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					ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA




                                                  REFERENCE

This report is to be referred to in bibliographies as:

Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South Africa, Middle Vaal Water Management Area:
Internal Strategic Perspective, 2004. Prepared by PDNA, WRP Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd,
WMB and Kwezi-V3 on behalf of the Directorate: National Water Resource Planning. DWAF
Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304)


                                          INVITATION TO COMMENT
         This report will be updated on a regular basis until it is eventually superceded by
         the Catchment Management Strategy. Water users and other stakeholders in the
         Middle Vaal WMA and other areas are encouraged to study this report and to
         submit any comments they may have to the Version Controller (see box overleaf).




                                            ELECTRONIC VERSION
         This report is also available in electronic format as follows:


         •     DWAF website:
                         - Intranet: http://dwaf-www.pwv.gov.za/documents/
                         - Internet: http://www.dwaf.gov.za/documents/
         •     On CD which can be obtained from DWAF Map Office at:
                     157 Schoeman Street, Pretoria (Emanzini Building)
                     +27 12 336 7813
                         mailto:apm@dwaf.gov.za


                or from the Version Controller (see box overleaf)

         The CD contains the following reports (all available on DWAF website)

         - Middle Vaal WMA Internal Strategic Perspective (This Report)
           (Report No: P WMA 09/000/00/0304)
         - Vaal River Overarching Internal Strategic Perspective
           (Report No: P RSA C000/00/0103)
         - The National Water Resource Strategy, First Edition 2004
         - The Middle Vaal WMA - Overview of Water Resources Availability and Utilisation
           (Report No: P WMA 09/000/00/0203)
         - The Middle Vaal WMA – Water Resources Situation Assessment
             (Report No: P WMA 08/000/00/0302)



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                    i
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA




                                           LATEST VERSION
           This report is a living document and will be updated on a regular basis. If the
           version of this report is older than 12 months, please check whether a later
           version is not available.

           This can be done on the DWAF website: http://www.dwaf.gov.za/documents/

           or by contacting the Version Controller (see box below)




                                        VERSION CONTROL

                                  MIDDLE VAAL WMA
                           INTERNAL STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE
           Version 1                                    July 2004

           (Previous Version/s)                         (Date/s)

           Current Version Controller                   Mr W Liebenberg

                                                        Private Bag X936
                                                        Potchefstroom
                                                        2520

                                                        +27 18 297 3867
                                                        Liebenw@dwaf.gov.za


           (The most significant amendments included in the latest version will be
           indicated here.)




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ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA



                                     Internal Strategic Perspective for the
                                 Middle Vaal Water Management Area (WMA 9)
                                            EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Introduction

The Internal Strategic Perspective (ISP) for the Middle Vaal Water Management Area (WMA) is
described in this document, and represents the Department of Water Affairs’ (DWAF) view on how
Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) should be practiced in the WMA
.
The emphasis in this document is on aspects that are specific to the Middle Vaal WMA. The
Middle Vaal WMA is part of a greater water supply system which includes a number of
neighbouring WMAs. The strategies for IWRM for the greater system are presented in the Vaal
Overarching ISP. The Middle Vaal ISP should be read in conjunction with the Vaal Overarching
ISP to get a complete understanding of the strategies and issues.

The information in the report has been compiled from past studies, but more importantly, it
captures the knowledge of DWAF officials that are active in the different spheres of water
resource management of the Vaal River System. In the drafting of the perspectives or strategies
contained in this document, cognisance was taken of the legal requirements of the National Water
Act and the strategic direction or framework given by the National Water Resource Strategy
(NWRS).

Water resource management is carried out in a changing environment and it should be recognised
that this ISP is based on the prevailing situation and conditions at the time of compiling the
document. It is the intention of DWAF to regularly update this document to keep the information
and strategies relevant.

Overview of the Middle Vaal Water Management Area

The climatic conditions vary considerably from east to west across the WMA, with the Mean
Annual Precipitation (MAP) reducing from 800 mm in the east to 500 mm in the west with an
average of 550 mm. This tendency is reversed when considering potential annual evaporation,
which increases from 1800 mm in the east to 2600 mm in the dry western parts of the WMA. The
land use in the Middle Vaal WMA is characterised by agriculture with the main irrigation crops
being wheat, maize, groundnuts, sorghum and sunflowers. There is also extensive gold mining
activities located in the Middle Vaal water management area. These activities are generating
substantial return flow volumes in the form of treated effluent from the urban areas and mine
dewatering that are discharged into the river system. These discharges are having significant
impacts on the water quality in the main stem of the Vaal River in the Middle Vaal WMA.

The Middle Vaal WMA has an average economy, contributing approximately 4% of the GDP of
South Africa. It is expected that economic activity will remain relatively static in the medium to
long term. Although mining is an important contributor to the economy of the region, mining is

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expected to decline and the agricultural sector is expected to continue to play an important role in
the economy of this WMA.

Due to the extensive development in the Vaal River System , the local surface water resources in
all three the Vaal WMAs have been fully exploited, more than three decades ago. It was therefore
necessary to augment the supply by developing various transfer schemes importing water from
the Thukela and Usutu to Mhlathuze WMAs, as well as from the Kingdom of Lesotho through the
Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP).

Water Availability

The surface water availability in the Vaal River System is estimated through a set of water
resource models, each fulfilling a particular function in the management of the water resources.
Combined, these models serve as a decision support tool that contains a large and
comprehensive database of hydrological and physical system characteristics, required to simulate
the water resource systems as realistically as possible. Due to the interdependencies, the
management and planning of the Vaal River System is undertaken at the national level and not by
the Middle Vaal water managers (CMA when it is established, until then the DWAF Regional
Office).

The Middle Vaal water managers will be responsible for the assessment of the availability of the
local groundwater and surface water resources used to supply local authorities and district
councils without access to the Vaal River System water supply infrastructure.

Water Requirements

The water requirement projections that are currently used for planning originate from the
development of the National Water Resource Strategy (NWRS). The total water requirements
in the Middle Vaal WMA is 872 million m3/annum. The total water requirements for the Middle Vaal
are projected to reach 885 million m3/annum by the year 2025, for the base growth scenario.

Water Balance Reconciliation

The water balance for the Middle Vaal WMA indicates that for the year 2000, an overall surplus in
supply of 6 million m3/annum was available. With the commissioning of Phase 1b of the LHWP
(Mohale Dam and transfer tunnel) during the latter part of the year 2003, an additional 344 million
m3/annum is available to the Vaal River System. This surplus is expected to be gradually
depleted over time to supply the growing water requirements in mainly the Upper Vaal WMA. A
surplus of about 4 million m3/annum is projected for the year 2025 using the base requirement
scenarios.

What is important to recognise is that this estimated excess in supply is qualified as “conditional”
since it is only available if all the transfers are fully operational. In practice the volume of water
conveyed through the Thukela-Vaal Transfer scheme will be determined annually, effectively


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operating the system such that the water demands are in balance with the supply. The quantity
transferred will thus increase over time in line with the growth in the water requirements.

The possible reconciliation options for the Vaal River System are dealt with in the Vaal
Overarching ISP. The role of the Middle Vaal CMA will largely be water conservation and
demand management (WC&DM), trading of water allocations and assisting with the water
balances of the local authorities and district municipalities who are dependent on local resources
for their supply and not the main water supply infrastructure supported by the Vaal River System.

Due to the very low growth rate of the projected water requirements (projected demand curve is
flat) the impact of Water Conservation and Demand Management could result in a substantial
decrease in water requirements in the Middle Vaal WMA. It must be noted that, due to the lack of
system wide planning information on possible future WC&DM measures, the water balance
calculations presented above do not allow for the impacts of WC&DM. This was identified as a
gap in the current knowledge in the Vaal Overarching ISP and a study is being proposed to
collate all planning information on WC&DM. The targets for WC&DM will be set by the Vaal
Overarching Study and the role of the Middle Vaal CMA will be to promote WC&DM and
encourage the water service providers to achieve their targets.

The allocation of the conditional surplus will be managed by the National Department of Water
Affairs and Forestry in accordance with the licensing process and adhering to the conditions that
are presented in more detail in Strategy Table A.3.2 of Appendix A.

Water Quality Management

The water quality varies from poor in the highly developed areas to good in the less developed
areas. The water quality is impacted on by point discharges from industries, wastewater treatment
works, mine dewatering, irrigation return flows and diffuse sources such as runoff from mining and
industrial complexes, agriculture and urban areas.
.
The current approach adopted in managing water quality is to apply the steps presented below on
a sub-catchment basis. The first step is to carry out a situation assessment during which Interim
Water Quality Objectives (WQO) are established and water quality variables of concern and
sources of pollution are identified. The WQO are based on the water quality requirements of the
user sectors as well as from the ecology. The subsequent phases in the process, following the
situation assessment, are to develop water quality management plans or catchment management
strategies. During this phase water management interventions such as source control, treatment
and dilution are assessed. These phases also involve the revisiting of the WQO in an iterative
manner to reach a balance between the water user requirements and achievable management
strategies that do not impede continued economic growth.

The cascading characteristic of the three Vaal WMAs has the consequence that the water quality
of the main stem of the Vaal River in the downstream WMAs is impacted on, not only by the
activities in the WMA itself, but also by the water received from upstream. In addition, the water


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quality in the Vaal River will also impact on the water quality of the Orange River in the Lower
Orange WMA. Due to this inter-dependency it was identified that the current process of managing
water at sub-catchment level, should be expanded to integrate management activities across sub-
catchments, to meet shared water quality objectives in major tributaries as well as in the main
stem of the Vaal River. This study has been prioritised as part of the Vaal Overarching ISP. The
Middle Vaal CMA will have to revisit existing WQO and carry out future development of sub-
catchment strategies within the framework of the Integrated Study.

Institutional Aspects

The role of the Middle Vaal WMA CMA will include:


•   To manage the water quality by setting WQOs and developing a CMS as per the Water
    Quality Management Strategy. The setting of the WQOs will be within the framework of the
    Integrated Water Quality Management Plan for the Vaal River System (See details in Strategy
    A2.2).
•   The monitoring of the system to provide management information for water quality
    management, abstraction control and input to the overarching operations and planning
    processes.
•   Provide input into the supply of local authorities from local groundwater and surface water
    resources. This will be in the form of strategic level guidance as to where water can be
    obtained and the level of study needed to be submitted with the license application.
•   All water use licences will be issued through the Middle Vaal WMA CMA.
•   A very important communication role between the Water Users and the utility/DWAF Head
    Office
•   Promotion of WC&DM through the water service providers and local authorities/DWAF Head
    Office to achieve efficient use of water. Only once efficient use has been achieved can further
    transfers be considered.
•   Other delegated functions as determined during the process of establishing the CMA.

Water Infrastructure Management

Due to the inter dependencies of the Vaal WMAs, the operation of the infrastructure has to be
undertaken in a coordinated way to achieve the best efficiencies and balance potential among
stakeholders. This management will therefore be undertaken at the National level.

The Middle Vaal CMA may, depending on the findings of the Integrated Water Quality Study, be
responsible for the management of treatment and reuse infrastructure for mine dewatering and
sewage treatment plant return flows.

Monitoring and Information Management

The successful operation of the Vaal River System requires effective monitoring networks and
information management systems. There is an extensive network of flow, rainfall and water quality

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monitoring stations in the catchment. However, studies have highlighted the need to expand the
monitoring network to include more gauges to determine river losses, bulk distribution system
losses, and to track water requirements. Bio-monitoring should be included to assist with the
determination and implementation of the ecological Reserve. A consolidated assessment needs
to be made of all the monitoring and data management requirements of the Vaal River System.
This process should identify all the water resource management activities that require monitoring
information, and should focus on the integration of monitoring systems that are directly under
control of the Department, as well as from other institutions.

The Middle Vaal water managers will be required to co-ordinate all the monitoring and information
requirements within the WMA. This will include the compliance and other monitoring requirements
of the WMA itself as well as the monitoring requirements of the Vaal River System to be used by
the National body carrying out the overarching management.

ISP Implementation Strategy

The ISP is intended to act as DWAFs perspective on how the Middle Vaal WMA water resources
should be managed. The final ISP will be published and be open to comments from local
authorities, water user associations and other water related forums and interested stakeholders.
Mechanisms are to be put in place to capture anomalies and it is intended that formal updates of
the document will occur periodically until such time as the Catchment Management Agency is
technically functional and a Catchment Management Strategy developed.




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                      Internal Strategic Perspectives (ISPs) for the Central Region :
                              Middle Vaal Water Management Area (WMA 9)

                                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………………..…v-ix
List of Abbreviations and Glossary of Terms………………………………………………………...x-xii

CHAPTER 1 :BACKGROUND TO THE MIDDLE VAAL WMA INTERNAL STRATEGIC
PERSPECTIVE............................................................................................................................1
 1.1  LOCATION OF THE MIDDLE VAAL WMA ....................................................................1
 1.2  WATER LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT...............................................................1
 1.3  INTERNAL STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES (ISPs).........................................................4
 1.4  INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IWRM) .....................................7
 1.5  CARING FOR THE ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................9
 1.6  THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT.....................................................................................11
 1.7  WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT .............................................................................12
 1.8  GROUNDWATER.........................................................................................................14
  1.9      PUBLIC RECREATION - THE USE OF DAMS AND RIVERS ....................................15
  1.10      CO-OPERATIVE GOVERNANCE – the place of the ISP.........................................15

CHAPTER 2 : BROAD PERSPECTIVE REGARDING THE WATER SITUATION IN THE
MIDDLE VAAL WMA ...............................................................................................................2-1
 2.1  Introduction..................................................................................................................2-1
 2.2  General Catchment Description ..................................................................................2-3
 2.3  Resource availability....................................................................................................2-9
 2.4  Water Requirements..................................................................................................2-14
 2.5  Water Balance ...........................................................................................................2-16
 2.6   Water Reconciliation Options…………………………………………………………….2-18
 2.7  Water Quality Management……………………………………………………………….2-19
  2.8      Infrastructure System Management………………………………………………………2-20
  2.9      Monitoring and Information Systems………………………………………………..……2-20
  2.10     Institutional Aspects………………………………………………………………………..2-20




APPENDIX A : MIDDLE VAAL WMA STRATEGY TABLES
APPENDIX B : MAPS AND FIGURES
APPENDIX C : LIST OF TOWNS IN MIDDLE VAAL WMA
APPENDIX D : GROUNDWATER REPORT




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                                          LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

       Acronym                                                    Meaning
         CMA                          Catchment Management Agency
         CMS                          Catchment Management Strategy
         DDG                          Deputy Director General
         DEAT                         Department of Environment Affairs and Tourism
         DWAF                         Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
         EFMP                         Environmental Flow Management Plan
         EFR                          Ecological Flow Requirements
         EIA                          Environmental Impact Assessment
         EMC                          Ecological Management Class
         EMPR                         Environmental Management Plan Report
         GWS                          Government Water Scheme
         IDP                          Integrated Development Programme
         IFA                          Instream Flow Assessment
         IFR                          Instream Flow Requirements
         IRDP                         Integrated Rural Development Programme
         ISP                          Internal Strategic Perspective
         IWQMP                        Integrated Water Quality Management Plan
         IWRM                         Integrated Water Resources Management
         LHWP                         Lesotho Highlands Water Project
         MAP                          Mean Annual Precipitation
         MAR                          Mean Annual Runoff
         NEMA                         National Environmental Management Act
         NGO                          Non Governmental Organisation
         NWA                          National Water Act
         NWRS                         National Water Resources Strategy
         ORRS                         Orange River Development Replanning Study
         OVTS                         Orange Vaal Transfer Scheme
         RDM                          Resource Directed Measures
         RDP                          Reconstruction and Development Programme
         TDS                          Total Dissolved Solids
         TLC                          Town Local Council
         VAPS                         Vaal Augmentation Planning Study
         VRSA                         Vaal River System Analysis Study
         VRSAU                        Vaal River System Analysis Update
         WARMS                        Water-use Authorisation and Registration Management System
         WC/ WDM                      Water Conservation/ Water Demand Management
         WMA                          Water Management Area
         WQM                          Water Quality Management
         WQO                          Water Quality Objectives
         WR90                         Water Resources 1990 Project
         WRSAS                        Water Resources Situation Assessment Studies
         WSA                          Water Services Act
         WSAM                         Water Situation Assessment Model
         WSDP                         Water Services Development Plan
         WUA                          Water Users Association

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                                             GLOSSARY OF TERMS


              Term                            Meaning
    Aquiclude                         A bed, formation or group of formations essentially impervious to water.
    Aquifer                           Any strata or a group of interconnected strata comprising of saturated earth
                                      material capable of conducting groundwater and of yielding usable quantities
                                      of groundwater to borehole(s) and / or springs (a supply rate of 0.1 L/s is
                                      considered as a usable quantity). Latin: aqua water and ferre to carry.
    Borehole                          Drilled hole used to abstract, recharge or monitor groundwater.
                                      It is the holistic and integrated management of South African water
    Catchment Management              resources at catchment level. Its aim is to achieve a balance between
                                      development and the protection of our water resources and to involve people
                                      in water resources decision-making processes.
    Catchment                         An area of land from which any rainfall will drain into the water course or
                                      watercourses and flow to a common point, has definable physical
                                      boundaries.
    Catchment Management              A water management institution which manages Water Management Area
    Agency (CMA)                      (WMA).
    Catchment Management              A strategy for a water management institution which manages Water
    Strategy (CMS)                    Management Area (WMA).
    Department of Water               DWAF is the national custodian of South Africa's water and forestry
    Affairs and Forestry              resources. It is primarily responsible for the formulation and implementation
    (DWAF)                            of policy governing these two sectors.
    Environmental Impact              EIA is a project specific process, which looks at how a proposed
    Assessment (EIA)                  development might impact on the environment, and at how those impacts
                                      might be mitigated.
    Environmental                     The EMF is a spatial inventory, essentially a filing system of information, with
    Management                        a strong focus on biophysical parameters. Specific environmental
    Frameworks (EMF)                  management parameters are connected to this information.
    Geographical Information          A GIS is a computer-based tool for mapping and analysing things that exist
    System (GIS)                      and events that happen on Earth. GIS technology integrates common
                                      database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique
                                      visualisation and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps.
    Groundwater Information           The GIIS is essentially a database which contains basic information on the
    Index System (GIIS)               sources of groundwater, related subject matter and provides planners and
                                      consultants with a useful tool to source existing geohydrological reports and
                                      other relevant data.
    Groundwater                       All subsurface water occupying voids within a geological stratum.
                                      IEM has become the umbrella term, or toolbox, within which all
    Integrated Environmental          environmental assessment processes, and environmental management
    Management (IEM)                  practices, reside. IEM has become a guiding philosophy - the interface for
                                      the various environmental management processes and is the umbrella
                                      covering EIA, SEA and EMP.
    Ventilated Improved Pit-          A sanitation facility consisting of a stable cover or slab over a pit which is
    latrine (VIP)                     ventilated by a pipe extending above the roof of the top structure, with fly-
                                      proof netting across the top. The interior of the top structure is maintained in
                                      relative darkness.



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             Term                             Meaning
    Working for Water (WfW)           It is a multi-departmental public works programme, with the express purpose
                                      of dealing effectively with the problem of invading alien plants. It also
                                      addresses one of the greatest challenges facing South Africa, that of
                                      unemployment.
    Water Management Area             It is an area established as a management unit in the national water
    (WMA)                             resource strategy within which a catchment management agency will
                                      conduct the protection, use, development, conservation, management and
                                      control of water resources. There are 19 WMAs in SA.
    Water Resource                    WRM ensures management of our water resources to ensure the
    Management (WRM)                  sustainable utilisation of a very limited resource.
    Water Resources                   Provides broad guidelines as well as details for the reconciling of water use
    Planning (WRP)                    requirements against available water resources.
    Water Quality                     WQM ensures that the water resources of South Africa are fit for use for
    Management (WQM)                  humans, recognised users, and ensures that the health of the water
                                      environment is protected and improved on a sustainable basis.
    Water Services Act (Act           This Act provides for: the rights of access to basic water supply and basic
    108 of 1997) (WSA)                sanitation; the setting of national standards and of norms and standards for
                                      tariffs; water services development plans; a regulatory framework for water
                                      services institutions and water services intermediaries; the establishment
                                      and disbanding of water boards and water services committees and their
                                      powers and duties; the monitoring of water services and intervention by the
                                      Minister or by the relevant province; financial assistance to water services
                                      institutions.
    Water Services                    Any municipality, including a district or rural council as defined in the Local
    Authorities (WSAs)                Government Transition Act, 1993 (Act No. 209 of 1993), responsible for
                                      ensuring access to water services.
    Water Services Providers          Any person who provides water services to consumers or to another water
    (WSPs)                            services institution, but does not include a water services intermediary.
    Water Services                    A WSDP focuses on water services, the supply thereof and sanitation. The
    Development Plan                  focus of a WSDP is to provide effective water services to the consumers in
    (WSDP)                            accordance with the aims of the Government. It is also a tool to ensure
                                      effective, sustainable and economical water services that is managed as a
                                      business.
    Yield                             Volume of water per unit of time that can be obtained from a borehole




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                                             PART 1 – INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND TO THE MIDDLE VAAL WATER MANAGEMENT AREA
INTERNAL STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE

1.1      LOCATION OF THE MIDDLE VAAL WMA

         Figure 1.1 shows the location of the Middle Vaal WMA.


