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Alpha Flight: Northstar Marvel Comics Gender and Sexuality in q Created in 1979, revealed to be gay in 1992 Graphic Novels & Manga q In Ultimate X-Men, Colossus and Northstar are a couple Robin Brenner Brookline Public Library Snow Wildsmith Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County The Authority: Midnighter & Apollo The Rawhide Kid Wildstorm/DC Comics Marvel Comics q Introduced in 1998, revealed q Created in 1955 in 1999 q Various incarnations in q Nod to Batman and Silver Age Superman q Revealed to be gay in q Now married and raising a controversial 2002 one-shot child Slap Leather GBLTQ Issues Runaways Karolina & Xavin q Green Lantern: Brother’s Keeper Marvel Comics by Judd Winick q One of the first lesbian characters in a series aimed at q Gotham Central by Greg Rucka teens q Ex Machina by Brian K. Vaughan q Girlfriend Xavin a Skrull, shapeshifter Young Avengers Hulkling & Wiccan DC Universe Marvel Comics q Renee Montoya, starred in q Teen gay couple Gotham Central, now The Question q Batwoman (Katy Kane) debuted in 2006 in 52 DC Universe Mainstream Comics q Justice League line up Western Comics announced March 2008 q Homosexuality still not prevalent in mainstream q Batwoman (Katy Kane) q First characters were often defined by their sexuality q Starman (Mikaal Thomas) q Visibility is happening more, but quality of representation becomes an issue q Very little actual romance Manga-Popularity Manga-Cultural differences n Comics & Manga Sales Japanese cultural mores differ from US q In 2001 q Not originally a Christian country, so some things n $75 million total sales are not taboo or not as taboo q $32 million in bookstores q Femininity = Weakness is more a Western q $43 million in comic stores concept q Homosexuality more accepted in past, but still q In 2006 have to marry and produce heirs n $220 million in bookstores q Group versus individual paramount $170 million–$200 million manga sales in 2006 Manga-Terms to Know Manga-Terms to Know Male/Male Romances Female/Female Romances n Those written for women by women q Boys’ Love or Shonen-ai q Girls’ Love or Shojo-ai Usually less explicit, more commonly used term in Japan Usually less explicit q Yaoi q Yuri Usually more explicit, more commonly used term in US Usually more explicit, more commonly used term in US n Those written for men Bara Not as widely published in US as yaoi q Usually very explicit q Not yet published in US Manga-Survey of Yaoi/Yuri Readers Manga-Survey of Yaoi/Yuri Readers n Why do you like yaoi/yuri? n 223 responses, 165 self-identified as GLBTQ q It's romantic! q Visibility, with lead gay characters (no token n Of that 165, 70% women, 30% men characters here!) q It relates to my life q It's sexy! n Most had been reading manga for 5-10 years q Positive endings -- fewer "Brokeback Mountain" on average scenarios q A change from the usual heterosexual romance and n 60% read yaoi, 60% read yuri stereotypes q Can choose which character to relate to at any time Manga-Survey of Yaoi/Yuri Readers Boys’ Love and Yaoi n What turns you off in reading yaoi/yuri? Characteristics of yaoi q Tragic endings q Seme “top” q Too much fan service, too little plot Often larger, taller, older, more mature q Taboo elements: incest, young characters, q Uke “bottom” nonconsensual sex Often smaller, more feminine, younger, more inexperienced q Rigid gender/sex roles Realism vs. Fantasy q Overdone clichés (boarding schools, "sisters" q Romances instead of lovers) q Don’t necessarily show realism of gay life q Not written by/for me n GLBTQ issues n “I’m only gay for you” Boys’ Love and Yaoi Boys’ Love and Yaoi Differences between yaoi and bara Genres within Yaoi Yaoi—Bishonen (pretty boys) Bara—more muscular