AP Biology Exam Review AP Biology Exam Review

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					                          AP Biology Exam Review
                      Population and Organismal Biology

1. Simple squamous tissue is a type of which of the following kinds of tissue?
      a. Connective              c. Muscle             E. Vascular
      b. Epithelial              d. Nerve

2. The largest, most general category of classification is the
      a. Class       b. Genus      c. Kingdom         d. Phylum    e. Species

3. The function of phloem is to
      a. Cover and protect
      b. Convert nutrients from the soil
      c. Strengthen and support
      d. Store reserve materials
      e. Transport organic solutes

4. In the binomial Quercus alba, the first term represents the organism’s
       a. Class     b. Genus       c. Order        d. Phylum      e. Species

5. The largest number of known species is represented by the phylum
      a. Arthropoda            c. Echinodermata               e. Porifera
      b. Annelida              d. Platyhelminthes

6. What type of leaf structures and environmental conditions promote gas exchange
   in plants?
       a. Cortex, heat       c. Mesophyll, high humidity      e. Stomata,
       b. Cortex, cold       d. Stomata, heat                   normal temperature

7. Phloem conducts
      a. Ions b. Glucose         c. Glycogen d. Minerals       e. Sucrose

8. The skin performs all of the following human body functions except
      a. Identification of an individual       d. Storage
      b. Protection                            e. Temperature regulation
      c. Sensation

9. The biceps brachii produce movements by pulling on
      a. Bones        b. Joints    c. Muscles       d. Nerves          e. Skin

10. Neurons that conduct signals away from the central nervous system are classified
       a. Afferent    b. Associative c. Internuncial       d. Motor     e. Sensory

11. The innermost layer of the eye is the
       a. Choroid coat b. Cornea          c. Pupil     d. Retina      e. Sclera
12. The largest number of chambers is found in the heart of a(n)
       a. Amphibian       b. Bird       c. Fish        d. Reptile        e. Shark

13. Which law explains the inhalation and exhalation of air in terms of pressure
      a. Archimedes’ law                c. Boyle’s law           e. Mendel’s law
      b. Aristotle’s law                d. Dalton’s law

14. Which of the following is a single bacterial cell?
      a. Diplobacillus            c. Staphylococcus              e. Streptomyces
      b. Gonococcus               d. Streptococcus

15. Each is an important assumption for maintenance of a Hardy-Weinberg
    equilibrium in a population except
       a. Asexual reproduction
       b. Random mating among members
       c. Large population size
       d. Lack of emigration or immigration
       e. Absence of new mutations

16. The free-swimming coelenterate larva is the
       a. Coral    b. Hydra      c. Medusa          d. Planula      e. Polyp

17. Plant-eaters can digest plant cell walls due to their utilization of which enzyme?
       a. Amylase b. Cellulase          c. Chymotrypsin d. Pepsin e. Trypsin

18. A coelem is a(n)
       a. Body cavity bounded by mesoderm, in which viscera are suspended
       b. Digestive tract, which is endodermal in origin
       c. Outer skin that is ectodermal in origin
       d. Specialized region of the higher forebrain
       e. One of the four mammalian heart chambers

19. Which of the following types of organisms occupies the trophic level of least
       a. Herbivores          c. Primary consumers          e. Teritiary consumers
       b. Plants              d. Secondary consumers

20. The invertebrate phylum phylogenetically closest to the chordates is
       a. Annelida              c. Cnidaria              e. Mollusca
       b. Arthropoda            d. Echinodermata

21. An insect metamorphic life cycle occurs in which of the following sequences?
       a. Adult-pupa-larva-egg                  d. Pupa-egg-larva-adult
       b. Egg-larva-pupa-adult                  e. Pupa-adult-larva-egg
       c. Larva-adult-egg-pupa
   22. Highest pressure of circulating blood is found in a(n)
          a. Arteriole        b. Artery      c. Capillary     d. Vein        e. Venule

