June, 2004

          Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
                   Ministry of Environment

Sr. No.                           Description                        Page

 1.       Background                                                  1

 2.       Actions Taken to Prevent or Reduce Rawal Lake Pollution     2

 3.       Rawal Lake Water Quality Monitoring - Pak-EPA Initiative    3

 4.       Mass Mortality of Fish in Rawal Lake                        3

 5.       Rawal Lake Catchment Area Monitoring                        4

 6.       Current Status                                              5

 7.       Annexes                                                    6-18

 8.       Photographs                                                19-20


       The Rawal Lake is the main source of water supply for Rawalpindi city and cantonment.
Rawal dam is constructed on Kurrang river and has a catchment area of 106 sq miles, which
generates 84,000 acre feet of water in an average rainfall year. There are four major streams and
43 small streams contributing to its storage. The total storage capacity is 47,500 acre feet (12994
MG). Live storage is 43,000 acre feet 11763 MG). Highest flood level is 1752 feet.

       Rawal Lake and its catchement area a key resources for Rawalpindi and for the region as a
whole. Proper management of this resource is important if full benefits are to be gained and
maintained for the future. Most obvious benefit of the resources is the provision of water supplies
for Rawalpindi. For the last few decades, the lake is subjected to pollution by a number of sources.
These sources are:

                            •   Human settlements
                            •   Poultry wastes
                            •   Recreational activities
                            •   Agricultural activities
                            •   Deforestation
                            •   Erosion and sedimentation
                            •   Eutrophication of Rawal Lake

            Human settlements

            The villages of Bhara Kahu, Malpur, Bani Gala and Noorpur Shahan are situated close to
            the Rawal Lake. The estimated population of these villages is about 5000 (Mott
            Macdonald International Limited, 1995). Presently also there is indiscriminate activities
            are underway. A number of housing colonies, residential areas are coming up in the Rawal
            Lake catchement area without any consideration that this will adversely effect the quality
            of water coming into Rawal Lake. This includes dumping of untreated sewerage and solid
            waste in water channel. With all these activities, there is no consideration of having
            environmental clearance from the concerned agency.

            Poultry wastes
            There are approximately 170 poultry farms having about 360 poultry sheds lie with in the
            catchment area. Some basic arrangements for disposal of poultry wastes have been made
            but these are unlikely to significantly delay or prevent the inflow of pollutants into the

* WASA / RDA Presentation
Recreational activities

       Recreational activities are another source of pollution. The tourist part at Chattar lies
       adjacent to the river and has large number of visitors. At present a substantial proportion of
       human and other waste ends up in the river. Car washing is another recreational activity
       which has been identified as a pollution risk. Boating and fishing.

       Agricultural activities
       Agriculture is done in small patches of land or as terrace cultivation. The excess irrigation
       water is drained out through Nullahs and enter in to the lake. The use of pesticides and
       herbicides in agriculture is a source of toxic pollution. These toxic chemicals are washed
       away by streams and enter the Rawal Lake. Although this activity is not practiced at large
       scale in the catchment area, but as people are getting aware about the use of chemical
       fertilizers and pesticides to get more productivity per unit area. This activity can become a
       major problem as far as quality of water is concerned.


       The catchment area is subjected to deforestation due to grazing of livestock and cutting of
       wood for fuel by villagers. The villagers do not have any energy sources except wood
       available in the catchments area. Plantation has also been removed for the construction of
       roads, housing schemes and commercial buildings within the catchement area.
       Deforestation encourages the erosion of the soil. Increase siltation and increase turbidity

       Eutrophication of Rawal Lake

       In addition to the pollution generated by human activity, lake also receives natural
       pollutants from the catchment area, which contains various wild animal species and fouls.
       The excreta of these animals is deposited in the catchment area and enters the lake via
       heavy rain fall. Bacteria decompose this organic matter in the presence of oxygen thus
       oxygen depletion results in the Eutrophication of the lake.

