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					HEALTH   SAFETY   AND   ENVIRONMENT   CAMPAIGN        SERIES     1




PREVENTING CANCER:
A CAMPAIGN FOR
WORKERS



                                      CANADIAN LABOUR CONGRESS
                                      2841 RIVERSIDE DRIVE
                                      OTTAWA ONTARIO K1V 8X7
                                      TEL:   (613) 521-3400
                                      FAX:   (613) 521-4655

                                      Department of Health,
                                      Safety and Environment




                                      www.canadianlabour.ca
 PREFACE


The Canadian Labour Congress is taking the Pollution Prevention Strategy one stage
further with the Preventing Cancer Campaign. Cancer is a scourge of industrial society
and workers are among those most afflicted by the disease. Most of the resources and
effort devoted to fighting cancer are by way of research, treatment, remediation and
efforts to find a cure.

But we also have to realize that cancer is essentially a preventable disease. If society were
to devote as much effort, resources and education to preventing cancer as to treating it,
we could turn cancer into one of the lesser afflictions of humankind. The Canadian
Labour Congress Preventing Cancer Campaign is one important first step in this
redirection of effort. While the focus is on workers and the conditions of work which
cause cancer, we deal with cancer as a social issue involving carcinogens of all types –
environmental pollutants, carcinogens in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, pesticides
and consumer products. While our own human behaviour will often have to change,
the main weapon is fighting cancer is change in the environment – changes in the
workplace and working conditions, changes in food production, changes in
environmental protection, changes to society itself.

This booklet is the precursor of practical guidance from the Canadian Labour Congress
on how to conduct anti-cancer campaigns. I hope and expect that labour activists will
find it useful in preventing cancer and avoiding the misery and death for which cancer
is responsible.



Ken Georgetti,
President, Canadian Labour Congress




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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The CLC wishes to thank Lissa Donner, the principal author of this booklet and
all of those who assisted her by reviewing earlier drafts of this publication:
Cathy Walker (CAW), Joel Carr (CEP), Larry Stoffman (UFCW), Anthony Pizzino
(CUPE), Pat Dugal (CAW), and Pete Walker (MFL).

Thanks are also due to those who provided additional information and sources
for this publication: Pete Walker (MFL), Colin Lambert (CUPE), Kit Gavin (MFL),
Al Bleich (CUPE), Pat Dugal (CAW), and Jim Brophy (WOHIS).

We also wish to thank the CAW for allowing us to include their list of carcinogens,
which appears as Appendix 2.




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  TABLE OF CONTENTS


Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Acknowlegements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


Preventing Cancer: A Campaign for Workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
What Is Cancer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
What Causes Cancer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
The Next Generation Suffers Too . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
How Do We Know What Causes Cancer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
How Do Carcinogens Enter the Body? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Cancer on the Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Cancer and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Even in Our Homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Health Before Wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Pollution Prevention Not Pollution Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
The Hierarchy of Prevention and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Workplace Action for Cancer Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Legislative Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Collective Bargaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Your Joint Health and Safety Committee and Cancer Prevention . . . . 29
Right to Refuse Dangerous Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Substitution of Carcinogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Community Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Political Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Just Transition for Workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Your Local Campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
A Model Preventing Cancer Campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Recommended Reading and Viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Appendix 1: Cancer Prevention Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Appendix 2: Known Carcinogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
 INTRODUCTION


The labour movement has long been concerned with preventing the                   PREVENTING
devastation of occupational illnesses and injuries. Cancer is one of the
most devastating. In the 1930s, one in ten Canadians contracted                   CANCER:
cancer. By the 1970s that had increased to one in five. Today one in
three Canadians will contract cancer.                                             A CAMPAIGN

Unfortunately, most of us know someone who has suffered from cancer.              FOR WORKERS
We may have watched them suffer its consequences, and the difficult
side effects of cancer treatment. We may have endured this ourselves.
But what do we really know about the causes of this disease?

The media is full of stories about cancer. They stress:

          • the need for more money for research for cancer treatment
          • the need for all of us to make “lifestyle” changes to prevent
            cancer and
          • cancers caused by tobacco smoking and exposure to the sun

These are important issues. We do need better treatment for those already
suffering from cancer. Healthy eating, especially increasing the amount of
fibre and reducing the amount of fat in our diet will help to prevent some
forms of cancer. Reducing exposure to the sun will help to prevent skin
cancer. And tobacco smoke increases the risk of cancer not just for
smokers, but for those who breathe second-hand smoke. But lifestyle
changes and the elimination of tobacco smoking alone will not
prevent cancer.

The World Health Organization estimates that 20% of cancers are genetic
in origin and that 80% are environmentally based. That 80% includes
those caused by lifestyle factors, occupation, environmental pollution,
industrial products, sunlight and ultraviolet radiation, either alone, in




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combination, or together with a genetic factor. This is actually good news, because it
means that 80% of cancers are preventable. There has been much controversy about
how much of the environmentally related cancers are caused by lifestyle and how much
by factors beyond the control of individuals.

In 1978, the U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
estimated that 20 to 40% of all cancers are related to occupation. Outraged, the
American Industrial Health Council, an industry-funded organization, hired its own
expert, Dr. R. Stallones, to refute this finding. Instead, he concluded that 20% of all
cancers were work related.1

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recognizes 24 substances that
cause lung cancer (carcinogens). One of these is tobacco. Tobacco was identified as a
carcinogen through studies of the population, comparing those who smoked with those
who did not. But what about the other 23 substances that cause lung cancer? They were
all identified through studies of workers who had died as a result of exposures to
carcinogens on the job2. And what about the combined effect of tobacco with other
workplace carcinogens? For example, smokers have about 10 times the risk of developing
lung cancer as non-smokers, but smokers who work with asbestos have about 50 times
the risk of developing lung cancer.

                                  No one should have to die for a living. But workers
                                  aren’t the only ones who are suffering. When those
                                  carcinogens leave the workplace they place everyone who
                                  comes in contact with them at risk. Some workplace
                                  carcinogens leave as waste products, contaminating our
                                  municipal sewage systems, and from there, our water ways.
                                  Some leave as air pollution. Some are taken home on
                                  clothes. For example, some family members of asbestos
                                  workers have developed mesothelioma, a rare form of
                                  cancer linked to asbestos exposure. They were exposed to
                                  asbestos while laundering contaminated work clothes.

Carcinogens know no provincial or national boundaries. While living nearer to
industrial pollution is more dangerous than living farther away, geography itself won’t
protect us. For example, the breast milk of Inuit women in Canada’s far north has been
contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) – a chemical
considered as a “probable human carcinogen” by the International Agency for Research
on Cancer (IARC). The PCBs did not originate in the far north. They were brought


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                                            I N T R O D U C T I O N




north by air and water currents from the industrialized parts of
the world and then entered the human food supply.

Yet the mainstream media and the mainstream cancer
organizations make little or no mention of the
occupational and environmental causes of cancer. Instead
they emphasize “individual responsibility”. For example, the
Canadian Cancer Society’s online information about cancer
prevention mentions only the elimination of smoking, improved
diet and sun protection as ways to prevent cancer.3

This approach – sometimes subtly, sometimes overtly – blames the victims of cancer.
If only they had stopped smoking, or never started. If only they had eaten more fresh
fruits and vegetables, less fat, more whole grains. If only they had used sunblock. If you
are a parent, particularly a mother, you are held responsible for making healthy choices
for your children.

But “healthy choices” are often more expensive choices, and for Canadians living in
poverty, especially for those in northern Canada, they are just not affordable.

Similarly, most cancer research has focussed on genetics, treatment, tobacco and lifestyle
issues. The Canadian Cancer Society (CCS) is the largest single funder of cancer research
in Canada. In 1999, the CCS contributed $30 million to cancer research in Canada,
much of it donated by working people and their families. Yet none of this money
funded research into the identification or prevention of occupational or
environmental causes of cancer.4

Sometimes the increase in cancer rates are falsely attributed to other improvements in
health. Canadians live longer than they did a generation ago, due mostly to
improvements in public health. Therefore, the argument goes, rather than dying at a
younger age of infectious diseases, people are living longer – long enough to contract
cancer. But aging alone does not explain the increases in cancer rates.

The National Cancer Institute of Canada annually publishes statistics which take age
into account (age standardized incidence and mortality rates). In 1970, 272 out of every
100,000 Canadian women contracted cancer. This number peaked in 1992 at 338 per
100,000 and in 1994, 335 out of every 100,000 Canadian women developed cancer.
So, even controlling for age, 23% more Canadian women developed cancer in
1994 than in 1970.


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The situation for men is even more grave. In 1970, 330 out of every 100,000 Canadian
men contracted cancer. It peaked in 1993 at 485 per 100,000 and decreased slightly in
1994 (the most recent year for which statistics are available), to 470.5. Controlling for
age, 35% more Canadian men developed cancer in 1994 than in 1970.5

Cancer takes a long time to develop. It can take years or decades from the first exposure
to a cancer causing substances to the time at which cancer is diagnosed. Dr. Samuel
Epstein, author of the 1979 The Politics of Cancer and the 1998 The Politics of Cancer
Revisited has stated:

       “Much cancer today reflects events and exposures in the 1950s and 60s.
       Production, uses and disposal of synthetic organic and other industrial
       carcinogens were then minuscule compared to current levels, which will
       determine future cancer rates for younger populations now exposed. There is
       every reason to anticipate that even high current cancer rates will be
       exceeded in coming decades.”6 (emphasis added)

Unfortunately, the results of whatever action we take now to prevent cancer will not be
seen for many years to come. But the price of inaction is even higher.

The Canadian Labour Congress, together with its affiliated unions, believes that the time
has come to talk about real cancer prevention. We do not believe that the continued
increases in cancer rates are inevitable. We believe that by working together with our
members and with others – educators, environmental activists and other concerned
Canadians, we can help to turn the tide and to focus cancer prevention efforts on the
major cause of cancer – the widespread use of cancer causing chemicals – in the
workplace, in the environment, in our food and in pharmaceuticals.

The time for arguing about the numbers has passed. In 1999, 129,300 Canadians
learned they had cancer and 63,400 died of cancer.7 Another way to look at this is to
estimate the number of potential years of human life lost due to cancer. In 1996, the
most recent year for which statistics are available, cancer was the leading cause of
potential years of lost life for adult Canadians, who lost 917,000 potential years of life.
In that same year, children under the age of 15 lost 13,514 potential years of life due to
cancer.8 That’s close to one million years of human life lost in 1996 alone.

Cancer may be caused by one carcinogen alone, or by several factors – occupational,
environmental, genetic and lifestyle – all working together. We will never know, from
examining one person’s cancer, whether she or he became ill because of working with


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carcinogens, and/or smoking and/or living in a polluted area and/or a genetic
predisposition. Industry has successfully argued that we need definitive proof in order to
act to make our environment and workplaces safer. But as we wait for such proof, more
will die. Healthy public policy requires that we act now.

                                 In London, England, in the 1850s, it was not understood
                                 that cholera was spread by contaminated drinking water.
                                 Dr. John Snow, who was treating cholera patients, realized
                                 that there was a link between cholera and one of the city’s
                                 public drinking water pumps. He argued with the city
                                 authorities, who finally closed the pump. The number of
                                 new cases of cholera dropped dramatically. Dr. Snow
didn’t wait for long term epidemiological studies to be published in peer reviewed
scientific journals. Dr. Phillip Landrigan, editor of the American Journal of Industrial
Medicine, described the importance of Dr. Snow’s actions:

          “Dr. Snow analyzed a pattern of illness, then drew reasonable conclusions and,
          on the basis of that interpretation, he removed the handle of the Broad Street
          pump. He prevented disease and saved lives. Through his work he became one
          of medicine’s heroes. Snow’s work illustrates the axiom that full knowledge of
          causation is not a necessary prerequisite to the prevention of illness.”9

Rather than debating how many of these deaths we can prevent by cleaning up our
workplaces and our communities, like Dr. Snow, we must act now, guided by the best
information available.

We invite you to join with us in our campaign to make Canada a healthier place
for all of us to live and work.

This booklet will provide you with some basic information about cancer and the
relationship between workplace and environmental exposures and the development of
cancer. It will then give you some basic tools that you can use to take action to prevent
cancer in your workplace and your community.




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 PREVENTING CANCER: A CAMPAIGN FOR WORKERS


What is cancer?
Cancer is a group of diseases in which abnormal cells in some organ or tissue go out of
control – growing and increasing in number. Normally, the cells in the body grow and
reproduce themselves, generally at the same rate at which old cells die. When cells grow
out of control and form a mass, the mass is called a tumour. There are two types of
tumours: benign and malignant. Benign tumours grow and enlarge only at the site where
they began. Malignant or cancerous tumours can also invade and destroy the normal
                              tissue around them and spread to other parts of the body.
                              Distant spread of a cancer occurs when malignant cells
                              detach themselves from the original or primary tumour and
                              are carried to other parts of the body, causing more tissue
                              damage. When this happens, the cancer is said to have
                              metastisized. When tumours affect organs such as the
                              lungs, liver or brain, the damage and loss of organ function
                              eventually cause death.


What Causes Cancer?
A carcinogen is any substance or agent which causes cancer. Carcinogens may be:

          + chemicals – such as asbestos, tobacco and vinyl chloride;
          + physical agents – such as ionizing radiation (from x rays) or solar radiation
            from the sun;
          + biological agents – such as the Hepatitis B and C viruses , the Epstein-Barr
            virus and human-made agents such as synthetic hormones given to beef
            cattle and some prescription drugs. For example, tamoxifen, which reduces
            the risk of breast cancer in some women, increases the risk of uterine cancer.
            Despite what you may have read in the popular press, tamoxifen does not
            “prevent” breast cancer.

New research has shown that the development of cancer is a complex, multi-step process.

          “Carcinogenisis, the development of cancer, is a multi-step process. Cancer is
          believed to begin with damage to the DNA of cells by an agent called an
          initiator. The culprits are a combination of environmental and occupational

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       exposures to carcinogens, lifestyle factors such as smoking, dietary excesses or
       deficiencies, and genetic factors.