                                                                                                                                                                             Zimbabwe
                                   Reference

                                   Water Management Area

                                   Eastern Cape                                                                                                                                          2
                                                                                    Department : Water Affairs and Forestry                                                          LUVUVHU
                                   Free State                                                                                                                                        AND LETABA
                                                                                                                                                         1
                                   Gauteng                                                                                                         LIMPOPO                                                   Mozambique

                                   KwaZulu-Natal

                                   Lesotho                                                          Botswana
                                   Limpopo                                                                                            3                            4
                                                                                                                               CROCODILE (WEST)                  OLIFANTS                    5
                                   Mpumalanga                                                                                                                                        INKOMATI
                                                                                                                                 AND MARICO
                                   North West

                                   Northern Cape                                                                                                                                                  Swazi-
                                   Swaziland
                                                                                                                                                                                                  land
                                                                                                      10
                                                                                                LOWER VAAL
                                   Western Cape
                                                                                                                              Middle                         8
                                                                                                                                                         UPPER VAAL
                                                                                                                                      9

                                                Namibia                                                                       Vaal (9) L
                                                                                                                                MIDDLE VAA                                                             6
                                                                                                                                                                                                 USUTU TO
                                                                                                                                                                                                 MHLATHUZE
                                                                                                                                                                                7
                                                                                                                                                                           THUKELA



                                                                                                                                                       Lesotho                  11
                                                                            14                                                13                                           MVOTI TO
              AT




                                                                        LOWER ORANGE                                UPPER ORANGE                                           MZIMKULU
                 LA
                    NT




                                                                                                                                                                                                       N
                                                                                                                                                                                                   A
                                                                                                                                                                                                 E
                        IC




                                                          17




                                                                                                                                                                                             C
                                                                                                                                                  12

                                                                                                                                                                                        O
                                                OLIFANTS/DOORN
                                                                                                                                   MZIMVUBU TO KEISKAMMA
                            OC




                                                                                                                                                                                     N
                                                                                                                                                                                IA


                                                                                                               15
                                  EA




                                                                                                                                                                             D
                                                                                                                                                                           IN




                                                                                                    FISH TO TSITSIKAMMA
                                                   19                        16
                                   N




                                                 BERG                     GOURITZ

                                                                18
                                                                                                                                                                                       N
                                                               BREEDE


                                                                                                                                            200                        0                         200             400 Kilometers


            Task No : GM1049_03




                           Figure 1.1: Location of the Middle Vaal WMA


1.2      WATER LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT

         Water is one of the most fundamental and indispensable of all natural resources. It is
         fundamental to life and the quality of life, to the environment, food production, hygiene,
         industry, and power generation. The availability of affordable water can be a limiting factor for
         economic growth and social development, especially in South Africa where water is a relatively
         scarce resource that is distributed unevenly, both geographically and through time, as well as
         socio-politically.

         Prosperity for South Africa depends upon sound management and utilisation of our many
         natural and other resources, with water playing a pivotal role. South Africa needs to manage


DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                                      1-1
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA



         its water resources optimally in order to further the aims and aspirations of its people. Current
         government objectives for managing water resources in South Africa are set out in the
         National Water Resource Strategy (NWRS) as follows:


         •   To achieve equitable access to water. That is, equity of access to water services, to the
             use of water resources, and to the benefits from the use of water resources.
         •   To achieve sustainable use of water, by making progressive adjustments to water use to
             achieve a balance between water availability and legitimate water requirements, and by
             implementing measures to protect water resources and the natural environment.
         •   To achieve efficient and effective water use for optimum social and economic benefit.

         The NWRS also lists important proposals to facilitate achievement of these policy objectives,
         such as:


         •   Water will be regarded as an indivisible national asset. The Government will act as the
             custodian of the nation's water resources, and its powers in this regard will be exercised as
             a public trust.
         •   Water required to meet basic human needs and to maintain environmental sustainability
             will be guaranteed as a right, whilst water use for all other purposes will be subject to a
             system of administrative authorisations.
         •   The responsibility and authority for water resource management will be progressively
             decentralised by the establishment of suitable regional and local institutions, with
             appropriate community, racial and gender representation, to enable all interested persons
             to participate.

1.2.1    The National Water Act (NWA)

         The NWA of 1998 is the principal legal instrument relating to water resource management in
         South Africa. The Act is now being implemented incrementally. Other recent legislation which
         supports the NWA includes the Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997) and the National
         Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998).

1.2.2    The National Water Resource Strategy (NWRS)

         The NWRS is the implementation strategy for the NWA and provides the framework within
         which the water resources of South Africa will be managed in the future. All authorities and
         institutions exercising powers or performing duties under the NWA must give effect to the
         NWRS. This strategy sets out policies, strategies, objectives, plans, guidelines, procedures
         and institutional arrangements for the protection, use, development, conservation,
         management and control of the country’s water resources. The purpose of the NWRS is to
         provide the following:


         •   The National framework for managing water resources;



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         •   The framework for preparation of catchment management strategies in a nationally
             consistent way;
         •   Information, in line with current legislation, regarding transparent and accountable public
             administration; and
         •   The identification of development opportunities and constraints with respect to water
             availability (quantity and quality).

1.2.3    Catchment Management Strategies (CMS)

         The country has been divided into 19 Water Management Areas (WMAs). The delegation of
         water resource management from central government to catchment level will be achieved by
         establishing Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) at WMA level. Each CMA will
         progressively develop a Catchment Management Strategy (CMS) for the protection, use,
         development, conservation, management and control of water resources within its WMA.

         The Department's eventual aim is to hand over certain water resource management functions
         to CMAs. Until such time as the CMAs are established and are fully operational, the Regional
         Offices (ROs) of DWAF will have to continue managing the water resources in their areas of
         jurisdiction.

         Furthermore, the way in which the resources are protected, used, developed, conserved,
         managed and controlled needs to form an integral part of other planning initiatives at
         provincial, district and local authority level. These relationships are shown in Figure 1.2 below.



                                      DWAF        OTHER NATIONAL DEPARTMENTS,                  SECTORAL
                                                 LOCAL & PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT

                                                     National strategies for: environment,
                                                                                                 ESKOM
                                                    agriculture, land use, industry, mining,
                  NATIONAL              NWRS
                                                         energy, health, housing, rural
                                                      development, urban renewal, etc.
                                                                                                   Large
                                                                                                 Industry

                  PROVINCIAL                                          Provincial
                                                          Wa         Development
                                                            te r
                  CATCHMENT               CMSs
                                             CMSs
                                           CMSs
                                            CMSs                      Strategies
                                                                                                  Mining

                                                                                                Agriculture

                                                                                                 Housing
                                                                      Integrated
                  LOCAL         WUA
                                 WUA
                                 WUA
                                WUA               Water Services
                                                   Water Services
                                                   Water Services
                                                 Water Services
                                                  Development Plan
                                                Development Plan     Development                 Industry
                                 BP
                                  BP
                                BPsBP            Development Plan
                                               Development Plans
                                                                         Plans


                                         WSDPs BPs

         Figure 1.2 : Integrated planning approach at various levels of government in South Africa


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1.3      INTERNAL STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES (ISPs)

1.3.1    The Objectives of the ISP Process

         The objective of the ISP will be to provide a framework for DWAF’s management of the water
         resources in each Water Management Area, until such time as the Regional Offices can hand
         over the management functions to the established CMA. This will ensure consistency when
         answering requests for new water licences, and informing existing water users (including
         authorities) on how the Department will manage the water resource within the area of concern.
         Stakeholders must be made aware of the bigger picture as well as the management detail
         associated with each specific water resource management unit.

1.3.2    Approach Adopted in Developing the ISP

         The detailed Water Management Area ISPs for the WMAs in the Central Planning Region
         were preceded with a process where an Overarching ISP was compiled for the Vaal River
         System. The purpose of the Overarching ISP was to develop strategies that cover issues
         related to the three Vaal River WMAs and relates to the interdependency that exists among
         the WMAs due to their geographical locations relative to each other. The overarching ISPs fall
         in the same category as the NWRS as it guides the management of water resources affecting
         more than one WMA while the ISPs for each individual WMA fall in the category of a CMS.




         Figure 1.3 : Schematic showing ISP development process




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         The ISP for the Middle Vaal WMA was developed in five stages as follows:

         i)       Determining the current status of water resource management and relevant water
                  resource management issues and concerns in the Middle Vaal WMA. This was
                  achieved through interviews with individual members of DWAF's HO in Pretoria and by
                  collating information from the NWRS, WMA reports, Water Resource Situation
                  Assessment (WRSA) reports and other catchment study reports. The following topics
                  were discussed with Regional Office staff and their issues and concerns documented:

                  •      Water Situation
                  •      Resource Protection
                  •      Water Use
                  •      Water Reconciliation
                  •      Water Infrastructure
                  •      Monitoring and Information
                  •      Water Management Institutions
                  •      Co-operative Governance
                  •      Planning Responsibilities.

         A starter document of the identified issues and concerns was produced as a discussion
         document for the first workshop.

         ii)      The first workshop was held with attendees from the Regional Office, the Integrated
                  Water Resource Planning (IWRP) Chief Directorate of the Department as well as the
                  consulting team. The workshop focussed on the lists of general issues in the WMA as
                  well as area-specific issues. The issues were clarified and refined during the workshop.
                  Strategies were discussed and developed to address the issues.

         iii)     The third stage involved the preparation of the second workshop document to be used
                  for refining strategies to address the various issues and concerns, during the second
                  workshop.

         iv)      The fourth stage was the second workshop. During this workshop the overall
                  management of the water resources in the catchment was discussed along with the ISP
                  management strategies and the relevant issues and concerns. The priorities and
                  responsibilities for carrying out the strategies were identified. First workshop attendees
                  were again involved, as were representatives of several DWAF Head Office and
                  Regional directorates.

         v)        The fifth stage is the finalisation of the ISP document.

         As can be deduced from the above this Middle Vaal ISP was prepared internally within the
         Department, and captures the Department’s perspectives. Once approved by DWAF
         Management, it is intended that the Regional Office will make the ISP available to Water User


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         Associations (WUAs), Water Service Providers (WSPs), Water Service           Authorities (WSAs)
         and other forums for discussion and comment. These comments will             be considered and
         worked into later versions of the ISP. By adopting this procedure this ISP   becomes a working
         document, which will be progressively updated and revised by DWAF.           Public participation
         forms part of the CMS process, for which the ISP serves as a foundation (see Paragraph 1.5).

         The ISP does not formulate all the details pertaining to every strategy but provides a
         suggested framework for each strategy around which the details will be developed by the
         responsible authority. Where relevant and readily available, certain details have been
         included in the strategies. The responsible authority for the further development of each
         strategy is indicated. This is predominantly the Regional Office, which remains responsible for
         involving the relevant DWAF directorates.

1.3.3    Updating of the ISP Report

         The ISP strategies should not lag behind national developments, become outdated or differ
         from related ISPs regarding trans-boundary management. There is therefore a need to have a
         standard process for updating strategies, and to prevent strategies becoming outdated by
         ensuring adequate feedback from national developments. Furthermore, the proposal and
         introduction of new strategies needs to be accommodated. It is suggested that each strategy
         has a version-control system. The following is necessary:

         •        Keep abreast of changes in national legislation and policy changes or refinements by
                  keeping a list of all relevant legislation and supporting documents relevant to the ISP;
         •        Ensure consistency between the ISP strategies and national strategies through a
                  regular review-and-update procedure;
         •        Annually review and ensure consistency and agreement regarding trans-boundary ISP
                  management issues by liasing with the responsible managers of other areas and
                  updating relevant ISP strategies if necessary;
         •        Annually review the priorities of required management actions and align budgets
                  accordingly;
         •        Monitor the implementation of the ISP (review actions, progress, implementation and
                  stumbling blocks);
         •        Incorporate feedback from stakeholders;
         •        Rigorously apply ISP version control.

         Updating and Version Control
         The actual frequency of ISP revision will be determined by the number and extent of revisions
         to management approaches as reflected in Strategy amendments. All updates to this report,
         particularly with respect to amendment to the Strategies, need to be passed on to and vetted
         by the Central Cluster. The current incumbent is Mr W Liebenberg, who has been delegated
         the task of managing version control.




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1.3.4    The Authority of Information Contained in the ISP

         The NWRS is a statutory document, subject to a high level of public scrutiny and input, and
         signed off by the Minister. The information contained in the NWRS is the best information and
         knowledge available at the time. The information in Chapter 2 and Appendix D of the NWRS
         Strategy on water requirements, availability and reconciliation was updated with comments
         received from the public participation process in the second half of 2002. To enable the
         finalisation of the NWRS, these figures were “closed” for changes in February 2003.

         Underlying the figures in Chapter 2 is a set of 19 reports “Overview of Water Resources
         Availability and Utilisation”, one for each WMA. These reports contain more detailed
         information on each WMA than was summarised for the NWRS and are referred to, in short,
         as “WMA Reports”. The WMA reports were also finalised with the February 2003 information.

         Still deeper in the background lies another set of reports (one per WMA), the so-called Water
         Resource Situation Assessment Reports. These reports contain a wealth of information on
         each WMA, but the figures on requirements, availability and reconciliation have been
         superceded by the WMA report and the NWRS.

         The ISPs for all WMAs used the information contained in the NWRS and WMA reports as the
         point of departure. However, an inevitable result of the ISP process has been that better
         information has emerged in some cases. The reason is that the level of study is more detailed
         and intense for the ISP. This included very close scrutiny of the numbers used in the NWRS,
         and in some cases a reworking of base data and some re-modelling. Where the ISPs contain
         yield balance data which differs from the NWRS, these discrepancies are carefully explained.
         Where other differences from the NWRS are necessary these are also detailed in the ISP, with
         accompanying explanations.

         It is required that the Department work with the best possible data so that the best possible
         decisions can be taken. Where the ISPs have improved upon the NWRS then this is the data
         that should be used. The new data contained in the ISP will also be open to public scrutiny as
         the ISP reports will be published on the Internet and in hardcopy, and will be presented and
         discussed at WMA forums. Comments received will be considered and worked into
         subsequent versions of the ISP on a regular (yearly) basis. The NWRS will be updated to
         reflect the latest understanding in each new edition.

1.4      INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IWRM)

         It is imperative that the natural, social, economic, political and other environments and their
         various components are adequately considered when conducting water resources planning
         and management. Water as a strategic component also interacts with other components in all
         environments. For example, human activities such as the use of land, the disposal of waste,
         and air pollution can have major impacts on the quantity and quality of water which is available
         for human use and for proper life support to natural biota.


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         Taking an even broader view, water must also be managed in full understanding of its
         importance for social and economic development. It is important to ensure that there is
         conformity between the water-related plans and programmes of the CMAs, and the plans and
         programmes of all other role players in their management areas. The CMAs must therefore
         establish co-operative relationships with a wide range of stakeholders, including other water
         management institutions, water services institutions, provincial and local government
         authorities, communities, water users ranging from large industries to individual irrigators, and
         other interested persons.

         This integrated planning and management approach is intended, through co-operative
         governance and public participation, to enable water managers to meet the needs of all people
         for water, employment, and economic growth in a manner that also allows protection and,
         where necessary, rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems. Above all, Integrated Water Resource
         Management (IWRM) will enable water managers to use our precious water resources to
         assist us in poverty eradication and removal of inequity.

         One of the big opportunities to formally integrate a large number of actions in water resource
         management presents itself during the compulsory licensing process.

         Compulsory licensing is identified in the NWRS as a very important action for implementing
         the NWA. However, it is not a simple action of issuing licences but a complex process of
         closely related and interdependent activities that will in itself formalise IWRM to a great extent.
         The process of IWRM is diagrammatically depicted in Figure 1.4.




         Figure 1.4: Diagram showing DWAF Integrated Water Resources Management approach


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         Before an allocation schedule can be determined and the legal steps followed to finalise
         compulsory licensing (through the issuing of licences to all users), many other aspects must
         be addressed:


         •        Existing use and the lawfulness of that use must be verified, all users (existing and
                  new) must apply for licences, a good understanding of future use scenarios must be
                  developed and water required for equity purposes and rural development must be
                  clearly understood.


         •        Water availability must be understood as thoroughly as possible with "best available"
                  existing information used to model all possible reconciliation options.
         •        Reserve scenarios must be developed for all significant resources in the catchment, for
                  instance, the river flow requirements for all possible classes that may be considered.


         •        The development of strategies for implementing the licensing (abstraction controls, for
                  example), the Reserve and Resource Quality Objectives (i.e. incrementally over time)
                  must go hand in hand with the rest of the processes to ensure that practical, workable
                  solutions are found.

         The processes will then enter a very intensive, interactive phase of developing realistic
         reconciliation options. This would entail, for example, the selection of a specific management
         class to be scrutinised for its impact on the number of licences that could be issued for use,
         with its concomitant impacts on the social and economic structure of the catchment.

         The active participation of stakeholders in this process will then hopefully crystallise clear
         recommendations on an allocation schedule, management classes for the various reaches of
         the rivers and the resultant ecological Reserve and Resource Quality Objectives, as well as
         strategies for the implementation.

         Although the Department will play a very strong role in guiding this process, it is extremely
         important to have the CMA actively involved. Preferably, at least the Board of the CMA must
         be in place to drive the public participation for the process.

1.5      CARING FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

         DWAF is responsible for water resource development and management in terms of the NWA,
         and within the broader framework of other environmental legislation. The Department also
         strongly reflects the will to make sound decisions which ensure the development of society
         and the economy whilst maintaining, and where possible enhancing, ecological integrity. The
         concept of management of the environment has evolved from the exclusivity of protection of
         plants and animals to balancing the complex interaction of society, the economy, and ecology.
         “Environmental management is the integration of social, economic and ecological factors into
         planning, implementation and decision-making so as to ensure that development serves
         present and future generations” (NEMA).


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         The key legislative Acts to which DWAF is required to refer are the National Environmental
         Management Act (NEMA, Act 107 of 1998) and the Environment Conservation Act (ECA, Act
         73 of 1989). DWAF has prepared a Consolidated Environmental Implementation and
         Management Plan (CEIMP) as a requirement of NEMA. This describes the Department’s
         functions, policies, plans and programmes, and states how these comply with environmental
         legislation.

         Through the CEIMP the Department has committed itself to developing and implementing an
         integrated Environmental Management Framework (EMF) to ensure that its approach is
         aligned with the principles prescribed in NEMA and the ECA. The EMF will inform the
         Department at a strategic decision-making level, bring about environmental legal compliance,
         and help in achieving environmental sustainability through the promotion of sound
         environmental management practices. Integrated Environmental Management is a co-
         operative governance effort with DWAF as a full partner in the process.

         This ISP has the responsibility of raising and maintaining the environmental consciousness of
         the Department’s water resource planners and managers. The control over water has a very
         broad range of influence and impact for which strategies and planning need to account.
         Impacts come from many different angles.

         Some of these angles of impact which are considered through this ISP are noted below:


         •        The direct impact of physical structures (environmental constraints to construction e.g.
                  of weirs or dams)
         •        The implications of allocating and licensing water for use. Forestry and irrigation are
                  examples of users where development based on water can mean the transformation of
                  extensive areas of otherwise ‘natural’ environments.
         •        The allocation of water for equity. Here we can include approaches towards the
                  application of Schedule 1 Use, General Authorisations, the revitalisation of irrigation
                  schemes, etc.
         •        Failure to support equity, or appropriate development – noting the consequential
                  impacts of poverty.
         •        Sanitation systems and the impacts on groundwater quality.
         •        The implementation of the Reserve.
         •        The ability to monitor and manage compliance, thus protecting the resource and with it
                  the environment.

         All decisions regarding water are critical to the environment. Decisions must be made on a
         balance of social, economic and ecological costs and benefits, considering both the immediate
         and the long-term, and always with an eye out for the unintended consequence. It is the
         intention of the ISP to provide the basis for integrated decision-making. The principles of
         environmental management underpin every strategy developed in this document.



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         There are a number of strategic areas with a particularly strong biophysical/ ecological
         emphasis. These include:


         •        The Reserve (groundwater, rivers, wetlands and estuaries)
         •        Water quality - surface and groundwater
         •        The approach towards the clearing of Invasive Alien Plants
         •        The management of wetlands
         •        Land degradation. Erosion and sedimentation (land care)
         •        Land use and especially how this is impacted by land reform and the re-allocation of
                  water.

         The roles of Co-operative Governance and the need for awareness raising and capacity
         building are key strategic elements of many strategies.

         In reality all strategies and all aspects of management have a strong interaction with the
         biophysical environment. This ISP endeavours to capture all of these concerns in discussion
         and through a strategic approach which emphasises the will of the Department to manage the
         environment to the best benefit of the country and its people.

         The approach set out above applies to all Water Management Areas and associated ISPs, and
         is not repeated within the Strategy Tables (Part 2 of this ISP). It reflects the way the
         Department views Integrated Water Resource Management and the importance of the
         biophysical aspects of decision-making. There may nevertheless be specific ecological and
         biophysical aspects of management which require specific attention and which may not be
         captured in the above-mentioned or other strategies. The ISP therefore still includes an
         Environmental Strategy which serves to make pertinent those issues of the environment which
         might not otherwise be covered.

1.6      THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

         The utilisation of water resources is aimed at the benefit of society, and at society through the
         economy. As noted in Section 1.5 this should not be at undue cost to ecological integrity.

         Impacts on society are a core element of this ISP, and decisions are often complicated by the
         risk of unintended consequence. As a typical example the over-zealous implementation of the
         ecological Reserve may benefit the river, to the intended benefit of society, but the cost of lack
         of use of that water to employment and to livelihoods may lead to other strains on natural
         resources that undo the benefits.

         The implementation of the NWA requires that society be kept at the forefront of all decision-
         making. This principle is now deep-seated within the Department and is integral to all
         strategies. Water resource allocation and use has critical social impact, as does water quality
         management. But pivotal to the social component is the question of equity. What can be done
         and what is being done to redress past inequities? Within this, strategies have been

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         developed to consider the provision of water to Resource Poor Farmers, the use of water
         under Schedule 1, Licensing and General Authorisations, etc. Whilst water supply and
         sanitation are not part of the brief of the ISP, the provision of water to meet these needs most
         certainly is. The urban poor, and the poor in rural villages, are as important in the
         consideration of the distribution and use of water resources as are the rural subsistence poor,
         and this should not be forgotten in the urgencies of land reform and the enthusiasm to
         establish a substantial class of farmers from amongst the previously disadvantaged.

