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Report on RAWAL LAKE CATCHMENT AREA MONITORING OPERATION June, 2004 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Ministry of Environment Islamabad Contents Sr. No. Description Page 1. Background 1 2. Actions Taken to Prevent or Reduce Rawal Lake Pollution 2 3. Rawal Lake Water Quality Monitoring - Pak-EPA Initiative 3 4. Mass Mortality of Fish in Rawal Lake 3 5. Rawal Lake Catchment Area Monitoring 4 6. Current Status 5 7. Annexes 6-18 8. Photographs 19-20 RAWAL LAKE CATCHMENTS AREA MONITORING OPERATION Background* The Rawal Lake is the main source of water supply for Rawalpindi city and cantonment. Rawal dam is constructed on Kurrang river and has a catchment area of 106 sq miles, which generates 84,000 acre feet of water in an average rainfall year. There are four major streams and 43 small streams contributing to its storage. The total storage capacity is 47,500 acre feet (12994 MG). Live storage is 43,000 acre feet 11763 MG). Highest flood level is 1752 feet. Rawal Lake and its catchement area a key resources for Rawalpindi and for the region as a whole. Proper management of this resource is important if full benefits are to be gained and maintained for the future. Most obvious benefit of the resources is the provision of water supplies for Rawalpindi. For the last few decades, the lake is subjected to pollution by a number of sources. These sources are: • Human settlements • Poultry wastes • Recreational activities • Agricultural activities • Deforestation • Erosion and sedimentation • Eutrophication of Rawal Lake Human settlements The villages of Bhara Kahu, Malpur, Bani Gala and Noorpur Shahan are situated close to the Rawal Lake. The estimated population of these villages is about 5000 (Mott Macdonald International Limited, 1995). Presently also there is indiscriminate activities are underway. A number of housing colonies, residential areas are coming up in the Rawal Lake catchement area without any consideration that this will adversely effect the quality of water coming into Rawal Lake. This includes dumping of untreated sewerage and solid waste in water channel. With all these activities, there is no consideration of having environmental clearance from the concerned agency. Poultry wastes There are approximately 170 poultry farms having about 360 poultry sheds lie with in the catchment area. Some basic arrangements for disposal of poultry wastes have been made but these are unlikely to significantly delay or prevent the inflow of pollutants into the lake. * WASA / RDA Presentation Recreational activities Recreational activities are another source of pollution. The tourist part at Chattar lies adjacent to the river and has large number of visitors. At present a substantial proportion of human and other waste ends up in the river. Car washing is another recreational activity which has been identified as a pollution risk. Boating and fishing. Agricultural activities Agriculture is done in small patches of land or as terrace cultivation. The excess irrigation water is drained out through Nullahs and enter in to the lake. The use of pesticides and herbicides in agriculture is a source of toxic pollution. These toxic chemicals are washed away by streams and enter the Rawal Lake. Although this activity is not practiced at large scale in the catchment area, but as people are getting aware about the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to get more productivity per unit area. This activity can become a major problem as far as quality of water is concerned. Deforestation The catchment area is subjected to deforestation due to grazing of livestock and cutting of wood for fuel by villagers. The villagers do not have any energy sources except wood available in the catchments area. Plantation has also been removed for the construction of roads, housing schemes and commercial buildings within the catchement area. Deforestation encourages the erosion of the soil. Increase siltation and increase turbidity level. Eutrophication of Rawal Lake In addition to the pollution generated by human activity, lake also receives natural pollutants from the catchment area, which contains various wild animal species and fouls. The excreta of these animals is deposited in the catchment area and enters the lake via heavy rain fall. Bacteria decompose this organic matter in the presence of oxygen thus oxygen depletion results in the Eutrophication of the lake. Actions Taken to Prevent or Reduce Rawal Lake Pollution In 1995, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council appointed a Task Force for the control of pollution in the Rawal Lake and the Task Force in turn set up a Working Committee. This Task Force included officials from Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Interior, ICT, Small Dam Organization, Cantonment Board, Rawalpindi Development Authority. The Task Force held number of meetings and gave recommendations. The recommendations included: • Construction of septic tanks by the residents in the catchment area. • No further settlements to be allowed in catchment area. • Vide scale plantation. • Proper sewerage disposal in the housing colonies. • Proper dumping of animal waste. • Systematic monitoring of Rawal Lake. • Creation of a technical committee comprising of RDA, Pak-EPA, CDA, SDO, MES. Various meetings were held of the technical committee for Rawal Lake catchment. This committee