   23. Which of the following is part of a human’s axial skeleton?
         a. Clavicle        b. Fibula        c. Humerus       d. Rib         e. Scapula

   24. Glial cells
          a. Conduct signals                  d. Support neurons
          b. Contribute to movement           e. Transport oxygen
          c. Cover the skin

   25. Select the disease caused by a protozoa
           a. Chicken pox            c. Malaria              e. Smallpox
           b. Common cold            d. Measles

   26. The filtering of inhaled debris that travels through the upper respiratory tract
       occurs through the action of
          a. Cilia                    c. Leidig cells         e. Villi
          b. Goblet cells             d. Phagocytes

   27. Substances in the blood are transported across the nephron tubules by
       mechanisms in the process of
          a. Bulk flow               c. Osmosis             e. Secretion
          b. Filtration              d. Reabsorption

   28. A person receives the results of a hematocrit during a series of blood tests. A
       hematocrit is the
          a. Abundance of white blood cells in blood
          b. Concentration of sugar in the blood
          c. Level of circulating antibodies
          d. Percentage of blood cellular material by volume
          e. Type of the blood by the ABO scheme

   29. An insect is captured and studied in a laboratory. This insect has a pair of short,
       rigid wings, and a pair of thin veined wings. It also has chewing mouthparts. The
       insect will most likely be classified as a member of which of the following
           a. Diptera b. Hemioptera c. Homoptera d. Lepidoptera e. Orthoptera

Questions 30-33 refer to the listed descriptions of skeletal muscle contraction types.

   (A) a short, individual contraction and relaxation
   (B) a sustained maximal response
   (C) an accumulation of an abundance of lactic acid
   (D) the merging of separate responses into a powerful output
   (E) tonic activity, as occurring in muscle tone
       30. fatigue
       31. simple twitch
       32. summation
       33. tetanus

   Questions 34-37 refer to various descriptions of

       (A) members have jointed appendages
       (B) flatworms; members lack segmentation
       (C) each member possesses a muscular foot
       (D) members possess a high degree of segmentation
       (E) closest phylogenetic relatives of the chordates

34. Annelida
35. Arthropoda
36. Echinodermata
37. Mollusca

   Questions 38-40 refer to the drawing below.

38. the root cortex
39. the root epidermis
40. root xylem

   Questions 41-44 refer to the drawing below.
41. gas exchange occurs here
42. a waxy cuticle is thinker here
43. a higher chloroplast density occurs here
44. the highest humidity would be here

   Questions 45-48 refer to the diagram below.

45. A sudden change in an organism’s amount of extracellular fluid will be corrected by this
46. A person eats three candy bars. Within minutes, this endocrine gland effects blood
    glucose homeostasis.
47. Substances that cause vasoconstriction change the diameters of blood vessels in order to
    assist in increasing blood pressure. Such substances are produces by this gland.
48. Secrete aldosterone

   Questions 49-50 refer to the drawing below.

49. producer biomass
50. secondary consumer
   Questions 51-53 refer to the drawing below.

51. Region A
       a. accepts carbon dioxide from cells
       b. receives blood from an arteriole
       c. receives nutrients from cells
       d. has a lower blood pressure than the blood pressure at B
       e. transports blood to an artery

52. Region B
       a. accepts oxygen from cell
       b. gives carbon dioxide to cells
       c. has a higher blood pressure than the blood pressure at A
       d. transports blood to a venule
       e. unloads nutrients to cells

53. The best word to describe this blood vessel’s function is
      a. circulation       b. exchange       c. flow        d. pressurization   e. transport

   Questions 54-55 refer to the graph below.