Actions Taken to Prevent or Reduce Rawal Lake Pollution

        In 1995, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council appointed a Task Force for the
control of pollution in the Rawal Lake and the Task Force in turn set up a Working Committee.
This Task Force included officials from Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Interior, ICT,
Small Dam Organization, Cantonment Board, Rawalpindi Development Authority. The Task
Force held number of meetings and gave recommendations. The recommendations included:

       •   Construction of septic tanks by the residents in the catchment area.
       •   No further settlements to be allowed in catchment area.
       •   Vide scale plantation.
       •   Proper sewerage disposal in the housing colonies.
       •   Proper dumping of animal waste.
       •   Systematic monitoring of Rawal Lake.
       •   Creation of a technical committee comprising of RDA, Pak-EPA, CDA, SDO, MES.
       Various meetings were held of the technical committee for Rawal Lake catchment. This
committee formulated suggestions for the task force. The second meeting of the task force was
held under the chairmanship of Secretary, Interior on 8th April, 2004. The recommendations of the
technical committee were deliberated upon and the decisions taken included:

   •   Immediate suspension of commercial fishing in Rawal Lake.

   •   Proper disposal of solid and liquid waste in the catchement area which included designing
       of trunk sewer and the possibility sewerage treatment plant by CDA.

   •   RDA being the major stakeholder will appoint maximum of ten environment inspectors to
       work as field force for Rawal Lake pollution control. These inspectors will be at the
       disposal of Pak-EPA.

   •   Pak-EPA will train these inspectors and give them appropriate powers to monitor the
       activities in Rawal Lake catchment area.

Rawal Lake Water Quality Monitoring - Pak-EPA Initiative

        While taking cognizance of the serious pollution issue in Rawal Lake, Pak-EPA planned to
conduct water quality survey of Rawal Lake. This survey has been designed by JICA Senior
Volunteer, stationed at Pak-EPA. This water quality monitoring plan is for the whole year to
monitor the seasonal variation on the water quality (Annex 1). The first two cycles of water
quality monitoring has been completed. The results placed at Annex-II.

Mass Mortality of Fish in Rawal Lake

        On 19 June 2004, some small size dead fish were found on its periphery of Rawal Lake.
Being a drinking water source concern was raised and Pakistan EPA alerted MD WASA to strictly
monitor quality of drinking water at supply end to ensure safety of general public. Later, on 21
June 2004, the Chief Commissioner, Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) convene an emergency
meeting to access this issue. This meeting was attended by MD, WASA, Rawalpindi, NIH,
Contentment Board Rawalpindi, CDA, DHO ICT, Director, ICT, concerned officer ICT fisheries,
P.D Small Dams, GOVT. of Punjab. Director (EIA/Monitoring) represented Pakistan EPA. The
Director ICT chaired the meeting as the Chief Commissioner ICT was engaged in other pressing
work. M.D WASA showed concern over unusual phenomenon of mass death of fish in Rawal
Lake, which was being noticed for the last couple of days. He informed that all precautionary
measures had been taken to ensure quality of water being supplied to Rawalpindi and Cantonment
area. He stated that water samples have been analyzed from various Laboratories which reported
parameters within prescribed limits. However, WASA Site Laboratory reported Dissolved Oxygen
(DO) less than 3mg/liter and sudden rise in water temperature and attributed it the cause of death
of fish. DHO, informed that samples of water and fish were sent to National Institute of Health
(NIH) for analysis of any toxic chemical like arsenic and cyanide. However, NIH representative
reported that these toxins were also below detection limits or well with in permissible limits. The
meeting decided that every department should coordinate and monitor this unusual phenomena
and also to work closely in case of any eventuality.

         On the direction of Director General, Pak-EPA, laboratory officials visited WASA water
filteration plant on 22 June, 2004 and took samples of lake water from three points i.e main
dam spill way near WASA channel, commercial area at lake and entry point of River Korang. DO,
Temperature and pH (Power of Hydrogen) were measured at site and found them well within the
desirable limits at all the three points. The specimens of dead fish were physically observed and
found abnormal swelling of stomach, eyes out of sockets and sign of bleeding on the body. The
fish comes at water surface when near to die and their movement become too slow as easy to catch
with bare hands. It was noted that dead fish were in different variety and size/weight ranging from
4 inch to 1.5 feet and from 5 gram to 1.5 kg having almost same symptoms.