         This ISP aims to see water benefiting society. This can be through access to water in
         livelihood strategies, through small-farmer development programmes, through water supply
         and sanitation and especially the provision of good quality drinking water, and through the
         maintenance and growth of income-producing, job creating, and tax paying agricultural,
         commercial and industrial strategies.

         Consultation and public participation are cornerstones of the social component of any strategic
         document. These requirements are repeatedly stressed throughout the National Water Act.
         This ISP has been prepared as DWAF’s position statement with respect to the management of
         water resources and, although strategies and plans have been captured without consultation
         with the stakeholders, it remains an open and transparent document where the understanding
         of the Department, its visions and its principles are made clear for all to see and with which to
         interact. This is amplified in the Implementation Strategy (Part 2: Strategy no 10) of this ISP.


1.7      WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

         Much of the emphasis in water resource management has revolved around ensuring that
         users have sufficient quantities of water. However, as more water gets used and re-used, as
         quantities get scarce and feedback loops get even tighter, it is quality that begins to take on a
         dominant role.

         Water availability is only as good as the quality of that water. Both quantity and quality need to
         be considered at the correct level of detail, and this can mean that, at times, they should be
         considered with similar emphasis and with similar expenditure of resources. Too often we
         have failed to integrate the issues of quantity and quality – both with regard to surface water
         and groundwater. The concept of Available Assimilative Capacity, the ability of the water
         resource to absorb a level of pollution and remain ‘serviceable’, is as important in water
         resource management as is the concept of Systems Yield.

         Quantity and quality can no longer be managed in isolation of each other, not that this isolation
         has ever been total. The importance of releasing better quality water from Brandvlei Dam for
         freshening the saline water in the lower reaches of the Breede River, and of the addition of
         freshening releases from Vaal Barrage to bring water back to an acceptable quality has, inter
         alia, long been standard practice. The consequences of irrigation, the leaching of fertilisers,
         and more importantly the leaching of salts from deeper soil horizons can render both the lands
         themselves and the receiving rivers unsuitable for use. Diffuse agricultural ‘effluent’ may be


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         less visible than direct discharges of sewage or industrial effluent, but are no less pernicious.

         Direct discharges to rivers are licensed and managed on the basis of assimilative capacities of
         those rivers, and on Receiving Water Quality. Where these limits are exceeded, often through
         the cumulative impact of diffuse discharges, water becomes unavailable to some, or even all,
         users downstream. DWAF will license users to take water, and again to discharge it in
         recognition that there is generally a cost to the resource in terms of a reduction in quality and a
         reduction in its further assimilative capacity. It is for this reason, and in order to bring about
         additional management and a strong incentive, that the Waste Discharge Charge System is
         being developed. Discharge users will be obliged to pay, depending on the quantity and
         quality of their discharge.

         Surface water quality is affected by many things including sediment and erosion, the diffuse
         discharges from irrigated farmland (both fertilisers and salinity through leaching), domestic and
         urban runoff, industrial waste, and sewage discharges. Of these, industrial waste and sewage
         discharges are the easiest to licence and control, but this does not mean that this is problem-
         free. The Department has found that the situation with regard to sewage discharges often far
         exceeds the standards and conditions demanded by licences. There is a problem of
         compliance with regard to Local Authorities and private operators responsible for waste
         management systems. Diffuse discharges only compound the problem by reducing the
         assimilative capacity until the water becomes unfit for use, very expensive to purify, and a
         danger to human health.

         Groundwater quality requires equal attention, and more so as we recognise the importance of
         groundwater in supplementing our meagre resources, and providing water to remote
         communities. Although our groundwater resources are, for the most part, to be found at a
         relatively deep level (50-100m is quite typical) this water can easily be polluted by surface
         activity. The leaching of fertilisers is one such problem, but of greater concern is the influx of
         nitrates, primarily a consequence of human habitation and sanitation. Pit latrines are on the
         one hand so necessary, and have the huge advantage of not requiring volumes of water, but
         disposal is ‘on-site’, and often responsible for the longer-term pollution of the underlying
         aquifers which feed and water the communities above.

         Water quality is a very important aspect of strategy within this ISP – considered primarily
         within the Water Quality Strategy and also under Groundwater. Industrial wastewater
         discharge, diffuse agricultural discharges, wastewater treatment works, the location and
         management of solid waste disposal sites, the siting of new developments, informal
         settlements and the impacts of sanitation systems, are all elements considered with great
         concern in this and other ISPs. Despite this attention it may be that Water Quality has still not
         taken its rightful place in the integrated management of the water resource. But the
         Department is moving towards IWRM and the integration of quantity and quality issues.
         Managers have now been given crosscutting responsibilities that will ensure a far more
         integrated approach in future.



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         Actions recommended within the Department include:


         •        The need to actively workshop the integration process.        Resource Management,
                  Planning and Allocations of Groundwater and Surface Water Quantity and Quality.
         •        The review and incorporation of knowledge from recent Water Research Commission
                  Studies on both radioactivity and nitrates (groundwater quality issues).
         •        A review of all water quality literature reflecting situational knowledge and
                  understanding within this WMA (and each and every WMA).
         •        Ensure that Water Quality monitoring is fully integrated into WMA water resources
                  monitoring.

         Refer particularly to Strategies A1.1, A1.3, A2.2, A4.1, A7.1 and A8 in Part 2 of this ISP.

1.8      GROUNDWATER

         The ISP process in all of the Water Management Areas of South Africa has highlighted the
         role and importance of groundwater as part of the total water resource. Although groundwater
         has always been important in some areas this overall vision is a significant advance on our
         previous understanding of the potential for groundwater use. With the surface water resources
         in many WMAs now fully utilised, almost the only opportunity left for further development lies in
         the exploitation of groundwater.

         More particularly, it is recognised that many of the more remote towns and villages, far from
         surface supplies, can in fact supply or supplement existing sources through groundwater, and
         that this must become a priority option. So, too, many small communities and subsistence
         farmers can avail themselves of groundwater when it would otherwise be impossible or
         impractical to lay on piped supplies. This can also reduce the pressure on existing users and
         perhaps even circumvent the need for Compulsory Licensing. The Department will be
         developing its capacity to explore and encourage the use of groundwater.

         Of obvious concern is the likelihood of an interaction between groundwater and surface water.
         If the interaction is strong then additional use of groundwater may simply be reducing the
         surface water resource already allocated to someone else. In some instances (such as in the
         case of dolomitic aquifers) this interaction can indeed be very strong, whilst across many
         areas of the country it is so weak as to be negligible. In these circumstances groundwater
         comprises a huge pool of available water, which is only of benefit if it is utilised. Care must
         always be taken with the issuing of licences to ensure that both the Groundwater Reserve and
         other downstream users do not end up being the losers.

         The realisation in this and other ISPs is that groundwater offers a huge resource of water
         which can be tapped, and that this can be a very significant supplement to the national water
         resource.




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1.9      PUBLIC RECREATION - THE USE OF DAMS AND RIVERS

         The use of water for recreational purposes is one of the 11 water uses regulated in terms of
         the NWA (Section 21 j). The Department is developing a national policy towards ‘Recreation
         on Dams and Rivers’ and this should, in the first instance, be adhered to. Recreational use
         can take many forms and only occasionally has any direct impact on the water resource. Most
         obvious are activities such as power-boating, sailing and swimming which can have quality /
         pollution impacts. Far more significant in terms of both quantity and quality is the release of
         water to allow for canoeing and other water sports downstream (The Lower Vaal, Dusi and
         Fish River canoe marathons being prime examples). These activities can bring very
         significant economic benefits to the WMAs concerned, and where water releases can be
         accommodated, particularly through alignment with the needs of the ecological Reserve or
         other downstream users, then so much the better.

         It is noted in this ISP that water resources offer a very significant recreational outlet and that
         recreation is an important public and social asset necessary for national health and
         productivity. A central philosophy is that recreational opportunity should not be unreasonably
         and unnecessarily denied to users, and that the implementation of policy should ensure that
         disadvantaged and poor people should also be able to avail themselves of opportunities.

         The Department has already transferred responsibility for the management of many public
         waters to Local Authorities and will continue with this process. Responsibility will therefore
         devolve upon these Authorities, but within the broad principles as laid down by the
         Department.

         In this ISP refer to Strategy 7.2.

1.10     CO-OPERATIVE GOVERNANCE – the place of the ISP

         The ISP is DWAF’s approach to the management of water resources within the WMA. This
         will, in the longer term, be replaced by a fully consultative Catchment Management Agency.
         What is most important, in the medium term, is that the ISP has a good fit with the Provincial
         Growth and Development Plan, with regional and other Environmental Management Plans,
         with plans and expectations of the Departments of Agriculture, Land Affairs, the Environment
         and others. It must also be aligned with the Integrated Development Plans and Water
         Services Development Plans now required for each District Municipality. Water is very often a
         constraining feature in development, and co-operative governance planning and
         implementation is essential in matching what is wanted with what is possible.




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ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA



CHAPTER 2 : BROAD PERSPECTIVE REGARDING THE WATER SITUATION IN THE
MIDDLE VAAL WMA

2.1      Introduction

         In this chapter summarised information from the NWRS and the “Overview of Water
         Resources Availability and Utilisation” reports for the Middle Vaal WMA (DWAF, 2003a) is
         included to provide the reader with the required background of the water situation in the
         Middle Vaal WMA. When more detailed background information is required the reader is
         referred to the NWRS document and secondly to the “Overview of Water Resources
         Availability and Utilisation” reports for each WMA. These reports should, in general,
         provide sufficient detail for most readers. Even more detail can be obtained from the
         “Water Resources Situation Assessment Study” as prepared for each Water Management
         Area (DWAF, 2002).

         The Middle Vaal WMA is part of a larger water supply system which includes adjacent
         WMAs. This system is referred to in this document as the Vaal River System. A schematic
         of the system is shown in Appendix B. The Vaal Overarching ISP has been developed to
         deal with the strategies for this system. The Middle Vaal WMA is one of three WMAs in the
         Vaal River System, which is the drainage area of the Vaal River from its headwaters to the
         confluence of the Vaal and Orange Rivers. The Middle Vaal ISP should be read in
         conjunction with the Vaal Overarching ISP (DWAF, 2004b) to gain a complete
         understanding of the strategies for the WMA.

         This chapter is structured to capture the background and related strategies for the Middle
         Vaal WMA in a logical and descriptive manner. A broad overview of the salient details that
         were identified in the Middle Vaal WMA workshops is also included. This will at the same
         time serve as an introduction to the detailed descriptions of the strategies that are
         presented in Appendix A.

         The tables in Appendix A present the strategies in a structured format which includes
         management objectives, background information in support of the motivation for the
         strategies, management actions that are required for the implementation as well as lists of
         related issues that were raised at the workshops or captured from study reports. The
         tables also contain cells to indicate the priority or relative importance of each strategy as
         well as which of the DWAF Directorates would be responsible for implementation. A
         distinction is also drawn between over-arching Vaal River System issues, which will be
         dealt with at a national level, and regional issues, which will be dealt with by the CMA.

         In addition to the water resource system specific issues, listed in Appendix A, issues or
         strategies that were identified for consideration at national level are excluded from this
         document and will be dealt with through a separate document that will focus on all the
         National Issues. These items typically cover aspects that should be under the Minister’s


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ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA



         control, relate to national policy, or were identified in several other WMAs and therefore
         require a high level of co-ordination.

2.2      General Catchment Description

2.2.1    Overview

         The Middle Vaal WMA is located downstream of the confluence of the Vaal and the
         Rietspruit Rivers and upstream of Bloemhof Dam; It extends to the headwaters of the
         Schoonspruit River in the north and the Vet River in the south, covering a total catchment
         area of 52 563 km2. The Middle Vaal WMA includes parts of Free State and North-West
         provinces.

         Major rivers in the Middle Vaal Water Management Area include the Schoonspruit,
         Rhenoster, Vals, Vet and Vaal rivers. The tertiary drainage areas in the Middle Vaal WMA
         comprises C24, C25, C41, C43, C60 and C70.


         The NWRS describes and discusses the Middle Vaal WMA in three sub-areas, viz. the
         Rhenoster/Vals, Sand/Vet and Middle Vaal. The geographical extent of the sub-areas are
         shown in Figure 2.1. The broad overview of the water resource in the Middle Vaal WMA is
         discussed in terms of the NWRS sub-areas. A more detailed map showing the sub-
         catchments and the main tributaries is given in Appendix B.


         The Middle Vaal is part of the Vaal River System. The Vaal River forms the main tributary
         to the Orange River and originates on the plateau west of the Drakensberg escarpment
         and drains much of the central highveld of South Africa.        Within South Africa, the
         Orange/Vaal River Basin includes 5 of the 19 Water Management Areas (WMA). These
         are the Upper Vaal, Middle Vaal, Lower Vaal, Upper Orange and Lower Orange WMAs.
         The Middle Vaal WMA lies between the Upper and Lower Vaal WMA’s, with the Crocodile
         West and Marico WMA to the north and the Upper Orange WMA to the south of the Middle
         Vaal WMA.


         The Vaal River is probably the most developed and regulated river in Southern Africa,
         while some of the largest dams in Africa have been built in Lesotho and on the main stem
         of the Orange River. Although linked together by the natural watercourses, a particular
         characteristic of the Orange/Vaal WMAs is the extensive inter-catchment transfer of water
         within WMAs as well as interbasin transfers between these and other adjoining WMAs.


         The Middle Vaal WMA is largely dependent on water releases from the Upper Vaal WMA
         for meeting the bulk of the water requirements by the urban, mining and industrial sectors


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ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA



         within its area of jurisdiction, with local resources mainly used for irrigation and smaller
         towns. However, local resources are also used for urban use, such as the dependency of
         Sedibeng Water on Allemanskraal Dam for water supply to Virginia. Water is also
         transferred via the Vaal River through this WMA, from the Upper Vaal WMA to the Lower
         Vaal WMA. Water quality in the Vaal River is strongly influenced by usage and
         management practices in the Upper Vaal WMA.

2.2.2    Topography

         The water in the Middle Vaal WMA flows from the Upper Vaal, across the Middle Vaal,
         Lower Vaal and Lower Orange WMAs before reaching the Atlantic Ocean near the town of
         Alexander Bay in the western corner of the country. This cascading characteristic
         illustrates the interdependence of the 5 WMAs in the Vaal River system and emphasises
         the need for water resource management to take place across the WMA boundaries.

         The Middle Vaal WMA is relatively flat with a maximum elevation of about 2 200 m in the
         hilly upper reaches of the Vals River and a minimum elevation of about 1 250 m in the
         vicinity of Bloemhof Dam. Pans and other enclosed drainage basins are features of the
         western parts. In this WMA the predominant veld type is “pure grassveld”. In the northern
         areas there is a bit of “false grassveld” while upstream of Bloemhof Dam there is some
         “tropical bush and savanna”.


2.2.3    Geology and Soils

         The geology is varied with a large dolomitic intrusion occurring in the Orkney area of the
         WMA. Diamonds are found in the north east of the WMA, with rich gold ore in the vicinity
         of Klerksdorp and Welkom. The area south of the Vaal River is underlain by fine
         sedimentary rocks of the Karoo system, which represents about 80% of the Vaal River
         Basin. To the north of the Vaal River igneous and metamorphic rocks predominate but
         there are extensive dolomitic exposures in the most northerly part of this WMA and also
         east of Klerksdorp.

         Soil depths are generally moderate to deep with flat to undulating relief over the entire
         Middle Vaal WMA. There are three main soil types that predominate and these are
         distributed across the catchment as follows:

         Sandy Loam : Most of the WMA consists of this soil type from the central portion of the
                            WMA upstream of Bloemhof Dam.
         Clay Loam:         This soil type extends from the sandy loam area further eastwards into the
                            headwaters of the Sand, Vet, Elandspruit and Renoster Rivers.
         Clay Soil:         A relatively small area at the confluence of the Sand and Vet Rivers.

         A detailed report on the groundwater in the WMA is given in Appendix D.


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ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA



         Figure 2.1 : Layout and location of the Middle Vaal WMA




                                                            828




              500


                                                       59




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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



2.2.4    Climate

         Climatic conditions can vary considerably from west to east across the Middle Vaal WMA
         The mean annual temperature ranges between 18 °C in the west to 14 °C in the east, with
         an average of about 16 °C for the catchment as a whole. Maximum temperatures are
         experienced in January and minimum temperatures usually occur in July. Rainfall is
         strongly seasonal with most rain occurring in the summer period (October to April). The
         peak rainfall months are December and January. Rainfall occurs generally as convective
         thunderstorms and is sometimes accompanied by hail. The overall feature of mean annual
         rainfall over the Middle Vaal WMA is that it decreases fairly uniformly westwards from the
         eastern escarpment regions across the central plateau area. The MAP for the watershed
         ranges from a high of 700 mm in the east to a low of 500 mm in the west with an average
         of about 550 mm.


         Frost occurs throughout the Middle Vaal WMA in winter, typically over the period mid-May
         to late August. The average number of frost days per year for the Middle Vaal as a whole
         ranges from 30 in the northern and eastern parts up to 40 in the central plateau areas of
         the Free State.


         Humidity is generally highest in February (the daily mean over the Middle Vaal WMA
         ranges from 62 % in the west to 66 % in the east) and lowest in August (the daily mean
         ranges from of 52 % in the west to 58 % in the east).


         Average gross potential mean annual evaporation (as measured by Class A-pan) ranges
         from 1 800 mm in the east to a high of 2 600 mm in the dry western parts. The highest A-
         pan evaporation is in January (range 200 mm to 300 mm) and the lowest evaporation is in
         June (100 mm to 120 mm).

2.2.5    Environmentally Sensitive Areas

         The Allemanskraal game reserve is the best known reserve in the water management
         area. Some smaller conservation areas are also to be found in the Middle Vaal water
         management area.

2.2.6    Demography, Land Use and Development

         The Middle Vaal water management area is relatively sparsely populated and represents
         just over 3% of the national population. The total urban population in this WMA is
         approximately 1,1 million while the rural population is approximately 0,4 million (1995
         figures). Most of the urban and rural population is concentrated in the Middle Vaal sub-
         area (quaternaries C24 and C25) in the main urban and mining centres of Klerksdorp,
         Orkney and Stilfontein, as well as the Vet sub-catchment (quaternaries C41, C42 and

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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         C43), in the main urban and mining centres of Welkom and Virginia. A relatively large
         population is also evident in the Rhenoster-Vals sub-area in the town of Kroonstad (which
         is not a mining town).

         The future demography and population distribution of the water management area will
         largely be influenced by economic opportunities and potential. Urban populations are
         expected to decline over much of the water management area mainly as a result of the
         decline in mining activity as well as due to a lack of other economic stimulants in the
         region. However, moderate population growth is foreseen in the Middle Vaal sub-area,
         which is probably attributable to the migration of people towards the more diversified
         economy in the Klerksdorp area in search of economic opportunities. This trend is
         expected to stabilise after 2005. A decline in rural population is also expected throughout
         the water management area as the pace of urbanisation in the country gains momentum.

         Table 2.1: Middle Vaal WMA : Population in 1995
         Source : Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Water Resources Situation Assessment, August 2002

                                               CATCHMENT                                      POPULATION IN 1995
         PRIMARY               SECONDARY                               TERTIARY
                                                                                              URBAN      RURAL     TOTAL
         No. Description    No.     Description      No.        Sub-catchment Description
         C     Vaal            C7   Rhenoster        C70        Rhenoster (70A-K)               62 350    37 856    100 206
                               C6   Vals             C60        Vals (C60A-J)                  148 050    41 152    189 202
                               C2   Schoonspruit     C24        Schoonspruit (C24C-G)           21 150    31 915     53 065

                                    Vaal             C24-C25    Vaal (C24A-B, C24H-J, C25A-    404 700    89 497    494 197
                                                                C)
                                    Bloemhof         C25        U/S Bloemhof (C25D-F)           51 200    21 961     73 161
                               C4   Allemanskraal   C42         Allemanskraal (C42A-E)           4 150    16 717     40 867
                                    Erfenis          C41        Erfenis (C41A-E)                26 500    18 408     44 908
                                    Vet             C41-C43     Vet (C41F-J, C42F-L,C43A-D)    376 800   136 695    513 495
         Total in Free State                                                                   708 950   310 263   1 019 213
         Total in North-West                                                                   405 950    83 939    489 889
         TOTAL IN WMA                                                                         1114 900   394 202   1 509 102



         The predominant land use, in the Middle Vaal WMA is rain fed cultivation covering about
         40% of the 53 000 km2 of the WMA with the main crops being wheat and fodder pastures
         (kikuyu and rye). This percentage was obtained through visual inspection of Figure 3 of
         reference, DWAF (2003a). Irrigation covers an area of about 210 km2 and alien vegetation
         70 km2.

         Agriculture is one of the main activities in this WMA. The irrigation of crops such as maize,
         groundnuts, sorghum and sunflowers occurs mainly downstream of the dams and along
         the Vaal River. The Sand-Vet GWS is the most important irrigation area in the WMA.
         Livestock farming consisting mainly of beef, dairy and sheep farming enterprises as well as
         some game farming. There is no sugarcane or significant afforestation in this WMA.




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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         Urban development is significant in the area of the North West Goldfields (Klerksdorp,
         Orkney and Stilfontein) and the Free State Goldfields (Welkom, Virginia, etc). The MidVaal
         Water Company is the main supplier of bulk water to urban areas in the North West
         Goldfields and Sedibeng Water is the main supplier of bulk water in the Free State
         Goldfields.


         There are no significant power stations or large industries in the WMA. The WMA is
         characterised by a large number of gold mines (Free State Goldfields area and North West
         Goldfields area).         The economy of the Middle Vaal WMA is dominated by the mining
         sector, particularly gold mining. The following table shows land use per sub-catchment as
         well as population.


