appeal to children; • extend restrictions to the full range of marketing activity, including new media such as websites, as well as sponsorship, branded merchandise, advertorials and samples; • rule out promotions direct to children, drawing on the example of the Portman Group, that suggest ‘any association with sexual success, or that the product can lead to social success or popularity’. Further consideration is required on: • how and whether codes can address the cumulative effect of marketing campaigns; • how codes start from the perspective of children, recognising that they are regularly exposed to media aimed at the family rather than address marketing focused exclusively on children; • at what minimum age of child development it is right to restrict all targeted promotions. Of course, controls on marketing are no ‘magic bullet’ solution, given the many ways that consumer choices are visible and open to children in contemporary society. As the journalist Sean Dodson laconically comments ‘mobile phone companies have done such a good job of not marketing to under-16s that nearly two-thirds of them now own a phone’ (87). A risk with setting controls on the easier-to-spot traditional marketing channels, such as broadcast media, is that it inadvertently encourages companies to seek out and exploit new channels, such as promoting peer and viral marketing, which may in fact prove more damaging. This is why it is right to consider self-regulation, which can have advantages over traditional forms of regulation if a business sector is willing to be open and decisive in its actions. Benefits can include the ability to adapt rules more quickly to market conditions. In theory, this could be a key advantage in relation to a sector such as marketing, which is able to innovate and can respond fast to new opportunities and new media. shopping generation QP But if a business sector is evasive or unwilling to engage, the opposite happens. The history of controls on marketing to children in the UK has been a chequered one. All too often, codes have been a measure used by industry to evade regulation by government, but which has been too little, too late. The NCC endorses the view of the World Health Organization that self-regulation of food and related marketing is not effective in protecting children and that it favours – and will encourage - a co- regulatory model (88). This implies that self-regulatory codes are underpinned by a process of formal approval. `çåÅäìëáçå= Young people have a distinct and positive set of approaches to consumer life. However, by nature of their age, development and relative inexperience, they also possess a set of vulnerabilities that call for protection. It has been said that children are getting older younger, though few would argue this to be so to any great extent in terms of biological or physical development. What is easy to say is that what has changed is the environment in which children find themselves. In a more saturated, commercial context than previous generations, the children in our survey want to mimic the freedoms and opportunities of the adult world, as well as to fit in with the identities embraced by their peers. A consumer world that was traditionally closed off to them is now visible and reflected around them. The consumer freedoms that children are encouraged to aspire to are simply reflections of the adult world around them. If it is true that many of us as adults watch too much TV, care about possessions and fail to take exercise, who should be surprised if the next generation chooses to act in a similar way? At root, it is entry to the commercialised society that is growing younger, rather than our children that are growing older. And yet, as consumers, children live on a knife edge. When commercial opportunity encourages it, society expects them to behave as adults. When circumstances change, they are treated as irresponsible minors. As a result, children are left poorly served, commercially abused and feeling as if they are treated as second-class citizens. It is natural and inevitable that children should be active as participants in consumer life. However, the way that consumer life operates for children is surely open to adaptation and improvement. QQ======shopping generation Appendix: methodology pìêîÉó= The questionnaire was included in the CAPI Kid’s Bus survey of 983 children by RSGB Omnibus, conducted over October and November 2004. Here are some comments that other young people have made about the things they own or want to buy. Please say how much you agree or disagree with each comment. Remember, it is YOUR point of view that we are interested in. ...I feel that other kids have more stuff than I do ...I wish my family could afford to buy me more of what I want ...I wish my parents gave me more money to spend ...I care a lot about my games and other stuff ...I like clothes with popular labels …When I buy something the brand name is important to me ...It doesn't matter to me what kind of car my family has …I like shopping and going to the shops ...I wish my parents earned more money ...I like collecting the latest things that others are collecting ...People buy things they don’t really need …There have been times when I feel I have been ripped off when I’ve bought something myself …I like watching adverts. 