       Pak-EPA also contacted organizations like NARC, PINSTECH, Punjab Fisheries
Department, and National Institute of Oceanography, Karachi and discussed the possible causes of
fish mortality. The scientist came up with the following possible causes of fish mortality:

           i. Viral infection
           ii. Occurrence of toxicity in the lake water due to growth of toxic phytoplankton or
               chemical (organic or inorganic or heavy metal) toxicity.

           iii. Phenomenon of eutrofication has occurred in the lake due mineral and organic
                nutrients. Eutrofication promotes proliferation of plant life, especially algae, which
                reduces the dissolved oxygen content in the depth.

        In light of the expert opinion of scientists, Pak-EPA has decided to immediately carryout
further investigation. In this regards, the blood and mucus samples will be obtained and tested in
pathology laboratory for identification of possible viral infection. The results of pathological
laboratory placed at Annex-III to VIII. The water quality analysis conducted by Pak-EPA
following the day on which fish mortality was reported (Annex-IX). Photographs (Annex-X).

Rawal Lake Catchment Area Monitoring

       According to the decision taken by the Task Force, RDA/WASA recruited five inspectors
for Rawal Lake catchment area monitoring. These inspectors have also been provided uniform and
motorcycles along with fuel by RDA/WASA. The services of these five recruited inspectors have
been placed at the disposal of this Agency. Pak-EPA has taken following actions, since the
inspectors hired by WASA/RDA reported for duty. The stepwise actions taken so far include:

                  •   Basic training of the inspectors in Pak-EPA.

                  •   Arrangement of training of these inspectors in Punjab Poultry Research
                      Institute, Rawalpindi.

                  •   Distribution of appeals in the area. So for 5,000 appeals leaflets distributed
                      in the area. Copy of appeal at Annex-XIII.
                  •   Identification of main polluters in the area

                  •   This agency has already forward the names of major cattle sheds in Bahara
                      Kahu Area to the office of Sub-Divisional Magistrate (Rural), Islamabad
                      Capital Territory for taking appropriate action.

                  •   Another list of more than 200 polluters to which summon notices have been
                      issued as prescribed procedure under Pakistan Environmental Protection
                      Act 1997. Copy of summon notice at Annex-XIV.

Current Status
        ICT has already issued order under Section 144 putting up complete ban on construction
activities in the Rawal Lake catchment area comprising of Zone 3 & 4. There is a complete
prohibition working of the cattle sheds and poultry farms established along the banks of the water
inlets/nullahs, which are polluting the water flowing into Rawal Dam in Rural Sub-Division,
Islamabad. The TMA, Murree, CDA, RDA & ICT have been requested to provide complete list of
housing colonies/ schemes which have been issued NOC since June, 2000. The sponsors of these
colonies shall be asked to provide details of their projects and the arrangements made therein for
disposal of solid waste, sewerage and other environmental mitigations.
                                                                        Annexure 1

Time   Month   Day                          Monitoring Plan

 1       4     27-29   27th : Rawal Dam (6 point)
                            clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point)

 2       7     6~8     6th : Rawal Dam (3 point)
                             clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point)

 3       9     21~23   21st : Rawal Dam (3 Point)
                              clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point)

 4      12     7~9     7th:    Rawal Dam (3 point)
                               deep water sampling (3 point . . surface, 2m,
                               clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point)

 5       2     8~10    8th :    Rawal Dam (3 point)
                                clean water from Rawal filtration plant (1 point)
           Water Quality Parameters Around Rawal Dam, (April & July 2004)

Sampling             Location                 Water   Field   PH    DO    BOD    COD
 Month                                        Temp.   Temp.