       Once altered, genetic material is a ticking time bomb. It is theorized that
       damaged cells may remain passive for a number of years before springing into
       action. Exposure to promoters, which may be other agents or the compound
       effect of exposures to a number of agents over time, is thought to cause the
       damaged cells to mutate, setting off the uncontrollable growth of cells that
       characterize cancer.”10

Radiation is one of the few agents which is both an initiator
and a promoter of cancer. Radiation occurs both naturally in
the environment (such as solar radiation from the sun) and as
human-made “ionizing” radiation, such as radiation from medical
x-rays, mammograms and waste products from nuclear power
plants.

In a recent publication on cancer prevention, the Ontario based Breast Cancer
Prevention Coalition stated:

       “According to Dr. Rosalie Bertell of the International Institute of Concern for
       Public Health in Toronto, virtually every human body tissue has been associated
       with radiation-induced cancer, but some tissues, such as the breast, lung,
       thyroid, stomach, colon, liver and skin, appear to be more sensitive than others.
       The largest source of artificial radiation released into the environment
       has come from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, particularly in the
       1950s and early 1960s.”11 (emphasis added)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (part of the World Health
Organization, a United Nations organization) classifies chemical, physical and biological
agents and work processes into four categories:

       Group 1 +           these are carcinogenic in humans
       Group 2A +          these are probably carcinogenic in humans (there is some
                           human evidence linking the agent to cancer, but it has not been
                           deemed “sufficient”)
       Group 2B +          these are possibly carcinogenic in human (there is sufficient
                           evidence in animals and some evidence in humans)
       Group 3        +    these cannot be classified (there is suspicion that these may
                           cause cancer but not sufficient evidence)


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       Group 4 + these are not carcinogenic.
Other sources for classification of carcinogens include the U.S. National Toxicology
Program and the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists.
(See Appendix 2 for a listing of carcinogens.)


How Do We Know What Causes Cancer?
There are three ways to identify potential carcinogens:

          + epidemiological studies look at large groups of people and compare those
            who have been exposed to a potential carcinogen, with those who have not;
          + animal studies in which animals are exposed to the potential carcinogen
            and their health is then studied;
          + short term tests, such as the Ames test, that measure mutation (changes in
            the genetic material) in bacteria. These are useful to alert us to long term
            problems, but they are not a substitute for long term tests.


The Next Generation Suffers Too
                                    Carcinogens may also be reproductive hazards. Some
                                       damage human eggs or sperm. For example, daughters
                                        of women who were prescribed a drug called
                                        Diethylstilboestrol (DES) during pregnancy have higher
                                        rates of vaginal cancers than other women. DES itself is
                                        now recognized as a carcinogen, so both the mothers
                                       who used this drug and their daughters are more likely
                                     to contract cancer. Some carcinogens, such as arsenic, are
                                  also teratogenic, that is, they damage the developing embryo
                           or fetus after conception.


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Workers may also unknowingly bring carcinogens home with them.



          In 1985, 12 year-old Donald Fitzsimmons became sick. It looked
          like the flu. After treating him at home for several days, his
          mother took him to the local hospital in Sarnia. The next day, she
          learned that he had fluid around his heart. He was sent to
          hospital in London for further tests. While he was there, the fluid
          around his heart was drained. The cause of his illness was not
          known.

          Two years later, his symptoms reappeared. He needed emergency
          surgery. That’s when the doctors found a large, untreatable,
          tumour. Donald died, at age 16 in November, 1989.

          Donald’s cancer was mesothelioma, the rare cancer that affects
          mostly asbestos workers. This puzzled the physicians, since
          Donald had never been exposed to asbestos.

          A few years later, Donald’s mother saw an article in the local
          newspaper about a Sarnia man who had died of mesothelioma. She
          discovered that both that man and Donald’s father had worked at the
          Holmes Foundry in Sarnia. Like the other Holmes’ workers, Donald’s
          father had come home in clothes covered in asbestos fibres. Donald
          died by breathing in the asbestos fibres that his father brought home
          from work. (excerpted from Jennifer McLaughlin, “Compensating
          for the Past”, which appeared in OHS Canada)




How Do Carcinogens Enter the Body?
There are three ways in which carcinogens, and other toxic chemicals, enter the human
body. These are:

       + by inhalation – breathing in gases or vapours (such as benzene) or dusts
         (such as asbestos) or mists (such as metal working fluids)
       + by ingestion – eating in a workplace where skin, food or eating utensils
         have been in contact with carcinogens or by eating foods which contain
         cancer causing substances

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          + by skin absorption – through skin contact with cancer causing substances
            at work, exposure to radiation from the sun, or through intentional skin
            contact (such as talcum powder which may be contaminated with asbestos)
            or shampoos and lotions which contain the chemical DEA (diethanolamine),
            classified as a possible human carcinogen by the IARC)


Cancer on the Job
The International Labour Organization, of which Canada is a member,
estimates that over one million workers around the world have cancer because
of their exposure at work.

Workplace carcinogens can be:
      + dusts such as arsenic and uranium in mining
      + fibres such as asbestos
      + chemicals such as metalworking fluids, pesticides, perchlorethylene
          (commonly used in dry cleaning) and diesel exhaust
      + biological agents such as some drugs used in cancer treatment
      + physical agents such as radiation
      + work processes such as aluminum production, furniture making and iron
          and steel founding

How is it that almost thirty years after the “war on cancer” was declared workers are still
exposed to carcinogens on the job every day? Why are cancer causing chemicals and
processes still being used?

Here is how the system works. First, research is done to develop a new chemical, or to
find a new use for an existing one. Then the chemical is introduced. By this time, the
manufacturer has invested in research, production, advertising and sales. Other
industries and consumers begin to use the product. Perhaps it is combined with other
chemicals, with potentially hazardous by-products. It is disposed of – as solid waste, or
burned, allowing it to mix with other chemicals and then to enter the atmosphere, or
added to the waste water stream.

Only many years later, after workers and others exposed have become and ill and died,
and then only after those illnesses and deaths have been studied and the evidence has
been determined to be “sufficient” will the chemical be classified as a human carcinogen.
And even then, it may still be used in Canadian workplaces. Residues of this chemical
will remain in our environment for many years.

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It has been left to unions and their allies to continually remind health policy makers and
regulators of the facts about occupational cancer. As the Canadian Auto Workers Union
has noted:

       “Scientific evidence demonstrates that blue collar workers are bearing a
       disproportionate share of the cancer burden. Workers in certain carcinogen-
       laden industries area contracting cancer at rates well beyond those experienced
       by the general population. At least 60 different occupations have been identified
       as posing an increased cancer risk. Studies show that the auto industry is
       producing laryngeal, stomach and colorectal cancers along with its cars. The
       steel industry is producing lung cancer along with its metal products. Miners
       experience respiratory cancers many times higher than expected. Electrical
       workers are suffering increased rates of brain cancer and leukemia. Aluminum
       smelter workers are contracting bladder cancer. Dry cleaners have elevated rates
       of digestive tract cancers. Firefighters contract brain and blood-related cancers at
       many times the expected levels. Women in the plastics and rubber industry are
       at greater risk for uterine cancer and possible breast cancer. The list goes on and
       on.12 (emphasis added)

But not only industrial workers are at risk. The IARC has classified the work of
hairdressing and barbering to be probably carcinogenic. Laboratory technicians,
pathologists and others who work in medically related occupations may be exposed to
formaldehyde, an IARC probable human carcinogen. Ironically, nurses and other health
care workers who work with cancer treatment (chemotherapy) drugs, may, as a result,
be at higher risk for cancer themselves.


Cancer and the Environment
Toxins, including carcinogens, remain in the environment for long periods of time.
They accumulate in air, water, soil and food and, as a result, then accumulate in plants,
animals and human beings. The effects of this process (called bioaccumulation) are
particularly dangerous for humans, since we are at the top of the food chain.

Some of the most significant environmental carcinogens include:

       + pesticides such as captafol and ethylene dibromide. In Canada each year,
         over 100 million pounds of pesticides are used on crops, lawns, gardens and
         animals.13 Those with the greatest exposure to pesticides, and therefore the


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              greatest risk of developing cancer and other diseases related to pesticide
              exposure are farmers and farm workers and those who work manufacturing
              and applying these chemicals.

          + motor vehicle exhaust including diesel exhaust, polycyclic aromatic
            hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene

          + dioxin, formed during the production of some herbicides, is a human
            carcinogen. It is one of a group of chemicals called Polychlorinated Dibenzo-
            Para-Dioxins The IARC has stated:

                   “PCDDs are ubiquitous in soil, sediments and air. Excluding
                   occupational or accidental exposures, most human exposure to
                   PCDDs occurs as a result of eating meat, milk, eggs, fish and
                   related products, as PCDDs are persistent in the environment and
                   accumulate in animal fat. Infants exposed to PCDDs and PCDFs
                   through breast milk exhibit alterations in thyroid hormone levels and
                   possible neurobehavioural and neurological deficits.... The developing
                   embryo/fetus appears to display enhanced sensitivity to the adverse
                   effects of PCDDs.”14 (emphasis added)



              Workers often get a “double dose” of carcinogens – a major
              exposure at work, followed by a lower, more continuous “dose”
              in the home, the community and the environment.




Even in Our Homes
We like to think of our homes as a safe refuge from the outside world. That’s not the
case when it comes to carcinogens. Carcinogens can enter our homes in many ways.
Some of these are:

          + pesticides and herbicides which are used on lawns and gardens, as well
            as in farming. The herbicide 2,4-D (one of a group of Chlorophenoxy
            herbicides) has been classified by the International Agency for Research on
            Cancer (IARC) as a possible human carcinogen. One of the Canadian brands
            of 2,4-D is sold as some forms of Roundup®, manufactured by Monsanto.


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                                      Monsanto also sells “Roundup Ready”® seeds for
                                      canola, soybeans and other crops, promoted as
                                      “genetically modified to be tolerant to in-crop
                                      applications of Roundup® herbicide.”15 Canadian
                                      legislation currently requires no labelling of
                                      genetically modified foods such as canola oil
                                      produced from the plants grown from these
         genetically modified seeds. Monsanto was also the company behind the
         unsuccessful campaign to introduce a growth hormone (Posilac®) into
         Canada’s milk supply by allowing it to be used to increase milk production
         in dairy cows. Health Canada banned bovine growth hormone, not because
         of its potential risk to humans, but because of the increased risk of udder
         infections in dairy cows treated with this drug.

      + cosmetics, which may contain carcinogens including DEA (diethanolamine),
        formaldehyde and talc contaminated with asbestos. Women in particular are
        at risk, since they tend to use more lotions and cosmetics than men.

      + contaminants in drinking water, such as arsenic and trihalomethanes formed
        when the chlorine added to most Canadian drinking water breaks down

      + preserved meats such as hot dogs, which often contain nitrites as a
        preservative and to keep them looking pink and fresh longer. The nitrites
        combine with amines which are naturally present in the meat to form
        N-Nitrosodimethylamine, classified by the IARC as probable human
        carcinogen. Studies have linked consumption of hot dogs more than once
        per week to increased brain cancers and leukemia in children. Children
        whose mothers ate hot dogs more than once per week while they were
        pregnant have also been found to have increased rates of cancer.16

We need strong legislation to ban carcinogens from our homes as well as from
our workplaces. It’s wrong to place the burden on consumers to protect
themselves by reading more, learning more and spending more, while the large
corporations which produce these products continue to grow and profit.
Meanwhile, try to use carcinogens in the home as little as possible!




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Health Before Wealth
Our regulatory system wrongly assumes that chemicals are innocent until
proven guilty. Dr. Samuel Epstein, author of The Politics of Cancer Revisited gave a very
clear example of how this system works in a 1999 speech in Hamilton:

          “I remember having got DDT off the market in 1969 as a key expert against
          USDA and then proceeded to work with the EPA (Environmental Protection
          Agency) in getting its replacement, chlordane...off the market. But that took
          eighteen months of work in which the industry hired its consultants and so-
          called experts from all over the world and you’re faced with a barrier of
          20 or 30 people and a barrier of attorneys going at you day and night. But I
          remember one evening...sitting and having a drink with the chief Shell attorney,
          and I said, ‘You know, why in the devil do you proceed with this nonsense
          because you know you’re going to lose?’ He said, ‘My dear chap, you really
          don’t know what you’re talking about. Let me explain the realities to you.’ He
          said, ‘Do you know how much it costs for us to litigate and play games with you
          in court per annum?’ I said no, and he said, ‘Well, about two and a half million,
          bringing everybody and all our experts to court...’ He said, ‘Do you know how
          much money we make by selling our product [the pesticide chlordane] while
          we’re in court with you? About $65 million. It’s time you grew up Sam.”17

Clearly, we cannot rely on corporations to police themselves. As the asbestos and
tobacco manufacturers have shown us, they will always place corporate health above
human health and shareholders’ wealth above public health.

We need a new commitment to prevention as our first priority.
And the only way to prevent occupationally and environmentally
related cancers is to eliminate the substances that cause them.
That means breaking down some of the barriers that have, in
the past, come between the labour movement and the
environmental movement and building bridges to enable us
to work together in our local communities. It means
focussing on our shared goal of preventing
exposure to toxic substances and at the same time
ensuring that the workers who will be affected by
these changes are treated fairly and justly.




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Our commitment to prevention must be an international one as well. But the
international system of “free trade”, of which Canada is part, has worked to try to stop
countries from taking steps to protect its citizens from carcinogens.

For example, the countries of the European Community, concerned about the cancer
causing potential of the use of hormones in beef cattle, have banned the use of such
hormones. They have also banned the importation into Europe of beef containing
hormone residues. Canada complained to the World Trade Organization about this ban,
arguing that the hormones were safe and the ban was an unfair barrier to trade. The
WTO agreed with Canada.18 Wouldn’t our tax dollars be better spent helping Canadian
farmers to develop sustainable agriculture, not dependent on the use of synthetic
hormones, rather than on trying to stop other countries from protecting their citizens
against the risk of cancer?19

Asbestos is a well-known carcinogen and many countries around the world are moving
towards a ban on its import and use, e.g., the European Union by 2004. The
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) supports a total global ban,
in conjunction with Just Transition for displaced asbestos workers (see page 37).



Pollution Prevention Not
Pollution Control
We know that for most carcinogens, the risk of cancer increases with the amount of
exposure. This is called the “dose-response relationship.” For example, the more a
miner has worked with uranium, the greater the risk that that person will develop
cancer. But other factors such as exposure to other environmental carcinogens and
individual genetic differences are also important. We can never know for certain who
will develop cancer or when it will strike.