54. Point A on the graph reflects blood hemoglobin behavior at the
       a. heart       b. kidney       c. lung    d. tissue cell    e. vein

55. Point B on the graph reflects blood hemoglobin behavior at the
       a. artery      b. kidney       c. liver   d. lung      e. tissue cell
56. All of the following processes occur in the nitrogen cycle, except
        a. ammonification          c. deamination           e. nitrogen fixation
        b. nitrification           d. denitrification

57. All the statements about circadian rhythm are true, except
        a. They cycle over a 24-hour period.
        b. They are exemplified in plants by leaf orientations, which change from day to
        c. They are exemplified in humans by the sleep-wake cycle.
        d. They are exemplified in humans by changes in body temperature throughout the
            day and night.
        e. They are entirely controlled by exogenous factors (such as the light-dark cycle).

58. Lichen, in which an alga and a fungus live in harmony, is an example of
       a. mutualism                 c. parasitism               e. competition
       b. commensalism              d. predation

59. Konrad Lorenz researched the phenomenon of imprinting. To test his ideas, he had
    newly hatched ducks see him first. subsequently, the ducks were allowed to see their
    mother. These ducks would tend to follow
       a. their true mother          c. other chickens            e. Konrad Lorenz
       b. other ducks               d. no one in particular

60. Darwin’s theory of natural selection includes all of the following stipulations except
      a. every organism produces more organisms than can survive.
      b. due to competition, not all organisms survive.
      c. some organisms are more fit, i.e., they are able to survive better in the
      d. the difference in survivability is due to variations in organisms.
      e. variation is due, at least in part, to mutations.
Defend the accuracy of this ecologically-based statement: “Energy flows through an
ecosystem but materials cycle.” Offer examples of food chains and biogeochemical
cycles to support its accuracy.

Describe how each of the following animal and plant cells perform its unique function by
specialized structural traits.
        Animal = erythrocyte, neuron, muscle fiber
        Plant = epidermal cell, tracheids, parenchyma cells
Answer Key:
1. b           11. d           21. b           31. a          41. d           51. b
2. c           12. b           22. b           32. d          42. a           52. d
3. e           13. c           23. d           33. b          43. b           53. b
4. b           14. b           24. d           34. d          44. e           54. c
5. a           15. a           25. c           35. a          45. a           55. e
6. e           16. d           26. a           36. e          46. c           56. c
7. e           17. b           27. e           37. c          47. d           57. e
8. d           18. a           28. d           38. b          48. d           58. a
9. a           19. e           29. e           39. a          49. a           59. e
10. d          20. d           30. c           40. d          50. c           60. e

Free-Response Questions Key Points
   sun – original source of energy for any ecosystem
       sunlight  food (sugars) through process of photosynthesis
        then through consumer populations in ecosystems
       a specific food chain:
               alga  minnow  bass  kingfisher
       Each energy transfer (one trophic level to next higher trophic level)
        results in a significant loss (~90%) as heat
       Because the process is so inefficient, there is a limit to the length of a food chain.
       Heat is dissipated and cannot be changed back into a usable chemical form. A
        constant input of energy is needed.
       Materials, on the other hand, can be reusable. Atoms can be shuttled between the
        biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem.
       Specific cycles: phosphorus (only one to not involve the atmosphere), carbon,
        water, and nitrogen (bacteria important for this cycle)

erythrocytes: make, store, and transport hemoglobin (hemoglobin binds O2 and CO2)
       – affinity for O2/CO2 depends on pH
        mature RBCs – no nucleus, biconcave disk – increases surface area for more
         efficient diffusion of gases across membrane

neurons: capable of conducting and transmitting electric impulses quickly
       discuss dendrites and axons (direction of impulse) and importance of myelin
       sheath produced by glial cells (Schwann cells in PNS/oligodenrocytes in CNS)

muscles: contraction of tissue
      explain 3 different types (skeletal, cardiac, smooth)
      explain role of actin/myosin in sliding filament theory

plant epidermal cells: relatively flat, close together to prevent water loss; at surface of
plant – some are specialized (root hairs for increased absorption, guard cells for stomata
regulation); tracheids: part of xylem, pits in walls for upward transport of water and
minerals, liquified secondary cell walls serve as supportive structure; parenchyma:
unspecialized cells in roots, stems, and leaves; capable of cell division, high
concentration of chloroplasts in leaves

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