             Table 2.2: Middle Vaal WMA : Land Use & Population
             Source:     Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Water Resources Situation Assessment, August 2002

                                            Irrigation      Alien                                      Total
              CATCHMENT                                                    Urban         Other
                                            (field area)    vegetation                                 (km²)         Population
                                                                           (km²)         (km²)
              No.      Description          (km²)           (km²)
              C7       Rhenoster                    21,9               0             0      6 634,1         6 656            100 206
              C6       Vals                          2,4             1,6           43       7 824,0        7 871             189 202
              C2       Schoonspruit                 41,8             3,9             0      5 598,3        5 644              53 065
                       Vaal                          9,4           17,8            78       8 175,8         8 281            494 197
                       Bloemhof                        0           45,8              0      4 913,2         4 959             73 161
              C4       Allemanskraal                   0               0             0    3 628,00         3 628              40 867
                       Erfenis                         0               0             0    4 724,00          4 724             44 908
                       Vet                        132,4              1,5          131     10 535,1        10 800             513 495
              Total in Free State                 161,5            31,6           174     38 573,7      38 940,8        1 019 213
              Total in North-West                   46,4           39,0            78     13 458,8      13 622,2             489 889
              TOTAL IN WMA                        207,9            70,6           252     52 032,5      52 563,0        1 509 102

             (1) Dryland sugar cane and afforestation all zero.
             (2) For Dryland crops, Nature Reserves and Rural Settlements, data was not readily available.
             (3) Field area (or green cover area) taken from the Vaal River Irrigation Study (Loxton Venn & Assoc., 1999b)


2.2.7    Economic Characterisation of the WMA


         The economy of the Middle Vaal WMA contributes about 4% of the GDP of South Africa.
         The GGP of the Middle Vaal WMA was R20,7bn in 1997. The most important magisterial
         districts in terms of contribution to GGP in this WMA are shown below:
                •    Klerksdorp                 33,5%
                •    Welkom                     26,6%
                •    Virginia                   10,0%
                •    Kroonstad                  7,2%
                •    Other                      22,7%


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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



2.2.8 Economic Profile


         The composition of the Middle Vaal WMA economy is shown in Figure 2.2.                      The most
         important sectors in terms of contribution to GGP are shown below:


                •    Mining           45,6%
                •    Trade            12,3%
                •    Agriculture      8,9%
                •    Other            33,2%




         Source : Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability, September 2003


         Figure 2.2 : Contribution by Sector to Economy of Middle Vaal WMA, 1988 and 1997 (%)


         Some of the main irrigation crops are maize, groundnuts and sorghum. There has recently
         been an increase in sunflower production, because of an unstable maize market and
         higher profit margins on sunflower production. Livestock farming consists mainly of dairy,
         beef and sheep farming enterprises.

         The main economic sector in the Middle Vaal WMA is mining, with a contribution of 45,6%
         to GGP. The main mining activity in this area is gold mining. Although very few gold
         mines have a life span beyond the year 2010, the reserve base in the Goldfields District
         could support gold mining up to the year 2030.

         The trade sector is the second largest contributor to GGP, with a contribution of 12,3%.
         The trade sector is dependent on levels of demand in the economy, which are largely

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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         driven by personal consumption expenditure, capital investment and international trade.
         Manufacturing activities in the water management area mainly relate to the mining and
         agriculture sectors as well as items for local consumption.

         According to the report “Overview of Water Resources Availability and Utilisation for the
         Middle Vaal WMA, September 2003, the Middle Vaal WMA has a work force of 659 000
         people (1994 figures). The breakdown of employment of the workforce is as follows:


           •    Formal Sector - 67% (24% mining, 16% government, 12% agriculture, 15% other)
           •    Informal Sector - 10%
           •    Unemployed            - 23% (national average 29%)

         The economy of the water management area is expected to remain largely static over the
         medium term as there are no major economic drivers in the region. Gold mining is
         probably the most important sector where this water management area has a comparative
         advantage over other mining districts in South Africa. However the contribution of gold
         mining to the economy of this region is not expected to grow as production by this sector is
         set to decline.

         Bearing in mind that about 46% of the GGP in the water management area comes from the
         mining sector, such decline will have a significant impact on the socio-economic status of
         the region as well as on water requirements in the water management area. The decline in
         the mining sector will have a ripple effect on other sectors such as the construction sector
         in the region, which has a strong reliance on the mining industry.

         The agricultural sector is however expected to remain relatively stable as a result of the
         diversity of products both in terms of crop and livestock production. Levels of production
         by the agricultural sector in the region will remain unchanged in the medium term and
         agriculture will continue to make an important contribution to the regional economy.

2.3      Water Resource availability

2.3.1    Surface Water

         The bulk of the surface water in the Middle Vaal water management area is derived from
         the Vaal River, most of which originates in the Upper Vaal water management area. The
         Surface water flows that originate within the water management area are highly seasonal
         and variable, with intermittent flow in many of the tributaries. There are no natural lakes or
         swamps in the water management area. Vlei areas occur along the lower Vet River and in
         the upper Schoonspruit catchment. Base flow in the Schoonspruit is fed from dolomitic
         springs in the upper reaches (much of which is abstracted for irrigation and urban use in
         the Ventersdorp area).



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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         There are no commercial forests in the water management area, although significant
         quantities of water are estimated to be lost through infestations by alien vegetation, much
         of which occur on the banks of the Vaal River. No significant land use impacts have been
         quantified in the water management area, although some influence on the water resources
         will result from the large areas under cultivation. A summary of the natural mean annual
         runoff (MAR), together with the estimated requirements of the ecological component of the
         Reserve, is given in Table 2.3.


         Table 2.3: Natural Mean Annual Runoff and Ecological Reserve (million m³/a)
         Source : Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability, September 2003
                                             Natural MAR                     Ecological Reserve
                  Sub-area
                                                 (1)                                ( 2)
             Rhenoster-Vals                      295                                  35
             Middle Vaal                         170                                  29
             Sand-Vet                            423                                  45

             Total                               888                                 109
         1. Quantities given are incremental, and refer to the sub-area under consideration only.
         2. Total volume given, based on preliminary estimates. Impact on yield is a portion of this.


         According to the Middle Vaal WMA Overview of Water Resources Availability Report,
         DWAF (2003a), “It is important to note that the data with respect to the mean annual runoff
         as well as the ecological component of the Reserve have been taken from national data
         sources, for the purpose of compatibility of the water management area information in the
         National Water Resource Strategy. In many instances more detailed studies have been
         conducted or are under way, from which improved information may be obtained (also on
         items other than the MAR and Reserve, eg. Water quality), and which should also be
         referred to with respect to detail planning and design work.”

         “Naturally the quality of surface water in the water management area is good, but can be of
         high turbidity. Wash-off and return flows from urban areas in the proximity of the Vaal
         River and its main tributaries, such as at Klerksdorp, also impact on water quality. Water
         that enters the Middle Vaal water management area along the Vaal River, contains a large
         proportion of urban and industrial return flows from the Johannesburg area with part of the
         water having been through more than one cycle of use. As a consequence, salinity levels
         can be very high and need to be managed through blending with fresh water in the Upper
         Vaal water management area, so as not to exceed certain target concentrations. High
         nutrient concentrations also occur as a result of the large domestic component of return
         flows which, together with the low turbidity of the return flows, stimulates excessive algal
         growth.    Pollution of the Schoonspruit has also been experienced as a result of the
         impacts of diamond digging operations on the banks of the river.”

         “Development of surface water naturally occurring in the water management area has
         reached its potential and all the water is being fully utilised. The main storage dams are:



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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         Rietspruit and Johan Neser Dams on the Schoonspruit tributary in the Middle Vaal sub
         area; Koppies Dam on the Rhenoster River, Serfontein Dam and a diversion weir on the
         Vals River together with the off-channel Bloemhoef Dam at Kroonstad, in the Rhenoster
         Vals sub-area; and Allemanskraal Dam on the Sand River and Erfenis Dam on the Vet
         River, in the Sand-Vet sub-area.”

         “Bloemhof Dam is located on the Vaal River immediately below the confluence of the Vet
         River. The dam structure is in the Lower Vaal water management area, although most of
         the reservoir falls within the Middle Vaal water management area. The yield from the dam
         is available in the Lower Vaal water management area. The incremental yield of Bloemhof
         Dam is not sufficient to meet the water requirements imposed on the dam, with the result
         that releases are required from the Vaal Dam (in the Upper Vaal WMA), particularly during
         low runoff periods.”

         “The dams on the tributaries are operated independently from the Vaal River, although
         flood spillage from the dams and flow from unregulated tributaries, are captured at
         Bloemhof Dam at the downstream end of the water management area. The full yield from
         the local surface runoff is used within the water management area, mostly for irrigation, but
         with a large proportion also for urban supplies to towns in the water management area.”

         “In addition, large quantities of water are released into the water management area along
         the Vaal River, to augment the local resources. Most of this water is used for urban,
         industrial and mining purposes in the Klerksdorp-Orkney and Welkom-Virginia areas.
         Water is also abstracted from the Vaal River for supply to Bothaville and Wolmaranstad as
         well as for irrigation. A small quantity of water is transferred from Vaal Dam in the Upper
         Vaal water management area to Heilbron in the Middle Vaal water management area, and
         a small transfer also exists from Erfenis Dam in the Middle Vaal water management area to
         Brandfort in the Upper Orange water management area.”

         “Additional regulations of surface water have been considered for water quality
         management. However, further development of surface resources is not regarded as
         feasible.”

2.3.2    Groundwater

         Large dolomitic aquifers occur in the northern part of the water management area. These
         extend from Stilfontein in a northern direction and across the water management area in
         the vicinity of Ventersdorp. The aquifers, which occur in different compartments, also
         underlay large parts of the Upper Vaal, Middle Vaal, and Crocodile (West) and Marico
         water management areas. The remainder of the water management area is mostly
         underlain by fractured rock aquifers, which are well utilised for rural water supplies and with
         little undeveloped potential remaining. Groundwater is essentially used for mining,
         agriculture and domestic use in this WMA.


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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         Mining plays a major role in the economic development of this WMA, especially in the
         KOSH area (Klerksdorp-Orkney-Stilfontein-Hartbeesfontein area). The impacts from the
         gold mining activities on groundwater has been recognised as early as 1960 when
         localised dewatering became an issue at Stilfontein Gold Mine. Only more recently have
         the impacts on the quality of the groundwater and the interaction with the Vaal River
         become a concern.

         There are five major gold mines active in the area and several diamond mine activities
         (varying from small scale one man operations to larger scale operations). Groundwater is
         abstracted for different uses at these mines. The largest volumes are abstracted at
         Stilfontein Gold Mine’s Margaret Shaft. Although Stilfontein’s underground operations has
         ceased for more than ten years, pumping at Margaret shaft continues for the safety of the
         downstream mines. The volume of water abstracted daily is estimated at 32 Ml/d. The
         water is utilized by a number of users and any excess is discharged to the Koekemoer
         Spruit. Groundwater is also abstracted from other operating shafts in the KOSH mining
         area for safety and the water is utilized as process water.

         The second largest abstraction of groundwater is from “scavenger” boreholes on the
         northern banks of the Vaal River. These boreholes serve as a barrier for polluted
         groundwater emanating from tailings and waste rock deposits in a high permeability zone
         of the dolomites. This water is utilised in the gold recovery processes. Some small-scale
         abstraction is also done for the purpose of irrigation at recreational and sports parks on the
         mine properties. Skeat mine located north-west of Klerksdorp is totally dependent on
         groundwater and numerous other mines and diamond diggings also utilize large amounts
         of water from alluvial type aquifers in the catchment.

         Although mining has reduced significantly from the boom in the 1980s there are still five
         major mining houses currently involved in gold mining and diamond mining. Due to the
         large quantities of water present in the mined Witwatersrand rocks, a large quantity of
         water (120 -150 Ml/d) is pumped to the surface for accessibility each day. This
         groundwater however has average conductivities of 500 mS/m and cannot be used for
         drinking or irrigation purposes. A small portion is diluted with potable water and used as
         process water and the remainder is pumped to evaporation areas and pans. This has a
         negative impact on the localized shallow aquifers in the area. The yields of the shallow
         aquifers are very low and thus little abstraction takes place for other uses by the mines.
         Both in the KOSH and Free State Goldfields areas the only industrial activities utilizing
         groundwater is related to the mining industry.

         As previously stated in the ISP document agriculture also plays a major role in terms of
         economic development in this WMA. Almost every farm unit in the WMA is dependent on
         groundwater for domestic and stock watering use. The areas where large-scale irrigation
         takes place from groundwater resources are the Ventersdorp dolomitic compartment and
         from the Karoo aquifers north of Wesselsbron. The Ventersdorp compartment has been


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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         studied in several investigations since its declaration as a Government Subterranean
         Water Control Area and the latest figures on water use are 40.9 million m3/a for irrigation
         and 1.3 million m3/a for mining activities.

         Groundwater is also utilized for individual domestic use in most rural and farming areas.
         Certain towns are dependent on groundwater either solely or partially in this WMA, namely
         Ventersdorp, Hartbeesfontein, Coligny, Leeudoringstad, Makwassie, Hartbeesfontein,
         Dominiumville, Bultfontein, Marquard, Verkeerdevlei, Paul Roux, Petrus Steyn, Steynsrus,
         Edenville and several rural/ tribal villages in the Ventersdorp municipal area. There are
         also several private boreholes in urban areas that are often utilized for garden irrigation
         and domestic uses such as filling of swimming pools, etc.

         Water quality of groundwater in this WMA is generally poor and is characterised by higher
         than normal salinity. The poor quality groundwater that is abstracted from the deep mining
         areas in the Free State Goldfields is another example of natural occurring poor quality
         water. The old Vierfontein colliery is currently decanting into the Vierfontein Spruit, which
         flows north into the Vaal River east of Orkney, the quality of which is characterised with
         high salinity and sulfate values. There are several sources of point and diffuse
         groundwater pollution in the WMA. Most of these sources are related to mining activities,
         in particular abandoned mines, but agriculture and urban activities also influence the
         quality of groundwater.

         In terms of agriculture, the contribution to pollution of each farm on a local scale is often
         fairly small but the contribution on a catchment scale needs to be included in assessing
         any pollution situation. In urban areas, poor management of sewage treatment works
         contribute to the groundwater pollution by discharging raw sewage directly into evaporation
         pans. Other sources of pollution are landfill sites, on-site sanitation (especially in informal
         settlements) and spills resulting from accidents or leaking underground tanks.

         Groundwater quality is monitored on three levels in the Middle Vaal WMA, namely the
         National monitoring network (level 1), Regional networks (level 2) and compliance
         monitoring (Level 3). The national monitoring network, which has the purpose of
         measuring ambient groundwater quality and samples for macro chemical analyses, are
         taken once every six months in 7 monitoring boreholes located in the Middle Vaal WMA.
         On regional level (level 2) there are boreholes in the Schoonspruit dolomitic compartment,
         Wesselsbron and KOSH areas, and for the purpose of compliance monitoring there are
         site-specific boreholes at mines and municipalities.

         This WMA exhibits certain regions where there is pronounced interaction between surface
         and groundwater. A relatively good understanding of groundwater and surface water is
         available separately, but the current understanding of the impact of groundwater
         abstraction on downstream surface water resources is inadequate. It is believed that the
         groundwater/ surface water interaction between the dolomites in the Schoonspruit area


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         results in approximately 73.1Ml/day (26.7 million m3/annum) of water contributing to the
         Vaal River with the associated salt load to the river system.

         A study needs to be undertaken to improve the modelling of the Schoonspruit and to
         provide answers with regard to the relationship between dolomitic water and surface water.
         This study should take cognisance of the catchment management strategy that is presently
         being developed for the Schoonspuit sub-catchment. The study should include an
         assessment of the availability in the Johan Neser Dam which is located downstream of the
         dolomites and is possibly being negatively affected by the abstractions from the dolomites.

         The flow of groundwater between aquifers is also an area that requires better
         understanding. A study has therefore started in the dolomitic compartments of the
         Schoonspruit and Crocodile/Marico areas to investigate groundwater resources that
         straddle the aquifers of these catchments in order to understand the flow of groundwater in
         these areas as well as to ensure that resource availability is not duplicated and the
         management of the resource is allocated to one of the CMAs.

         Often groundwater is an inexpensive resource to develop for domestic water supply for
         communities that are located far from existing surface water bulk supply systems. The
         utilisation of this resource should be encouraged and investigations on the expansion of
         the water resources should include assessments of the available groundwater. The
         utilisation of groundwater in areas outside of the boundaries of municipalities should also
         be investigated. Emerging farmers can also benefit by the exploitation of groundwater for
         irrigation and livestock farming and the WUAs could play an active role in this regard.

         A groundwater report for the Middle Vaal WMA is included as Appendix D to this report.

2.3.3 Overall Water Availability

         The total water available for use in the Middle Vaal water management area at the year
         2000 development levels, is summarised in Table 2.4.


         Of the total yield available in the water management area, 80% is attributable to inflows
         from the Upper Vaal water management area, 60% of which flows through the Middle Vaal
         water management area into the Lower Vaal water management area. Therefore, only
         40% of the yield transferred into the Middle Vaal water management area is used locally,
         the bulk of which is in the Klerksdorp-Orkney and Welkom-Virginia areas.


         A significant quantity of water is also lost through evaporation and riparian vegetation
         along the Vaal River, which is in excess of the run-of-river yield contributed by local
         inflows, resulting in a negative yield for the Middle Vaal sub-area as shown in Table 2.4.



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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



              Table 2.4 : Available water in year 2000 (million m³/a)
              Source : Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability, September 2003

                                            Natural resource                     Usable return flow
                                                                                                                        Total local        Transfers       Grand
                    Sub-area
                                        Surface         Ground-                                        Mining and         yield               In           Total
                                                                      Irrigation           Urban
                                         water           Water                                            bulk              (1)

                Rhenoster-Vals                  22           12                   3                7           0                 44               1            45
                Middle Vaal                  ( 201)          25                   3            15             16             ( 142)             828           686
                Sand-Vet                       112           17                  10                7           1               147               59           206

                Total                         ( 67)          54                  16            29             17                 49             829           878


              1. After allowance for the impacts on yield of ecological component of Reserve, river losses, alien vegetation, rain-fed
                 agriculture and urban runoff.



2.4      Water Requirements

2.4.1    Current Water Requirements (Year 2000)

         According to the Middle Vaal WMA Overview of Water Resources Availability Report,
         DWAF (2003a), “About 40% of the total water requirements in the WMA is for irrigation,
         nearly 30% for urban and industrial use, about 20% for mining and 10% for rural
         requirements. Most of the irrigation occurs in the Sand-Vet area, where it is supplied from
         the Allemanskraal and Erfenis Dams, with the remainder split roughly equally between the
         other two sub-areas. Water from urban, industrial and mining use is mainly required in the
         Klerksdorp-Orkney-Stilfontein and Welkom-Virginia area, with urban water requirements at
         Kroonstad. A summary of the sectoral water requirements in each of the sub-areas is
         given in Table 2.5. at a standard 98% assurance of supply.”

         Table 2.5: Year 2000 Water Requirements (million m³/a)
         Source : Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability, September 2003
                                                                             Mining
                                               Urban         Rural         And bulk     Power              Affore-       Total local Transfers             Grand
              Sub-area         Irrigation
                                                                           industrial generation           station      requirements    out                Total
                                                 (1)           (1)            (2)        (3)                                            (4)
          Rhenoster-                  26               20             8                0               0            0                 54               0       54
          V l Vaal
          Middle                      33               35             3               48               0            0            129              559         688
          Sand-Vet                   100               38            11               38               0            0            187                   2      189

          Total                      159               93            32               86               0            0            370              502         872
         1)     Includes component of Reserve for basic human needs at 25 ℓ/c/d.
         2)     Mining and bulk industrial water uses which are not part of urban systems.
         3)     Includes water for thermal power generation only. (Water for hydropower, which represents a small portion of power
                generation in South Africa, is generally available for other uses as well.)
         4)     Transfers into and out of sub-catchments may include transfers between sub-catchments as well as transfers between
                WMAs. Addition of the transfers per sub-catchment therefore does not necessarily correspond to the total transfers into
                and out of the WMA.




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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         “Although most of the water in the Sand-Vet sub-area is used for irrigation, large quantities
         are also required for urban and mining use. Water use in the Rhenoster-Vals sub-area is
         mainly for irrigation and urban use, with a smaller component for rural domestic supplies
         and stock watering. The water requirements for the Middle Vaal WMA are mainly supplied
         by Sedibeng Water and Midvaal Water Company with Rand Water contributing to a lesser
         extent.”


2.4.2    Future Water Requirements

         According to the Middle Vaal WMA Overview of Water Resources Availability Report,
         DWAF (2003a), “There are many factors that influence the requirements for water. These
         include climate, nature of the economy (i.e. irrigated agriculture, industrialised) and
         standards of living. Of these, climate is relatively stable, while in most cases control can
         be exercised over the growth in irrigation water requirements. Population and economic
         activity, however, have their own inherent growth rates, which are dependent on a wide
         spectrum of extraneous influences. Population growth and economic growth, which also
         relates to socio-economic standards, are therefore regarded as the primary determinants
         with respect to future water requirements.”

         “Based on the scenarios for population and economic growth outlined in the NWRS, initial
         estimates of possible future water requirements were made for the period until 2025. In
         addition, provision was made for known and probable future developments with respect to
         power generation, irrigation, mining and bulk users as described under the respective sub-
         areas where applicable. (Specific quantities, rather than a general annual growth rate,
         were allowed for in these sectors.)”

         “Within the spectrum of population and economic growth scenarios, a base scenario was
         selected for estimating the most likely future water requirements. This is built on the high
         scenario of population growth and more equitable distribution of wealth leading in time to
         higher average levels of water services. The ratio of domestic to public and business
         (commercial, communal, industrial) water use for urban centres in the year 1995, for the
         respective centres, is maintained.”

