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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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					     CREATING THE JOY OF SIGHT FOR THE BLIND




(PAPER UNDER THE THEME:”ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE”)




                       1
       ARTIFICIAL
                                                                 explains the process involved in it and explains the
                                                                 concepts of artificial silicon retina, cortical implants
                                                                 etc.

     INTELLIGENCE
                                                                 HOW TO CREATE ARTIFICIAL
                                                                 VISION?
                                                                                  The current path that scientists are
 ABSTRACT:                                                      taking to create artificial vision received a jolt in 1988,
                  Artificial intelligence has grown from a       when Dr. Mark Humayun demonstrated that a blind
small- scale laboratory into a technological and                 person could be made to see light by stimulating the
industrial success. It is a branch of science that deals         nerve ganglia behind the retina with an electrical
with helping machines finding solutions to complex               current. This test proved that the nerves behind the
problems in a most human like fashion This generally             retina still functioned even when the retina had
involves borrowing characteristics from human                    degenerated. Based on this information, scientists set
intelligence and applying them as algorithms in a                out to create a device that could translate images and
computer friendly way. A more or less flexible or                electrical pulses that could restore vision. Today, such
efficient approach can be taken depending on the                 a device is very close to be available to the millions of
requirements established, which influences how                   people who have lost their vision to retinal disease. In
artificial the intelligent behavior appears.                     fact, there are at least two silicon microchip devices
                 Computers are well suited to perform            that are being developed. Perhaps the more promising
mechanical computation, using fixed program rules.               of these two silicon devices is the ARTIFICIAL
This allows artificial machines to perform monotonous            SILICON RETINA (ASR). The ASR is an extremely
tasks efficiently, which humans are ill-suited; this             tiny device. It has a diameter of just 2 mm (.078 inch)
allows artificial machines to perform simple too. For,           and is thinner than a human hair. In order for an
more complex problems things get complex too.                    artificial retina to work it has to be small enough so
Unlike humans computer have trouble understanding                that doctors can transplant it in the eye without
specific situations, and adapting to new situations.             damaging the other structures within the eye.
Artificial intelligence aims to improve machine
behavior in tackling such complex tasks. This
presentation deals with a few applications of Artificial
Intelligence used in various technologies.

 INTRODUCTION:
                Artificial intelligence is an area of
computer science focusing on creating machines
capable on engaging on behaviours that human
consider intelligent. Over the 50 years of research in
AI, What it seems as single discipline if computer
science has gave birth to many different branches, each
with its own approach to solve a problem but, all with
the same aim: "to make machine that thinks”. Today as             Groups of researchers have found that blind people
computer system can hold and process more and more               can see spots of light when electrical currents stimulate
information faster and faster, people are developing             cells, following the experimental insertion of an
new classes of mind tools through a new science called           electrode device near or into their retina. Some patients
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI). These new mind                     even saw crude shapes in the form of these light spots.
tools promise to enhance our physical and mental                 This indicates that despite damage to cells in the retina,
capabilities. Blindness is more feared by the public             electronic techniques can transmit signals to the next
than any other ailment. Artificial vision for the blind          step in the pathway and provide some form of visual
was once the stuff of science fiction. the scientists has        sensation. Researchers are currently developing more
made the commitment to the development of                        sophisticated computer chips with the hope that they
technology that will provide or restore vision for the           will be able to transmit more meaningful images to the
visually impaired around the world. This paper                   brain.
describes the development of artificial vision system,
which cures blindness to some extent. This paper



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HOW DOES ARTIFICIAL SILICON                                      to researchers, the ARCC will give blind patients the
RETINA PLACED?                                                   ability to see 10 by 10 pixel images, which is about the
                 The ASR contains about 3,500                    size of a single letter on this page. However,
microscopic solar cells that are able to convert light           researchers have said that they could eventually
into electrical pulses, mimicking the function of cones          develop a version of the chip that would allow 250 by
and rods. To implant this device into the eye, surgeons          250 pixel arrays, which would allow those who were
make three tiny incisions no larger than the diameter of         once blind to read a newspaper.
a needle in the white part of the eye. Through these
incisions, the surgeons introduce a miniature cutting            WORKING OF ARTIFICIAL VISION
and vacuuming device that removes the gel in the                 SYSTEM:
middle of the eye and replaces it with saline. Next, a                           The main parts of this system are
pinpoint opening is made in the retina through which             miniature video camera, a signal processor, and the
they inject fluid to lift up a portion of the retina from        brain implants. The tiny pinhole camera, mounted on a
the back of the eye, which creates a small pocket in the         pair of eyeglasses, captures the scene in front of the
sub retinal space for the device to fit in. The retina is        wearer and sends it to a small computer on the patient's
then resealed over the ASR.                                      belt. The processor translates the image into a series of
                                                                 signals that the brain can understand, and then sends
                                                                 the information to the brain implant that is placed in
                                                                 patient’s visual cortex. And, if everything goes
                                                                 according to plan, the brain will "see" the image.




