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Gender and Sexuality in Graphic Novels _ Manga

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 7

									                                                                Alpha Flight: Northstar
                                                                Marvel Comics
   Gender and Sexuality in                                        q   Created in 1979, revealed to be
                                                                      gay in 1992
  Graphic Novels & Manga                                          q   In Ultimate X-Men, Colossus
                                                                      and Northstar are a couple



                       Robin Brenner
                        Brookline Public Library

                      Snow Wildsmith
           Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County




The Authority: Midnighter & Apollo                              The Rawhide Kid
Wildstorm/DC Comics                                             Marvel Comics
  q   Introduced in 1998, revealed                                q   Created in 1955
      in 1999                                                     q   Various incarnations in
  q   Nod to Batman and                                               Silver Age
      Superman                                                    q   Revealed to be gay in
  q   Now married and raising a                                       controversial 2002 one-shot
      child                                                           Slap Leather




GBLTQ Issues                                                    Runaways Karolina & Xavin
  q   Green Lantern: Brother’s Keeper                           Marvel Comics
      by Judd Winick                                              q   One of the first lesbian characters in a series aimed at
  q   Gotham Central by Greg Rucka                                    teens
  q   Ex Machina by Brian K. Vaughan                              q   Girlfriend Xavin a Skrull, shapeshifter
Young Avengers Hulkling & Wiccan                    DC Universe
Marvel Comics                                         q   Renee Montoya, starred in
    q   Teen gay couple                                   Gotham Central, now The
                                                          Question
                                                      q   Batwoman (Katy Kane)
                                                          debuted in 2006 in 52




DC Universe                                         Mainstream Comics
    q   Justice League line up                      Western Comics
        announced March 2008                          q   Homosexuality still not prevalent in mainstream
    q   Batwoman (Katy Kane)                          q   First characters were often defined by their sexuality
    q   Starman (Mikaal Thomas)                       q   Visibility is happening more, but quality of representation
                                                          becomes an issue
                                                      q   Very little actual romance




Manga-Popularity                                    Manga-Cultural differences
n   Comics & Manga Sales                            Japanese cultural mores differ from US
    q   In 2001                                       q   Not originally a Christian country, so some things
        n   $75 million total sales                       are not taboo or not as taboo
            q   $32 million in bookstores             q   Femininity = Weakness is more a Western
            q   $43 million in comic stores               concept
                                                      q   Homosexuality more accepted in past, but still
    q   In 2006                                           have to marry and produce heirs
        n   $220 million in bookstores                q   Group versus individual paramount

    $170 million–$200 million manga sales in 2006
Manga-Terms to Know                                                       Manga-Terms to Know
    Male/Male Romances
                                                                          Female/Female Romances
     n Those written for women by women
            q   Boys’ Love or Shonen-ai                                       q   Girls’ Love or Shojo-ai
                Usually less explicit, more commonly used term in Japan           Usually less explicit
            q   Yaoi                                                          q   Yuri
                Usually more explicit, more commonly used term in US              Usually more explicit, more commonly used term in US
        n   Those written for men
            Bara                                                                  Not as widely published in US as yaoi
            q   Usually very explicit
            q   Not yet published in US




Manga-Survey of Yaoi/Yuri Readers                                         Manga-Survey of Yaoi/Yuri Readers
                                                                          n   Why do you like yaoi/yuri?
n   223 responses, 165 self-identified as GLBTQ
                                                                              q   It's romantic!
                                                                              q   Visibility, with lead gay characters (no token
n   Of that 165, 70% women, 30% men                                               characters here!)
                                                                              q   It relates to my life
                                                                              q   It's sexy!
n   Most had been reading manga for 5-10 years
                                                                              q   Positive endings -- fewer "Brokeback Mountain"
    on average                                                                    scenarios
                                                                              q   A change from the usual heterosexual romance and
n   60% read yaoi, 60% read yuri                                                  stereotypes
                                                                              q   Can choose which character to relate to at any time




Manga-Survey of Yaoi/Yuri Readers                                         Boys’ Love and Yaoi
n   What turns you off in reading yaoi/yuri?                              Characteristics of yaoi
    q   Tragic endings                                                        q   Seme “top”
    q   Too much fan service, too little plot                                     Often larger, taller, older, more mature
    q   Taboo elements: incest, young characters,                             q   Uke “bottom”
        nonconsensual sex                                                         Often smaller, more feminine, younger, more inexperienced
    q   Rigid gender/sex roles                                            Realism vs. Fantasy
    q   Overdone clichés (boarding schools, "sisters"                         q   Romances
        instead of lovers)
                                                                              q   Don’t necessarily show realism of gay life
    q   Not written by/for me
                                                                                  n   GLBTQ issues
                                                                                  n   “I’m only gay for you”
Boys’ Love and Yaoi                                          Boys’ Love and Yaoi
          Differences between yaoi and bara                                     Genres within Yaoi
Yaoi—Bishonen (pretty boys)             Bara—more muscular
                                                             Salarymen
                                                             n Japanese businessman
                                                               archetype
                                                             n Examples:
                                                               q   Close the Last Door by
                                                                   Yugi Yamada (Juné)
                                                               q   Loveholic by Toko Kawai
                                                                   (Juné)


         “Orlando Bloom”                   “Hugh Jackman”