                                     Traditionally, industry has argued that for each
                                      workplace carcinogen, there is therefore a safe level
                                      of exposure. Yet the current state of scientific
                                      knowledge does not allow us to make such
                                     predictions. Take the case of tobacco. It is well
accepted that one of the best ways to prevent lung cancer is not to smoke. The same
logic should be applied to all other carcinogens. Our guiding principle should be
that the safest exposure is no exposure to carcinogens. By far, the best way of
attaining Zero Exposure is by preventing exposure to carcinogens and to pollutants generally.


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The Government of Canada has adopted a very good definition of pollution prevention:

          “The use of processes, practices, materials, products or energy that avoid or
          minimize the creation of pollutants and waste, and reduce overall risk to human
          health or the environment.”20

Labour’s first priority is to eliminate toxic substances and
processes, substituting non-toxic substances for toxic ones.
This places us in direct conflict with the transnational chemical
manufacturing industry, which has a vested interest in the
production and use of more chemicals for the sake of profit. It
is also very different from the usual “solutions” proposed by
management. Management’s traditional response has been to
emphasize controls which provide some protection to
individual workers, such as personal protective equipment
(respirators and protective clothing), rotating workers in jobs
with high exposures to toxic substances (so that more workers
are exposed to lower levels of the toxic chemicals) and medical
monitoring (such as blood and urine testing) of exposed
workers. These controls just limit the amount of exposure, they
don’t prevent it.

The CLC has developed a Pollution Prevention Strategy, with the following priorities:
      + firstly, preventing activities that cause environmental damage
      + secondly, controlling these activities and their results and
      + thirdly, as a last resort, remediation, or cleaning up to prevent more damage

Presentation and control form a hierarchy, shown in the following chart which also
illustrates the differences between labour’s approach and the traditional management
approach.




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                          The Hierarchy of
                       Prevention and Controls

                           1       Eliminate Toxic Substances
                                   and Processes
                                   ‡    change the product to eliminate toxic products
                                   ‡    change the process to eliminate the use of toxic
                                        substances or the creation of toxic by-products
                                   ‡    substitute non-toxic for toxic substances


                           2       Reduce the Use of Toxic Substances
                                   ‡    change workplace practices to use less of a toxic
     UNION PRIORITY




                                        substance
                                   ‡    change workplace processes to use less of a toxic
                                        substance




                                                                                                              U S UA L M A N AG E M E N T P R I O R I T Y
                                   ‡    preventive maintenance and modification of operations
                                        to reduce spills, leaks and emissions


                           3       Reduce Exposure to Toxic
                                   Substances by “Control at
                                   the Source”
                                   ‡    closed loop systems (sealed processes, in which
                                        waste is reused)
                                   ‡    isolation/total enclosure of the process
                                   ‡    process redesign to control more effectively


                           4       Reduce Exposures by Control
                                   “Along the Path” of the Hazard
                                   ‡    separate ventilation for areas where toxic substances
                                        are handled
                                   ‡    local ventilation
                                   ‡    special methods, e.g. wet drilling
                                   ‡    better work procedures, e.g. regular cleaning of
                                        key work areas
                                   ‡    general ventilation


                           5       Reduce Exposures by Controls
                                   “At the Worker”
                                   ‡    personal protective equipment (PPE)
                                   ‡    administrative controls, e.g. rotating workers in a
                                        dangerous job
                                   ‡    medical monitoring



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Workplace Action for
Cancer Prevention
Where should workplace “cancer detectives” begin? There are two places to start:

          1. Learn about the chemicals and processes used in your workplace.

              Throughout Canada workers have the right to information about the
              chemicals with which they work. Each chemical used must come with a
              Manufacturer’s Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) which provides information about
              the product, including information about whether or not it has been linked
              to cancer in humans and/or animals and it may refer to ratings by the IARC
              and other organizations such as the American Conference of Government
              Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that rank carcinogens. MSDSs are useful, but,
              since they are prepared by the product’s manufacturer, they should be viewed
              with some caution. A listing of some useful resources are included at the end
              of this booklet in Appendix 1.

          Once you have done a MSDS Survey, make an inventory (list) of actual and
          possible carcinogens.

          Remember to think about the hazards posed by carcinogens when they leave
          your workplace. Others in the community may be able to work with you to
          prevent environmental exposures.

          Your union’s health and safety department will also be a valuable resource. From
          them, you can learn about the experiences of others who work in similar
          occupations.

          2. Become a “worker epidemiologist”

              Epidemiology is the study of diseases in
              groups of people, rather than in
              individual subjects. (For a good
              description of epidemiology, see
              Workplace Roulette: Gambling with Cancer
              by Matthew Firth, Jim Brophy and
              Margaret Keith.)21



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           Epidemiological studies are often time consuming and expensive. But groups
           of worker epidemiologists have used their own resources, and those of their
           unions, to learn about cancer on the job. Some of the techniques that can be
           used include:

           +   surveying members (in person or by questionnaires) to look for clusters
               of cases of cancer. Remember that cancer takes years to develop, so it is
               important to include retirees and those who have left due to illness or
               disability.

           +   risk mapping where workers draw their workplace, both as it is now and as
               it was in the past. On this map, they can then draw the location of known
               carcinogens (chemicals, dusts, fibres, physical agents and work processes).
               On top of this they can then add the location of individual workers who
               have developed cancer. Again, look for clusters of cases of cancer.

           +   investigating all prior occupational cancer claims (whether successful or
               not) made to the relevant workers’ compensation authority and all long
               term disability claims for cancer.

All of this information taken together will help you to determine if you may have an
occupational cancer problem in your workplace. If you think you might, you should
contact your union’s health and safety department for assistance. They will help you
develop a plan to prevent future exposure to carcinogens and to help obtain workers
compensation benefits for those who are already victims.




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              Asbestos in our Schools
              “When custodians in the Calgary Public School Board were told
              that they had to handle the removal of materials containing
              asbestos, they knew better. School board supervisors had
              developed a plan for what they termed “low risk” asbestos
              removal. Of course, there is no such thing as low risk when it
              comes to handling asbestos. The workers knew that they were not
              being told the whole story about the dangers.

              Local 40’s executive board contacted and met with the CUPE
              National Health and Safety Branch, which provided extensive
              information on the hazards of asbestos, including the fact that
              exposure can cause cancer and other diseases. Information on
              the proper removal and disposal procedures to be followed was
              also used.

              Armed with the information, the local and a staff representative
              met with the employer and successfully argued that asbestos in
              their schools should only be removed by properly trained and
              licensed experts. The local also secured an understanding that
              their members, other staff and students would be removed from
              the site prior to any asbestos removal.

              Alberta is one of the few provinces that routinely reports
              occupational deaths resulting from asbestos exposure. According
              to Alberta Labour’s Occupational Injury and Disease Summary,
              the most frequent occupational disease fatalities accepted by their
              WCB in recent years concern exposure to asbestos fibres. Among
              them were claims from janitors, electricians, labourers, drywallers,
              maintenance workers and painters.” (from CUPE, Health and
              Safety Update, Volume 1, No. 4, Sept. 1999)




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Legislative Enforcement
Occupational health and safety in Canada is governed by provincial legislation, except
for federally regulated workers for whom the standards are set under Part II of the
Canada Labour Code. The Canada Labour Code provides that:

       Sec. 10.16 (1) No person shall use a hazardous substance in a work place where
       it is reasonably practicable to substitute a substance for it that is not a hazardous
       substance.

       (2) Where a hazardous substance is to be used for any purpose in a workplace
       and an equivalent substance that is less hazardous is available to be used for that
       purpose, the equivalent shall be substituted for the hazardous substance where
       reasonably practicable.

This legislation is helpful because it requires that hazardous substances be removed, but
only if substitution is “reasonably practicable”. The substitution of carcinogens is
discussed below.

The best legislation in Canada on handling carcinogenic substances in Canada is in
British Columbia. The B.C. Occupational Health and Safety Regulation requires that
wherever a workplace carcinogen is in use, “the employer must replace it, whenever
practicable, with a material which reduces the risk to workers.” Furthermore, the
regulation specifies that, “if it is not practicable to substitute a material which
reduces the risk to workers, the employer must implement an exposure control
plan to maintain workers’ exposure as low as reasonably achievable below the
exposure limit.”22

Reducing exposures to “as low as reasonably achievable” is known by its initials, as
ALARA. Requiring substitution of carcinogens and ALARA where that is not possible,
will protect health much better than arguing with employers and regulators about how
much exposure to each carcinogen is “safe” for human beings.

                                  It is the responsibility of government (federal or
                                   provincial) to enforce their legislation. Unfortunately, in
                                   occupational health and safety, enforcement often occurs
                                 only after research and pressure by local unions, their
                             health and safety committees and health and safety
                              representatives.


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Collective Bargaining
Local unions can use the collective bargaining
process to gain protection from carcinogens and
other hazardous chemicals. This is very useful in
situations where legislation or enforcement is weak or
where management has been reluctant to remove
hazardous chemicals in the past. In this time of
“global competitiveness”, negotiating strong pollution
prevention language in a collective agreement will
protect workers from changing legislation and
international trade rulings.

Here is an example of collective agreement language negotiated by the CAW with
Chrysler.

          “During the current negotiations, the parties discussed the need to have
          information on all hazardous chemicals before they enter the plant.

          TOXIC USE CONTROL
          The Company supports the principle of toxic use reduction through its policy
          and programs. Materials and processes shall be formulated to eliminate wherever
          feasible, constituents that are considered potentially hazardous or that could
          possibly harm the environment or health of the customer or employee or
          adversely affect the occupational safety of an employee.”23



Your Joint Health and Safety
Committee and Cancer Prevention
Legislation across Canada requires that medium to large workplaces have joint labour-
management health and safety committees. Most smaller workplaces have an individual
health and safety representative. The labour representatives on health and safety
committees can play an important role in making cancer prevention a high priority at
the health and safety committee and in collective bargaining. Some issues may be
resolved at the joint committee level. For example, if management agrees to remove a
carcinogen used in the workplace, labour and management members can work together
to find the least harmful substitute.



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When management is reluctant to act, other measures may be necessary, such as
pressuring for legislative enforcement, bargaining better language in the collective
agreement and using the right to refuse.

Management may tell you that the exposures to carcinogens in your workplace are
“within acceptable levels.” Remember, there is no known safe level of exposure to
carcinogens.


Right to Refuse Dangerous Work
Workers have the right under federal and provincial legislation to refuse dangerous
work. This need not be limited to work which is immediately physically dangerous.
Workers may also refuse work which exposes themselves, co-workers or others in the
community to carcinogens. For example, the Manitoba legislation states:

       Section 43(1) “A worker may refuse to perform work at a workplace where he
       has reasonable grounds to believe and does believe that the particular work is
       dangerous to his safety or health, or the safety and health of another
       worker or any other person.” (emphasis added)

Each jurisdiction has a specific process to be followed when workers refuse dangerous
work. It’s important to understand this process before you refuse to handle hazardous
chemicals.



Substitution of Carcinogens
Substitution is the process of selecting an alternative to a carcinogen used in the workplace.

There are three types of substitution:

       + replacement, where a less harmful chemical is substituted. The process,
         tools and working methods are not changed.
       + process modification, where tools and/or work methods must also be
         changed because of the chemical replacement and
       + process substitution, where the entire process, tools and/or work methods
         are modified.24



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Some examples of substitution are:
      • replacing solvent-based cleaners with water based ones
      • using vegetable-based oils instead of mineral oils
      • eliminating degreasing solvents by using alkaline cleansers instead.
      • drying glass equipment with compressed air instead of acetone
      • replacing perchlorethylene dry cleaning with multi process wet cleaning

It is important when substituting to thoroughly investigate the proposed new chemical
or process. You can use the skills developed in tracking down workplace carcinogens
again in analyzing their potential substitutes.

When considering a substitute, make sure that you consider:

          + toxicology
            Investigate the health hazards posed by the proposed substitute. Look at how
            it might enter the body and consider short term and long term health effects,
            as well as whether or not it is a carcinogen.

          + physical data
            Is the proposed substitute a fire or explosion hazard? Given the processes in
            your workplace, will it reach hazardous levels? Will a process modification
            be necessary?

          + environmental data
            Determine if the proposed substitute will cause environmental pollution.
            Is the present waste management system up to the job, or will it need to be
            modified as well?



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       + process
         The work process may have to be modified because of the proposed
         substitution.

       + economic impact
         The costs and savings of substitution should be examined. It will always be
         easier to convince management to substitute a cheaper chemical for a more
         expensive one. But there are many costs to be considered, not just the price
         of the chemical. Hazardous waste disposal costs may be reduced and there
         will be savings from improved worker health, both in the short term and in
         the long term, through reduced disability insurance and workers
         compensation costs. “Pollution Prevention pays”.

In order to gather all of this information, you will need the co-operation and assistance
of people within your workplace and outside experts such as physicians, occupational
health nurses and occupational hygienists. Your union’s health and safety department
may have information about the issues involved in substitution in other workplaces.
In some places, you may be able to obtain help from a labour sponsored or university
based occupational health clinic.

                                                    After you have investigated the
                                                        potential substitutes and a new
                                                           chemical and/or process is in
                                                             place, make sure you take
                                                           the time to evaluate the results.
                                                            Then spread the word. Let
                                                            others know about your
                                                         successes and the challenges
                                                         which you faced. Write an
                                                         article for your union’s
                                                    publications. Let local environmental
                                                    groups know about your actions.
                                        Make sure that the information is reported to the
occupational health and safety authority in your jurisdiction. That way they can share
your success with others. You will also have created a record that a carcinogen was used
and replaced. This will be useful in case workers develop cancer many years later and
apply for workers compensation benefits.




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                         Removing a
                    Workplace Carcinogen
              In 1997, after researching the hazards of mineral based
              metalworking fluids, CAW health and safety representatives
              decided it was time to take some action. First, they obtained
              information from the manufacturer of a plant based oil, Houghton
              Canada Ltd. Then, they approached the Chemical Engineer at
              Ford’s Essex Engine Plant in Windsor, where van and truck
              engines are manufactured. It took over a year, but after working
              with the manufacturer, Ford agreed to test the new canola based
              oil in the Essex Engine Plant.

