Presidential Powers (PowerPoint)

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					         Demographic
      Characteristics of U.S.
           Presidents
• 100% male              • 69% politicians
• 97% Caucasian          • 62% lawyers
• 97% Protestant         • >50% from the top 3%
• 82% of British           wealth and social class
  ancestry               • 0.5% born into
• 77% college educated     poverty
                         • 69% elected from
                           large states
Constitutional Qualifications

 Must be at least 35
  years old

 Must have lived in
  the United States for
  14 years

 Must be a natural
  born citizen
Presidential Benefits
 $400,000 tax-free salary
 $50,000/year expense
  account
 $100,000/year travel
  expenses
 The White House
 Secret Service
  protection
 Camp David country
  estate
 Air Force One personal     Christmas at the White House, 2004
  airplane
 Staff of 400-500
Presidential Roles
     Constitutional Roles
There are 5 expressed roles of
the president found in the
constitution
                 Head of State
                                           Queen Elizabeth and President Reagan, 1983




President Kennedy speaks at Berlin Wall,
                1963
            Head of State
• Performs ceremonial roles
• Some examples include:
  – Hosting foreign leaders
  – Throwing the first baseball at a game
  – Meeting public figures, kings, and queens.
Bush throws first pitch last Sunday at the
opening game between the washington
nationals and the atlanta braves
          Chief Executive




President Clinton with Janet Reno,   President Bush holds cabinet meeting
the first female Attorney General,             in October, 2005
           February, 1993
          Chief Executive
• Makes sure the laws of congress are
  carried out

Examples:
  – Executive Orders- rules that have the force
    of the law
  – Presidential Appointments/Removals-
    appoint or remove people from cabinet,
    government agencies, etc.
         Chief Executive
• Reprieve- postponement of legal
  punishment

• Pardon- release from legal punishment

• Amnesty- a group pardon to people for
  offenses against the government
      ex: Carter’s amnesty for draft
  dodgers
Commander-in-Chief




President Johnson decorates a soldier
      in Vietnam, October, 1966



                                        President Bush aboard U.S.S.
                                             Lincoln, May, 2003
       Commander in Chief
• Power to make “war” or send troops to
  fight in a certain area

• Power to support war effort by raising
  gas, ration food, and use industries to
  make war goods
                     Chief Diplomat
                              President Bush and
                            President Putin of Russia




Ronald Reagan 1987


“Mr. Gorbachev,
tear down this wall”
           Chief Diplomat
• Makes foreign policy decisions
  – Constant struggle between president and
    congress over foreign policy


• Signs Treaties
  – checks and balances- Congress must
    approve
           Chief Legislator
                                         President Clinton delivers the State
                                             of the Union Address, 1997




President Roosevelt signs into law the
      Social Security Act, 1935
          Chief Legislator
• President describes laws and policy he
  would like to create

• See political cartoon on page 255.
         Unwritten Roles
• Many roles of the President have
  developed over the course of history.
Political Party Leader




 President Reagan & Vice-President Bush accepting their party’s
                     nomination in 1980
           Party Leader
• Supports his own party

• Patronage: Appoint loyal party
  members to important positions
                Party Leader
• President should represent all people so what about
  his party?

• Presidents are sometimes criticized for crossing party
  lines by the party, the media, and the public.

• When President Clinton compromised with the
  Republican Congress to enact legislation in 1996,
  more liberal members of his own party criticized him.
              Crisis Manager

                                  President Bush at Ground Zero after 9-11




Vice-President Johnson sworn in
     aboard Air Force One
   after President Kennedy’s
       assassination, 1963
              Moral Persuader




President Lincoln during the Civil   President Roosevelt and the “Bully
            War, 1862                          Pulpit,” 1910
       Economic Planner




FDR New Deal
        Economic Planner
• This role greatly increased after the
  “New Deal” of FDR.

• Makes decisions about the budget,
  government spending, tax policy, etc.
      Chief Administrator
• Directs government agencies
• Employs 3 million people to conduct
  government businesses
           Chief Citizen
• Representative of all people

• Works for and represents the public
  interest

				
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