         “A possible upper scenario of future water requirements, is also given, based on the
         assumption that there will be high population growth and a high standard of services
         (socio-economic development); together with a strong increase in the economic
         requirements for water, where the public and business use of water would increase in
         direct proportion to the gross domestic product. The purpose of the upper scenario is to
         provide a conservative indicator in order to prevent the occurrence of possible unexpected
         water shortages. No adjustments have been made for reflecting the impacts of increased
         water use efficiency.”




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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         “General trends in the Middle Vaal water management area are the decline expected in
         water requirements by the mining sector, and associated declines in the urban
         requirements for water in the vicinity of mine closures. Indications are that the Welkom-
         Virginia area may be most affected.”

         “No meaningful change is foreseen with respect to irrigation and rural water requirements.
         However, it has been recorded that fields have been taken out of irrigation in certain areas,
         due to poor financial viability.”

         In broad terms, the requirements for water are expected to remain at the current levels
         over most of the water management area in terms of the base scenario while only a 11%
         growth in water requirements is forecast in terms of the high growth scenario.

2.5      Water balance

2.5.1    Year 2000 Water Balance

         A reconciliation of available water and total requirements for the year 2000, including
         transfers between water management areas, is given in Table 2.6.

         The only major transfers into and out of this WMA relate to flows in the main stem of the
         Vaal River, from the Upper Vaal through the Middle Vaal into the Lower Vaal WMA. The
         remaining transfers that occur into and out of this WMA are small but are significant for the
         users concerned, namely:

                  1. There is an import from Vaal Dam in the Upper Vaal WMA to Heilbron
                     (Rhenoster sub-catchment). The bulk water supply of Heilbron TLC was taken
                     over by Rand Water in 1998 and the transfer is by pipeline via Sasolburg TLC.
                  2. There is an export from Erfenis Dam in the Middle Vaal WMA to Brandfort
                     (Modder River catchment in the Upper Orange WMA).

         There are two significant transfers within the WMA, namely:

                  1. MidVaal Water Company transfers from the Vaal River to Klerksdorp, Orkney
                     and to Buffelsfontein, Stilfontein and Vaal Reefs Goldmines.
                  2. Sedibeng Water transfers from the Vaal River to Welkom, Virginia, etc and to
                     Harmony, Avgold, Beatrix, Joel, etc, Gold Mines.

         From Table 2.6, it is evident that the Middle Vaal sub-area is approximately in balance.
         This is due to the fact that just enough water is released from the Upper Vaal water
         management area to ensure that the requirements in the Middle Vaal (and Lower Vaal)
         water management areas can be met. The deficit is shown for the Rhenoster-Vals sub-
         area is attributable to ideal irrigation water requirements in excess of what can reliably be


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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         supplied. However, actual irrigation practices have adjusted to the actual water availability.
         The small surplus in the Sand-Vet sub-area is as a result of return flows from irrigation
         downstream of the points of use as well as due to some decline in irrigation. [DWAF
         (2003a)].

         Table 2.6: Reconciliation of requirements and available water for year 2000 (million m³/a)
         Source : Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability, September 2003

                              Available water                             Water requirements
                                                                                                                     Balance
           Sub-area                             Transfers                 Local            Transfers
                              Local                                                                                      (1)
                                                   in       Total         require-            out      Total
                              yield
                                                   (2)                    ments               (2)
           Rhenoster-Vals                44             1           45               54            0           54              ( 9)
           Middle Vaal                ( 142)          828           686              129         559           688             ( 2)
           Sand-Vet                     147            59           206              187           2           189              17

           Total                         49           829           878              370         502           872               6
         (1) Brackets indicate a negative balance.
             Surpluses are shown in the most upstream sub-area where they first become available.
         (2) Transfers into and out of sub-catchments may include transfers between sub-catchments as well as transfers between
             WMAs. Addition of the transfers per sub-catchment therefore does not necessarily correspond to the total transfers into
             and out of the WMA.



         A “conditional” surplus is available in the Vaal River System as a whole. The details of this
         “conditional surplus” is explained in the Vaal Overarching ISP report. However, what is
         important to recognise is that this estimated excess in supply is qualified as “conditional”
         since it is only available if all the transfers are fully operational. In practice the volume of
         water conveyed through the Thukela-Vaal Transfer scheme will be determined annually,
         effectively operating the system such that the water demands are in balance with the
         supply in order to save pumping costs. The quantity transferred will thus increase over
         time in line with the growth in the water requirements. The management of the surplus is
         discussed in more detail in the Vaal Overarching ISP.


2.5.2    Future Water Balance

         According to the Middle Vaal WMA Overview of Water Resources Availability Report,
         DWAF (2003a), “A perspective on the possible future water supply situation is given by
         Table 2.7 for the base scenario and by Table 2.8 for a possible high water use scenario. In
         both cases it was assumed that transfers from the Upper Vaal water management area
         would be equal to the requirements for augmentation of local resources, with a balance
         being maintained with respect to abstractions and the yield available from the Vaal River.”

         “Similarly, water will be transferred from the Vaal River to the Welkom-Virginia area as
         required for urban, industrial and mining purposes. Virtually no change in water
         requirements is foreseen with respect to the Rhenoster-Vals and Sand-Vet sub-areas for
         the base scenario, with the assumption that mining use of water will remain approximately

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         at the current levels. Growth in water requirements in the Rhenoster-Vals sub-area for the
         high scenario is mainly associated with growth at Kroonstad.”

         Table 2.7: Reconciliation of water requirements and availability for the year 2025 base
         scenario (million m³/a)
         Source : Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability, September 2003


                                                      Available water                           Water requirements

                                        Local                                         Local                               Balance
                   Sub-area
                                        yield        Transfers                       require-   Transfers
                                                                         Total                               Total
                                                        in                            ments        out
                                         (1)                                           (2)                                  (3)

           Rhenoster-Vals                       44                1             45         53           0            53           ( 8)
           Middle Vaal                     ( 136)           837              701          142        560        702               ( 1)
           Sand-Vet                            147           59              206          187           2       189                17

           Total                                55          838              893          382        503        885                  8

         (1) Based on existing infrastructure and under construction in the year 2000. Also includes return flows resulting from
             growth in requirements.
         (2) Based on normal growth in water requirements as a result of population growth and general economic development.
             Assumed no general increase in irrigation.
         (3) Brackets around numbers indicate negative balance.



         Table 2.8: Reconciliation of water requirements and availability for the year 2025 high
         scenario (million m³/a)
         Source : Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability, September 2003

                                                Available water                                 Water requirements

                                        Local                                         Local                               Balance
                   Sub-area
                                        yield        Transfers                       require-   Transfers
                                                                        Total                                Total
                                                        in                            ments        out
                                  (1)                                                  (2)                                  (3)

          Rhenoster-Vals                        49            2              51            65          0         65               ( 14)
          Middle Vaal                     ( 131)            910              779          152        628        780                ( 1)
          Sand-Vet                             149           72              221          200          2        202                 19

                      Total                     67          911              978          417        557        974                  4
         1)   Based on existing infrastructure and infrastructure under construction in the year 2000. Also includes return flows
              resulting from growth in requirements.
         2)   Based on high growth in water requirements as a result of population growth and high impact of economic development.
              Assumed no general increase in irrigation.
         3)   Brackets around numbers indicate negative balance.




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2.6      Water Reconciliation Options

2.6.1    Allocation of Conditional Surplus

         The water reconciliation situation in the Vaal River system is one of a conditional surplus
         until 2025. The future schemes needed to augment the water resources of the Middle Vaal
         WMA will be derived from the Upper Vaal WMA which will largely be decided at the
         National Level with the development of the next augmentation scheme. The management
         of the surplus is discussed in more detail in the Vaal Overarching ISP report (Report No.:
         RSA C000/00/0103).

2.6.2    Intervention Measures

         The options that can be considered within the WMA are :-


         •    The implementation of Water Conservation and Demand Management (WC&DM). The
              water requirements that are used in the development of the WMA water balance do not
              include WC&DM. A study quantifying the reduction in the water requirements, return
              flow volumes and the changes in return flow water quality of implementing WC&DM
              has been identified and prioritised in the Vaal Overarching ISP. However Regional
              Office/CMA must play an active role together with the Water Service providers such as
              Sedibeng Water and Midvaal Water Company in the WMA to ensure the
              implementation of WC&DM.
         •    Trading of water allocations between users.
         •    Further development of the local surface water resource to meet local water
              requirements. In this process the impact on the yield of system must be determined
              and the reduction in yield must be covered at full cost as this will have to be replaced
              with transferred water.
         •    Further development of groundwater. Although the exact quantity of the exploitable
              groundwater is uncertain, groundwater represents a large potential resource
              particularly for local supply in areas that are distant from the main river system. Due to
              the fact that the availability of groundwater is largely dependent on localised sub-
              surface characteristics, estimates of the potential of the resource should be area
              specific.

2.6.3    Necessity for Compulsory Licencing

          Given that there is a conditional surplus, there is no immediate need for compulsory
         licensing in the Middle Vaal WMA. Certain issues (See Compulsory Licensing Strategy
         A1.5 in Appendix A) were raised at the ISP workshops where intervention may be
         required in areas such as Klerksdorp, Ventersdorp and the Schoonspruit Dolomitic
         Compartment. The approach to be adopted in addressing the issues in these areas is to
         fully understand the issues and to use the available regulations and communication with


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         the water users to resolve the issues before compulsory licensing is pursued.

         The determination of a Comprehensive Reserve is an important prerequisite for
         compulsory licensing. To date only low confidence Desk Top estimates of the Ecological
         Reserve have been undertaken for the purpose of developing the National Water
         Resources Strategy (NWRS). Although no urgent Reserve issues were identified during
         the Overarching Workshops, the above factors point to the need for careful planning and
         implementation of the Ecological Reserve to balance, among other things, the economic
         consequences and ecological benefits. Due to the interdependencies of the tributaries with
         the main stem of the Vaal River, it will be required to undertake the determination of the
         Reserve in an integrated way, balancing tributary contributions with the flow requirements
         of the main stem.


2.7      Water Quality Management

         The water quality situation of the Vaal River main stem and the tributaries are discussed
         below. The water quality of the main stem of the Vaal River is not only affected by the
         water quality of the flow from the tributaries within the WMA but also by the water quality of
         the water received from the upstream Upper Vaal WMA. The water quality received from
          Upper Vaal WMA is considered to be relatively poor. Despite the blending practiced in the
          Upper Vaal WMA, with releases from Vaal Dam used to maintain the TDS concentration in
          the Vaal Barrage at 600 mg/l, salinity has been reported as a problem in the Vaal river
          main stem. Nutrients are also a water quality variable of concern. There is also the carry
          over of hyacinth to the Middle Vaal WMA from the Upper Vaal WMA.


         The water quality of the Vaal main stem is impacted on by mining activities in the
         Schoonspruit, Koekemoerspruit and the Sand-Vet systems in the Middle Vaal WMA. The
         sources are mine dewatering discharges and seepage from tailings dams located close to
         the Vaal River. There are also large areas of the catchment where the runoff water quality
         is good. This water serves as dilution water, which results in an acceptable water quality in
         Bloemhof Dam.

         The land uses in the WMA are largely agriculture, mining and urban areas with the larger
         urban centres located in the mining areas. There are significant areas of irrigation in the
         WMA. The sources of supply are both surface and groundwater. The return flow volume
         and qualities from the irrigation areas are not well quantified.

         Groundwater also serves as an important source of water for domestic use. It is therefore
         important to protect the water quality of the groundwater through groundwater management
         plans and the setting of Resource Quality Objectives for groundwater.


         Many of the sewage works and sanitation systems of towns in the WMA are inadequate and in
         a poor state. The reasons for this are both poor management and the overloading of treatment


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Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



         plants and reticulation systems. The overloading is often due to the replacement of pit latrines
         with waterborne sewerage systems without upgrading the sewage works. This practice is to be
         discouraged in future and the effluent treated to a suitable level for discharge back to the river.

         The approach adopted by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in managing the
         water quality in the Vaal River catchment is to set water quality objectives (WQO) for the
         sub-catchments. The WQO are based on the water user requirements in the catchments.
         The WQO include ideal, tolerable and unacceptable objectives for the water quality
         variables. A phased approach has been adopted for the development of strategies to
         manage the water quality in the sub-catchments of the Vaal River Catchment. The first
         phase is a situation assessment, which is followed by further phases to develop catchment
         management strategies. This approach has been applied to the Middle Vaal WMA with the
         development of Catchment Management Strategies (CMSs) for the major areas of concern
         in the WMA viz the mining areas in the Sand/Vet and Schoonspruit/Koekemoerspruit
         catchments. A CMS has been developed for the Sand/Vet system and has been
         implemented over the last 5 years. A CMS is currently being developed for the
         Schoonspruit and Koekemoerspruit catchments. These plans will result in the setting of
         WQO, model development, identification of pollution sources, waste load allocations and
         monitoring programs.

         The cascading characteristic of the three Vaal WMAs has the consequence that the water
         quality of the main stem of the Vaal River in the downstream WMAs is impacted on, not
         only by the activities in the WMA itself, but also by the water received from upstream. In
         addition, the water quality in the Vaal River will also impact on the water quality of the
         Orange River in the Lower Orange WMA. Due to this inter-dependency it was identified
         that the current process of managing water at sub-catchment level should be expanded to
         integrate management activities across sub-catchments to meet shared water quality
         objectives in major tributaries and in the main stem of the Vaal River. To this end
         Integrated Water Quality Management Plans (IWQMPs) for the Vaal and Orange River
         systems will be developed. The CMSs developed for sub-catchments in the Middle Vaal
         WMA must be integrated with the IWQMP for the Vaal River.

2.8      Infrastructure System Management

         Due to the interlinked configuration of the water resource components in the Vaal River
         System the responsibility of the operation and management of the main elements will be a
         function of a dedicated DWAF operations division or a possible Utility. The operation and
         management of tributary catchments in each WMA will be the responsibility of the CMA.
         The operation and management of tributary dams such as Allemanskraal and Erfenis will
         be the responsibility of the CMA in terms of floods, droughts and normal operation.

         There is a well-established set of hydrological and water use databases as well as water
         resource analysis models available for the analysis of the Vaal River System. Annual
         operating runs are undertaken using the models and decisions made on system operation.


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         The description of these systems is given in the Vaal Overarching ISP. These models are
         run at the national level with the decisions being passed to the Middle Vaal WMA for
         implementation.


         The local infrastructure that the Middle Vaal CMA may have to run in the future are the
         treatment plants and collection systems for the mine dewatering and the treatment/re-use
         options as far as the management of sewage treatment plant discharges are concerned. The
         future of these schemes will be decided as part of the Integrated Water Quality Study for the
         Vaal River System.


2.9      Monitoring and Information Systems

         The Middle Vaal water managers will be required to co-ordinate all the monitoring and
         information requirements within the WMA. This will include the compliance and other
         monitoring requirements of the WMA itself as well as the monitoring requirements of the
         Vaal River System to be used by the National body carrying out the overarching
         management.

2.10     Institutional Aspects

         The Middle Vaal WMA is part of a larger supply system which includes adjacent WMAs.
         The Middle Vaal WMA acts as a conduit for the transfer of water from the Upper Vaal WMA
         to the Lower Vaal WMA. Due to this interdependence, the operations and planning of the
         Vaal River system will not be undertaken by the Middle Vaal CMA or Regional Office but at
         the national level by the Department’s Head Office or a utility which may be established to
         undertake these tasks. The management at this level is described in the Vaal Overarching
         ISP and includes, among others, Water Reconciliation and Water Quality Strategies.

         The role of the Middle Vaal WMA CMA will be:


         •    To manage the water quality by setting WQOs and developing CMS as per the Water
              Quality Management Strategy (A2.2) included in Appendix A. The setting of the
              WQOs will be within the framework of the Integrated Water Quality Management Plan
              for the Vaal River System.


         •    The monitoring of the system to provide management information for water quality
              management, abstraction control and input to the overarching operations and planning
              processes.


         •    Provide input into the supply of local authorities from local groundwater and surface
              water resources. This will be in the form of strategic level guidance as to where water
              can be obtained and the level of study needed to be submitted with the licence
              application.

DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                  2-23
Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area




         •    A very important communication role between the Water Users, CMA and the utility.


         •    Promotion of WC&DM through the water service providers and local authorities/DWAF
              Head Office to achieve efficient use of water. Only once efficient use has been
              achieved can further transfers be considered.


         •    Management and control of water abstractions.


         •    Management of groundwater and local surface water resources.


         •    Management and Operation of Local dams, viz. Allemanskraal, Erfenis, Johan Neser,
              Rietspruit.

2.11     ISP Implementation Strategy

         The implementation of the Middle Vaal ISP is expected to take place through the Middle
         Vaal Catchment Management Agency.

         The ISP is intended to act as DWAFs perspective on how the Vaal River catchment’s
         water resources should be managed, in particular the Middle Vaal WMA. The final ISP will
         be published and be open to comments from local authorities, water user associations and
         other water related forums and interested stakeholders. Mechanisms are to be put in place
         to capture anomalies and it is intended that formal updates of the document will occur
         periodically until such time as the Catchment Management Agency is technically functional
         and a Catchment Management Strategy developed.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                  2-24
Internal Strategic Perspective for Central Region : Middle Vaal Water Management Area



REFERENCES

DWAF (2004a)                Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, National Water Resource
                            Strategy, First Edition, 2004.


DWAF (2004b)                Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Report No. P RSA
                            C000/00/0103. Internal Strategic Perspective : Vaal River System :
                            Overarching, 2004.


DWAF (2003a)                Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Report No. P WMA
                            09/000/00/0203, Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of
                            Water Resources Availability and Utilisation, 2003.


DWAF (2002)                 Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Report No. P WMA
                            08/000/00/0302, The Middle Vaal WMA – Water Resources Situation
                            Assessment, 2002.


DWAF (2001)                 Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Report No. P C000/00/22502 ,
                            Continuous Investigations (Phase 2), Revision of the augmentation
                            requirements for the Integrated Vaal River System, 2001.


DWAF (1999)                 Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Report No. P C000/00/21599,
                            Report for the Vaal River Irrigation Study, 1999.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                  2-25
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA




Appendix A : Middle Vaal WMA Strategy Tables




Report No. PWMA 09/000/00/0304
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A




                                Miiddlle Vaall Watter Managementt Area Sttrattegiies
                                M dd e Vaa Wa er Managemen Area S ra eg es




                                             Strategies Table of Contents


INTRODUCTION TO STRATEGY TABLES------------------------------------------------------- A-3

     A1.      WATER BALANCE AND WATER RESOURCE RECONCILIATION STRATEGIES4

     A1.1         RESOURCE AVAILABILITY....................................................................................4

     A.1.2        WATER REQUIREMENTS....................................................................................12

     A.1.3        WATER BALANCE RECONCILIATION................................................................15

     A.1.5        COMPULSORY LICENSING.................................................................................20

     A.1.6        SUPPLY TO DISTRICT AND LOCAL MUNICIPALITIES.....................................22

     A.2      WATER RESOURCES PROTECTION STRATEGY ...............................................25

     A.2.1        RESERVE AND RESOURCE QUALITY OBJECTIVES ......................................25

     A.2.2        WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY.................................................28

     A.3.         WATER USE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY .........................................................32

     A.3.1        GENERAL AUTHORISATIONS ............................................................................32

     A.3.2        LICENSING STRATEGY.......................................................................................34

     A.4      WATER CONSERVATION & WATER DEMAND STRATEGY ...............................36

     A.4.1        WATER CONSERVATION & WATER DEMAND STRATEGY............................36

     A5.       INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT & SUPPORT MAIN STRATEGY ....................39

     A.5.1. LOCAL AND CATCHMENT LEVEL STRATEGY.................................................39

     A5.2         POVERTY ERADICATION....................................................................................41

     A.6.         ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY...........................................................................43




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                            A-1
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                       Appendix A



     A.7      WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT & MANAGEMENT
     STRATEGY..........................................................................................................................44

     A.7.1        SYSTEM MANAGEMENT STRATEGY................................................................44

     A.7.2        RECREATION ON DAMS & RIVERS STRATEGY..............................................46

     A.7.3        PUBLIC HEALTH & SAFETY STRATEGY...........................................................47

     A.8      MONITORING AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGY .......................49

     A.9      ISP IMPLEMENTATION MAIN STRATEGY.............................................................53




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                 A-2
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                       Appendix A




                                      IINTRODUCTIION TO STRATEGY TABLES
                                        NTRODUCT ON TO STRATEGY TABLES




        The first 2 chapters of the Middle Vaal WMA Internal Strategic Perspective (ISP) describe
        the ISP process, paint a broad perspective of the water situation in the WMA, and describe
        the key issues that have to be dealt with. The crux of the ISP is located in a series of
        strategy tables presented in Appendix A. The strategy tables for each area present the
        management objective (what we are trying to achieve); an assessment of the situation
        along with a motivation as to why the strategy is required; the required actions;
        responsibilities; priorities; and relevant supporting references. A version control is
        attached for future versions of this ISP.

        Certain issues are clearly applicable to all WMAs in the country and for these a national
        policy to guide the strategy needs to be developed. These issues and aspects were
        identified and flagged, during the development of this ISP, for consideration at National
        Level.

        The table below provides a brief description of the elements contained in the strategy
        tables.


        Definitions of terminology used in the Strategy Tables
           Management Objective                Description of what DWAF is trying to achieve
           Situation assessment                Description of the current situation and related
                                               issues and motivations to support the management
                                               actions.
           Management actions            (M)   The actions which need to be taken to resolve
                                               issues and tasks identified in the situation
                                               assessment.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                   A-3
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                               Appendix A




       A1.        WATER BALANCE AND WATER RESOURCE RECONCILIATION STRATEGIES



                                              A1.1     RESOURCE AVAILABILITY


                                      Ensure reliable estimates of the water resources (surface and groundwater) are
Management                            available to effectively conduct Integrated Water Resources Management. The
objective:                            factors impacting on the water resources needs to be clearly defined and
                                      understood.