              It was first tested in the intake manifold machining area and then
              in two other areas of the plant. In each case workers reported that
              the operation was much cleaner and that the tools used in the
              process lasted much longer than with the mineral based fluid.
              Less of the fluid was needed – only four percent in water
              compared with 12 percent of the old fluid. Management also
              reported that the quality of the part had improved, and, of course,
              longer tool life reduced their costs.

              The new fluid has been tested in two other parts of the plant,
              with similar results.

              Ford has stated that before they will expand their use of the new
              canola based fluid, they need its manufacturer to supply more of
              the additives which they need to stabilize their systems. They
              have also advised the union that the canola oil is more expensive,
              but have not released the financial details to the union.

              And the savings to workers? Right now, approximately 25 workers
              are no longer exposed to carcinogens on the job.




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                             Where to Start
           Here are some important steps that you can take in your workplace:

              1. Take an inventory of all hazardous materials used at the
                 work site.
              2. Check the MSDSs for health effects listed.
              3. Contact your union, and other workers’ health and safety
                 resource agencies to obtain further information on the
                 potential cancer causing materials which you have identified.
              4. List all suspected materials used, their uses and the work
                 areas and workers affected.
              5. Ensure that all regulations concerning substitution, and
                 exposure elimination are enforced.
              6. Organize an information session workshop for your fellow
                 workers.
              7. Organize a meeting with the union, the employer and the
                 regulatory agency, to explain your Preventing Cancer Campaign.




Community Action
Just as in the workplace, where management has traditionally argued to control, rather
than to prevent, exposures, environmental laws and regulations have focussed on
pollution control rather than pollution prevention. These are called “end of the pipe”
methods and they are not real solutions. They just change the place where the
problem will appear. For example, improved workplace ventilation just sends the
pollutants outside to the community. Making the smoke stack higher won’t eliminate the
pollution, it just sends it higher into the atmosphere where it will be carried to other
locations. Remember the PCBs in the breast milk of Inuit women?

We need to build new alliances to make cancer prevention a reality. Unions can
find potential partners in community, environmental and public health groups. There
are examples of local coalitions which have worked to remove carcinogens from the
environment. But it will not always be easy. It is important for the voices of workers to
be heard, so that cancer prevention improves the environment both inside and outside


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of the workplace.

The Campaign for Pesticide Reduction (CPR!) is one example of such an alliance.

In 1996, a small group of national environmental and labour groups, working with
some local and provincial pesticide action groups, joined forces to launch the Campaign
for Pesticide Reduction (CPR!). CPR! is a Canada-wide coalition of labour organizations,
farmers’ groups, environmental and health organizations and individuals concerned with
pesticide use in Canada. The CLC is one member of the CPR! Steering Committee.

Currently, CPR! coordinates and supports individual campaigns for municipal bylaws
banning or restricting pesticide use. Across Canada, local campaigns for pesticide
reduction bylaws are being run by local citizens and environmental groups. Local
campaigners are approaching their Councils with proposals to restrict the cosmetic use
of pesticides on both public and private lands.

Municipal governments, including Chelsea, Aylmer, Hudson, Westmount and Point
Claire in Québec and Kitchener and Ottawa in Ontario have passed and, in some cases,
successfully defended bylaws which range from outright bans to permit requirements,
pesticide free summers, prohibited spraying on city property, and the like.25 These
bylaws have been opposed by the commercial lawn care companies and the pesticide
manufacturers. Of course, the more pesticides we use, the more they profit.

Some unions have established environment committees at the local, provincial and
national levels. Many of these committees have been successful in establishing good
working relationships with local environmental activists.

The Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) has drafted a model resolution for
local unions to use as part of a campaign to encourage pesticide reduction by municipal
governments.

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      P R E V E N T I N G   C A N C E R :   A   C A M P A I G N   F O R   W O R K E R S




        CUPE Model Resolution
     Regarding Pesticide By-Laws
     Whereas it makes good environmental and health sense to reduce
     the use of toxic chemicals wherever possible;

     Whereas Canadians are being urged by provincial and federal
     governments to reduce their dependence on chemical pesticides
     in all sectors;

     Whereas about 80 per cent of Canadians live and work in urban
     areas which currently have no standardized restrictions on the use
     of these chemicals;

     Whereas homeowners apply between five and ten times more
     toxic chemicals per acre than farmers;

     Whereas town councils are empowered to pass bylaws to protect
     the health of residents and/or to define and prohibit nuisances;

     Whereas several Québec towns (including Hudson, Senneville,
     Baie d’Urfé, St-Lambert, Ste-Geneviève, Huntingdon, Ste-Anne-
     de-Bellevue, Pointe Claire, Westmount and Beaconsfield) have
     passed by-laws to restrict or ban the sue of pesticides;

     Be It Resolved that this local union urges the municipality of
     ______________ to protect the environment and the health of its
     residents by passing a by-law to prohibit the cosmetic use of
     pesticides in residential areas and on public properties, to restrict
     the use of pesticides when used to control infestations of pests on
     residential and public properties and simultaneously educate
     residents about ecological alternatives to pesticides.




36                                Unions        make    a   difference       in   people’s   lives
               P R E V E N T I N G   C A N C E R :   A    C A M P A I G N   F O R   W O R K E R S




Political Action
Workplace and community action are important, but we
also need political action to clean up our workplaces and
our environment. While we can make great strides in both
workplaces and the community, it is ultimately government which
has the power to eliminate or restrict the use of hazardous
chemicals. Local unions can work with their national or district
offices and with their provincial or territorial federations of
labour and the CLC to make cancer prevention issues a priority.

It is important to also let local officials know what is going on.
After you have worked to identify potential carcinogens in your
workplace, you will probably know much more about the
subject than your local municipal, provincial and federal
representatives. Make sure you keep them informed. Let them
know about the carcinogens being used in their backyard.

Governments also have an important role to play in data collection. Canada has
no national cancer registry which includes occupational data. This is essential in order
to identify occupational carcinogens. It will not prevent the disease from occurring in
those whose data will appear in the registry. But the information can be used to identify
occupational carcinogens and to help those affected receive workers compensation
benefits.

A national registry is our best option. But local action needn’t wait. In Windsor, Ontario,
the local cancer treatment centre, in co-operation with the Occupational Health Clinic
for Ontario Workers, now records the occupational history of everyone who comes there
for cancer treatment. This data will prove invaluable to preventing future cancers in the
Windsor area and around the world.


Just Transition for Workers
In many situations, eliminating carcinogens will increase job opportunities. Unfortunately,
this will not always be the case. The CLC has called for Just Transition for workers
who lose their jobs because of pollution prevention.




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           P R E V E N T I N G   C A N C E R :   A   C A M P A I G N   F O R   W O R K E R S




By “Just Transition” we mean:

       + fairness
         Just Transition is the fair treatment of workers and their communities when
         employers close their facilities for whatever reason. It is a moral and political
         imperative.

       + re-employment or alternative employment
         The prime aim of Just Transition is the continuation of employment without
         loss of pay, seniority or benefits. Job equity deserves protection as much as
         shareholders’ equity.

       + compensation
         Where continuation of employment is not possible, just compensation is the
         next alternative.

       + sustainable production
         Just Transition is essential as we move to more sustainable production
         methods and to the service sector, which supports sustainable production

       + programmes
         Just Transition programmes are essential. We must plan suitable programs to
         address needed environmental changes. These could include: using the
         Employment Insurance (EI) fund, using general government revenues,
         building adjustment funds from levies on polluting industries while they are
         still operating, creating national Transition Funds, providing wage subsidies
         to those workers transferred to the new alternative industries and providing
         skills training, retraining and upgrading.

The underlying principle of Just Transition is that individual workers and their
families should not pay the price for pollution prevention that will benefit us all.




38                                     Unions        make    a   difference       in   people’s   lives
               P R E V E N T I N G   C A N C E R :   A    C A M P A I G N   F O R   W O R K E R S




Your Local Campaign
In this booklet, we have tried to give you some ideas that you can use to develop a
strategy and design a campaign that will work in your local area. Some points for you to
consider are:

          + Use your local union health and safety committee
            and, if possible, your joint labour-management
            health and safety committee.

          + Help those already suffering from occupational
            cancer and those who may have already died by
            pursuing their workers compensation claims.

          + Make alliances wherever possible with local groups. Look for potential allies
            in environmental groups, community groups and community health centres.
            Remember: pollution prevention benefits the workplaces, the community
            and the environment alike.

          + Use the resources of your union’s district, national or international office, your
            federation of labour and labour council. They have lots to offer – written
            materials, training programs and videos. This will also help you to meet other
            like minded activists, share ideas and realize that you are not alone.

          + Use the resources of specialist services such as labour sponsored or university
            based occupational health clinics and the Canadian Centre for Occupational
            Health and Safety. Labour sponsored clinics exist in Manitoba and Ontario.
            See Appendix 1.

          + Work with your union, federation of labour and the CLC to lobby for
            legislative and regulatory change.

          + Publicize your efforts. Get to know the reporters in your local area who cover
            health care, labour and the environment. They can help to let others know
            about your successes and the challenges which you have faced.

          + Remember that change sometimes takes a long time. Be patient with yourself
            and impatient with those in authority.



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          P R E V E N T I N G   C A N C E R :   A   C A M P A I G N   F O R   W O R K E R S




             A Model Prevent Cancer
                    Campaign

1    How Big?
     +   a single workplace carcinogen, several or all?
     +   workplace action: community and political action included?


2    Where to Start – The First Steps
     +   workplace surveys, risk mapping, inventories and cancer
         statistics,“cancer detectives at work”
     +   tracking carcinogens when they leave the workplace, e.g.,
         wastes (community and environmental impacts)


3    The Tools
     +   information and education sessions in the local, to
         promote the campaign
     +   bargaining and working with the joint committee
     +   using the legislation, including carcinogen elimination and
         substitution rules, proper enforcement and work refusals
     +   working with the community
     +   political action
     +   publicizing the campaign


4    Objectives and Results
     +   how will we know when we have succeeded?
     +   elimination and substitution the prime objectives, followed
         by proper control measures and compensation claims
     +   where it is not possible to eliminate carcinogens, worker
         exposure should be as near Zero as possible




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               P R E V E N T I N G     C A N C E R :    A   C A M P A I G N     F O R    W O R K E R S




                   Quick Reference Guide
                  For The Model Campaign
                                                                                                  Page

              Workplace Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
              The Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
              Bargaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
              Joint Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
              Community Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
              Political Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
              Pollution Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
              Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
              Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24




T H E   C A N A D I A N   L A B O U R    C O N G R E S S      –   www.canadianlabour.ca                      41
NOTES

     1. Firth, M., Brophy, J. and Keith, M. Workplace Roulette: Gambling with Cancer, page 12
     2. Canadian Auto Workers and Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers “Cancer
        Can Be Prevented” in Cancer Causing Substances: A Worker’s Guide to Understanding and
        Eliminating Them From the Work Environment, page 2
     3. Canadian Cancer Society, “Preventing Cancer” available at
        http://www.cancer.ca/info/preve.htm
     4. Canadian Cancer Society, “Research Grants Awarded by the Canadian Cancer Society”,
        available at: http://www.cancer.ca/res/resear/resprove.htm
     5. National Cancer Institute of Canada: Canadian Cancer Statistics 1999, pages 32 and 34
     6. Epstein, Samuel, The Politics of Cancer Revisited, page 330
     7. National Cancer Institute of Canada: Canadian Cancer Statistics 1999, page 9
     8. ibid page 47
     9. Landrigan, Phillip, quoted in Brophy, J. and Keith, M. Workplace Roulette: Gambling with
        Cancer, page 27
10. Brophy, J. and Keith, M. Workplace Roulette: Gambling with Cancer, page 10
11. Breast Cancer Prevention Coalition, Everyday Carcinogens: Stopping Cancer Before It Starts,
    Conference Background Paper, March, 1999, page 11 and available at:
    http://www.stopcancer.org/conf_ec/ec.html
12. Canadian Auto Workers and Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers “Cancer
    Can Be Prevented” in Cancer Causing Substances: A Worker’s Guide to Understanding and
    Eliminating Them From the Work Environment, page 2
13. Breast Cancer Prevention Coalition, Everyday Carcinogens: Stopping Cancer Before It Starts,
    Conference Background Paper, March, 1999, page 11
14. International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Polychlorinated Dibenzo-Para-
    Dioxins, last updated December 12, 1997
15. From http://www.monsanto.com/ag/_asp/monsanto.asp
16. Epstein, Samuel, The Politics of Cancer Revisited, pages 574 to 576
17. Epstein, Dr. Samuel, “Losing the war on cancer: Who is responsible and what to do?”
    Keynote address to the conference “Everyday Carcinogens: Stopping Cancer Before It
    Starts” Hamilton, March 1999 and available at:
    http://www.stopcancer.org/conf_ec/transcr/tr_epstein.html
18. World Trade Organization, EC Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products
    (Hormones), Complaint by Canada, (97-3371) and available at
    http://www.wto.org/wto/dispute/distab.htm
19. World Trade Organization, Overview of the State-of-play of WTO Disputes,
    November 26, 1999 and available at http://www.wto.org/wto/dispute/bulletin.htm



42                                       Unions    make    a   difference     in   people’s     lives
                                                   N O T E S




 20. Pollution Prevention, A Federal Strategy for Action, formally adopted by the Government of
     Canada, July, 1995, page 4. For information about pollution prevention “success stories”
     from Environment Canada see http://www.ec.gc.ca/pp/english/stories/listing.html
 21. Firth, Matthew, Brophy, James and Keith, Margaret, Workplace Roulette: Gambling with
     Cancer, Between the Lines, 1997
 22. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Labour, Occupational Health and Safety
     Regulation, 5.57 and 5.58, April, 1998
 23. Canadian Auto Workers and Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers
     “Legal Rights and Responsibilities” in Cancer Causing Substances: A Worker’s Guide to
     Understanding and Eliminating Them From the Work Environment, page 1
 24. Canadian Auto Workers and Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers
     “Substitution” in Cancer Causing Substances: A Worker’s Guide to Understanding and
     Eliminating Them From the Work Environment, page 1
 25. For more information, contact CPR! Campaign for Pesticide Reduction,
     412-1 Nicholas Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N-7B7 tel: 613-241-4611 or email:
     sierra@web.net
 26. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs. Lyon: IARC. 1997.