 April     RD-1   (Inlet from Korang River)   24.5    30.3    8.4   7.8   2.1     9

           RD-2   (Centre of Rawal Dam)       24.3    30.1    8.4   7.0   2.2    10

           RD-3   (Outlet of Korang River)    26.0    30.1    8.4   7.3   1.9    15

  July     RD-1   (Inlet from Korang River)   31.2    34.5    8.2   6.7   2.88   10

           RD-2   (Centre of Rawal Dam)       31.0    34.0    8.3   6.1   2.26   15

           RD-3   (Outlet of Korang River)    31.5    34.0    8.3   6.5   1.3    10
                                                                                                         Annexure IX
                                       Government of Pakistan
                              Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
                            Central Laboratory for Environmental Analysis
                                    WATER ANALYSIS REPORT

Sample ID                 :-   Clean-280604                       Nature of Sample                :-     Raw/surface Water
Date of Collection        :-   22-06-04                           Date of Analysis                :-     26-06-04

Sr.No. Parameters                  *WHO Guidelines /                1           2           3           4         5          6
                                    Pak- PSQCA

Chemical Analysis;
  1. pH                            6.5 – 8.5 (PSQCA)              7.72        8.17        8.07         8.18     8.26       8.11
    2.    Temperature              --------                       29.7        29.50       27.4         30.1     30.7       30.0
    3.    DO                       --------                       4.80        6.02        5.57         7.46    10.70       6.10
    4.    Chloride                 250 mg/l                       16.35       15.25      17.25         17.50   18.00      19.50
    5.    COD                      --------                        6.0         8.0        5.0          11.0     14.0       15.0
    6.    BOD                      --------                        3.5         2.0        2.1           4.0      6.0        7.0
    7.    Sodium                   200 mg/l                      20.134      20.672     19.721     19.127      19.542     20.612
    8.    Nitrate                  50 mg/l                        1.25        1.15        2.00         1.99     2.00       3.00
    9.    Total Nitrogen           --------                      1.3094      1.3573     1.4601     1.2322      1.6836     1.1434
    10. Sulphate                   400 mg/l (PSQCA)               8.15        5.25       11.25         24.36    25.0      26.75
 11.      Copper                   2.0 mg/l                        Nil         Nil        Nil           Nil      Nil        Nil
 12.      Iron                     0.3 mg/l                        Nil         Nil        Nil           Nil    0.213        Nil
 13.      Zinc                     3 mg/l                         0.022       0.019       Nil          0.031   0.025      0.032
 14.      Cadmium                  0.003 mg/l                      Nil         Nil        Nil           Nil      Nil        Nil
 15.      Potassium                -------                        3.341       3.125      3.442         3.136   3.372      3.671
 16.      E-Coli/Coliform          0/100 ml                                                 60/100 ml
Note:*WHO : - World Health Organization. PSQCA: -Pakistan Standard and Quality Control
Authority for drinking water. Please note that presently there are no ambient standards for
raw/surface water in Pakistan.

Sample No.1 Centre of Lake (Depth 11 meter)                          Sample No. 4       Near spill way at the surface
Sample No. 2 Near Navy Marine (Depth 9 meter)                        Sample No. 5       Korang river at the inlet of Lake
Sample No. 3 Near spill way (Depth 11 meter)                         Sample No. 6       Lake Sample Near Jultrang Restaurant

        All the parameters are within the permissible limits. However, there is bacterial activity in fish samples and
water samples.

Analyzed by
Sajid Mehmood                                                                                                      Dated : 28-06-04
                                                                                         Annex-X (A)

       Large Poultry Farm           Bani Gala residences along water stream       Team Visiting Chattar

   Solid Waste of Chattar Park          Upstream Housing Society              Polluted Water of River Kurang

Polluted water from QAU/Bari Imam    Polluted Water from Bani Gala              Inspection of upstream area

   Dead fish in polluted water           Water stream of Chattar                Environmental Inspectors
                                                                                       Annex-X (B)

                                      Mass Mortality of Fish in Rawal Lake

Fishing still going on in the Rawal                   Dead fish                   Examination of a dead fish

Collection of dead fish from lake               Disposal of dead fish                Postmortem of a fish

CDA Sanitary staff collecting solid      On spot sampling by Pak-EPA          Collection of dead fish from Rawal
waste from the lake                                                                          Lake

Internal examination of dead fish        Examination of a healthy fish       Collection of debris from Rawal Lake
The End

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