Boys’ Love and Yaoi                                          Boys’ Love and Yaoi
                     Genres within Yaoi                                         Genres within Yaoi
Schoolboys                                                   Drama
n Japanese educational system                                n High angst
    q   Uniforms                                             n Not always a happy
    q   Boarding schools                                       ending
    q   Single-sex schools
                                                             n Examples:
    q   Student/teacher
                                                               q   Embracing Love by
n   Examples:                                                      Youka Nitta (BeBeautiful)
    q   Little Butterfly by Hinako Takanaga (Juné)             q   Seduce Me After the
    q   Desire by Maki Kazumi and Yukine                           Show by Est Em (Deux)
        Honami (Juné)




Boys’ Love and Yaoi                                          Boys’ Love and Yaoi
                     Genres within Yaoi                                         Genres within Yaoi

Fantasy, Paranormal, etc.
                                                             Action/Adventure
n Elements from folklore,
                                                             n Policemen
  religion, mythology
                                                             n Yakuza (gangster)
n Examples:
    q   Earthian by Yun Kouga                                n Examples:

        (Blu Manga)                                            q   Yellow by Makoto Tateno
    q   From Up Above by                                           (Juné)
        Sakuya Kurakoshi (Juné)                                q   Yakuza in Love by
                                                                   Shiuko Kano (Deux)
Boys’ Love and Yaoi                                      Boys’ Love and Yaoi
                     Genres within Yaoi                                       Genres within Yaoi
Historical
                                                         “WTF,” “Cracky”
n Japanese history, esp.
  samurai                                                n Wacky and weird

n Other historical time                                  n Often more funny than

  periods                                                  sexy
n Examples:                                              n Examples:

    q   Red by Sanae Rukuya                                  q   All Nippon Air Line by Kei
        (Juné)                                                   Azumaya (Juné)
    q   Gerard & Jacques by Fumi                             q   Love Pistols by Tarako
        Yoshinaga (Blu Manga)                                    Kotobuki (Blu Manga)




Boys’ Love and Yaoi                                      Girls’ Love and Yuri
n   Some creators do attempt for more realistic
    portrayals of homosexuality                          n   Characteristics of yuri
    q   Fumi Yoshinaga                                       q Often about first crushes
        n The Moon and Sandals (Juné)
                                                             q Not as long lasting
        n Ichigenme: the first class is Civil Law (801
          Media)                                         n   Realism vs. Fantasy
        n Antique Bakery (Juné)—not actually yaoi            q Rarely about adults
    q   Hinako Takanaga                                      q “At least it’s not a boy”
        n Challengers (DramaQueen)

    q   Yugi Yamada
        n Glass Sky (Juné)

        n Spring Fever (Deux)




Girls’ Love and Yuri                                     Girls’ Love and Yuri
                      Genres within Yuri                                       Genres within Yuri
Schoolgirls                                              Friendship/Romance
                                                         n   Example:
n   Examples:                                                q   Voiceful by Naowako
    q   First Love Sisters by Mizuo                              (Seven Seas)
        Shinonome (Seven Seas)
    q   The Last Uniform by Mera
                                                         Paranormal
        Hakamada (Seven Seas)
    q   Strawberry Panic by                              n   Example:
        Sakurako Kimino (Seven                               q   Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl
        Seas)                                                    by Satoru Akahori (Seven
                                                                 Seas)
Girls’ Love and Yuri                              Alternate Sexuality in Manga
                             Genres within Yuri                             Gender Play
Realism                                               q   Body Swapping
n    Example:                                             n   Le Chevalier d’Eon by Kiriko Yumeji and Tou Ubukata
     q       Rica 'tte Kanji!? by Rica                    n   Your and My Secret by Ai Morinaga
             Takashima (ALC
             Publishing)
Fanservice
n    Example:
     q       Kannazuki no Miko:
             Destiny of a Shrine Maiden
             by Rica Takashima
             (TokyoPop)




Alternate Sexuality in Manga                      Alternate Sexuality in Manga
                   Gender Play                    Homosexuality and Bisexuality
    Crossdressing                                     q   Occur less outside of yaoi and yuri, but still exist
         q    for fun                                 q   Examples:
              n   Ouran High School Host                  n   Venus in Love by Yuki Nakaji
                  Club by Bisco Hatori (VIZ
                  Media)                                  n   Paradise Kiss by Ai Yazawa
         q    “required”
              n   One Thousand and One
                  Nights by Jin-Seok Jeon and
                  SeungHee Han (Yen Press)
         q    for personal reasons
              n   Fruits Basket by Natsuki
                  Takaya (TokyoPop)




Alternate Sexuality in Manga                      GLBTQ Acceptance within Manga &
Transgenderism                                    Anime Fandom
Most titles not realistic
                                                  n   Fanfiction
 q After School Nightmare by Setona Mizushira
                                                      q   Slash fiction: pairs up
 q The Day of Revolution by Mikiyo Tsuda
                                                          characters from popular
 q Paradise Kiss by Ai Yazawa                             series, i.e. Harry/Draco
                                                      q   Doujinshi: fan comics,
                                                          often slash
                                                  n   Crossplay
                                                      Cosplaying (dressing in
                                                       costume) as a character
                                                       that is of the opposite
                                                       sex
Outside the mainstream
Independents
  q   How Loathsome by Tristan Crane and Ted Naifeh
  q   Skim by Mariko and Jillian Tamaki
  q   Paris by Andi Watson

								
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