01: Agree a lot 02: Agree a little bit 03: I don't agree or disagree 04: Disagree a little bit 05: Disagree a lot shopping generation QR nì~äáí~íáîÉ=êÉëÉ~êÅÜ== The qualitative research was conducted by Opinion Leader Research over March and April 2005. There were 6 participants in each group and they were held in London and Birmingham, split according to socio-economic group, gender and age. içÅ~íáçå= = dÉåÇÉê== ^ÖÉ= = pçÅáçJÉÅçåçãáÅ=Öêçìé= London Female 14-16 BC1 London Male 11-13 C2D Birmingham Female 11-13 C2D Birmingham Male 14-16 BC1 aáëÅìëëáçå=ÖìáÇÉ= Ice-breaker – Paired introductions - say what they like to do on Saturdays How have you got on with keeping your diaries? What did your friends and families think of what you were doing? Each participant to talk about their diary in turn – not page by page just a summary What do you think is the most interesting thing in your diary? As a group: • Did anything surprise you about what you wrote down? • Did you learn anything from keeping this diary? • What do you think about the different ways people try to sell to you? Thinking about the different encounters you have with selling, did any of them make you feel: • Stressed • Depressed • Annoyed • Excited • Happy • Important • Valued After all participants have talked through their diaries: • Having heard from everyone in the group what do you think is the most interesting thing to come out overall? • Is there anything you think is quite positive or negative that you’ve seen or heard? Thinking about when you go out to spend money and buy things – what makes you feel good about that? – what makes you feel bad? QS======shopping generation • Do you feel you have enough money to spend? • What happens when you don’t have enough money? How does this make you feel? • Are there things that you have influenced your parents to buy? – What? • How do you influence them? • What happens if your parents don’t agree? – How does that make you feel? • What do you think of the media in general? • What do you think of the magazines that you read? Do you feel they are aimed specifically at you? • If I said the word ‘shopaholic’ to you, what comes to mind? • Do you know anyone you think might be a shopaholic? – Do you think it’s a good or bad thing to be a shopaholic? • Do you have any ideas as to why people might become shopaholics? Do you think that you might ever become a shopaholic? – why/why not? Thinking about your experiences as a consumer i.e. someone who buys things, have there ever been times when you’ve had a bad experience or been let down when you’ve bought something? • Have you ever complained about anything? – What happened? Were you happy or not with the outcome? • If you’ve never complained – has there been a time when you would have liked to but didn’t? – Why didn’t you? • Who would you complain to if you had a complaint? • Do you feel that young people are treated differently by people/companies? • Has there been a time when someone has made you feel bad in someway or put you down and you’ve felt it’s because you’re younger? – Look back through your diary if that helps. What we’re going to do now is work together to try to come up with some guidelines for companies on how to sell to younger people. For example there are already guidelines for things like cigarettes and alcohol. Here’s a list of things I want you to consider/discuss and then we’ll come up with a list of guidelines that we want them to adhere to. • Any things that people shouldn’t sell to children/young people? – things that are bad for them? • Appropriates/best ways to sell to young people? • Rules that should apply? What’s the one thing you found most interesting/revealing about the session? - Any other comments? Have you enjoyed the session? Postcards – Write down one bit of advice on how companies should improve the way they sell to young people shopping generation QT References 1 National Statistics, www.statistics.gov.uk 2 David Derbyshire, The average age for a child to have a first mobile is now 8, 20/04/2005 http://news.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/04/20/nmob20.xml, accessed 18 May 2005 3 Childnet International, Children & Mobile Phones: an agenda for action, www.childnet-int.org, accessed 18 May 2005 4 ChildWise Monitor Trends Report 2005, www.childwise.co.uk/trends.htm, accessed 25 May 2005 5 LSE, Net Baffled’ Parents May Reduce Children’s Job and Education Prospects, www.lse.ac.uk/collections/children-go-online/UKCGOPressReleaseApril05.pdf accessed May 24 2005 6 ChildWise, Monitor Trends Report 2005, www.childwise.co.uk/trends.htm, accessed 25 May 2005 7 Liz Hollis, We know what she wants, Guardian, November 06 2002, www.guardian.co.uk/parents/story/0,,834350,00.html, accessed 25 March 2005 8 British Association of Toy Retailers, 2003 figures, www.batr.co.uk/marketing/sales.htm, accessed 18 May 2005 9 Juliet B. Schor, Born to Buy: the commercialised child and the new consumer culture, Scribner, 2004, p19 10 See reference 9, p 131 11 Liz Hollis, We know what she wants, Guardian, November 06 2002, www.guardian.co.uk/parents/story/0,,834350,00.html, accessed 25 March 2005 12 Survey of 16-24 year olds, UK Potential for Mobile Payments www.mrweb.com/drno/frmemail/article4027.htm accessed 7 June 2005 13 Jules Shropshire and Sue Middleton, Small Expectations; learning to be poor, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1999 14 http://society.guardian.co.uk/publichealth/story/0,11098,1225581,00.html 15 Felicity Lawrence, Revealed: how food firms target children, The Guardian, Thursday May 27, 2004 16 See reference 9. 