formulated suggestions for the task force. The second meeting of the task force was held under the chairmanship of Secretary, Interior on 8th April, 2004. The recommendations of the technical committee were deliberated upon and the decisions taken included: • Immediate suspension of commercial fishing in Rawal Lake. • Proper disposal of solid and liquid waste in the catchement area which included designing of trunk sewer and the possibility sewerage treatment plant by CDA. • RDA being the major stakeholder will appoint maximum of ten environment inspectors to work as field force for Rawal Lake pollution control. These inspectors will be at the disposal of Pak-EPA. • Pak-EPA will train these inspectors and give them appropriate powers to monitor the activities in Rawal Lake catchment area. Rawal Lake Water Quality Monitoring - Pak-EPA Initiative While taking cognizance of the serious pollution issue in Rawal Lake, Pak-EPA planned to conduct water quality survey of Rawal Lake. This survey has been designed by JICA Senior Volunteer, stationed at Pak-EPA. This water quality monitoring plan is for the whole year to monitor the seasonal variation on the water quality (Annex 1). The first two cycles of water quality monitoring has been completed. The results placed at Annex-II. Mass Mortality of Fish in Rawal Lake On 19 June 2004, some small size dead fish were found on its periphery of Rawal Lake. Being a drinking water source concern was raised and Pakistan EPA alerted MD WASA to strictly monitor quality of drinking water at supply end to ensure safety of general public. Later, on 21 June 2004, the Chief Commissioner, Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) convene an emergency meeting to access this issue. This meeting was attended by MD, WASA, Rawalpindi, NIH, Contentment Board Rawalpindi, CDA, DHO ICT, Director, ICT, concerned officer ICT fisheries, P.D Small Dams, GOVT. of Punjab. Director (EIA/Monitoring) represented Pakistan EPA. The Director ICT chaired the meeting as the Chief Commissioner ICT was engaged in other pressing work. M.D WASA showed concern over unusual phenomenon of mass death of fish in Rawal Lake, which was being noticed for the last couple of days. He informed that all precautionary measures had been taken to ensure quality of water being supplied to Rawalpindi and Cantonment area. He stated that water samples have been analyzed from various Laboratories which reported parameters within prescribed limits. However, WASA Site Laboratory reported Dissolved Oxygen (DO) less than 3mg/liter and sudden rise in water temperature and attributed it the cause of death of fish. DHO, informed that samples of water and fish were sent to National Institute of Health (NIH) for analysis of any toxic chemical like arsenic and cyanide. However, NIH representative reported that these toxins were also below detection limits or well with in permissible limits. The meeting decided that every department should coordinate and monitor this unusual phenomena and also to work closely in case of any eventuality. On the direction of Director General, Pak-EPA, laboratory officials visited WASA water filteration plant on 22 June, 2004 and took samples of lake water from three points i.e main dam spill way near WASA channel, commercial area at lake and entry point of River Korang. DO, Temperature and pH (Power of Hydrogen) were measured at site and found them well within the desirable limits at all the three points. The specimens of dead fish were physically observed and found abnormal swelling of stomach, eyes out of sockets and sign of bleeding on the body. The fish comes at water surface when near to die and their movement become too slow as easy to catch with bare hands. It was noted that dead fish were in different variety and size/weight ranging from 4 inch to 1.5 feet and from 5 gram to 1.5 kg having almost same symptoms. Pak-EPA also contacted organizations like NARC, PINSTECH, Punjab Fisheries Department, and National Institute of Oceanography, Karachi and discussed the possible causes of fish mortality. The scientist came up with the following possible causes of fish mortality: i. Viral infection ii. Occurrence of toxicity in the lake water due to growth of toxic phytoplankton or chemical (organic or inorganic or heavy metal) toxicity. iii. Phenomenon of eutrofication has occurred in the lake due mineral and organic nutrients. Eutrofication promotes proliferation of plant life, especially algae, which reduces the dissolved oxygen content in the depth. In light of the expert opinion of scientists, Pak-EPA has decided to immediately carryout further investigation. In this regards, the blood and mucus samples will be obtained and tested in pathology laboratory for identification of possible viral infection. The results of pathological laboratory placed at Annex-III to VIII. The water quality analysis conducted by Pak-EPA following the day on which fish mortality was reported (Annex-IX). Photographs (Annex-X). Rawal Lake Catchment Area Monitoring According to the decision taken by the Task Force, RDA/WASA recruited five inspectors for Rawal Lake catchment area monitoring. These inspectors have also been provided uniform and motorcycles along with fuel by RDA/WASA. The services of these five recruited inspectors have been placed at the disposal of this Agency. Pak-EPA has taken following actions, since the inspectors hired by WASA/RDA reported for duty. The stepwise