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Underdetermination as an Epistemological Test Tube Expounding

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					 Underdetermination as an
Epistemological Test Tube:
Expounding Hidden Values
of the Scientific Community


  Martin Carrier (Bielefeld University)
1.    Introduction
Underdetermination thesis: any given set of data can
always be represented by different, conceptually
incompatible accounts.

Claim: underdetermination plays a fruitful role in
epistemology by pinpointing the impact of non-
empirical virtues or cognitive values on theory
choice.

=> Underdetermination contributes to illuminating
what scientific rationality actually is.
Duhem-Quine underdetermination brings to light the
non-empirical epistemic commitments which prevail
in the scientific community and which form an indis-
pensible part of our understanding of scientific
knowledge.
3. Duhem’s Master Argument for
   Underdetermination
Duhem: Confirmation and refutation of particular
hypotheses cannot be grounded on logic and
experience alone.




Hypothetico-deductive confirmation: The same
observational consequences may equally follow from
a different hypothesis incompatible with the first.
Example from geocentric astronomy: Eccenter
hypothesis and epicycle hypothesis as two empiri-
cally equivalent accounts of annual solar motion.

Hypothetico-deductive refutation: no hypothesis can
be refuted by relying on logic and experience only.
An anomalous observation merely demonstrates
that at least one of the assumptions brought to bear
in the test procedure is mistaken.

Principle of the uniformity of celestial motions.
Apparently non-uniform annual motion of the sun:
The two constructions saved the uniformity principle
at the expense of adjusting other assumptions.
Duhem’s conclusion:
Theories are creations of the human mind and never
lose their dependence on human imagination.

Nature always leaves room for alternative accounts.
Neither proofs nor refutations are part of scientific
method.
4. Duhem, Quine, and Beyond: The
   Career of Underdetermination
Duhemian characteristics of underdetermination:
• Reference to real-life theories, not to artificially
  contrived toy models.
• The possibility of alternative accounts is stressed
   but no recipe for actually constructing them is
   provided.
• Underdetermination is confined to a given range
    of phenomena.

=> Duhem had temporary indistinguishability in
mind.
Temporary underdetermination plays an important
epistemological role: it serves to illuminate the
bearing of non-empirical virtues in judging hypoth-
eses and adopting theories.

Duhem-Quine underdetermination:
Confirmational version: any given set of data can
always be represented by different, conceptually
incompatible accounts.
Refutational variant: arbitrary hypotheses can be
maintained in the face of arbitrary evidence if one is
prepared to adjust the system of beliefs, maybe
profoundly, in other respects.
Discussion of underdetermination in the second half
of the 20th century: articulation of the thesis.

Standard scenarios:
— Distinction between the observed and the unob-
  served behavior of entities.
Rejected with reference to the goal of conceptual
parsimony
— “Deoccamization”: supplanting a theoretical
   quantity of a theory by a fixed combination of
   several other quantities none of which has
   separate empirical bearing.
=> Underdetermination as a proven theorem.
But the rephrased versions are completely depend-
ent conceptually on their respective originals.
Critics: The underdetermination thesis is either trivial
or false.
Underdetermination only obtains in general if no con-
straints of plausibility are placed on the necessary
adjustment strategies.
Quine’s version of the underdetermination thesis
licenses recourse to what the critics would call “trivial
revisions.”
Nevertheless, the underdetermination thesis serves a
non-trivial epistemological function.
5. In Defense of Duhem-Quine Under-
   determination
Duhem-Quine underdetermination can be construed
as a positive claim about options left to scientific
theorizing by experience.
Empirically equivalent alternatives: no experience-
based superiority.
Yet the scientific community makes a choice in such
cases.
Scientists quite unanimously vote against nomo-
logical splits and deoccamized theories.
=> These choices are necessarily guided by non-
empirical virtues—in this cases “conceptual
parsimony.”
Non-empirical values which are usually operative
in a hidden or implicit way are laid open in the
choice between empirically equivalent alternatives.
Underdetermination provides us with an opportu-
nity to elucidate in which sense the preferred
accounts are superior.
Duhem-type examples: competing real-life accounts
that were indistinguishable in empirical respect.
Struggle between Ptolemaic geocentrism, Coperni-
can heliocentrism and Tychonic geoheliocentrism in
late 16th century astronomy.
All three accounts yielded the planetary motions with
roughly the same accuracy.
Yet Copernican astronomy excelled in explanatory
power as regards the qualitative features of
planetary motion.
Geocentric astronomy outperformed its Copernican
rival regarding its coherence with the accepted
Aristotelian physics.
The Tychonic compromise system preserved the
explanatory achievements of the Copernican
approach and remained in agreement with most of
the received physics and cosmology


=> (1) The scientific community did make a choice
   between empirically equivalent alternatives and
   (2) the criteria operative in this choice were
   explanatory power and coherence with back-
   ground knowledge.
Conventionality of physical geometry: alternative
space-time structures that are compatible with the
same set of spatiotemporal measurements.
Alternative accounts required the introduction of
force fields for which no sources could be identified.
Universal dismissal of these non-standard alterna-
tives by invoking the non-empirical criterion of the
preservation of causality.
Quantum mechanics: The picture behind Bohm’s
theory is at variance with standard quantum
mechanics, but the two are indistinguishable in
observational respect.
“Testability” militates against Bohm’s theory.
The historical fact is that the scientific community
does not rest undecided, wavering helplessly be-
tween different Duhem-Quine options. They rather
pick an account.
Theory choice goes beyond the austere hypothetico-
deductivist framework and bears witness to the
influence of non-empirical virtues.
6. Platonism and Aristotelianism as
   Divergent Approaches to Nature
Model debate: The details of the phenomena
typically escape the grip of comprehensive theory.

However, the conceptual structure of the models
used for coping with the phenomena is typically still
shaped by general theory.
                         h




                             v




“Orifice problem” in hydrodynamics: amount of
liquid that streams out of a circular hole in a
tank.
Received treatment by invoking the conservation of
mechanical energy.
But in fact, the flow is considerably smaller.
Correction factor that varies with the profile of the
opening and is assessed empirically.
Possibility of replacing the combination of theoreti-
cal derivation and empirical adjustment by a
phenomenological approach which connects
directly the measured rates for various tanks and
openings.
A phenomenological approach and a theory-shaped
approach can easily come out empirically equivalent
and the preference for one of them is based on
heuristic reasons.
The two approaches exemplify divergent attitudes
toward nature:
Platonism is committed to the rule of law; the uni-
versal is supposed to pervade the whole of nature.
Aristotelianism insists on the basic character of
specific cases.
=> The preference within the scientific community
for the theory-centered approach is not dictated by
nature.
7. The Invisibility of Underdetermination
Underdetermination is denied by many scientists and
philosophers of science: it is difficult enough to
identify one account that is in accordance with the
phenomena; thinking up an alternative is often
impossible.
Whereas the freedom of choice has been over-
estimated by some philosophers and sociologists of
science, it has been underrated by many scientists.
Relevant arguments often invoke substantive
principles and methodological commitments; they
include the non-empirical values that Duhem-Quine
underdetermination places in the limelight.
8.   Conclusion
The underdetermination thesis establishes a leeway
for science when faced with the verdict of nature.
The reason for the significance of this leeway is that
the criteria appealed to in picking an account from the
collection of empirically admissible options bear wit-
ness to our epistemological intuitions.
The pertinent non-empirical criteria uncover the
features of experience we consider worth knowing.
Epistemic values are constitutive of what we under-
stand by scientific knowledge.
They are the basis of normative judgments about the
adequacy of assessments within science.

				
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posted:8/25/2011
language:English
pages:22