                                                                                   Light enters the camera, which then
                                                                 sends the image to a wireless wallet-sized computer for
                                                                 processing. The computer transmits this information to
                                                                 an infrared LED screen on the goggles. The goggles
                                                                 reflect an infrared image into the eye and on to the
                                                                 retinal chip, stimulating photodiodes on the chip. The
            For any microchip to work it needs power,            photodiodes mimic the retinal cells by converting light
and the amazing thing about the ASR is that it receives          into electrical signals, which are then transmitted by
all of its needed power from the light entering the eye.         cells in the inner retina via nerve pulses to the brain.
This means that with the ASR implant in place behind             The goggles are transparent so if the user still has some
the retina, it receives all of the light entering the eye.       vision, they can match that with the new information -
This solar energy eliminates the need for any wires,             the device would cover about 10° of the wearer’s field
batteries or other secondary devices to supply power.            of vision.
Another microchip device that would restore partial              The patient should wear sunglasses with a tiny pinhole
vision is currently in development called the artificial         camera mounted on one lens and an ultrasonic range
retina component chip (ARCC), this device is quite               finder on the other. Both devices communicate with a
similar to the ASR. Both are made of silicon and both            small computer carried on his hip, which highlights the
are powered by solar energy. The ARCC is also a very             edges between light and dark areas in the camera
small device measuring 2 mm square and a thickness               image. It then tells an adjacent computer to send
of .02 millimeters (.00078 inch). There are significant          appropriate signals to an array of small electrodes on
differences between the devices, however. According


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the surface of patient’s brain, through wires entering
his skull. The electrodes stimulate certain brain cells,
making the person perceive the specks of light. The
shifting patterns as scans across a scene tells him
where light areas meet dark ones, letting him find the
black cap on the white wall, for example. The device
provides a sort of tunnel vision, reading an area about
the size of a card 2 inches wide and 8 inches tall, held
at arm's length.




                                                                  where a photograph of a parked car has been pixilated
                                                                 to 4 by 4, 8 by 8, 12 by 12, 16 by 16, 32 by 32, 64 by
                                                                 64 and 128 by 128 pixels, respectively. The images
                                                                 here still include shading, while some implants may
                                                                 give little more than on/off signals per pixel or
                                                                 phosphene.


                                                                 ACHIEVEMENTS:
                                                                 1. The first and foremost thing is the cost .The
                                                                 miniaturization of equipment and more powerful
                                                                 computers have made this artificial vision possible, but
VISIBILITY:                                                      it's not cheap: The operation, equipment and necessary
                    It has been demonstrated in some             training cost $70,000 per patient. And also may be
studies that to a sighted person, image resolution of            much higher depending upon the context and severity.
some 32 by 32 pixels is (more than) enough to get
                                                                 2. It may not work for people blinded as children or as
easily recognizable images. See for instance the
                                                                 infants, because the visual cortex does not develop
reference at the end of this page which suggested a
                                                                 normally. But it will work for the vast majority of the
lower limit of around 625 pixels. Similarly, a study by
                                                                 blind -- 98 to 99 percent.
Angélica Pérez Fornos suggested a minimum of 400–
500 pixels for reading text, with less than a factor two         3.Researchers caution, however, that artificial vision
further reduction in case of real-time visual feedback.          devices are still highly experimental and practical
Thus 1000 pixels should do for many purposes, but                systems are many years away. Even after they are
some 64 pixels (for instance arranged in an 8 by 8               refined, the first wave will most likely provide only
matrix) or less rarely gives recognizable images to a            crude images, such as the outline of a kitchen
sighted person, so we cannot expect this to be any               doorway. It does not function as well as the real eye,
better in an alternative display that is likely to be much       and does not have crystal-clear vision (as it is only a
cruder than what Nature normally provides us with.               camera).The device is a very limited navigational aid,
The effect of image resolution is further illustrated            and it's a far cry from the visual experience normal
with the images below,                                           people enjoy.

                                                                          The main aim of Artificial Vision is to restore
                                                                 some degree of sight to the profoundly blind. Since
                                                                 blindness can result from defects at many different
                                                                 points along the visual pathway, there are accordingly
                                                                 a wide variety of proposed models for an "Artificial
                                                                 Eye".




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  CONCLUSION:
                   Artificial intelligence has to be applied
 to the machine where the involvement is not
 applicable. Keeping this in point of view, we have seen
 sample applications in real life so as to enhance the life
 of the human. These machines are very well suited for
 real time systems because of their fast response and
 computational efforts. In future people will witness a
 radical change in the cyber environment in the form of
 artificial intelligent oriented technologies. Regarding
 the usage of AI even today there are so many
 comments on the threat towards humans from these
 intelligent so called machines. For this the friendly AI
 mentioned in this paper can be an answer. Finally we
 would like to conclude that the applications of
 Artificial Intelligence might be applied in real life
 making it no longer a fiction.


 BIBILIOGRAPHY:
    “ArtificialVision for the Blind by Connecting a Television Camera to the Brain" ASAIO
     Journal 2000

    “Super Intelligence Machines” by Bill Hibbard.

    “Applications of AI” by Richardson, IEEE paper, September 2004.




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posted:8/25/2011
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