Appendix 2
 27. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Threshold Limit Values for
     Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indicies. Cincinnati. 1997.
 28. National Toxicology Program. 7th Annual Report on Carcinogens. U.S. Department of Health
     and Human Services. Rockville. 1997.
 29. New Jersey Department of Health. CN 368, Trenton NJ. 08625-0368.
     Phone: (609) 984-2202




T H E   C A N A D I A N   L A B O U R   C O N G R E S S   –    www.canadianlabour.ca               43
GLOSSARY


Absorption: A route of entry into the body, generally through the skin.

Benign Tumour: A non-cancerous growth that does not spread to surrounding tissues and that
rarely recurs after it has been completely removed. (CCS)

Cancer: Cancer is a general term for more than 100 diseases. It is the uncontrolled, abnormal
growth of cells that can invade and destroy healthy tissues. Most cancers can also spread to
other parts of the body. (CCS)

Carcinogenic: An agent which is capable of causing cancer. (WR)

Chemotherapy: The use of drugs to treat cancer. (CCS)

Dose-response relationship: A dose-response trend is shown when an increase in the “dose”
(exposure level, intensity, duration, etc.) corresponds to an increase in the “response” (usually a
standardized mortality ratio for a particular cause of death). A dose-response relationship is
shown when more disease occurs after higher exposure to a substance, or conversely when the
incidence of disease decreases in accordance with the decrease in exposure. (WR)

Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in groups of people. (WR)

Ingestion: A route of entry into the body; taking in by mouth, swallowing into the digestive
system. (WR)

Inhalation: A route of entry into the body; breathing something into the lungs. (WR)

Initiator: The multi-stage theory of Carcinogenisis asserts that cancer develops in stages.
Carcinogenic agents are considered initiators if they act in the early stages of the disease’s
development, damaging cells that might later become cancerous. (WR)

Ionizing Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation that can interact with matter to produce
electrically charged particles called ions. X-rays, beta rays, gamma rays, alpha particles that can
damage living matter and cause cancer and genetic damage. (WR)

Latency Period: The period of time between exposure to a substance and the appearance of the
disease that it has caused.

Malignancy: A tumour consisting of cancer cells. Cells from a malignant growth can break
away and start secondary tumours elsewhere in the body. (CCS)




44                                     Unions     make    a   difference      in   people’s      lives
                                                G L O S S A R Y




Malignant: Harmful, dangerous to life, cancerous, capable of growing out of control. (WR)

Mesothelioma: Cancer of the membrane that surrounds internal organs, such as the
stomach and lung lining. It is caused almost exclusively by asbestos.

Metastasis: The spread of cancer cells from the original tumour to other parts of the
body by way of the lymph system or bloodstream. (CCS)

Mutagen: An agent that causes mutation or changes in the genetic material of a cell. (WR)

Mutation: A change in the genetic material of a cell. Changes in sperm or ova (before
conception) can be passed on to future generations. (WR)

Neoplasm: a tumour, whether benign or malignant (WR)

Non-ionizing Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation that does not produce ions. Includes
ultraviolet radiation (UV), radar, microwaves and radio frequencies (WR).

Pesticides: An agent used to kill pests, including herbicides (which kill unwanted plants) and
insecticides (which kill unwanted insects). (WR)

Promoter: The multi-stage theory of carcinogenisis asserts that cancer develops in stages.
Carcinogenic agents are considered promoters if they act in the later stages of the disease’s
development, affecting previously damaged cells and leading to cancer. (WR)

Ultraviolet Radiation: Wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum that are shorter than
those of visible light and longer than X-rays. A component of sunlight.

X-rays: High frequency radiation used for medical diagnosis and therapy.



Sources:
(CCS) Canadian Cancer Society, Common Cancer Words and Their Meanings, available at:
http://www.cancer.ca/indexe.htm

(WR) Workplace Roulette: Gambling with Cancer, Matthew Firth, Jim Brophy and Margaret Keith,
Between the Lines, 1997




T H E   C A N A D I A N   L A B O U R   C O N G R E S S   –   www.canadianlabour.ca              45
RECOMMENDED READING AND VIEWING
Breast Cancer Prevention Coalition, Everyday Carcinogens: Stopping Cancer Before It Starts,
Conference Background Paper, March, 1999, page 11 and available at:
www.stopcancer.org/conf_ec/ec.html

Canadian Auto Workers Union Prevent Cancer: A Manual for Worker Investigators, Toronto: undated

Canadian Auto Workers Union Devil of a Poison, Toronto: undated

Canadian Auto Workers Union If you think hemp is a drug smoke this book, Toronto: undated

Canadian Auto Workers Union and Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers, Cancer
Causing Substances: A Worker’s Guide to Understanding and Eliminating Them From the Work
Environment Toronto: Canadian Auto Workers Union Toronto: undated

Canadian Labour Congress A Workers’ Manual on Pollution Prevention: How to clean up your
workplace and the environment at the same time, Ottawa: 1998

Canadian Labour Congress National Pollution Prevention Strategy, Ottawa: 1998

Canadian Labour Congress New Strategies for Health, Safety and Workers’ Compensation Final
Report, Ottawa: undated

Canadian Labour Congress Pollution Prevention Versus Control, CLC Basic Health and Safety
Education Course Program, Module #7, Ottawa: 1998

Canadian Labour Congress Just Transition for Workers During Environmental Change, Ottawa: April,
1999

Canadian Union of Public Employees Health and Safety Update, Volume 1 No 4, September, 1999

Epstein, Samuel, The Politics of Cancer Revisited, Freemont Center, NY: East Ridge Press, 1998

Epstein, Dr. Samuel, “Losing the war on cancer: Who is responsible and what to do?” Keynote address
to the conference “Everyday Carcinogens: Stopping Cancer Before It Starts” Hamilton, March
1999 and available at: www.stopcancer.org/conf_ec/transcr/tr_epstein.html

Firth, M., Brophy, J and Keith, M Workplace Roulette: Gambling with Cancer Toronto: Between the
Lines, 1997

Government of Canada, Pollution Prevention, A Federal Strategy for Action, Ottawa: 1995

Hammond, Merryl Pesticide By-Laws: why we need them; how to get them, Montréal, Consultancy
for Alternative Education, 1995




46                                      Unions     make    a   difference      in   people’s     lives
                          R E C O M M E N D E D   R E A D I N G   A N D   V I E W I N G




International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Polychlorinated Dibenzo-Para-Dioxins,
Lyons, 1997 and available at:: http://193.51.164.11/cgi/iHound/Chem/iH_Chem_Frames.html
National Cancer Institute of Canada: Canadian Cancer Statistics 1999 and available at:
www.cancer.ca/stats/index.htm

Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Labour, Occupational Health and Safety Regulation, 5.57
and 5.58, April, 1998

United Steelworkers of America Eliminating Workplace Carcinogens, prepared for “Building Links:
National Health, Safety and Environment Conference” Toronto: 1998

World Trade Organization, EC Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones),
Complaint by Canada, (97-3371) and available at: www.wto.org/wto/dispute/distab.htm

World Trade Organization, Overview of the State-of-play of WTO Disputes, November 26, 1999
and available at http://www.wto.org/wto/dispute/bulletin.htm



Videos
“Before Their Time” (28:07 minutes) English only; produced for the Workers’ Health and Safety
Centre by Deveaux-Babin Productions. This is a powerful video about occupational cancer

“They Speak in Whispers” (32:13 minutes) English only; produced for the Workers’ Health
and Safety Centre by Deveaux-Babin Productions. “They Speak in Whispers” is the story of
children afflicted with a horrendous disease, childhood cancer.

“Never Walk Alone” (“Plus Jamais Seul”) (22:04 minutes) English and French; Workers’ Health
and Safety Centre, Deveaux-Babin Productions, produced for the 1999 Canadian Labour
Congress Convention. This video connects the work of health and safety activists to community
environmental groups. It documents the tragedy experienced by former Holmes Foundry
workers in Sarnia; the occupation of Ministry of Labour offices by the Widows of Chemical
Valley; the struggle to clean up the tar ponds in Sydney, N.S.; and, the campaign to stop sewage
from polluting the harbour in Victoria, B.C.. Most pollutants have industrial origins. This video
shows how workplace health and safety and a clean environment are two sides of the same coin.




T H E   C A N A D I A N   L A B O U R   C O N G R E S S   –   www.canadianlabour.ca            47
APPENDIX 1


RESOURCES FOR CANCER PREVENTION

Electronic Resources
Many unions now have web sites, with health and safety information. Find them at the CLC
web site. www.clc-ctc.ca/eng.index.html

Breast Cancer Prevention Coalition www.stopcancer.org/

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety www.ccohs.ca

Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention www.c2p2.sarnia.com

Cancer Prevention Coalition www.preventcancer.com

Duke University, Occupational and Environmental Medicine http://gilligan.mc.duke.edu/oem

Environment Canada - The Green Lane - Pollution and Toxics www.ec.gc.ca/pollut_e.html

International Agency for Research on Cancer maintains a web site, with a searchable data
base at www.iarc.fr.

London Hazards Centre (England) www.lhc.org.uk/index.htm

Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers www.ohcow.on.ca

Ontario Workers’ Health and Safety Centre www.whsc.on.ca

Swedish National Institute of Working Life www.niwl.se/default_en.asp

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency www.epa.gov

U.S. National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety
www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html

Vermont Safety Information Resources Inc. has a searchable database of MSDSs
http://hazard.com/


Other Resources
Alberta Workers Health Centre
10451-170 Street, Room 111, Edmonton, Alberta, T5P 4T2, phone (780) 486-9009

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
250 Main St East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, phone (905) 570-8094 or toll-free at
1-800-668-4284


48                                  Unions    make   a   difference    in   people’s   lives
             A P P E N D I X   1   :   R E S O U R C E S   F O R   C A N C E R   P R E V E N T I O N




Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention
100 Charlotte Street, Sarnia, Ontario N7T 4R2, phone (519) 337-3423 or toll-free at
1-800-667-9790

London Occupational Health and Safety Information Service
222-424 Wellington Street, London, Ontario N6A 3P3, phone (519) 433-4156

Manitoba Federation of Labour Occupational Health Centre
102- 275 Broadway Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba R3C 4M6, phone (204) 949-0811

Windsor Occupational Health Information Service
547 Victoria Ave., Windsor, Ontario N9A 4N1 phone (519) 254-5157

Workers’ Health and Safety Centre (Ontario)
15 Gervais Drive, Toronto, Ontario M3C 1Y8 phone (416) 441-1939, with offices in Hamilton,
Sarnia, Sudbury and Ottawa




Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers
Hamilton Clinic
848 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8M 1L9 phone (905) 549-2552 or toll-free at
1-800-263-2129

Sarnia Clinic
171 Kendall St., Point Edward, Ontario, N7V 4G6 phone (519) 337-4627

Sudbury Clinic
1780 Regent Street South, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 3Z8 phone (705) 523-2330

Toronto Clinic
#308 - 15 Gervais Drive, Toronto, Ontario M3C 1Y8 phone (416) 449-0009

Windsor Clinic
547 Victoria Ave., Windsor, Ontario N9A 4N1 phone (519) 973-4800 or toll-free at
1-800-565-3185




T H E   C A N A D I A N   L A B O U R    C O N G R E S S   –   www.canadianlabour.ca                   49
APPENDIX 2


KNOWN CARCINOGENS
This list of carcinogens has been compiled by the CAW from 3 sources:

+ The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
+ The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP).
+ The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

These agencies review information collected from a variety of sources including medical
observations on humans, statistical analysis on groups of exposed workers (a branch of science
known as epidemiology), animal studies, and chemical analysis to rank chemical agents or work
processes according to their capacity to cause cancer. The rankings given to each carcinogen may
differ depending on the agency so, it is first important to understand the definitions associated
with each ranking.



International Agency For Research On Cancer
IARC categorizes carcinogens into 4 groups 26:

Group 1:    +    The chemical, group of chemicals, industrial process or occupational
                 exposure is carcinogenic to humans. This ranking is used only if there is
                 “sufficient” evidence from epidemiological studies to support a cause/effect
                 association between the exposure and cancer

Group 2:    +    Studies in experimental animals play an important role in assigning the group
                 2 classification especially those in group B.

Group 2A: +      The chemical, group of chemicals, industrial process or occupational
                 exposure is probably carcinogenic to humans. Usually, category 2A is given
                 to substances which there is at least some evidence of carcinogenicity to
                 humans.

Group 2B: +      The chemical, group of chemicals, industrial process or occupational
                 exposure is possibly carcinogenic to humans. The combination of
                 “sufficient” evidence in animals, but not enough data in humans usually results
                 in a ranking of 2B.

Group 3:    +    The chemical, group of chemicals, industrial process or occupational
                 exposure cannot be classified as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This
                 ranking is given to substances for which there is some suspicion as to their
                 cancer causing potential. However, despite an investigation, a definitive
                 conclusion cannot be made as to whether or not the substances are
                 carcinogenic.

50                                    Unions     make   a   difference    in   people’s    lives
                           A P P E N D I X   2 :   K N O W N   C A R C I N O G E N S




Group 4:       +    The chemical, group of chemicals, industrial process or occupational
                    exposure is not carcinogenic. The agent is not suspected of being a
                    carcinogen based on human and animal studies.



American Conference Of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists
The ACGIH categorizes carcinogens in the same manner as IARC. Instead of the group 1
through 4 ranking used by IARC, the ACGIH uses a different notation, namely A1 through A5.27

A1: Confirmed Human Carcinogen: the substance causes cancer in humans based on
    evidence from epidemiologic studies of, or convincing clinical evidence in, exposed humans.

A2: Suspected Human Carcinogen: The agent causes cancer in experimental animals in
    ways that are considered relevant to worker exposure. An increased risk of cancer in
    exposed humans is not confirmed.

A3: Animal Carcinogen: The agent causes cancer in experimental animals in ways that are
    not considered relevant to worker exposure. An increased risk of cancer in exposed
    humans is not confirmed. Available evidence suggests that the agent is not likely to cause
    cancer in humans except under unusual circumstances such as very high dose.

A4: Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen: There is not enough data to classify the
    agent in terms of its carcinogenicity in humans and/or animals.