Salarymen n Japanese businessman archetype n Examples: q Close the Last Door by Yugi Yamada (Juné) q Loveholic by Toko Kawai (Juné) “Orlando Bloom” “Hugh Jackman” Boys’ Love and Yaoi Boys’ Love and Yaoi Genres within Yaoi Genres within Yaoi Schoolboys Drama n Japanese educational system n High angst q Uniforms n Not always a happy q Boarding schools ending q Single-sex schools n Examples: q Student/teacher q Embracing Love by n Examples: Youka Nitta (BeBeautiful) q Little Butterfly by Hinako Takanaga (Juné) q Seduce Me After the q Desire by Maki Kazumi and Yukine Show by Est Em (Deux) Honami (Juné) Boys’ Love and Yaoi Boys’ Love and Yaoi Genres within Yaoi Genres within Yaoi Fantasy, Paranormal, etc. Action/Adventure n Elements from folklore, n Policemen religion, mythology n Yakuza (gangster) n Examples: q Earthian by Yun Kouga n Examples: (Blu Manga) q Yellow by Makoto Tateno q From Up Above by (Juné) Sakuya Kurakoshi (Juné) q Yakuza in Love by Shiuko Kano (Deux) Boys’ Love and Yaoi Boys’ Love and Yaoi Genres within Yaoi Genres within Yaoi Historical “WTF,” “Cracky” n Japanese history, esp. samurai n Wacky and weird n Other historical time n Often more funny than periods sexy n Examples: n Examples: q Red by Sanae Rukuya q All Nippon Air Line by Kei (Juné) Azumaya (Juné) q Gerard & Jacques by Fumi q Love Pistols by Tarako Yoshinaga (Blu Manga) Kotobuki (Blu Manga) Boys’ Love and Yaoi Girls’ Love and Yuri n Some creators do attempt for more realistic portrayals of homosexuality n Characteristics of yuri q Fumi Yoshinaga q Often about first crushes n The Moon and Sandals (Juné) q Not as long lasting n Ichigenme: the first class is Civil Law (801 Media) n Realism vs. Fantasy n Antique Bakery (Juné)—not actually yaoi q Rarely about adults q Hinako Takanaga q “At least it’s not a boy” n Challengers (DramaQueen) q Yugi Yamada n Glass Sky (Juné) n Spring Fever (Deux) Girls’ Love and Yuri Girls’ Love and Yuri Genres within Yuri Genres within Yuri Schoolgirls Friendship/Romance n Example: n Examples: q Voiceful by Naowako q First Love Sisters by Mizuo (Seven Seas) Shinonome (Seven Seas) q The Last Uniform by Mera Paranormal Hakamada (Seven Seas) q Strawberry Panic by n Example: Sakurako Kimino (Seven q Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl Seas) by Satoru Akahori (Seven Seas) Girls’ Love and Yuri Alternate Sexuality in Manga Genres within Yuri Gender Play Realism q Body Swapping n Example: n Le Chevalier d’Eon by Kiriko Yumeji and Tou Ubukata q Rica 'tte Kanji!? by Rica n Your and My Secret by Ai Morinaga Takashima (ALC Publishing) Fanservice n Example: q Kannazuki no Miko: Destiny of a Shrine Maiden by Rica Takashima (TokyoPop) Alternate Sexuality in Manga Alternate Sexuality in Manga Gender Play Homosexuality and Bisexuality Crossdressing q Occur less outside of yaoi and yuri, but still exist q for fun q Examples: n Ouran High School Host n Venus in Love by Yuki Nakaji Club by Bisco Hatori (VIZ Media) n Paradise Kiss by Ai Yazawa q “required” n One Thousand and One Nights by Jin-Seok Jeon and SeungHee Han (Yen Press) q for personal reasons n Fruits Basket by Natsuki Takaya (TokyoPop) Alternate Sexuality in Manga GLBTQ Acceptance within Manga & Transgenderism Anime Fandom Most titles not realistic n Fanfiction q After School Nightmare by Setona Mizushira q Slash fiction: pairs up q The Day of Revolution by Mikiyo Tsuda characters from popular q Paradise Kiss by Ai Yazawa series, i.e. Harry/Draco q Doujinshi: fan comics, often slash n Crossplay Cosplaying (dressing in costume) as a character that is of the opposite sex Outside the mainstream Independents q How Loathsome by Tristan Crane and Ted Naifeh q Skim by Mariko and Jillian Tamaki q Paris by Andi Watson
"Gender and Sexuality in Graphic Novels _ Manga"