                                      OVERVIEW
Situation                             The water in the Middle Vaal WMA flows from the Upper Vaal, across the Middle
Assessment:                           Vaal, Lower Vaal and Lower Orange WMAs before reaching the Atlantic Ocean
                                      near the town of Alexander Bay in the western corner of the country. This
                                      cascading characteristic of the three Vaal WMAs has the consequence that the
                                      water availability in the main stem of the Vaal River is impacted on by the availability
                                      of water in the Vaal River System. In addition, the water availability in the Vaal River
                                      will also impact on the water availability of the Orange River in the Lower Orange
                                      WMA. Due to this inter-dependency it was identified that the current process of
                                      managing water at sub-catchment level should be expanded to integrate
                                      management activities across sub-catchments to meet shared water resources in
                                      the main stem of the Vaal River. This will be undertaken at a National Departmental
                                      level. However, the tributaries are generally managed by the CMA as a local
                                      resource. Hence this discussion has been divided into “WMA-wide Aspects” and
                                      “Sub-catchment-specific Aspects”.

                                      SURFACE WATER RESOURCES

                                      WMA-WIDE ASPECTS
                                      The Vaal River System is the most important water resource system in South Africa
                                      as it provides water to more than 40% of the country’s inhabitants and, with
                                      numerous industries and mines in the supply area, supports the production of more
                                      than 50% of the country’s GDP.

                                      Mean annual runoff (MAR) from the total Vaal River catchment is approximately
                                      4 000 x 106m3. When expressed as an equivalent unit runoff from the 196 000 km2
                                      catchment, the MAR averages out at about 15 mm. However, the pattern of runoff
                                      over the catchment is one of a fairly gradual decline from east to west, in
                                      accordance with the east to west decline of rainfall associated with an increase in
                                      evaporation rates.

                                      For the Middle Vaal WMA, the MAR totals 887,5 x 106m3. Unit runoff varies from
                                      over 23 mm in the upper reaches of the Rhenoster and Vals Rivers to as little as
                                      4 mm in the vicinity of the Bloemhof Dam. Equivalent figures for mean annual
                                      rainfall (MAP) are 570 mm (east) and 500 mm (west) and, for mean annual
                                      evaporation (MAE) – 1 800 mm (east) and 2 600 mm (west). [Ref 2]

                                      The Middle Vaal WMA is a component of the extended Vaal River System for which
                                      an integrated system’s model has been compiled to account for the complex inter -
                                      dependencies that exist due to connectivity of the three Vaal WMAs. This model is
                                      currently used to assess the available water resources and is referred to as the
                                      Water Resource Planning Model (WRPM). [Ref 4]




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                 A-4
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A



                                      The existing (February 2003) Integrated Vaal River System Model contains a
                                      hydrological database that covers the period 1920 to 1995 (water years) and
                                      includes re-calibrated water quality (Total Dissolved Solids - TDS) modules that
                                      were compiled as part of the Vaal River System Updated Study (VRSAU) [Ref 3].

Situation                             Given the comprehensive level of detail of the VRSAU study there is sufficient
Assessment:                           knowledge and a high level of confidence in the water resource availability and
(Continued)                           water quality TDS information that is available for the management of the water
                                      resources.

                                      The existing water resource network system covers the entire catchment of the
                                      WMA and simulates all the major dams individually. Certain users and small dams
                                      were, however, lumped together to simplify the system configuration. Although
                                      these simplifications are acceptable for the purpose of modelling the larger
                                      Bloemhof Dam Sub-system, finer resolution definition network configurations could
                                      be required in cases where a distinction has to be made in the water resources
                                      available among particular users at a local level. It is proposed that increased
                                      resolution analysis be undertaken in situations when specific licences applications
                                      need to be assessed or where supply problems need to be resolved.

                                      Factors having significant impacts on the available surface water resources include:

                                        • The combined effect of small farm dams on the yield of the larger reservoirs in
                                          the Water Management Area. It is estimated that the total storage capacity of
                                          these dams are 199 million m3 in the Middle Vaal WMA. [Ref 3]

                                        • In combination with the small farm dams the water requirements in the tributary
                                          catchments also reduces the water available in the larger dams. Reliable
                                          estimates of the water use are required and will be obtained through the
                                          Registration and Verification processes. (See Water Requirements Strategy
                                          Table A.1.2 for more details)

                                        • The operating rules applied in the Upper Vaal WMA, particularly the blending
                                          operating rule in the Vaal Barrage, significantly impacts on the flow in the Vaal
                                          River. This is controlled at a National level. (Refer to Vaal Overarching ISP for
                                          details [Ref 4]).

                                        • There is a growing importance on return flows in the Middle Vaal catchment,
                                          requiring integrated planning around this issue.

                                      SUB-CATCHMENT SPECIFIC ASPECTS

                                      The Middle Vaal WMA comprises 3 sub-areas as denoted in the NWRS, namely
                                      the Rhenoster/Vals, Middle Vaal and Sand/Vet sub areas. (Refer to the map
                                      provided in Appendix B). These sub-areas have been further subdivided into a
                                      total of 7 sub-catchments for the purpose of highlighting local issues. The main
                                      stem of the Vaal River is located within the Middle Vaal sub-area with the remaining
                                      sub-areas being tribuatary catchments to the Vaal River.

                                      The Middle Vaal WMA comprises the following sub-catchments :

                                      Rhenoster River, Vals River, Schoonspruit, U/S Bloemhof, Allemanskraal, Erfenis
                                      and the Vet River Systems. The Middle Vaal WMA is dependent on water releases
                                      from the Upper Vaal WMA for meeting the bulk of the water requirements by the
                                      urban, mining and industrial sectors within its area of jurisdiction, with local
                                      resources mainly used for irrigation and smaller towns. Water is also transferred via


DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-5
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A



                                      the Vaal River through this WMA, from the Upper Vaal WMA to the Lower Vaal
                                      WMA. Water quality in the Vaal River is strongly influenced by usage and
                                      management practices in the Upper Vaal WMA.

                                      Middle Vaal Sub-area
Situation
Assessment:                           Schoonspruit sub-catchment:
(Continued)                           A study has started in the dolomitic compartments of the Schoonspruit and
                                      Crocodile/ Marico areas to investigate groundwater resources that straddle the
                                      aquifers of these catchments in order to understand the flow of groundwater in
                                      these areas as well as to ensure that resource availability is not duplicated and the
                                      management of the resource is allocated to one of the CMA’s.

                                      A study needs to be undertaken to improve the modelling of the Schoonspruit and
                                      to provide answers with regard to the relationship between dolomitic water and
                                      surface water. This study should take cognisance of the catchment management
                                      strategy that is presently being developed for the Schoonspruit sub-catchment. The
                                      study should include an assessment of the availability of the Johan Neser Dam as
                                      the dam is located in the Schoonspruit downstream of the dolomites and is possibly
                                      being negatively affected by the abstractions from the dolomites.

                                      The option of utilising the dolomitic compartments as underground storage dams in
                                      order to support the downstream surface water users has been identified as a
                                      possible groundwater-surface water operating rule. The proposed model to be
                                      developed for the Schoonspruit catchment should initially be used to assess this
                                      option. Further detailed feasibility assessments should thereafter be considered.

                                      U/S Bloemhof sub-catchment:
                                      This catchment area covers the main stem of the Vaal River as its traverses
                                      the Middle Vaal WMA. This sub-catchment is characterised by a major transfer
                                      in from the Upper Vaal and out to the Lower Vaal. The tributaries in this sub-
                                      catchment makes little contribution to the water resources and has limited
                                      further exploitable potential.

                                      As a result of the high level of regulation provided by the Vaal Dam and
                                      Grootdraai Dam in the Upper Vaal WMA, there is little potential to further
                                      increase the surface water availability in the Vaal River itself in this area.

                                      Water supply from the Vaal River is generally a problem due to the poor quality of
                                      water in the Vaal River, for example the quality problems experienced at Balkfontein
                                      is a case in point. (Refer to Strategy A2.2 Water Quality Management Strategy)

                                      Although the storage basin of Bloemhof Dam is located in this WMA, the water
                                      in the dam is utilised to supply water users in the Lower Vaal WMA and the
                                      dam is controlled by the Lower Vaal WMA. The border of the WMA is on the
                                      upstream side of the Bloemhof Dam wall so that the water in the dam is
                                      considered to be in the Middle Vaal WMA and the release controlling structures
                                      in the Lower Vaal WMA.

                                      The availability of local surface water resources within this sub-catchment is limited
                                      and any further augmentation of surface water resources will have to be supplied
                                      from the surplus that is available in the Vaal River System (Refer to Vaal
                                      Overarching ISP).




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-6
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A



                                      Rhenoster-Vals Sub-area

                                      Rhenoster sub-catchment:
                                      The only significant regulating storage in the sub-catchment is Koppies Dam which
                                      has the purpose of supplying irrigation and domestic water to the Koppies Town.
Situation
Assessment:                           A diamond mine development near Viljoenskroon is considering various options to
(Continued)                           make water available to the mine, including the purchasing of water rights from
                                      irrigators currently receiving water from Koppies Dam. Consideration should also
                                      be given to the combined use of groundwater and surface water resources.

                                      Viljoenskroon abstracts water from the Rhenoster River, however their abstraction
                                      is not supported from Koppies Dam. Viljoenskroon is also supplied from the Vaal
                                      River to augment their water supply in times of shortage in the Rhenoster River.

                                      Vals sub-catchment:
                                      The Vals area is experiencing serious water shortages at present with the result that
                                      water restrictions have been imposed in the Kroonstad area. No further
                                      development of surface water resources in this catchment is possible.

                                      Sand-Vet Sub-area

                                      Allemanskraal sub-catchment:
                                      There is no current need for the development of further water resources in this area.
                                      The yield from surface water resources upstream of and including Allemanskraal
                                      Dam, is allocated to scheduled irrigation requirements in the downstream Vet sub-
                                      catchment. The potential for surface water resources development within this area
                                      is limited and would impact on downstream users.

                                      Erfenis sub-catchment:
                                      The available resources upstream of Erfenis Dam, as well as the storage provided
                                      by Erfenis Dam in this sub-area, have been allocated mainly for irrigation
                                      requirements that are located in the downstream Vet sub-catchment. The potential
                                      for surface water resources development within this area is limited and will impact
                                      on downstream users.

                                      Vet sub-catchment:
                                      The water resources of this sub-catchment are augmented by the transfers from the
                                      Vaal River (Vaal Sub-catchment) by Sedibeng Water for urban and bulk use in the
                                      Free State Goldfields and by the yield of Erfenis and Allemanskraal dams.

                                      The re-use of effluent generated in this sub-catchment has recently reduced due to
                                      the closure of the acid plant that was used by he mines. It is proposed that
                                      alternative options be investigated to utilise the return flows.

                                      GROUNDWATER RESOURCES (Refer to Appendix D):

                                      WMA-WIDE ASPECTS
                                      Groundwater represents a large potential resource particularly for local supply in
                                      areas that are distant from the main river system. However, there is general
                                      uncertainty about the groundwater availability (exploitable volume not contributing to
                                      surface base flow) in the WMA, although there is good understanding of
                                      groundwater in specific areas, e.g. Wesselbron and Ventersdorp.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-7
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A



                                      Due to the fact that the availability of groundwater is largely dependent on localised
                                      sub-surface characteristics, estimates of the potential of the resource should be
                                      area specific. It is therefore recommended that the provision of data on the
                                      availability of groundwater be driven by the need for water in particular areas.

                                      A model is currently being developed in the dolomitic areas (making use of existing
Situation                             information) to improve the understanding of the interaction between ground and
Assessment:                           surface water.
(Continued)
                                      Other directives regarding the utilisation of groundwater are provided in the
                                      Reconciliation Strategy A.1.3)

                                      SUB-CATCHMENT SPECIFIC ASPECTS

                                      Refer to Appendix B for map of Middle Vaal indicating the 3 sub-areas as denoted
                                      in the NWRS, viz. Rhenoster/ Vals, Middle Vaal and Sand/Vet sub areas. These
                                      sub-areas have been further subdivided into a total of 7 sub-catchments for the
                                      purpose of highlighting local issues. The main stem of the Vaal River is located
                                      within the U/S Bloemhof sub-catchment of the Middle Vaal sub-area.

                                      Middle Vaal Sub-area

                                      U/S Bloemhof sub-catchment:
                                      The potential to further increase the water resources availability within this sub-
                                      catchment is limited mainly to the exploitation of groundwater resources but is
                                      also dependent on the availability of water from the Upper Vaal WMA.

                                      Groundwater is the main potential source of water to supply new/future local
                                      users that do not have access to the Vaal River. The availability of this
                                      resource will have to be investigated at a local level.

                                      Boreholes in Allanridge have been polluted by the slimes dams and have been
                                      sealed. An investigation is required to determine the availability of water of
                                      acceptable quality from this source. The investigation is, however, not a high
                                      priority since it has been established that the pollution plume will not move under
                                      the current abstraction rates. It is, however, essential to continue the monitoring of
                                      adjacent boreholes in order to be able to detect any changes in the situation. This
                                      is currently being undertaken by the mines themselves.

                                      There is a significant aquifer close to Wolmaranstad that is being exploited to
                                      supplement the water requirements of the town. Wolmaransstad and Wesselsbron
                                      are the most important urban centres in the area. A significant amount of small
                                      scale diamond mining occurs in this area.

                                      The availability of local surface water resources within this sub-catchment is limited
                                      and any further augmentation of surface water resources will have to be supplied
                                      from the surplus that is available in the Vaal River System (Refer to Vaal
                                      Overarching ISP). Further local development of water resources is therefore
                                      essentially limited to the exploitation of groundwater resources.

                                      Johan Neser sub-catchment:
                                      The Schoonspruit dolomites are known to have high groundwater-yielding capacity
                                      with a high potential for groundwater exploitation. However, it is not known whether
                                      there is any remaining exploitable potential with regards to groundwater in this area
                                      due to our poor knowledge of the interaction between dolomitic groundwater and
                                      surface water.



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-8
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A




                                      A study has started in the dolomitic compartments of the Schoonspruit and
                                      Crocodile/Marico areas to investigate groundwater resources that straddle the
                                      aquifers of these catchments in order to understand the flow of groundwater in
                                      these areas as well as to ensure that resource availability is not duplicated and the
                                      management of the resource is allocated to one of the CMA’s.

                                      A study needs to be undertaken to improve the modelling of the Schoonspruit and
                                      to provide answers with regard to the relationship between dolomitic water and
                                      surface water. This study should take cognisance of the catchment management
                                      strategy that is presently being developed for the Johan Neser (Schoonspruit) sub-
                                      catchment. The study should include an assessment of the availability of the Johan
                                      Neser Dam as the dam is located in the Schoonspruit downstream of the dolomites
                                      and is possibly being negatively affected by the abstractions from the dolomites.

                                      The option of utilising the dolomitic compartments as underground storage dams in
                                      order to support the downstream surface water users has been identified as a
                                      possible groundwater-surface water operating rule. The proposed model to be
                                      developed for the Schoonspruit catchment should initially be used to assess this
                                      option. Further detailed feasibility assessments should thereafter be considered.

                                      The Ventersdorp Lavas are also a source of exploitable groundwater, yielding
                                      between 0,5 and 5 l/s. This source has not been developed but it is known that
                                      there is no interaction between the lavas and surface water. This can be verified
                                      with available data.

                                      In the Klerksdorp area 36 Ml/day is pumped from Stilfontein Mine (Margaret Shaft)
                                      of which 18 Ml/day is licensed for mining use. It is expected that the mine is
                                      recharged from the dolomite area.       There is currently a study in place
                                      (Schoonspruit/ Koekemoerspruit CMS) to investigate the groundwater situation.

                                      Pumping from Vierfontein Mine has been stopped and the mine is currently
                                      decanting at a rate of 40 l/s. A gauging weir will be built (using Anglo Collieries
                                      funds) to measure the decant volume into Vierfontein Spruit.

                                      Rhenoster-Vals Sub-area

                                      Rhenoster sub-catchment:
                                      A diamond mine development near Viljoenskroon has undertaken a groundwater
                                      availability assessment and, according to their findings, there is inadequate
                                      groundwater resources to support the requirements of the mine.

                                      Vals sub-catchment:
                                      Although water restrictions have been effected in Kroonstad, there appears to be
                                      adequate groundwater resources in this area (2–5 l/s per borehole according to
                                      National Groundwater maps), which can be developed as a possible source for
                                      urban use. Limited groundwater monitoring is being done in the area to assess
                                      groundwater quality trends. It was identified that in order to utilise these
                                      groundwater resources, further monitoring and assessments need to be
                                      undertaken. The intention is to focus these activities near the towns where
                                      groundwater can be utilised.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-9
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A




                                      Sand-Vet Sub-area

                                      Allemanskraal sub-catchment:
                                      There is no current need for the development of further water resources in this area.
                                      In terms of groundwater resources there does not appear to be much groundwater
                                      resources available in this area according to the hydrological mapping.

                                      Erfenis sub-catchment:
                                      The potential for water resources development within this area is limited to the
                                      exploitation of groundwater resources.

                                      Reasonable information is available in Verkeerdevlei with regard to
                                      groundwater resources.

                                      Vet sub-catchment:
                                      Groundwater use in Welkom is limited due to the quality of the water in this
                                      area being naturally poor.



                                                   MANAGEMENT ACTIONS

                               M1. The hydrological models and methodologies that should be
Required actions,                  applied to address the resource availability in the unregulated
responsibilities and               areas of the catchment will be developed during a pilot study to
priorities:                        be undertaken on the Mhlathuze River catchment.

                                       (a) These more rigorous models and calculation methodologies NWRP
                                           should be used to analyse the resource availability of areas (Priority 1)
                                           where water resource problems exist.
                                       (b) In the short term, until the above study is completed, the
                                           existing WRYM system configurations can be refined when
                                           needed to evaluate particular local resource situations.



                               M2. Update the surface water resource availability estimates if it is
                                   confirmed that the registered water use is significantly different
                                   from the current estimates (See Strategy A.1.2 Water Regional
                                   Requirements Strategy). The important variables to consider are Office
                                   small dams and water use for irrigation purposes. (Any difference (Priority 1)
                                   between the actual water use and the data currently used in the
                                   models is masked by the streamflow hydrology.)



                               M3. Quantify the interaction between groundwater and surface water in NWRP
                                   the catchment. The area-specific understanding of groundwater
                                   availability needs to be improved, specifically Schoonspruit/ (Conditional
                                   Koekemoerspruit and Wolmaranstad.                                 Priority)




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-10
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                           Appendix A




                               M4. System Yield analyses to determine the effect on the overall
                                   systems are required for the smaller water supply systems mainly
                                   to determine the water availability and to identify shortages and NWRP
                                   surpluses within these smaller sub-systems.          This will be
                                   undertaken only on a needs basis or in reaction to licence (Conditional
                                   applications. An urgent need exists for a System Yield Analysis in Priority)
                                   the Schoonspruit sub-catchment, and possibly the Vals sub-
                                   catchment at a later date.


                               M5. Undertake monitoring and an assessment of possible groundwater Regional
                                   resources to alleviate the water availability problems in the Vals
                                                                                                      Office
                                   River Catchment. Specific attention needs to be given to water
                                   supply to Kroonstad.                                               (Priority 1)

                               M6. The availability of groundwater as the main potential source of Regional
                                   water to supply new local users, that do not have access to the Office
                                   Vaal River, needs to be investigated.                           (Priority 1)

                                                                                                           Regional
                               M7. Investigate the re-use of effluent in the Vet sub-catchment.            Office
                                                                                                           (Priority 1)


                               M8. An investigation is required to determine the availability of suitable Regional
                                   water from boreholes in Allanridge. These boreholes have
                                                                                                          Office
                                   supposedly been polluted by the slimes dams in the area and have
                                   therefore been sealed.                                                 (Priority 1)



References:                    1.     Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability
                                      and Utilisation, DWAF Report No. P WMA 09/000/00/0203
                               2.     Water Resources Situation Assessment : Middle Vaal Water Management Area,
                                      DWAF Report No. P WMA 08/000/00/0302
                               3.     Vaal River System Analysis Update : Integrated Vaal River System Analysis:
                                      DWAF Report no : P C000/00/18496

                               4.     Internal Strategic Perspective : Vaal River System : Overarching, 2004. DWAF
                                      Report No. P RSA C000/00/0103.



                                                                               Version:                    1
                                                               Strategy
                                                               Version         Date:                       July 2004
                                                               control:
                                                                               Author:                     ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                            A-11
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                                       Appendix A



                                                  A.1.2 WATER REQUIREMENTS



Management                            Ensure that the knowledge base on the water requirements in the WMA is realistic
objective:                            and updated on a regular basis. Furthermore, maintain and update water
                                      requirement projection scenarios for planning and management purposes.


Situation                             Water use data:
Assessment:                           The overall water requirement figures in million m3/a as at year 2000 quoted in the
                                      National Water Resources strategy are as follows [Ref 1]:

                                                                   Urban   Rural        Mining    Power      Affore-
                                                                                                                         Total local
                                                                                       and bulk generation   station                 Transfers   Grand
                                       Sub-area       Irrigation                                                          require-
                                                                                      industrial                                        out      Total
                                                                                                                           ments
                                                                    (1)     (1)           (2)      (3)         (4)
                                  Rhenoster-Vals            26       20           8          0         0             0         54           0       54
                                  Middle Vaal               33       35      13             48         0             0        129        559       688

                                  Sand-Vet                 100       38      11             38         0             0        187           2      189

                                  Total                    159       93      32             86         0             0        370        502       872

                                 Source : Middle Vaal Water Management Area : Overview of Water Resources Availability and Utilisation
                                Note: Figures based on 1995 Development Curve
                                (1) Includes component of Reserve for basic human needs at 25 ℓ/c/d.
                                 (2)    Mining and bulk industrial water uses which are not part of urban systems.
                                 (3)    Includes water for thermal power generation only. (Water for hydropower, which represents a small portion
                                        of power generation in South Africa, is generally available for other uses as well.)
                                (4)     Quantities given refer to impact on yield only.