A5: Not Suspected as a Human Carcinogen: The agent is not suspected to be a human
    carcinogen on the basis of properly conducted epidemiologic studies in humans. The
    agent does not convey a significant risk of cancer in humans.



U.S. National Toxicology Program
The NTP ranks carcinogens into 2 classes; substances that are known to be carcinogenic and
substances that are reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic.28

Known carcinogens: substances or processes for which “sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity”
exists from studies in humans “indicating a cause/effect relationship between the agent or process
and human cancer”.

Substances are anticipated to be carcinogenic: if there is “limited evidence” of carcinogenicity
from studies in humans, or there is ‘sufficient evidence” of carcinogenicity from studies in
experimental animals.

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How to Use this List
Each class of carcinogens is listed in alphabetical order. Human carcinogens (group 1) are
presented first, followed by probable human carcinogens (group 2A), followed by possible
human carcinogens (group 2B) etc. The list contains all substances reviewed by IARC.
Substances designated with an asterisk (*) have been reviewed by the ACGIH or NTP and have
been added to the IARC list. In some cases, the chemical name might be unavailable, described
with several different names or several different chemicals may have the same common name.
Therefore, the list also includes CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers. A CAS number is a
unique number assigned to every known chemical. Workers can compare chemical names or CAS
numbers, such as those listed in a Material Safety Data Sheet, and see if the substances are in fact
carcinogenic and where they rank in terms of their ability to cause cancer. For Group 1 and
Group 2A carcinogens, the chemicals are also characterized according to where the majority of
exposure comes from.



Characterizations
Biological:        Refers to viruses or infections resulting from viruses. These substances are not
                   necessarily associated with industry, but may be of concern to health care
                   workers.

Dietary:           Refers to substances which are eaten as part of one’s diet. These substances are
                   not associated with occupational exposures.

Environmental: Refers to substances that everyone is exposed to. eg: sunlight.

Occupational:      Refers to substances for which exposures occur mainly in the workplace.

Pharmaceutical: Refers to chemicals which are used as drugs or medical treatments. Again,
                these substances are not necessarily associated with occupation but may be of
                concern to workers who are involved in their manufacture.

Lifestyle:         Refers to chemicals or substances whose exposure is primarily attributed to
                   lifestyle. eg: smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages.


If you would like to get fact sheets for any of the carcinogens listed here, or any other chemical,
they are available from the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety or the New
Jersey Department of Health.29




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                 GROUP 1: CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS
                    Substances for which exposure is
                          mainly occupational
Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                              CAS #

4-Aminobiphenyl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92-67-1
Arsenic and arsenic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-38-2
Asbestos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332-21-4
Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-43-2
Benzidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92-87-5
Beryllium and beryllium compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-41-7
Bis(chloromethyl)ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542-88-1
Cadmium and cadmium compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-43-9
Chloromethyl methyl ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-30-2
Chromium VI compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-47-3
Ethylene Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-21-8
Mustard gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505-60-2
2-Naphthylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-59-8
Nickel and nickel compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-02-0
Radon and its decay products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10043-92-2
Silica, crystalline (inhaled in the form of quartz or crystabolite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14808-60-7
Talc, containing asbestiform fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14807-96-6
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1746-01-6
Thiotepa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-24-4
Thorium dioxide* NTP known carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1314-20-1
Treosulfan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299-75-2
Uranium * ACGIH A1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-61-1
Vinyl chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-01-4
Zinc chromates * ACGIH A1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13530-65-9

Workplace Exposure Circumstances                                                                                                         CAS #

Aluminum production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Auramine, manufacture of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Boot and shoe manufacture and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Chromite ore processing (chromate) as Cr* ACGIH A1, NTP known carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Coal gasification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Coke production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Furniture and cabinet making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Haematite mining (underground with exposure to radon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Iron and steel founding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Isopropanol manufacture (strong acid process) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Magenta, manufacture of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Painter (occupational exposure as a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Rubber industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid (occupational exposure to) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA

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                    Substances for which exposure is
                            mainly biologic

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                              CAS #

Epstein-Barr virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Helicobacter pylori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Hepatitis B virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Hepatitis C virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
HIV virus type 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Human papillovirus type 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Human papillovirus type 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Opisthorchis viverrini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Schistosoma haematobium (infection with) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA



                    Substances for which exposure is
                             mainly dietary

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                              CAS #

Aflatoxins, naturally occurring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1402-68-2



                    Substances for which exposure is
                          mainly environmental

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                              CAS #

Erionite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66733-21-9
Solar radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Radon and its decay products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10043-92-2




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                                                Pharmaceuticals

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                                CAS #

Analgesic mixtures containing Phenactin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Azathioprine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446-86-6
N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494-03-1
1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulfonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-98-1
Chlorambucil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305-03-3
1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1- nitrosurea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13909-09-6
Cyclosporin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79217-60-0
Cyclophosphamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-18-0
Diethylstilboestrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-53-1
Melphalan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148-82-3
8-Methoxypsoralen(Methoxsalen) plus UV A radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298-81-7
MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Oestrogen replacement therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Oestrogens, nonsteroidal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Oestrogens, steroidal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Oral contraceptives, combined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Oral contraceptives, sequential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Tamoxifen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10540-29-1

Mixtures                                                                    CAS #                     Characterization

Alcoholic beverages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lifestyle
Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin . . . . . . . . . . . NA                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pharmaceutical
Betel quid with tobacco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lifestyle
Coal-tar pitches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA         . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational
Coal-tars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational
Mineral oils, untreated and mildly treated . . . . . . . . . . . NA                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational
Salted fish (Chinese-style) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA             . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dietary
Shale-oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational
Soots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational
Tobacco products, smokeless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA                  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lifestyle
Tobacco smoke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lifestyle
Wood dust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational




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     GROUP 2 A: PROBABLY CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS
                    Substances for which exposure is
                          mainly occupational
Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                             CAS #

Acrylamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-06-1
Acrylonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-13-1
Benz[a]anthracene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-55-3
Benzidine-based dyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Benzo[a]pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-32-8
1,3-Butadiene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-99-0
p-chloro-ortho-toluidine and its strong salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-69-2
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-70-3
3,3’-Dichlorobenzidine* ACGIH A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-94-1
1,4-Dichloro-2-butene* ACGIH A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764-41-0
Diethyl sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64-67-5
Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-44-7
Dimethyl sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77-78-1
Epichlorohydrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-89-8
N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759-73-9
Formaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-00-0
4,4’-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)(MOCA)* ACGIH A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-14-4
N-Methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-25-7
N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684-93-5
4-Nitrodiphenyl* ACGIH A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92-93-3
N-Nitrosodiethylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-18-5
N-Nitrosodimethylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-75-9
Strontium chromate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7789-06-2
Styrene-7,8-oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-09-3
Tetrachloroethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127-18-4
Trichloroethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-01-6
1,2,3-Trichloropropane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-18-4
Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126-72-7
Vinyl bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593-60-2
Vinyl fluoride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-025

Workplace Exposure Circumstances                                                                                                        CAS #

Art glass, glass containers and pressed ware (manufacture of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Hairdresser or barber (occupational exposure as a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Petroleum refining (occupational exposures in) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Sunlamps and sunbeds (use of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA




56                                                         Unions           make        a    difference              in    people’s            lives
    A P P E N D I X         2 :   G R O U P        2 A    –    P R O B A B L Y         C A R C I N O G E N I C            T O    H U M A N S




                    Substances for which exposure is
                           mainly biological

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                           CAS #

Clonorchis sinensis (infection with) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Human papilloma virus type 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Human papilloma virus type 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Kaposi’s sarcoma herpes virus/human herpes virus 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA



                    Substances for which exposure is
                             mainly dietary

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                           CAS #

IQ (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76180-96-6



                    Substances for which exposure is
                          mainly environmental

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                           CAS #

Ultraviolet radiation A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Ultraviolet radiation B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Ultraviolet radiation C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
                     P R E V E N T I N G           C A N C E R :        A    C A M P A I G N           F O R      W O R K E R S




                     Substances for which exposure is
                          mainly pharmaceutical

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                                      CAS

Adriamycin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23214-92-8
Androgenic (anabolic) steroids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Azacitidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320-67-2
Bischloroethyl nitrosourea(BCNU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154-93-8
Chloramphenicol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-75-7
1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13010-47-4
Chlorozotocin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54749-90-5
Cisplatin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15663-27-1
5-Methoxypsoralen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484-20-8
Nitrogen mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-75-2
Phenacetin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-44-2
Procarbazine hydrochloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366-70-1



                                                            Pesticides

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                                CAS #

Ethylene dibromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-93-4
Captafol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2425-06-1



Mixtures                                                                                                                                   CAS #

Creosotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8001-58-9
Diesel engine exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Hot mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Non-arsenical insectisides (occupational exposures in spraying) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Polychlorinated biphenyls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA




58                                                           Unions          make         a    difference              in     people’s            lives
    A P P E N D I X         2 :    G R O U P        2 B     –   P O S S I B L Y         C A R C I N O G E N I C             T O     H U M A N S




        GROUP 2 B: POSSIBLY CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS
                  Substances for which exposure
                       may be occupational
Agents and Groups of Agents                                                                                                              CAS #

Acetaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-07-0
Acetamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-35-5
2-acetylaminofluorene* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-96-3
AF-2[2-(2-Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3688-53-7
2-Aminoanthraquinone* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117-79-3
p-Aminoazobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-09-3
o-Aminoazotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97-56-3
1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82-28-0
o-Anisidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-04-0
o-Anisidine hydrochloride* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134-29-2
Antimony trioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1309-64-4
Auramine (technical grade) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492-80-8
Benzal chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98-87-3
Benzo[b]fluoranthene* ACGIH A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205-99-2
Benzo[j]fluoranthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205-82-3
Benzo[k]fluoranthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207-08-9
Benzofuran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271-89-6
Benzotrichloride* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98-07-7
Benzyl chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-44-7
Benzyl violet 4B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1694-09-3
Bromacil* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314-40-9
Bromodichloromethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-27-4
b-Butyrolactone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3068-88-0
Carbon black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333-86-4
Carbon tetrachloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-23-5
Ceramic fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Chlordenic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115-28-6
p-Chloroaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-47-8
Chlorodiphenyl (54% chlorine)* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11097-69-1
Chloroform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-66-3
1-Chloro-2-methylpropene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513-37-1
4-Chloro-o-phenyldiamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-83-0
CI Acid Red 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6459-94-5
CI Basic Red 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569-61-9
CI direct Blue 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2429-74-5
Citrus red no.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6358-53-8
Cobalt and cobalt compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-48-4
p-Cresidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120-71-8
Cupferron* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135-20-6
Dantron (chrysazin; 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117-10-2
N,N’-Diacetylbenzidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613-35-4
2,4-Diaminoanisole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615-05-4

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                    P R E V E N T I N G           C A N C E R :        A    C A M P A I G N          F O R      W O R K E R S




2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39156-41-7
4,4’-Diaminodiphenyl ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-80-4
2,4-Diaminotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-80-7
Dibenz[a,h]acridine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226-36-8
Dibenz[a,j]acridine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224-42-0
7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194-59-2
Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192-65-4
Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189-64-0
Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189-55-9
Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191-30-0
1,4-Dichlorobenzene* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-46-7
3,3’-Dichlorobenzidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-94-1
3,3’-Dichlorobenzidine 2 HCl* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612-83-9
3,3’-Dichloro-4,4’-diaminodiphenyl ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28434-86-8
1,2-Dichloroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-06-2
Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-09-2
Diepoxybutane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1464-53-5
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117-81-7
1,2-Diethylhydrazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1615-80-1
Diglycidyl resorcinol ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-90-6
Dihydrosafrole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94-58-6
Diisopropyl sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2973-10-6
3,3’-Dimethoxybenzidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119-90-4
3,3’-Dimethoxybenzidine 2HCl* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20325-40-0
p-Dimethylaminoazaobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-11-7
2,6-Dimethylaniline (2,6-Xylidine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-62-7
3,3’-Dimethylbenzidine (o-toluidine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119-93-7
Dimethylformamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68-12-2
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-14-7
1,2-Dimethylhydrazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540-73-8
Dimethylvinylchloride* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513-37-1
3,7-Dinitrofluoranthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105735-71-5
3,9-Dinitrofluoranthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22506-53-2
1,6-Dinitropyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42397-64-8
1,8-Dinitropyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42397-65-9
2,4-Dinitrotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121-14-2
2,6-Dinitrotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606-20-2
1,4-Dioxane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123-91-1
Direct Black 38* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1937-37-7
Direct Blue 6* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2602-46-2
Disperse Blue 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2475-45-8
Ethyl acrylate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140-88-5
Ethyl bromide* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74-96-4
Ethyl chloride* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-00-3
Ethylene thiourea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-45-7
Ethyl methanesulfonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-50-0
2-(2-Formylhydrazino)-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3570-75-0
Furan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110-00-9
Glasswool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA

60                                                          Unions          make         a   difference               in    people’s            lives
    A P P E N D I X          2 :   G R O U P        2 B     –    P O S S I B L Y         C A R C I N O G E N I C             T O     H U M A N S




Glycidaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765-34-4
Glycidol* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556-52-5
HC Blue No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2784-94-3
Heptachlor epoxide* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1024-57-3
Hexamethylphosphoramide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680-31-9
Hydrazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302-01-2
Hydrazobenzene* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122-66-7
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193-39-5
Isoprene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-79-5
Isophorone* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-59-1
Lasiocarpine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303-34-4
Lead and lead compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7439-92-1
Lindane * ACGIH A3, NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-89-9
Magenta (containing Basic Red 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632-99-5
2-Methylaziridine (Propyleneimine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-55-8
Methylazoxymethanol acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592-62-1
5-Methylchrysene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3697-24-3
4,4’Methylene bis-2-methylaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838-88-0
4,4’Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)(MBOCA)* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-14-4
4,4’Methylene bis(N,N’dimethylbenzenamine)* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-61-1
4,4’Methylenedianiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-77-9
Methyl methanesulfonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66-27-3
2-Methyl-1-nitroanthraquinone (uncertain purity) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129-15-7
N-Methyl-N-nitrosourethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615-53-2
Methyl-tert-butyl ether* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1634-04-4
Methylhydrazine* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-34-4
Michler’s ketone* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-94-8
Nickel, metallic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-02-0
Nitrilotriacetic acid and its salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139-13-9
5-Nitroacenaphthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602-87-9
2-Nitroanisole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-23-6
Nitrobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98-95-3
p-Nitrochlorobenzene* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-00-05
6-Nitrochrysene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7496-02-8
2-Nitrofluorene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607-57-8
2-Nitropropane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-46-9
4-Nitropyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57835-92-4
1-Nitropyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5522-43-0
N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 924-16-3
N-Nitrosodiethanolamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1116-54-7
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621-64-7
3-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60153-49-3
4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64091-91-4
N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4549-40-0
N-Nitrosomorpholine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59-89-2
N-Nitrosonornicotine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16543-55-8
N-Nitrosopiperidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-75-4
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930-55-2
N-Nitrososarcosine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13256-22-9