17 Equally, when we talk of ‘parents’, we include guardians and other adults that have a responsibility of care. 18 2003, Kogan Page 19 Nickeodeon study in 2001, cited in Juliet B. Schor, Born to Buy: the commercialised child and the new consumer culture, Scribner, 2004 20 Younger children have less money to spend than their older counterparts but are also, the keenest on collecting the latest thing (with over two in three of 10-12s reporting that they enjoy collecting) and the most likely to care about games ‘and stuff’. Reliant on family money, the younger age-groups (10-12 and 13-15) are also the more envious. They are more likely to feel that other kids have more stuff and to wish their parents earned more and gave them more to spend than the older age-groups. 21 In our survey, 10-12 year-olds are evenly split over the importance of brand names when they buy something (46 per cent agree, 42 per cent disagree). By the time they reach teenhood, the majority are keen on brands (57 per cent of 13-15 year-olds and 56 per cent of 16-17 year-olds). These findings tally with Mintel research that the younger age-groups (5 to 9) go more for ‘character-led merchandising’ but by the time they’re reaching the upper end of the 10-14 year-old bracket, fashion-led clothing brands take precedence ‘as image assumes greater importance.’ Mintel, What really matters to children aged 11-14, QU======shopping generation for Chartered Institute of Marketing www.cim.co.uk/mediastore/research_mintel_whatmatters.pdf accessed 7 June 2005 22 Children's Pocket Money Creates Over £70m Spending Power, Halifax Pocket Money Survey 2004, www.hbosplc.com/media/pressreleases/articles/halifax/2004-07-24-00.asp accessed 18 May 2005 23 Wall’s Monitor, cited in Marketing To Children Research, www.cim.co.uk/mediastore/research_mintel_populationtrends.pdf accessed 18 May 2005 24 Around one in seven have two jobs, and one in 20, three or more jobs. Paper rounds and baby-sitting are the most popular for children over ten. One in four children age 11-12 who work have newspaper delivery jobs. It is, though, illegal to employ a child under the age of 13 – or age 13 – 16 before 7am or after 7pm or during school hours. Jules Shropshire and Sue Middleton, Small Expectations; learning to be poor, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1999 25 Mintel, What really matters to children aged 11-14, for Chartered Institute of Marketing http://www.cim.co.uk/mediastore/research_mintel_whatmatters.pdf accessed 24 May 2005 26 Children's Pocket Money Creates Over £70m Spending Power, Halifax Pocket Money Survey 2004, www.hbosplc.com/media/pressreleases/articles/halifax/2004-07-24-00.asp 27 See reference 26 28 There are also more adverts per hour in the US than in the UK. Sue Dibb, A spoonful of sugar, Television Food Advertising aimed at children; an international comparative survey, Consumers International, 1996 29 For US data, see reference 9. The UK figures do not add to 100, as children were able to respond “I don’t agree or disagree” and “Don’t know”. Juliet Shor’s studies were conducted in 2000-2001 and 2002- 2003, that is, the data combines two surveys at different points of time and in two discrete locations. There is a time lag between the US and UK studies, so if there is increasing commercialism, this may inflate the UK figures compared to the US. 30 Elton John 'in debt’, June 28, 1999, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/your_money/380344.stm and Sir Elton's £30m spending spree, Wednesday, 15 November, 2000 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1024745.stm both accessed 13 June 2005 31 One in Three Britons Addicted to Their Mobile, www.aberdareonline.co.uk/content/public/forum/message.asp?forum=1&ID=30300 accessed 18 May 2005 32 Consumer Issues & Youth: A Research Report into Best Practice in Consumer Education Targeting Young Australians www.consumersonline.gov.au/downloads/youth_jul2002.pdf accessed 18 May 2005 33 Are you a shopaholic? Monday, November 29, 2004. CBBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/- /cbbcnews/hi/newsid_4040000/newsid_4045400/4045427.stm accessed 18 March 2005 34 Professor Sonia Livingstone, London School of Economics and Political Science 35 UK Children Go Online: Final report of key project findings www.lse.ac.uk/collections/children-go- online/UKCGOfinalReport.pdf accessed 18 May 2005 36 UK Children Go Online: Final report of key project findings www.lse.ac.uk/collections/children-go- online/UKCGOfinalReport.pdf accessed 