actions taken so far include: • Basic training of the inspectors in Pak-EPA. • Arrangement of training of these inspectors in Punjab Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi. • Distribution of appeals in the area. So for 5,000 appeals leaflets distributed in the area. Copy of appeal at Annex-XIII. • Identification of main polluters in the area • This agency has already forward the names of major cattle sheds in Bahara Kahu Area to the office of Sub-Divisional Magistrate (Rural), Islamabad Capital Territory for taking appropriate action. • Another list of more than 200 polluters to which summon notices have been issued as prescribed procedure under Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997. Copy of summon notice at Annex-XIV. Current Status ICT has already issued order under Section 144 putting up complete ban on construction activities in the Rawal Lake catchment area comprising of Zone 3 & 4. There is a complete prohibition working of the cattle sheds and poultry farms established along the banks of the water inlets/nullahs, which are polluting the water flowing into Rawal Dam in Rural Sub-Division, Islamabad. The TMA, Murree, CDA, RDA & ICT have been requested to provide complete list of housing colonies/ schemes which have been issued NOC since June, 2000. The sponsors of these colonies shall be asked to provide details of their projects and the arrangements made therein for disposal of solid waste, sewerage and other environmental mitigations. Annexure 1 WATER QUALITY MONITORING PLAN Time Month Day Monitoring Plan 1 4 27-29 27th : Rawal Dam (6 point) clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point) 2 7 6~8 6th : Rawal Dam (3 point) clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point) 3 9 21~23 21st : Rawal Dam (3 Point) clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point) 4 12 7~9 7th: Rawal Dam (3 point) deep water sampling (3 point . . surface, 2m, bottom) clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point) 5 2 8~10 8th : Rawal Dam (3 point) clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point) Annex-II Water Quality Parameters Around Rawal Dam, (April & July 2004) Sampling Location Water Field PH DO BOD COD Month Temp. Temp. April RD-1 (Inlet from Korang River) 24.5 30.3 8.4 7.8 2.1 9 RD-2 (Centre of Rawal Dam) 24.3 30.1 8.4 7.0 2.2 10 RD-3 (Outlet of Korang River) 26.0 30.1 8.4 7.3 1.9 15 July RD-1 (Inlet from Korang River) 31.2 34.5 8.2 6.7 2.88 10 RD-2 (Centre of Rawal Dam) 31.0 34.0 8.3 6.1 2.26 15 RD-3 (Outlet of Korang River) 31.5 34.0 8.3 6.5 1.3 10 Annexure IX Government of Pakistan Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Central Laboratory for Environmental Analysis ******* WATER ANALYSIS REPORT Sample ID :- Clean-280604 Nature of Sample :- Raw/surface Water Date of Collection :- 22-06-04 Date of Analysis :- 26-06-04 Sr.No. Parameters *WHO Guidelines / 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pak- PSQCA Chemical Analysis; 1. pH 6.5 – 8.5 (PSQCA) 7.72 8.17 8.07 8.18 8.26 8.11 2. Temperature -------- 29.7 29.50 27.4 30.1 30.7 30.0 3. DO -------- 4.80 6.02 5.57 7.46 10.70 6.10 4. Chloride 250 mg/l 16.35 15.25 17.25 17.50 18.00 19.50 5. COD -------- 6.0 8.0 5.0 11.0 14.0 15.0 6. BOD -------- 3.5 2.0 2.1 4.0 6.0 7.0 7. Sodium 200 mg/l 20.134 20.672 19.721 19.127 19.542 20.612 8. Nitrate 50 mg/l 1.25 1.15 2.00 1.99 2.00 3.00 9. Total Nitrogen -------- 1.3094 1.3573 1.4601 1.2322 1.6836 1.1434 10. Sulphate 400 mg/l (PSQCA) 8.15 5.25 11.25 24.36 25.0 26.75 11. Copper 2.0 mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 12. Iron 0.3 mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.213 Nil 13. Zinc 3 mg/l 0.022 0.019 Nil 0.031 0.025 0.032 14. Cadmium 0.003 mg/l Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 15. Potassium ------- 3.341 3.125 3.442 3.136 3.372 3.671 16. E-Coli/Coliform 0/100 ml 60/100 ml Note:*WHO : - World Health Organization. PSQCA: -Pakistan Standard and Quality Control Authority for drinking water. Please note that presently there are no ambient standards for raw/surface water in Pakistan. Sample No.1 Centre of Lake (Depth 11 meter) Sample No. 4 Near spill way at the surface Sample No. 2 Near Navy Marine (Depth 9 meter) Sample No. 5 Korang river at the inlet of Lake Sample No. 3 Near spill way (Depth 11 meter) Sample No. 6 Lake Sample Near Jultrang Restaurant Comments: All the parameters are within the permissible limits. However, there is bacterial activity in fish samples and water samples. Analyzed by Sajid Mehmood Dated : 28-06-04 Annex-X (A) PHOTOGRAPHS RAWAL LAKE TRIBUTRIES AND POLLUTION SOURCES Large Poultry Farm Bani Gala residences along water stream Team Visiting Chattar Solid Waste of Chattar Park Upstream Housing Society Polluted Water of River Kurang Polluted water from QAU/Bari Imam Polluted Water from Bani Gala Inspection of upstream area Dead fish in polluted water Water stream of Chattar Environmental Inspectors Annex-X (B) PHOTOGRAPHS Mass Mortality of Fish in Rawal Lake Fishing still going on in the Rawal Dead fish Examination of a dead fish Lake Collection of dead fish from lake Disposal of dead fish Postmortem of a fish CDA Sanitary staff collecting solid On spot sampling by Pak-EPA Collection of dead fish from Rawal waste from the lake Lake Internal examination of dead fish Examination of a healthy fish Collection of debris from Rawal Lake The End
"Report on RAWAL LAKE CATCHMENT AREA MONITORING OPERATION"