                                      The existing projections for urban water requirements are acceptable and these
                                      figures should be retained and merely be updated annually for actual use. Irrigation
                                      water use is not expected to grow.

                                      The actual water use data is collated from the different DWAF offices and bulk
                                      users on an annual basis, currently captured in a spreadsheet database. This
                                      information is compared with the projected water requirements in order to make
                                      adjustments (in the short-term) for use in the annual operating analysis. It should be
                                      noted that the data on actual water use for irrigation is only partially collated on an
                                      annual basis and that there is room for improving the data collection in this regard.

                                      Sedibeng Water and Midvaal Water also compile water requirements projections on
                                      a regular basis. Comparisons of these projections are made with the NWRS
                                      projection in order to make informed decisions with respect to deviations in trends.

                                      The water required for the ecological Reserve needs to be quantified. Refer to
                                      A.2.1: Reserve and Resource Quality Strategy.

                                      Registration of water use:
                                      This process has been largely completed and indications are that the registered use
                                      for irrigation is much higher than the estimates used in the models, which are based
                                      on the work of Loxton Venn and Associates.

                                      The process of verification of actual water use and classification in terms of
                                      lawfulness is in progress. If the verification process confirms the registered irrigation




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                        A-12
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A



                                      water use then this will have serious implications for the water balance for the WMA
Situation                             implying that the water balances will need to be re-assessed.
Assessment:
(Continued)                           Water requirement scenarios:
                                      The water requirement scenarios currently used for planning originate from the
                                      National Water Resources Strategy. The approach to be adopted in the
                                      management of the water requirement projections is that the users are responsible
                                      for projections. The role of DWAF/CMA will be to undertake overall checks to audit
                                      this important data.

                                      Water requirements for the smaller water users such as the use of mine and
                                      sewage treatment plant effluent for irrigation will be managed through the licensing
                                      process. The water requirement scenarios will be based on population as the main
                                      driver and the per capita water demand which will be based on the socio economic
                                      standing of the users. The projections must also account for WC&DM and provide
                                      estimates of return flows.

                                      DWAF has developed a methodology of making water requirement projections
                                      accounting for WC&DM and estimating return flow volumes. The Department will
                                      promote this methodology with the larger users in the WMA.

                                      The following gaps were identified in the existing knowledge:

                                      1. The extent to which the registered use exceeds allocations and the legality of
                                         the registered use needs to be determined. This is required for the rest of the
                                         Schoonspruit, Vals, Rhenoster, Wesselbron for surface water use and in the
                                         Schoonspuit and Wolmaranstad or groundwater use.
                                      2. The large variations in figures of irrigation demands between the VRSAU and
                                         Loxton Venn needs to be resolved, through the verification process.

                                      The following requirements were identified in terms of water requirements

                                      1. The water use and return flows need to be monitored on a continuous basis
                                         and checked against the water requirement projections. The impacts of WCDM
                                         measures on the projections should also be monitored.
                                      2. The latest population figures (2000 census) and economic data should be used
                                         to revise projections. The impacts of WCDM on the projections should be
                                         considered as part of the updating process.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-13
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                         Appendix A




                                                  MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


Required actions,    M1. The process of verification of existing lawful use needs to be
responsibilities and     completed. Comparisons should be made between the lawful use
priorities:              and the water use data applied in the water resource system
                                         models. It is important that this management action is undertaken
                                         as soon as possible as this information is crucial for future new
                                         allocations.    The verification process should be done in Regional
                                         accordance with the following priority schedule:                  Office
                                         Priority List:                                                    (Priority 1)
                                          1. Vals River Sub-catchment
                                          2. Rhenoster Sub-catchment
                                          3. Schoonspruit Sub-catchment
                                          4. Upper Sand and Vet River Sub-catchments

                                                                                                         Water
                                 M2.     The current practice of annual updates of water use and water Resource
                                         requirements should be continued for the Vaal River System as a Planning
                                         whole. The collection of irrigation water use data should be Systems
                                         improved in this process.                                       (On-going)

                                 M3.     A study should be undertaken every 5 years to update the water
                                         requirement projections. Revised projections should incorporate NWRP
                                         water quality issues, the reserve, as well as scenarios of WCDM (Priority 1)
                                         measures - see WCDM strategy 4.


                               1.      Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability
References:                            and Utilisation, DWAF Report No. P WMA 09/000/00/0203
                               2.      Water Resources Situation Assessment : Middle Vaal Water Management Area,
                                       DWAF Report No. P WMA 08/000/00/0302
                               3.      Vaal River System Analysis Update : Integrated Vaal River System Analysis:
                                       DWAF report no : P C000/00/18496



                                                                               Version :                  1
                                                                Strategy
                                                                Version        Date:                      July 2004
                                                                control:
                                                                               Author:                    ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                             A-14
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                               Appendix A



                                          A.1.3 WATER BALANCE RECONCILIATION



Management                            Manage the water resources to maintain a surplus or balance between the available
objective:                            water resources and the water requirements through progressive implementation of
                                      management measures. The aim is to schedule and implement low cost measures
                                      first, whereby the most costly measures (usually large capital intensive
                                      developments) are postponed.


                                      Overall water balance situation (Integrated Vaal River System) (see also Vaal
Situation                             Overarching Report):
Assessment:
                                      The Middle Vaal WMA as a component of the extended Vaal River System has
                                      been the subject of various studies in the past, which have the purpose of
                                      quantifying the water resources availability and/or evaluating measures to augment
                                      the water resources. The details of the water balance reconciliation in the WMA in
                                      terms of the supply to those users with access to the main stem are discussed in
                                      the Vaal Overarching ISP. The salient points made in the Vaal Overarching ISP
                                      are listed below. For details it is recommended that the Vaal Overarching ISP be
                                      consulted.

                                      •    With Phase 1B of the LHWP in place, there is a surplus of 300 million m3,
                                           which is estimated to be able to supply the projected water requirements
                                           until 2025.
                                      •    It is important to note that the current excess or surplus is only available
                                           under the condition that pumping occurs from the Thukela-Vaal scheme.
                                           The available excess in supply is therefore qualified as a conditional
                                           surplus. In practice, the volume of water conveyed through the Thukela-
                                           Vaal Transfer scheme will be reduced to save pumping costs thus
                                           effectively operating the system to balance the water demands with the
                                           supply.

                                      •    Based on the conditional surplus, water requirements of new users can be
                                           accommodated, however, the full cost of making the water available will be
                                           charged. New users will have the effect of bringing the augmentation date
                                           forward.
                                      •    It is important to note that abstractions from the tributaries of the Vaal River as
                                           well as groundwater abstraction in certain sub-catchments may influence water
                                           availability to downstream users as well as the overall balance in the Vaal River
                                           System.

                                      Water Balance Perspective and measures to improve water supply in the
                                      Middle Vaal WMA:

                                      The water balance figures quoted in this section (see table overleaf) are from the
                                      NWRS. The Water Balance figures in the NWRS are given at a coarse resolution
                                      for larger (combined) sub-catchments , the assumption being that local shortages
                                      could be supplied from nearby water resources. These figures also take account of
                                      the reserve.

                                      The reconciliation of the water requirements indicates that the water is currently and
                                      will in the future be in balance due to releases from the Upper Vaal WMA. Water
                                      users along the main stem of the Vaal River can apply for water at full cost.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-15
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                             Appendix A



                                      There is limited potential for the development of local surface water resources. The
                                      water balance currently and in the future is dependent on the transfer of water into
                                      the WMA from the Upper Vaal WMA. There is currently about 829 million m3/a
Situation                             transferred into the WMA from the Upper Vaal WMA according to the NWRS. The
Assessment:                           largest portion of this transferred water, 500 million m3/a, is only conveyed through
(Continued)                           the Middle Vaal WMA to supply the requirement in the Lower Vaal WMA. [Ref 1]



                                                                  Available water                Water requirements
                                                                                                                              Balance
                                         Sub-area                   Transfers                Local      Transfers
                                                         Local
                                                                       in           Total   require-       out        Total
                                                         yield
                                                                       (1)                   ments         (2)

                                      Rhenoster-Vals         44              1         45         54             0       54   ( 9)
                                      Middle Vaal        ( 142)            828        686        129           559      688   ( 2)
                                      Sand-Vet              147             59        206        187             2      189   17

                                      Total                  49            829        878        370           502      872   6

                                        Source : Overview of Water Resources Availability and Utilisation, 2003
                                        (1) The Middle Vaal utilises excess supply in the Upper Vaal River System.
                                        (2)   The Middle Vaal WMA has a large commitment to the Lower Vaal and Lower Orange WMAs.



                                      Middle Vaal Sub-area

                                      The NWRS indicates an approximate overall balance for the “Middle Vaal” sub-
                                      area, which incorporates Schoonspruit and U/S Bloemhof sub-catchments. The
                                      U/S Bloemhof Sub-catchment effectively comprises the Vaal main stem as it
                                      traverses the Middle Vaal WMA. The discussion surrounding the main stem of the
                                      Vaal River is therefore discussed under the U/S Bloemhof sub-catchment.

                                      U/S Bloemhof Sub-catchment:
                                      Wolmaransstad and Wesselsbron are the most important urban centres in the area.
                                      There is no significant irrigation in this area. Consumptive requirements by urban
                                      and rural users within this catchment are therefore small (3%) in comparison with
                                      non-consumptive requirements such as the ecological Reserve. River losses is
                                      also a significant factor that affects the water balance within this sub-area.
                                      However, as this sub-catchment is located on the main stem of the Vaal River, the
                                      water requirements of this area are provided by releases from the Upper Vaal
                                      WMA.

                                      Releases from the Upper Vaal WMA into the Middle Vaal WMA is driven by
                                      demand in the Middle Vaal WMA. The conditional surplus that exists in the Upper
                                      Vaal WMA therefore implies that water availability in this sub-catchment is not a
                                      problem. This sub-catchment also transfers water from the Vaal River to a number
                                      of adjacent sub-catchments to supply urban users as well as the mining sector, for
                                      example the transfer of water to the Free State Goldfields in the Vet sub-catchment.
                                      River losses play a significant role in the water balance of this sub-cachment.

                                      Schoonspruit Sub-catchment:
                                      The area is rural in nature and has significant controlled irrigation and rural
                                      requirements. Ventersdorp and Coligny are the most significant urban centres in the
                                      northern parts of the area.

                                      The main urban centres in the south of this subcatchment are Klerksdorp, Orkney
                                      and Stilfontein in the NW Goldfields and Odendaalsrus in the Free State. The
                                      requirements of Stilfontein, Buffelsfontein, Vaal Reefs and Hartebeesfontein Gold



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                      A-16
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                 Appendix A



                                      Mines make up over 90 % of bulk requirements in the area. Effluent returns from
                                      these towns and mines increase the water resources availability of the area
                                      significantly.
Situation
Assessment:                           This area is characterised by significant groundwater resources and the interaction
(Continued)                           between surface and groundwater in this area needs to be better understood (See
                                      A1.1 : Water Availability Strategy).


                                      Rhenoster-Vals Sub-area

                                      The NWRS reports an overall shortage of 9 x 106 m3/a for the Rhenoster-Vals sub-
                                      area. The shortage is due to the large proportion of irrigation water use that is
                                      present in this sub-area. Irrigation is however supplied at a relatively low level of
                                      assurance.

                                      Rhenoster Sub-catchment
                                      This sub-catchment is rural in nature and has significant controlled irrigation and
                                      rural requirements (87 % of total requirements). Heilbron and Viljoenskroon are the
                                      most significant urban centres in the area. Water is transferred from the Upper Vaal
                                      WMA (Vaal Dam) to supply the needs of Heilbron.

                                      There is an initiative in progress to investigate the possibility of buying out irrigation
                                      rights from Koppies Irrigation Scheme for a diamond mining development near
                                      Viljoenskroon. The mine has undertaken a groundwater availability assessment
                                      and, according to their findings, there is inadequate groundwater resources to
                                      support the requirements of the mine. The current water resource simulation
                                      models, with possible increases in the network resolution, should be used to assess
                                      the water resource availability of different scenarios.

                                      Vals Sub-catchment:
                                      While the sub-catchment is rural in nature, it has significant urban requirements.
                                      The urban requirements are dominated by the requirement of Kroonstad. Serious
                                      water shortages are currently being experienced in this sub-catchment, specifically
                                      at Kroonstad. Kroonstad’s first option is to initiate WC/WDM measures to alleviate
                                      the water shortage problem.         The second option would involve resource
                                      development that will result in the reduction of the yield of the Vaal River System,
                                      thereby attracting the Vaal River tariff. A third option would be the investigation of
                                      groundwater resources to augment existing surface water supplies.

                                      Other relevant issues in the catchment include:

                                        1. The water requirements of Bothaville is supplied by Sedibeng Water with
                                           water from the Vaal sub-catchment (Vaal River).
                                        2. Treated sewage and stormwater returns, from Kroonstad in particular,
                                           contribute to the water resources of the Vals sub-catchment.

                                      Sand-Vet Sub-area

                                      The NWRS indicates that the Sand-Vet area (which includes the Vet, Erfenis and
                                      Allemanskraal sub-catchments) has a surplus of 17 x 106 m3/a. There are
                                      uncertainties about this supply, viz. where this surplus exists or whether it is
                                      consumed by river losses, etc. Water is also reportedly over-allocated in this
                                      sub-catchment, implying that further analysis is required before the surplus
                                      indicated in the NWRS can be allocated to users.

                                      Allemanskraal Sub-catchment:
                                      The sub-catchment is located upstream of Allemanskraal dam and is rural in nature.
                                      The bulk of the yield in this catchment is generated in Allemanskraal Dam and is



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                 A-17
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A



                                      utilised downstream in the Sand River which is located in the Vet sub-catchment.
                                      Senekal is the most important urban centre in the area and is supplied from the
                                      Syferfontein and De Put Dams. Consumptive requirements by urban and rural
Situation                             users make up the rest of the requirements. Irrigation water requirements are not
Assessment:                           significant.
(Continued)
                                      Erfenis Sub-catchment:
                                      This sub-catchment is located upstream of Erfenis Dam and is rural in nature with
                                      Winburg and Marquard being the most important urban centers in the area.
                                      Consumptive requirements by urban and rural users make up 31% of total
                                      requirements. There is a transfer of water from Erfenis Dam to Brandfort in the
                                      Upper Orange WMA [Ref 2]. Irrigation water requirements are not significant.

                                      This sub-catchment contributes to the downstream yield of the Vet River.

                                      Vet Sub-catchment:
                                      The main urban centres are Welkom and Virginia and the main mines in this sub-
                                      catchment are Harmony, President Steyn, African Rainbow Minerals and
                                      Bambanani Gold Mines. Return flows from these users contribute about 10 % to
                                      the water resources of the sub-catchment. Sedibeng Water has a significant
                                      network of reservoirs, pump stations and pipelines from the Vaal River to these
                                      main centres. The mining (30%) and urban water requirements (24%) of the Free
                                      State Goldfields dominate the water requirements of this sub-catchment [Ref 2].

                                      Irrigation water requirements (40%) for controlled irrigation are significant and
                                      are the most important in the WMA as a whole. Approximately 122 km2 is
                                      scheduled for irrigation in three areas, namely Sand-Vet GWS (Sand), Sand-
                                      Vet GWS (Vet) and Vet River GWS. Actual irrigation requirement are
                                      significant therefore this sub-catchment does not contribute to the yield of the
                                      Lower Vaal WMA.

                                      Sedibeng Water has an allocation of 12 million m3/annum from Allemanskraal Dam.
                                      Their purification plant, using water from Allemanskraal canal system, is only ± 20%
                                      utilized. Due to economic benefits related to pumping and treatment costs as well
                                      as their spare capacity at their Allemanskraal purification plant, Sedibeng Water has
                                      expressed the need to maximise their supply from Allemanskraal Dam.                An
                                      investigation is required to determine whether a surplus exists at Allemanskraal
                                      before any further allocations can be made to Sedibeng Water from Allemanskraal
                                      Dam.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-18
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                        Appendix A




                                                 MANAGEMENT ACTIONS
Required actions, M1. A detailed assessment of the Sand/Vet sub-area is required to verify Regional
responsibilities and  the surplus of 17 x 106 m3/a (as reported in the NWRS), before
                                                                                           Office
                      further allocations can be made.
priorities:                                                                                (Priority 1)

                               M2. WC/WDM must be encouraged in local authorities experiencing
                                   water shortages and any development of water resources that is
                                                                                                    Regional
                                   required must be at the Vaal River tariff. This approach must be
                                                                                                    Office
                                   used in all areas experiencing water shortages, in particular,
                                                                                                    (Priority 1)
                                   Kroonstad.



References:                    1.     Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability
                                      and Utilisation, DWAF Report No. P WMA 09/000/00/0203
                               2.     Water Resources Situation Assessment : Middle Vaal Water Management Area,
                                      DWAF Report No. P WMA 08/000/00/0302
                               3.     Vaal River System Analysis Update : Integrated Vaal River System Analysis:
                                      DWAF report no : P C000/00/18496



                                                                               Version:                  1
                                                                 Strategy
                                                                 Version       Date:                     July 2004
                                                                 control:
                                                                               Author:                   ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                            A-19
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A




                                              A.1.5 COMPULSORY LICENSING



Management                            Ensure equitable sharing of the available water resources for the Reserve and
objective:                            activities to maintain the economic and social structures that rely on the water
                                      resources of the Middle Vaal WMA.


Situation                             As discussed in the Vaal Overarching ISP, there is no immediate need to undertake
Assessment:                           a compulsory licencing process for the Vaal River System in terms of:
                                                a. Equity
                                                b. Water Balance
                                                c. Ecological Reserve

                                      Equity
                                      The specific need to move water into the hands of the historically disadvantaged is
                                      not seen as the focus in the Vaal River System and there are no immediate
                                      pressures in this WMA to make allocations to Black farmers. Indirectly, by
                                      supporting the economic activities, secondary opportunities are created in the form
                                      of revenue for government that can be allocated to worthy causes such as land
                                      restitution. As far as the Middle Vaal WMA is concerned with regard to addressing
                                      inequities of the past, if equities are to be addressed through irrigation, land will
                                      have to be gained through the redistribution of existing land under irrigation. The
                                      economics of irrigation dictate that the land will have to be close to water. In
                                      addition, with the general movement of people from rural areas to the urban
                                      centres, water could become available for emerging farmers. Alternatively water
                                      can be made available through a compulsory licencing process. The possibilities in
                                      this area need to be investigated.

                                      Water Balance
                                      In terms of water balance, the system is in balance in terms of water availability and
                                      water requirements as any additional water requirements can be made available
                                      through releases from the Upper Vaal WMA as a result of the conditional surplus
                                      that exists in the Vaal River System. Therefore, in terms of the water balance of
                                      the system compulsory licencing is not a priority within this WMA.

                                      Ecological Reserve
                                      The economic activities supported by the water resources in the Vaal River System
                                      are recognised as the economic engine of South Africa and the Vaal River is
                                      considered to be a “work horse” river in terms of the Ecological Reserve. However
                                      the Ecology of the river should be managed to prevent further degradation and
                                      improve areas where unacceptable ecological conditions exists without causing a
                                      significant reduction in the water availability (Refer also to the Vaal River System
                                      Analysis Update Study [Ref 2] with regard to Ecological Reserve Management).
                                      There are no sensitive areas downstream of the main dams within the Middle Vaal
                                      WMA implyng that there is no urgent need for the determination of a
                                      Comprehensive Reserve and full implementation thereof.

                                      Although the above status indicates that Compulsory Licensing is not an immediate
                                      priority in the whole WMA, it may be required in selected sub-catchments where
                                      specific issues were raised at the workshops, for example, the Klerksdorp and
                                      Ventersdorp areas as well as the Schoonspruit Groundwater Users are considered
                                      to be over-allocated at present and compulsory licensing may alleviate this problem.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-20
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A




                                      However it is considered that other interventions (such as verification of lawful use
                                      and implementation of WC/WDM) must be explored to address the specific
                                      problems before a compulsory licensing programme is pursued.




                                                    MANAGEMENT ACTIONS
Required actions,
responsibilities and M1. Evaluate the priority of compulsory licensing for localised stressed
priorities:              catchments. The use of regulations to solve the problems listed Regional
                                        above should be investigated prior to considering compulsory Office
                                        licensing.                                                   (Priority 1)



References:                      1. Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability
                                    and Utilisation, DWAF Report No. P WMA 09/000/00/0203
                                 2. Vaal River System Analysis Update : Integrated Vaal River System Analysis:
                                    DWAF report no : P C000/00/18496




                                                                                      Version :               1
                                                                    Strategy
                                                                    Version           Date:                   July 2004
                                                                    control:
                                                                                      Author:                 ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-21
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                 Appendix A



                          A.1.6 SUPPLY TO DISTRICT AND LOCAL MUNICIPALITIES


Management                            Ensure that local and other authorities have sufficient water resources to supply
objective:                            their requirements and that they implement measures for efficient utilisation of the
                                      available resources. The objective with water supply to local authorities should be to
                                      implement economically feasible supply options with acceptable environmental
                                      impacts.



Situation                             Appendix C provides a list of all towns within the Middle Vaal WMA and their water
Assessment:                           sources, as well as particular water resource-related problems experienced within
                                      certain towns.