18 May 2005 37 John Angel & Julia Hornle, Kid Spenders – How to tap into the Children Market? Electronic Business Law, December 2004, p6 38 She signed up using her Solo credit card, but once her credit card and correct address were entered, she used an incorrect age, saying that she was 21-years-old. A range of banks supply debit cards to minors, and some provide Visa Electron and Solo cards to children as young as 11 years old. 39 This code is in need of tightening, something recognised by the industry following a government sponsored review in 2004. shopping generation QV 40 The European Association of Communications Agencies’ (EACA), for example, has guidelines on advertising to children, which state that “no appeal to a charity should be unfairly used to pressurise children or create a feeling of guilt in them.” In the scrapbooks collected by children in our research, this is exactly what one charity, the Dogs Trust in an advert in TVHits magazine, achieved. “This picture uses language making you feel sympathetic towards the dogs and guilty if you don’t sponsor a dog.” 11-13 year old girl, C2D. 41 The Portman Group code deserves credit for relating controls to a whole range of ‘material and activities’: websites, sponsorship, press releases, branded merchandise, advertorials and sampling. 42 UK Children Go Online: Final report of key project findings www.lse.ac.uk/collections/children-go- online/UKCGOfinalReport.pdf accessed 18 May 2005 43 European Heart Network, The Marketing of Unhealthy Food to Children in Europe: a report of Phase 1 of the ‘children, obesity and associated avoidable chronic diseases’ project, Brussels, 2005. 44 The clustering of responses in relation to this follows the work in the USA of Juliet B. Schor, Born to Buy: the commercialised child and the new consumer culture, Scribner, 2004 45 Middleton, S., Ashworth, K. and Walker, R., Family Fortunes: pressure son parents and children in the 1990s, Child Poverty Action Group, 1994 46 Jules Shropshire and Sue Middleton, Small Expectations; learning to be poor, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1999 47 Up Front, This Much I know, interview with Camilla Batmanghelidjh by Hilly James, OM Magazine, Observer, 10 August 2003, p8 48 See reference 9. 49 Respondents were divided into the ‘brand aware’ and the ‘less brand aware’ according to their answers to the brand-related statements. The ‘brand aware’ were those who agreed that they like popular labels and care about brands when they buy and who disagreed that they don’t care about the kind of car the family has. Those who agreed with all three statements ‘I feel that other kids have more stuff than I do’, ‘I wish my family could afford to buy me more of what I want’ and ‘I wish my parents gave me more money to spend’ were considered ‘dissatisfied’ and those who disagreed with all three statements would be ‘satisfied’. It is important to note that the numbers of those who are ‘less brand aware’ are relatively small, so that conclusions in relation to this group should be treated with caution. 50 See reference 9. 51 Office for National Statistics data, quoted in Jacky Ashley, It is adults who have made teenagers’ lives a misery, The Guardian, Thursday, February 3, 2005 52 www.mentalhealth.org.uk/ accessed 20 May 2005 53 Statistics taken from the Mind website, www.mind.org.uk/ accessed 20 May 2005 54 www.childline.org.uk/ accessed 20 May 2005 55 Cited in Jacky Ashley, It is adults who have made teenagers’ lives a misery, The Guardian, Thursday, February 3, 2005 56 Girls, boys, gangs, drink, exams, sex, clubs, drugs, texting ..., Laura Barton, The Guardian 16.3.05 57 Teenage girls 'depressed by modern life' http://www2.netdoctor.co.uk/news/index.asp?id=117900&D=24&M=2&Y=2005 In a separate Bliss survey in January 2005, 40 per cent of teenage girls have considered plastic surgery. Two-thirds of the 2000 girls, average age 14, said the pressure came from celebrities with perfect bodies and boys. 40 per cent of teens want plastic surgery, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4147961.stm both accessed 18 May 2005 RM======shopping generation 58 Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika, Peer influences on body dissatisfaction and dieting awareness in young girls, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, March 2005, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 103-116(14), British Psychological Society 59 See reference 9, p65 60 NCC press release, www.ncc.org.uk/cgi-bin/kmdb10.cgi/-load58779_viewcurrent.htm 61 Children's Pocket Money Creates Over £70m Spending Power, Halifax Pocket Money Survey 2004, www.hbosplc.com/media/pressreleases/articles/halifax/2004-07-24-00.asp accessed 18 May 2005 62 Economic and Social Research Council’s http://www.tsa.uk.com/YCSC/RB/TSA_RB_10.pdf accessed 18 May 2005 63 Family Spending: a report on the 2003-04 Expenditure and Food Survey, 2004 Edition, Office for National Statistics, HMSO. Note that, due to rounding to the nearest 10p, sums do not total correctly. 