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                     P R E V E N T I N G           C A N C E R :        A    C A M P A I G N           F O R      W O R K E R S




Oil Orange SS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2646-17-5
4,4’-Oxydianiline* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-80-4
Palygorskite (attapulgite) (long fibers, > 5 micrometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12174-11-7
Panfuran S (containing dihydroxymethylfuratrizine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794-93-4
0-Phenylene diamine* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-54-5
Phenyl glycidyl ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122-60-1
Phenyl hydrazine* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-63-0
Ponceau MX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3761-53-3
Ponceau 3R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3564-09-8
Potassium bromate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7758-01-2
1,3-Propane sultone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120-71-4
b-Propiolactone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-57-8
Propoxur* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114-26-1
Propylene imine* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-55-8
Propylene oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-56-9
Rockwool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Safrole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94-59-7
Slagwool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Styrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-42-5
Tetranitromethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509-14-8
Thioacetamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-55-5
4,4’-Thiodianiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139-65-1
Thiourea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-56-6
Toluene diisocyanates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26471-62-5
p-Toluidine* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-49-0
2,4,6-Trichlrophenol* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-06-2
1,2,3-Trichloropropane* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-18-4
Tris(2,3-Dibromopropyl)phosphate* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126-72-7
Trypan Blue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72-57-1
Urethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-79-6
Vinyl acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-05-4
4-Vinylcyclohexene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-40-3
4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-87-6
Xylidine* ACGIH A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1300-73-8
Methylmercury compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
2,4,6-Trichlrophenol* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-06-2
2-Aminoanthraquinone* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117-79-3



Exposure Circumstances                                                                                                                     CAS #

Carpentry and joinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Dry cleaning (occupational exposure in) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Printing processes (occupational exposures in) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Textile manufacturing industry (work in) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA




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Mixtures                                                                                                                                     CAS #

Bitumens, extracts of steam-refined and air refined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8052-42-4
Carrageenen, degraded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9000-07-1
Chlorinated parpffins of average carbon chain length C12 (60% chlorination) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Coffee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Diesal fuel, marine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Engine exhaust, gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Fuel oils, residual (heavy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Pickled vegetables (traditional in Asia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Polybrominated biphenyls [Firemaster BP-6] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59536-65-1
Polychlorinated biphenyls* NTP anticipated carcinogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Polychlorinated camphenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8001-35-2
Polycyclic aromatic hydrcarbons* NTP anticipated carcinogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Toxins derived from Fusarium monilfiorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA



                     Substances for which exposure is
                              mainly dietary

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                                  CAS #

A-a-c(2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26148-68-5
Aflatoxin M1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6795-23-9
Braken fern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25013-16-5
Caffeic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331-39-5
Cycasin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14901-08-7
Glu-P-1(2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3’,2’-d]imidazole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67730-11-4
Glu-P-1(2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3’,2’-d]imidazole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67730-10-3
Iron-dextran complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9004-66-4
MeA-a-C(2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68006-83-7
MeIQ(2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77094-11-2
MeIQx(2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77500-04-0
Monocrotaline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315-22-0
Ochratoxin A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303-47-9
PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105650-23-5
Saccharin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81-07-2
Trp-P-1 (3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62450-06-0
Trp-P-2 (3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62450-07-1




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                    Substances for which exposure is
                            mainly biologic

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                               CAS #

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (infection with) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Human papillomaviruses: types other than 16,18,31, and 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Scistosoma japonicum (infection with) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA



                                                           Pesticides

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                               CAS #

Amitrole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-82-5
Aramite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140-57-8
Atrazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1912-24-9
Chlordane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-74-9
Chlordecone (kepone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143-50-0
Chlorinated camphene (toxaphene)* ACGIH A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8001-35-2
Chlorophenols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Chlorophenoxy herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
DDT[p,p’-DDT] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-29-3
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-12-8
1,3-Dichloropropene (technical grade) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542-75-6
Dichlorvos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-73-7
Dihydrosafrole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94-58-6
Heptachlor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-44-8
Hexachlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118-74-1
Hexachlorocyclohexanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Mirex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2385-85-5
Nitrofen (technical grade) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1836-75-5
Pentachlorophenol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-86-5
Sodium o-phenylphenate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132-27-4
Sulfallate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-06-7
2,4,6-Trichlrophenol* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-06-2




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                                                 Pharmaceuticals

Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                                CAS #

2-Aminoanthraquinone* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117-79-3
2-Amino-5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712-68-5
Azaserine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115-02-6
Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154-93-8
Bleomycins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11056-06-7
Dacarbazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4342-03-4
Daunomycin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20830-81-3
trans-2-[(Dimethylamino)methylamino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-vinyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole . . . . . . 25962-77-0
Griseofluvin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126-07-8
Medroxyprogesterone acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-58-9
Merphalan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531-76-0
Methylthiouracil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-04-2
Metronidazole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443-48-1
Mitomycin C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-07-7
5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-oxazolidinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3795-88-8
Nafenopin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3771-19-5
Niridazole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-57-4
1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidine)amino]-2-imidazolidinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555-84-0
N-[4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]acetamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531-82-8
Nitrogen mustard N-oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126-85-2
Norethisterone* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68-22-4
Oxazepam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604-75-1
Oxymetholone* NTP anticipated carcinogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434-07-1
Phenazopyridine hyrochloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136-40-3
Phenobarbital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-06-6
Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63-92-3
Phenytoin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-41-0
Progestins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Propylthiouracil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-52-5
Safrole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94-59-7
Sterigmatocystin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10048-13-2
Streptozotocin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18883-66-4
Trichlormethine (Trimustine hydrochloride) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817-09-4
Uracil mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66-75-1




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     GROUP 3: UNCLASSIFIABLE AS TO HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY*

                    Substances for which exposure is
                          mainly occupational
Agents and groups of agents                                                                                                                CAS #

Acridine orange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494-38-2
Acriflavinium chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8018-07-3
Acrolein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-02-8
Acrylic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-10-7
Acrylic fibres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Actinomycin D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-76-0
Agaritine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2757-90-6
Aldicarb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116-06-3
Aldrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309-00-2
Allyl chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-05-1
Allyl isothiocyanate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-06-7
Allyl isovalerate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2835-39-4
Aluminum oxide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344-28-1
Amaranth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915-67-3
5-Aminoacenaphthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4657-93-6
para-Aminobenzoic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150-13-0
4-Amino-2-nitrophenol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119-34-6
2-Amino-5-nitrothiazole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121-66-4
11-Aminoundecanoic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2432-99-7
Ampicillin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69-53-4
Anaesthetics, volatile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Angelicin plus ultraviolet A radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523-50-2
Aniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-53-3
para-Anisidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104-94-9
Anthanthrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191-26-4
Anthracene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120-12-7
Anthranilic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118-92-3
Antimony trisulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1345-04-6
Asphalt fumes* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8052-42-4
Apholate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-46-0
para-Aramid fibrils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24938-64-5
Aurothioglucose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12192-57-3
Azinophos methyl* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86-50-0
Aziridine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151-56-4
2-(1-Aziridinyl)ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1072-52-2
Aziridyl benzoquinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-24-8

_________________

* The substances on this list have not been classified according to the main source of exposure.
  Occupational, biologic, dietary, environmental, pharmaceutical and pesticide agent all appear on this list.


66                                                           Unions          make         a    difference              in     people’s            lives
APPENDIX 2: GROUP 3 – UNCLASSIFIABLE AS TO HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY




Azobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103-33-3
Barium and soluble compounds* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-39-3
Benomyl* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17804-35-2
Benz[a]acridine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225-11-6
Benz[c]acridine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225-51-4
Benzo[ghi]fluoranthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203-12-3
Benzo[a]fluorene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238-84-6
Benzo[b]fluorene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243-17-4
Benzo[c]fluorene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205-12-9
Benzo[ghi]perylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191-24-2
Benzo[c]phenanthrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195-19-7
Benzo[e]pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192-97-2
Para-Benzoquinone dioxime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105-11-3
Benzoyl chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98-88-4
Benzoyl peroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94-36-0
Benzyl acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140-11-4
Bis(1-aziridinyl)morpholinophosphine sulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2168-68-5
Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111-44-4
1,2-Bis(chloromethoxy)ethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13483-18-6
1,4-Bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56894-91-8
Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl)ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-60-1
Bis(2,3-epoxycyclopentyl)ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2386-90-5
Bismuth telluride* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1304-82-1
Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1675-54-3
Bisulfites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Blue VRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129-17-9
                      ,
Brilliant Blue FCF disodium salt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3844-45-9
Bromochloroacetonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83463-62-1
Bromoethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74-96-4
Bromoform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-25-2
n-Butyl acetate* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123-86-4
n-Butyl acrylate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141-32-2
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128-37-0
Butyl benzyl phthalate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85-68-7
g-Butyrolactone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-48-0
Caffeine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-08-2
Calcium cyanamide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156-62-7
Calcium silicate (synthetic, nonfibrous)* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344-95-2
Camphor* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-22-2
Cantharidin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-25-7
Caprolactam* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105-60-2
Captafol* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2425-06-1
Captan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133-06-2
Carbaryl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63-25-2
Carbazole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86-74-8
3-Carbethoxypsoralen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20073-24-9
Carmoisine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3567-69-9
Carrageenan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9000-07-1
Catechol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120-80-9

T H E     C A N A D I A N          L A B O U R         C O N G R E S S           –    www.canadianlabour.ca                                               67
                    P R E V E N T I N G           C A N C E R :         A    C A M P A I G N          F O R      W O R K E R S




Chloral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-87-6
Chloral hydrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302-17-0
Chlordimeform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6164-98-3
Chlorinated dibenzodioxins (other than TCDD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Chlorinated drinking-water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Chlorine* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7782-50-5
Chloroacetonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-14-2
Chloroacetophenone* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532-27-4
Chlorobenzilate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510-15-6
ortho-Chlorobenzylidine malononitrile* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2698-41-1
Chlorodibromomethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124-48-1
Chlorodifluoromethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-45-6
Chloroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-00-3
Chloropyrifos* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2921-88-2
Chloroprene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126-99-8
Chloropropham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-21-3
Chloroquine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-05-7
Chlorothalonil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1897-45-6
2-Chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-88-7
Cholesterol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-88-5
Chromium[III] compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Chromium, metallic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-47-3
Chrysene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218-01-9
Chrysoidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532-82-1
CI Acid Orange 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6373-74-6
Cimetidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51481-61-9
Cinnamyl anthranilate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-29-6
CI Pigment Red 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2425-85-6
Citrinin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518-75-2
Clofibrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637-07-0
Clomiphene citrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-41-9
Clopidol* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2971-90-6
Coal dust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Copper 8-hydroxyquinoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10380-28-6
Coronene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191-07-1
Coumarin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-64-5
meta-Cresidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102-50-1
Crotonaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4170-30-3
Crufomate* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299-86-5
Cyclamates [sodium cyclamate,] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139-05-9
Cyclochlorotine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12663-46-6
Cyclohexane* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110-82-7
Cyclohexanone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-94-1
Cyclohexilamine* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-91-8
Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27208-37-3
Cyhexatin* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13121-70-5
D & C Red No. 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5160-02-1
Dapsone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80-08-0
Decabromodiphenyl oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1163-19-5

68                                                          Unions          make         a    difference               in    people’s             lives
  APPENDIX 2: GROUP 3 – UNCLASSIFIABLE AS TO HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY




Deltamethrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52918-63-5
Diacetylaminoazotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83-63-6
Diallate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2303-16-4
1,2-Diamino-4-nitrobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99-56-9
1,4-Diamino-2-nitrobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5307-14-2
2,5-Diaminotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-70-5
Diazepam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439-14-5
Diazinon* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333-41-5
Diazomethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334-88-3
Dibenzo[h,rst]pentaphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192-47-2
Dibromoacetonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3252-43-5
Dichloroacetic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-43-6
Dichloroacetonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3018-12-0
Dichloroacetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7572-29-4
ortho-Dichlorobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-50-1
trans-1,4-Dichlorobutene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110-57-6
Dichlorofluoromethane* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-71-8
1,1-Dichloroethane* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-34-3
Dichloroethylether* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111-44-4
2,6-Dichloro-para-phenylenediamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609-20-1
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94-75-7
1,2-Dichloropropane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-87-5
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-14-2
Dichlorvos* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-73-7
Dichrotophos* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141-66-2
Dicofol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115-32-2
Dieldrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-57-1
Diethylamine* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109-89-7
Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103-23-1
Diglycidal ether* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2238-07-5
Dihydroxymethylfuratrizine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794-93-4
Dimethoxane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828-00-2
3,3’-Dimethoxybenzidine-4,4’-diisocyanate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-93-0
N,N-Dimethylacetimide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127-19-5
Dimethylamine* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124-40-3
para-Dimethylaminoazobenzenediazo sodium sulfonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140-56-7
4,4’-Dimethylangelicin plus ultraviolet A radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22975-76-4
4,5’-Dimethylangelicin plus ultraviolet A radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4063-41-6
N,N-Dimethylaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121-69-7
Dimethylformamide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68-12-2
Dimethyl hydrogen phosphite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868-85-9
1,4-Dimethylphenanthrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22349-59-3
Dinitolmide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148-01-6
1,3-Dinitropyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75321-20-9
3,5-Dinitrotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618-85-9
Dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-25-7
Dioxathion* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-34-2
Diphenylamine* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122-39-4
2,4’-Diphenyldiamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492-17-1

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Diquat* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2764-72-9
Disperse Yellow 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2832-40-8
Disulfiram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97-77-8
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128-37-0
Dithranol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1143-38-0
Diuron* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330-54-1
Endosulfan* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115-29-7
Endrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72-20-8
Enflurane* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13838-16-9
Eosin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15086-94-9
EPN* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2104-64-5
1,2-Epoxybutane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-88-7
3,4-Epoxy-6-methylcyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclo-hexane carboxylate . . . . . . . . . 141-37-7
cis-9,10-Epoxystearic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2443-39-2
Estazolam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29975-16-4
Ethanol* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64-17-5
Ethionamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536-33-4
Ethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74-85-1
Ethylene chlorohydrin* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-07-3
Ethylene diamine* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-15-3
Ethylene dichloride* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-06-2
Ethylene glycol* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107-21-1
Ethylene sulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420-12-2
2-Ethylhexyl acrylate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103-11-7
Ethyl selenac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5456-28-0
Ethyl tellurac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20941-65-5
Eugenol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97-53-0
Evans blue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314-13-6
Fast Green FCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2353-45-9
Fenamiphos* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22224-92-6
Fensulfothion* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115-90-2
Fenthion* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-38-9
Fenvalerate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51630-58-1
Ferbam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14484-64-1
Ferric oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1309-37-1
Fluometuron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2164-17-2
Fluoranthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206-44-0
Fluorene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86-73-7
Fluorescent lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Fluorides (inorganic, used in drinking-water) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
5-Fluorouracil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-21-8
Fonofos* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944-22-9
Furazolidone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-45-8
Furfural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98-01-1
Furosemide (Frusemide) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-31-9
Gemfibrozil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25812-30-0
Glass filaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Glycidyl oleate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5431-33-4
Glycidyl stearate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7460-84-6

70                                                          Unions          make         a   difference               in    people’s            lives
  APPENDIX 2: GROUP 3 – UNCLASSIFIABLE AS TO HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY




Guinea Green B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4680-78-8
Gyromitrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16568-02-8
Haematite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317-60-8
Halothane* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151-67-7
HC Yellow No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59820-43-8
Hepatitis D virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Hexachlorobutadiene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-68-3
Hexachlorocylopentadiene* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77-47-4
Hexachloroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-72-1
Hexachlorophene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-30-4
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Hycanthone mesylate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23255-93-8
Hydralazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86-54-4
Hydrochloric acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7647-01-0
Hydrochlorothiazide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-93-5
Hydrogen peroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7722-84-1
Hydroquinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123-31-9
4-Hydroxyazobenzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1689-82-3
8-Hydroxyquinoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148-24-3
Hydroxysenkirkine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26782-43-4
Hypochlorite salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Iron-dextrin complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9004-51-7
Iron oxide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1309-37-1
Iron sorbitol-citric acid complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1338-16-5
Isatidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15503-86-3
Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (Isoniazid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-85-3
Isophosphamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3778-73-2
Isopropanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-63-0
Isopropyl oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Isosafrole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120-58-1
Jacobine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6870-67-3
Kaempferol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520-18-3
Kaolin* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332-58-7
Lauroyl peroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105-74-8
Lead, organo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-74-1
Light Green SF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5141-20-8
d-Limonene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5989-27-5
Luteoskyrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21884-44-6
Malathion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121-75-5
Maleic hydrazide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123-33-1
Malonaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542-78-9
Maneb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12427-38-2
Mannomustine dihydrochloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551-74-6
Medphalan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13045-94-8
Melamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-78-1
6-Mercaptopurine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-44-2
Mercury and inorganic mercury compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7439-97-6
Metabisulfites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Methomyl* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16752-77-5

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Methotrexate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59-05-2
Methoxychlor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72-43-5
Methyl acrylate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-33-3
Methyl chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74-87-3
Methylchloroform* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-55-6
1-Methylchrysene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3351-28-8
2-Methylchrysene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3351-32-4
3-Methylchrysene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3351-31-3
4-Methylchrysene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3351-30-2
6-Methylchrysene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1705-85-7
N-Methyl-N,4-dinitrosoaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99-80-9
4,4’-Methylene bis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-61-1
4,4’-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101-68-8
2-Methylfluoranthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33543-31-6
3-Methylfluoranthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1706-01-0
Methylglyoxal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-98-8
Methyl iodide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74-88-4
Methyl methacrylate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80-62-6
N-Methylolacrylamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90456-67-0
Methyl parathion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298-00-0
1-Methylphenanthrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832-69-9
7-Methylpyrido[3,4-c]psoralen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85878-63-3
Methyl red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493-52-7
Methyl selenac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144-34-3
Metribuzin* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21807-64-9
Mineral or rockwool* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Modacrylic fibres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Monochrotophos* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6923-22-4
Monuron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150-68-5
Morpholine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110-91-8
Musk ambrette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83-66-9
Musk xylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81-15-2
Naled* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300-76-5
Naphthalene* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-20-3
1,5-Naphthalenediamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2243-62-1
1,5-Naphthalene diisocyanate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3173-72-6
1-Naphthylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134-32-7
1-Naphthylthiourea (ANTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86-88-4
Nithiazide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139-94-6
Nitrapyrin* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1929-82-4
p-Nitroaniline* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-01-6
5-Nitro-ortho-anisidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99-59-2
9-Nitroanthracene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602-60-8
7-Nitrobenz[a]anthracene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20268-51-3
6-Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63041-90-7
4-Nitrobiphenyl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92-93-3
3-Nitrofluoranthene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892-21-7
Nitrogen dioxide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10102-44-0
Nitrofural (Nitrofurazone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59-87-0

72                                                         Unions          make         a   difference              in     people’s            lives
  APPENDIX 2: GROUP 3 – UNCLASSIFIABLE AS TO HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY




Nitrofurantoin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-20-9
1-Nitronaphthalene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86-57-7
2-Nitronaphthalene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581-89-5
3-Nitroperylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20589-63-3
1-Nitropropane* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-03-2
2-Nitropyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789-07-1
N’-Nitrosoanabasine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37620-20-5
N’-Nitrosoanatabine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71267-22-6
N-Nitrosodiphenylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86-30-6
para-Nitrosodiphenylamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156-10-5
N-Nitrosofolic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29291-35-8
N-Nitrosoguvacine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55557-01-2
N-Nitrosoguvacoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55557-02-3
N-Nitrosohydroxyproline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30310-80-6
3-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85502-23-4
4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanal (NNA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64091-90-3
N-Nitrosoproline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7519-36-0
Nitrotoluenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
5-Nitro-ortho-toluidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99-55-8
Nitous oxide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10024-97-2
Nitrovin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804-36-4
Nylon 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25038-54-4
Oestradiol mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22966-79-6
Oestrogen-progestin replacement therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Opisthorchis felineus (infection with) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Orange I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523-44-4
Orange G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1936-15-8
Oxyphenbutazone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129-20-4
Palygorskite (attapulgite) (short fibres, < 5 micrometers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12174-11-7
Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103-90-2
Parasorbic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10048-32-5
Parathion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-38-2
Patulin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149-29-1
Penicillic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-65-3
Pentachloroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-01-4
Pentachloronitrobenzene* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82-68-8
Perlite* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93736-70-3
Permethrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52645-53-1
Perylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198-55-0
Petasitenine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60102-37-6
Phenanthrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85-01-8
Phenelzine sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156-51-4
Phenicarbazide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103-03-7
Phenol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-95-2
Phenylbutazone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-33-9
meta-Phenylenediamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-45-2
para-Phenylenediamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-50-3
Picloram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1918-02-1
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA

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                    P R E V E N T I N G          C A N C E R :         A    C A M P A I G N          F O R     W O R K E R S




Polychloroprene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9010-98-4
Polyethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9002-88-4
Polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9016-87-9
Polymethyl methacrylate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9011-14-7
Polypropylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9003-07-0
Polystyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9003-53-6
Polytetrafluoroethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9002-84-0
Polyurethane foams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9009-54-5
Polyvinyl acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9003-20-7
Polyvinyl alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9002-89-5
Polyvinyl chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9002-86-2
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9003-39-8
Ponceau SX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4548-53-2
Potassium bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23746-34-1
Prazepam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2955-38-6
Prednimustine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29069-24-7
Prednisone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-03-2
Proflavine salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Pronetalol hydrochloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-02-5
Propham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122-42-9
n-Propyl carbamate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627-12-3
Propylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115-07-1
Propylene dichloride* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-87-5
Ptaquiloside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87625-62-5
Pyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129-00-0
Pyrethrum* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8003-34-7
Pyrido . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85878-62-2
Pyrimethamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-14-0
Quercetin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117-39-5
para-Quinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-51-4
Quintozene (Pentachloronitrobenzene) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82-68-8
Reserpine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-55-5
Resorcinol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-46-3
Retrorsine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480-54-6
Rhodamine B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81-88-9
Rhodamine 6G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 989-38-8
Rhodium and compounds* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-16-6
Riddelliine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23246-96-0
Rifampicin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13292-46-1
Ripazepam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26308-28-1
Ronnel* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299-84-3
Rotenone * ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83-79-4
Rouge* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Rugulosin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23537-16-8
Saccharated iron oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8047-67-4
Selenium and selenium compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7782-49-2
Semicarbazide hydrochloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563-41-7
Seneciphylline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480-81-9
Senkirkine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2318-18-5

74                                                         Unions          make         a    difference              in    people’s             lives
  APPENDIX 2: GROUP 3 – UNCLASSIFIABLE AS TO HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY




Sepiolite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15501-74-3
Sesone* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136-78-7
Shikimic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138-59-0
Silica, amorphous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7631-86-9
Silicon carbide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409-21-2
Simazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122-34-9
Sodium azide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26628-22-8
Sodium bisulfite* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7631-90-5
Sodium metabisulfite* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7681-57-4
Sodium chlorite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7758-19-2
Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148-18-5
Spironolactone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-01-7
Starch* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9005-25-8
Stearates* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9003-54-7
Styrene-butadiene copolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9003-55-8
Succinic anhydride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-30-5
Sucrose* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-50-1
Sudan I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842-07-9
Sudan II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3118-97-6
Sudan III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85-86-9
Sudan Brown RR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6416-57-5
Sudan Red 7B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6368-72-5
Sulfafurazole (Sulfisoxazole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127-69-5
Sulfamethoxazole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723-46-6
Sulfites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Sulfometuron methyl* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74222-97-2
Sulfotep* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3689-24-5
Sulfur dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7446-09-5
Sulprofos* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35400-43-2
Sunset Yellow FCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2783-94-0
Symphytine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22571-95-5
2,4,5-T* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93-76-5
Talc], not containing asbestiform fibres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14807-96-6
Tannic acid and tannins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1401-55-4
Temazepam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846-50-4
2,2’,5,5’-Tetrachlorobenzidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15721-02-5
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630-20-6
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-34-5
Tetrafluoroethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116-14-3
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Theobromine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83-67-0
Thiram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137-26-8
Tin, organic compounds* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-31-5
Titanium dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13463-67-7
Toluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-88-3
Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584-84-9
meta-Toluidine* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-44-1



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Toremifene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89778-26-7
                                                                    .                          .
Toxins derived from Fusarium graminearum, F culmorum and F crookwellense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Toxins derived from Fusarium sporotrichioides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Trichlorfon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-68-6
Trichloroacetic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-03-9
Trichloroacetonitrile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545-06-2
1,1,1-Trichloroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-55-6
1,1,2-Trichloroethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-00-5
Trichlorofluoromethane* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-69-4
1,1,2 Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroehtane* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-13-1
Triethylamine* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121-44-8
Triethylene glycol diglycidyl ether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1954-28-5
Triorthocresylphosphate* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-30-8
Trifluralin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1582-09-8
4,4’,6-Trimethylangelicin plus ultraviolet A radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90370-29-9
2,4,5-Trimethylaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137-17-7
2,4,6-Trimethylaniline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-05-1
4,5’,8-Trimethylpsoralen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3902-71-4
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118-96-7
Triphenylphosohate* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115-86-6
Triphenylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217-59-4
Tris(aziridinyl)-para-benzoquinone (Triaziquone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68-76-8
Tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545-55-1
2,4,6-Tris(1-aziridinyl)-s-triazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-18-3
Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115-96-8
1,2,3-Tris(chloromethoxy)propane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38571-73-2
Tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-39-6
Vanadium pentoxide* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1314-62-1
Vat Yellow 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128-66-5
Vinblastine sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143-67-9
Vincristine sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2068-78-2
Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9003-22-9
Vinylidene chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-35-4
Vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9011-06-7
Vinylidene fluoride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-38-7
N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-12-0
Vinyl toluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25013-15-4
Wollastonite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13983-17-0
Xylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330-20-7
2,4-Xylidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-68-1
2,5-Xylidine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-78-3
Yellow AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85-84-7
Yellow OB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131-79-3
Zectran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315-18-4
Zeolites other than erionite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1318-02-1
Zineb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12122-67-7
Ziram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137-30-4
Zirconium and compounds* ACGIH A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7440-67-7



76                                                          Unions          make         a   difference               in    people’s            lives
  APPENDIX 2: GROUP 3 – UNCLASSIFIABLE AS TO HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY




Exposure Circumstances                                                                                                                        CAS #

Flat-glass and specialty glass (manufacture of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Hair colouring products (personal use of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NA
Leather goods manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Leather tanning and processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Lumber and sawmill industries (including logging) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Paint manufacture (occupational exposure in) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Pulp and paper manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA



Mixtures                                                                                                                                      CAS #

Betel quid, without tobacco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Bitumens], steam-refined, cracking-residue and air-refined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8052-42-4
Crude oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8002-05-9
Diesel fuels, distillate (light) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Fuel oils, distillate (light) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Jet fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Mineral oils, highly-refined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Petroleum solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Printing inks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Tea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NA
Terpene polychlorinates (Strobane®) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8001-50-1




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NOTES




78      Unions   make   a   difference   in   people’s   lives
                                                   N O T E S




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80                               Unions        make    a   difference       in   people’s   lives
                                                   N O T E S




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82                               Unions        make    a   difference       in   people’s   lives

				
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