64 It is not easy to bring together such a range of services. One model that has is James Brindle High School in North Staffordshire. It offers a ‘multi agency centre’, which is a room in the school for professionals from all these services. Children can drop in over lunch – or set another time to come in. They are welcomed with an informal background of soft sofas, stereo, other young people. 65 David Mason, ASBOs - use and abuse, New Law Journal, 28 January 2005 66 Jaap Doek, Chairman of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, cited in John Carvel, Britain violates rights of child say UN, Guardian, November 29 2004, 67 4Children, http://www.4children.org.uk/uploads/information/HowWhenWhat_postcard1.pdf accessed May 25 2005 68 4Children, http://www.4children.org.uk/uploads/information/4ChildrenManifesto.pdf accessed May 25 2005 69 David Simpson DJ (MC), An Introduction to Sentencing in the Youth Court, lecture, Kings College London, October 2004. 70 Ofcom Consumer Panel, Consumers and the Communications Market: where we are now, May 2005, p57 71 Stephen Kline, Fast Food, Sluggish Kids: Moral Panics and Risky Lifestyles, ESRC / AHRB Cultures of Consumption Working Paper, No. 9, p7, May 2004 72 When asked to say which is the most important factor influencing children’s desires, according to the Chartered Institute of Marketing, 38 per cent of adults pick advertising, 34 per cent say friends, 14 per cent parents and 9 per cent schools. Chartered Institute of Marketing, Drop in the number of adults supporting restrictions on advertising to children, 11 November 2002, www.cim.co.uk/cim/new/html/newArt.cfm?objectID=F86ECE93-7080-4FEA-8B0292186E60FFD3 73 LSE, Net Baffled’ Parents May Reduce Children’s Job and Education Prospects, www.lse.ac.uk/collections/children-go-online/UKCGOPressReleaseApril05.pdf accessed May 24 2005 74 UK Children Go Online: Final report of key project findings www.lse.ac.uk/collections/children-go- online/UKCGOfinalReport.pdf accessed 18 May 2005 75 David Buckingham & contributers, The Media Literacy of Children and Young People: a review of the research literature, Centre for the Study of Children, for Ofcom, 2005 76 There are some emerging tools to assist parents. www.commonsensemedia.org acts as a family friendly review site for a range of products from books to games to film – one of a growing band of reputation systems for consumers. www.parentscentre.gov.uk is a government sponsored website that focuses on issues facing parents, although it has little to say about commercial pressures. 77 See reference 9, p184 78 David Buckingham & contributers, The Media Literacy of Children and Young People: a review of the research literature, Centre for the Study of Children, for Ofcom, 2005 shopping generation RN 79 Other agencies have a concern around financial capability (the Financial Services Authority), food skills (Food Standards Agency), sustainable consumption (Environment Agency) and consumer education more widely (Office of Fair Trading). Local authority trading standards, such as in Staffordshire, also have a track record in promoting young consumer skills. Each regulator has a strategic responsibility, but each also has far too limited resources to promote action and too little expertise in delivery, compared to the mainstream education sector. 80 www.ncc.org.uk/consumereducation/index.htm 81 www.bzga.de/bzga_stat.pdf/33230001.pdf accessed 18 May 2005 82 Abraham Maslow was one of the first to popularise the concept of satisfying human needs, and a number of models relating life satisfaction to economic life have since been developed. In Australia a team from Deakin University in Melbourne have constructed a National Index of Subjective Well-being – the first being carried out in Spring 2001. In the same year, The Well-being of Nations was published. Devised by American consultant Robert Prescott-Allen, it is a country-by-country index of human and eco-system well- being. An excellent overview of well-being models and a pilot framework of indicators for young people is set out in Nic Marks, Hetan Shah and Andrea Westall, The Power and Potential of Well-being Indicators: measuring young people’s well-being in Nottingham, New Economics Foundation, 2004. 83 Securing the Future – delivering UK sustainable development strategy, HMSO, March 2005, p23 84 See reference 9, p 185 85 Both recommendations are drawn from the work of John Angel & Julia Hornle, Kid Spenders – What the Law should be doing for them! Electronic Business Law, March, 2005, pp 10-12. On childrens’ awareness of privacy, the Federal Trade Commission in the USA has produced an interesting website designed for children: http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/edcams/kidzprivacy/ 86 Details on this are set out in NCC’s 2004 recommendations on the control of advertising of less healthy food to children. Sue Dibb, Responsible food advertising to children: NCC proposals to Ofcom, 2004 87 http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning/story/0,,1437649,00.html accessed 18 May 2005 88 Speech by Le Gales-Camus to World Federation of Advertisers, 30 November 2004. RO======shopping generation
Pages to are hidden for
"shopping generation"Please download to view full document