                                      Surface water resources:
                                      The water requirements for the Middle Vaal WMA are modelled as part of the water
                                      balance of the Integrated Vaal River River System. This balance considers
                                      availability and demands on a catchment-wide basis and deficits in water availability
                                      are often not identified at a local level. In order to obtain a broad indication of the
                                      supply situation at a local level, basic water balances at quaternary scale needs to
                                      be compiled.

                                      A large number of towns within the Middle Vaal WMA is supplied by MidVaal Water
                                      Company and Sedibeng Water with water from the Vaal River. The remaining
                                      water requirements are supplied by local resources. In general the areas supplied
                                      by Sedibeng Water and MidVaal Water Company do not experience problems with
                                      water supply but the smaller towns need to investigate water resources availability
                                      and supply alternatives for their towns.

                                      During 1995, Sedibeng Water supplied about 34 x 106 m3 to about 514 000 people
                                      in the Middle Vaal WMA and MidVaal Water Company supplied about 19,4 x 106 m3
                                      to about 300 000 people in the Middle Vaal WMA, all within the North West
                                      Province. [Ref 2]

                                      Sedibeng Water and MidVaal Water Company draws their water from the Vaal
                                      River where there is a surplus. There is a concern that towns supplied by Sedibeng
                                      Water and Mid Vaal Water Company will not use water efficiently as a result of the
                                      relative surplus in availability of water through these water service providers and the
                                      fact that the financial viability of these institutions is based on increased water sales.
                                      This issue needs to be considered in any further water allocations to these Water
                                      Service Providers (WSPs) with a view to implementing the full Vaal River tariff for
                                      additional allocations. Sedibeng Water and MidVaal Water Company must also be
                                      encouraged to promote WC/WDM.

                                      Groundwater Resources:
                                      The water requirements of a number of small urban centres as well as certain
                                      irrigation requirements in this WMA are supplemented by groundwater.

                                      Where water resources are stressed, management action/s in the following order of
                                      priority is recommended:
                                           1. Consider WC/WDM
                                           2. Investigate local ground and surface water resources
                                           3. Consider trading of water rights




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                 A-22
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                      Appendix A




                                      Water Conservation/ Demand Management
                                      Another important role that the Department/CMA must pursue is the
Situation                             implementation of effective WC&DM measures in the WMA. This must be
Assessment:                           pursued both with the local authorities and Sedibeng Water and/or Midvaal
(Continued)                           Water Company.

                                      In addition, the difficulties in stressed catchments can also be relieved
                                      through optimising operations. It is understood that system losses is a
                                      significant factor in the water balance of a system and reducing losses will
                                      increase water availability for allocations.

                                      Investigate Local Water Resources
                                      The approach to be adopted with the towns reliant on local water resources, is
                                      that the Department/CMA together with Sedibeng Water or Midvaal Water
                                      Company, where appropriate, will give guidance on the approach to follow and
                                      the possible supply options that should be investigated. The towns will then
                                      apply for a licence through the normal channels.
                                      In addition, consideration must be given to investigating transfer of water
                                      resources from areas adjacent to the towns in question to determine whether
                                      water requirements of these towns can be sourced from the adjoining areas.

                                      Trading of Water Rights
                                      The Department/CMA can also consider trading of water rights where water
                                      resources are stressed. Water rights can be traded from other users and/or
                                      adjacent sub-catchments before consideration is given to augmentation of
                                      water from the Vaal River System at full cost.




                                                   MANAGEMENT ACTIONS

                                                                                                         Regional
Required actions, M1. Promote the implementation of WC/DWM measures within local Office
responsibilities and  authorities.
                                                                                 (As required)
priorities:
                               M2. Promote and encourage the utilisation of groundwater resources for
                                   local water resource development. Water Service Development Regional
                                   Plans and feasibility studies (business plans) should indicate what Office
                                   groundwater supply options were considered for development.         (On-going)


                               M3. Regularly update information with regards to the water sources of
                                   towns not supplied from the main water supply systems. List the Regional
                                   towns with inadequate water resources and inform and guide these Office
                                   towns on undertaking yield analysis of these catchments supplied (Priority 1)
                                   from local resources (both surface and groundwater).




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                             A-23
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                        Appendix A




                               M4. Provide water resource availability assessments for areas where
                                   extensions to the water resources are required (to be considered      Regional
                                   only for towns that are financially stressed, eg. Assistance may be   Office
                                   provided through exploratory drilling, etc.). The need for this       (As
                                   information should be identified in the WSDP development process      required)
                                   and the results should be included in the WSDP reports.



References:                    1.     Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability
                                      and Utilisation, DWAF Report No. P WMA 09/000/00/0203
                               2.     Water Resources Situation Assessment : Middle Vaal Water Management Area,
                                      DWAF Report No. P WMA 08/000/00/0302




                                                                              Version no.:               1
                                                                Strategy
                                                                Version       Date:                      July 2004
                                                                control:
                                                                              Author:                    ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                           A-24
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A



                              A.2         WATER RESOURCES PROTECTION STRATEGY
                           A.2.1 RESERVE AND RESOURCE QUALITY OBJECTIVES


Management                            A Comprehensive Reserve determination needs to be undertaken for the Vaal
objective:                            River catchment, with the Reserve being implemented and enforced.




                                      A new classification system to ensure a balance between environmental health and
Situation                             the optimal use of the resource is under development and the rivers in the Middle
Assessment:                           Vaal will need to be classified under this system.

                                      As indicated in the Vaal Overarching ISP report, the Vaal River Catchment has sub-
                                      catchments whose natural flow and water quality regimes are significantly changed
                                      from natural conditions, whilst others are close to natural. The impacted river
                                      systems in the Vaal River catchment are highly regulated by major and small dams.
                                      The natural flow patterns in many of these river reaches have been substantially
                                      modified by return flows from wastewater treatment plants, mine dewatering,
                                      agricultural return flows and releases of water from transfer schemes into the river
                                      systems.

                                      It is expected that the ecosystems have largely adapted to the changed flow and
                                      water quality regimes. There are also substantial areas of the Vaal River catchment
                                      where land use development is low and the flow patterns are therefore largely
                                      unimpacted.


                                      A Comprehensive Reserve has not been determined for the Vaal River Catchment.
                                      However, as part of the VRSAU study an Environmental Flow Management Plan
                                      was developed for the main stem of the Vaal River [Ref. 1]. The products from the
                                      study were basic definitions of flow requirements and preferred operating regimes.
                                      Currently applied reservoir release and transfer operating rules do not explicitly
                                      contain the flow requirements defined in the abovementioned study.

                                      The RDM Directorate has also determined low confidence rapid estimates of the
                                      IFR and in some cases the water quality Reserve for critical catchments where the
                                      Reserve is needed for the issuing of licences.

                                      The water resources of the Vaal River System are augmented by transfers into the
                                      catchment from other WMAs. The Reserve still needs to be determined for many of
                                      the catchments supplying the Vaal River System. The implementation of these
                                      Reserves and the Vaal River System Reserve will affect water availability in the
                                      Vaal River System. The impact of the implementation of the Reserves for the
                                      various augmentation schemes in the Vaal River System will have to be derived
                                      and an implementation schedule determined.

                                      The current operating rules of the Vaal River System has been applied for a long
                                      time without having major negative effects on the ecology. (No serious ecological
                                      problems were highlighted at the workshops). An environmental Flow Management
                                      Plan has been developed for the main stem of the Vaal River and the
                                      implementation thereof will be an overarching function for the National Department
                                      [Ref 1]. Given the above-described situation, there is no urgent need to implement
                                      the Reserve in the Middle Vaal WMA.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-25
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                Appendix A




Situation
Assessment:                           The following requirements and guidelines have been identified in terms of
(Continued)                           Resource Directed Measures at the ISP workshops :

                                      1. Reserve determination investigations are required for the following purposes:
                                          • To determine the share of water availability required for the Reserve.
                                          • For issuing of licences.
                                          • To determine when the next large augmentation scheme has to be
                                            implemented.

                                      2. It has been identified that the planning activities for the implementation of the
                                         Reserve in the Integrated Vaal River System should be undertaken across
                                         WMA boundaries (as described in the Overarching Vaal ISP, Strategy A.2.1 :
                                         Reserve and Resource Quality Objectives). This approach is necessary to
                                         ensure the combined impact of the Reserve in the different water resources
                                         (located in different WMAs) is taken into consideration in the Reserve
                                         determination process.

                                      3. The impact of the revised EWR’s on the supply capability of the Integrated Vaal
                                         River System needs to be determined. This issue is addressed in the
                                         Overarching ISP. (See Strategy Table A2.1 : Reserve and Resource Quality
                                         Objectives).

                                      4. In most instances a rapid reserve determination must be carried out while an
                                         intermediate reserve will be undertaken only in selected areas.

                                      5. Groundwater reserve table is available from the Directorate : Resource
                                         Directed Measures. The Directorate : Resource Directed Measures has
                                         developed a database of all areas where groundwater Reserves have been
                                         determined. This information should be used to direct the procedure that has to
                                         be followed when assessing licence applications.




                                                    MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


Required actions, M1. The time schedule for determining the Comprehensive Reserve is NWRP
responsibilities and  needed for the Vaal River. A committee needs to be established to (Priority 1)
priorities:           assess if the Reserve for the entire catchment and or system needs
                                       to be determined or only sections of the catchment and when should
                                       this determination take place. This determination should be co-
                                       ordinated with catchments augmenting the Vaal River System and
                                       the determination of the Orange River Reserve. It is dealt with in the
                                       Overarching ISP.



                               M2. The determination of an intermediate reserve is in progress as part of Regional
                                   the CMS study for the Schoonspruit catchment.                          Office
                                                                                                          (Current)




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-26
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                        Appendix A




                               M3 The RDM Directorate should investigate what the status of the RDM
                                  Environmental Flow Management Plan is with respect to current (Priority 1)
                                  Reserve Determination methodologies.              Furthermore the
                                  implementation of the conditions and flow requirements into the
                                  operating rules of the system should be investigated and the impacts
                                  determined. The intention is to establish if the Environmental Flow
                                  Management Plan can be implemented as an interim measure prior
                                  to the determination and implementation of the Comprehensive
                                  Reserve for the Vaal WMAs. This issue is also being dealt with in
                                  the Vaal Overarching ISP Report.


References:                    1.     Vaal River System Analysis Update : Integrated Vaal River System Analysis:
                                      DWAF Report No : P C000/00/18496



                                                                               Version no.:              1
                                                                 Strategy
                                                                 Version       Date:                     July 2004
                                                                 control:
                                                                               Author:                   ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                            A-27
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                         Appendix A



                                A.2.2 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY



  Management                          The Department has a mandate to manage water resources in a sustainable
  objective:                          manner. In other words, it realises that in its pursuit to stimulate development
                                      and socio-economic growth, that there will be a negative water quality impact
                                      on our environment. The main objective is therefore to ensure a sound and
                                      reasonable balance between development impacts and the protection of the
                                      resource. Fitness for use by all users (especially downstream users) and
                                      protection of the natural ecosystems must be used as the basis for strategy
                                      development



                                      The water quality situation in the Middle Vaal WMA is discussed in terms of the
Situation                             main stem of the Vaal River, which runs through the WMA and the tributaries
Assessment:                           discharging to the Vaal River.

                                      Background
                                      The Vaal River catchment is a cascade of three WMAs. The water quality of
                                      the main stem of the Vaal River in the downstream WMAs is therefore
                                      impacted on, not only by the activities in the WMA itself, but also by the water
                                      received from upstream. The water quality in Vaal River will also impact on the
                                      water quality of the Orange River in the Lower Orange WMA. A water quality
                                      management strategy can therefore not be developed in isolation for individual
                                      WMAs but the entire Vaal River System will have to be considered in an
                                      integrated manner. Integrated Water Quality Management Plans will therefore
                                      be developed for the Vaal and Orange Rivers. The management actions
                                      related to the development of these plans are discussed in the Vaal and
                                      Orange Overarching ISPs.

                                      The approach adopted by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in
                                      managing the water quality in the Vaal River catchment is to set water quality
                                      objectives (WQO) for the sub-catchments. The WQO are based on the water
                                      user requirements in the catchments. The WQO include ideal, tolerable and
                                      unacceptable objectives for the water quality variables. A phased approach has
                                      been adopted for the development of strategies to manage the water quality in
                                      the sub-catchments of the Vaal River Catchment. The first phase is a situation
                                      assessment, which is followed by further phases to develop catchment
                                      management strategies.

                                      The approach adopted for the management of the water quality in the WMA is
                                      on a key area basis. A CMS has been developed for the Sand-Vet and phase 2
                                      has been started to develop a CMS for the Schoonspruit-Koekemoerspruit
                                      River system. These plans involve the setting of water quality objectives
                                      (WQO), identification of pollution sources, modelling and the development of
                                      management actions. These plans for the individual areas need to be linked to
                                      an assessment of the overall water quality management of the Vaal River.

                                      Vaal River Main Stem
                                      The water quality issues in the Vaal main stem are largely related to salinity
                                      and eutrophication. Complaints have been received from Water Boards
                                      regarding elevated salinity in the water supplied to their users. The presence of
                                      hyacinth on the main stem is an indication of the elevated nutrient levels in the
                                      river.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                              A-28
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                Appendix A




                                      The water quality of the main stem of the Vaal River is not only affected by the
                                      water quality of the flow from the tributaries within the WMA but also by the
                                      water quality of the water received from the upstream Upper Vaal WMA. As
                                      discussed in the Vaal Overarching ISP, the water quality in the main stem
                                      Vaal in the Upper Vaal WMA is actively managed. Releases are made from
                                      Vaal Dam to maintain the TDS concentration in the Vaal Barrage at 600 mg/l.
Situation                             The water quality received from Upper Vaal WMA is considered to be relatively
Assessment:                           poor particularly as regards nutrients. There is also the carry over of hyacinth
(Continued)                           to the Middle Vaal WMA from the Upper Vaal WMA. The water quality of the
                                      Vaal main stem is impacted on by mining activities in the Schoonspruit,
                                      Koekemoerspruit and the Sand-Vet systems. The sources are mine dewatering
                                      discharges and seepage from tailings dams located close to the Vaal River.

                                      Tributaries
                                      The water quality situation in each of the three sub-areas in the WMA is
                                      discussed in the following sections. There are however two water quality
                                      related issues common to the three sub-areas. These are :-

                                      • Many of the sewage works and sanitation systems of the towns in the WMA are
                                        inadequate and are in a poor state. The reasons for this are both poor
                                        management and the overloading of the plants and reticulation systems. The
                                        overloading is sometimes due to the replacement of pit latrines with water borne
                                        sewerage systems without upgrading the sewage works. There is a practice of
                                        disposing of treated sewage effluent to mains. This practice is to be discouraged
                                        in future and the effluent treated to a suitable level for discharge back to the river.

                                      • There are significant areas of irrigation in the WMA. There is uncertainty about the
                                        water quality and volumes of the return flows associated with the irrigation areas.
                                        Groundwater is used as a source of water in many places in the WMA for both
                                        domestic and irrigation use. The protection of the water quality of the groundwater
                                        resource must be communicated to the Water User Associations (WUA).

                                      Rhenoster Vals Sub-area
                                      Agriculture is the predominant land-use in this sub-area. The major town in the sub-
                                      area is Kroonstad. The water quality in this sub-area is good with some localised
                                      problems associated with the management and maintenance of the sanitation
                                      system in Kroonstad, having a local impact on the water quality of the Vals River.

                                      A diamond mine is being re-established in the Rhenoster catchment. The water
                                      quality issues related to this mine will be managed through the EMPR process and
                                      water use licences.

                                      Middle Vaal Sub-area
                                      The predominant land uses in this sub-area are agriculture and mining. There are
                                      significant urban areas associated with the towns of Klerksdorp and Stilfontein. The
                                      mining is located in the Schoonspruit and Koekemoerspruit catchments. The water
                                      quality in this sub-area is good except for the discharges from the Schoonspruit and
                                      Koekemoerspruit catchments, which are impacted on by mining.

                                      The mining activities impacting on the water quality are mine dewatering discharges
                                      and the seepage from tailings dams. A priority list for the rehabilitation of tailings
                                      dams has been drawn up in consultation with the mines. The rehabilitation
                                      programme is in the process of being implemented.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-29
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A



                                      A study is underway to develop a catchment management plan for the
                                      Schoonspruit and Koekemoerspruit catchments. This will result in the setting of
                                      WQO, waste load allocations and monitoring programmes. The catchment plan will
                                      also determine post closure decant volumes and qualities and develop an
                                      appropriate management strategy to deal with these.

                                      There are also a number of diamond diggers (“delwers”) causing sediment pollution
                                      along the Vaal River, Bamboespruit and in the Wolmaransstad area. The diggers
                                      move around rapidly and are difficult to control. They often mine without the
                                      required licences and EMPR being in place.

                                      The dolomitic compartment in the upper reaches of the Schoonspruit catchment
                                      above Johan Neser Dam is used extensively for irrigation. Groundwater
                                      management plans are being developed for this area, which will result in the setting
                                      of resource quality objectives and address the protection of the water quality of the
                                      groundwater resource.

                                      Sand/ Vet Sub-area
                                      The predominant land uses in this sub-area are mining and agriculture. There are
                                      large urban areas located in the mining towns of Welkom and Virginia. A water
                                      quality management plan has been developed for the Sand-Vet system as part of
                                      the Catchment Management Strategy (CMS) for this sub-area. A forum of the key
                                      stakeholders has been set up and is active in water resource management in the
                                      sub-area. The management plan established a number of reaches in the river
                                      system for which WQO have been set. A compliance monitoring program has been
                                      established. The CMS has been implemented over the past five years. The time is
                                      now appropriate to review the management plan and compare WQO with the
                                      compliance monitoring results. The plan should be revised if necessary and be
                                      integrated into the Integrated Water Quality Management Plan for the Vaal River
                                      catchment.




                                                    MANAGEMENT ACTIONS
Required actions, M1. The EMPR process and water use licences must continue to be used Regional
responsibilities and  to manage mines.                                                 Office
                                                                                       (ongoing)
priorities:
                               M2. RQOs need to be set to protect the groundwater and surface water. Regional
                                   The RQOs should be set for the different geological types in focus Office
                                   areas within the WMA.                                              (ongoing)

                               M3. The existing communication structures at the local government and Regional
                                   provincial levels should be used to communicate the Department’s Office
                                   concerns about the sanitation systems in the WMA.                 (ongoing)

                               M4. The implementation of the Sand-Vet CMS should be continued. A Regional
                                   review of the success of the implementation of the Sand-Vet CMS Office
                                   should be undertaken. The CMS should be further developed so that (priority 1)
                                   it integrates into the Integrated Vaal River Water Quality
                                   Management Plan.

                               M5. Working for water needs to start with a clean up program for the Regional
                                   hyacinth in the Vaal River main stem and the tributaries.        Office
                                                                                                    (priority 1)



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-30
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                        Appendix A



                               M6. The water quality and land use changes in the remaining key areas Regional
                                   should be monitored and a detailed CMS developed when required    Office
                                                                                                     (priority 1)
                               M7. The Department needs to develop a communication strategy with the Regional
                                   WUA to provide information on issues such as recommended values Office
                                   for fertiliser applications to protect groundwater quality.       (priority 1)

                               M8. Communicate with mines through Forums on the progress with the Regional
                                   implementation of the rehabilitation plans.                    Office
                                                                                                  (priority 1)
                               M9. The licensing process should be used to control the treatment levels Regional
                                   and points of discharge of sewage treatment plant effluent.          Office
                                                                                                        (priority 1)
                                                                                                          Regional
                               M10.Actively participation in the Water Quality Overarching study.         Office
                                                                                                          (priority 1)


References:                    1.     Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability
                                      and Utilisation, DWAF Report No. P WMA 09/000/00/0203

                               2.     Internal Strategic Perspective : Vaal River System : Overarching, 2004. DWAF
                                       Report No. P RSA C000/00/0103.



                                                                               Original version:         1
                                                                Strategy
                                                                Version        Date:                     July 2004
                                                                control:
                                                                               Author:                   ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                           A-31
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                           Appendix A




                                      A.3.    WATER USE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY


                                             A.3.1 GENERAL AUTHORISATIONS


Management                            To optimise the use of these authorisations with a view to cutting down on
objective:                            unnecessary administrative efforts of water use activities that can be allowed
                                      without individual water use licences. Both the DWAF and the users falling in the
                                      General Authorisation category would save resources (time and money) by not
                                      having to apply for and process licenses for certain water use activities.



Situation                             The local water resources in the Vaal River System is limited with the result that
Assessment:                           local water resources are augmented by large scale transfers from the Thukela–
                                      Vaal Scheme and the LHWP. Consequently there are no general authorisations
                                      for the following water uses:

                                      a. Abstraction of surface water throughout the Middle Vaal WMA
                                      b. Abstraction of water from Ventersdorp Groundwater Scheme
                                      c. Storage from runoff

                                      In terms of Section 39 of the NWA, General Authorisations are permitted for the
                                      following in the Middle Vaal WMA [Ref 1]:

                                        a. Groundwater abstraction, at a maximum rate of 60m3 per hectare per annum,
                                           in quaternary catchments C24B, C25B,C,E,F, C41F,G,H,J, C42L, C43,
                                           C60G,H,J, C70C,D,E,F,G,H,K. (See Appendix C for Map indicating
                                           quaternary catchments).
                                        b. Groundwater abstraction, at a rate of 300m3 per hectare per annum, in
                                           quaternary catchments C24, C25A,D, C41A,B,D,E, C42A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,J,K,
                                           C60A,B,C,D,E,F, C70A,B,J.
                                        c. Irrigation with wastewater, except within the Ventersdorp Groundwater
                                           Scheme.
                                        d. Treated effluent up to a maximum of 2 Ml/day is permitted provided that
                                           certain quality limits and monitoring requirements are met.
                                        e. Disposal of domestic sewage up to 1Ml/day provided that certain conditions
                                           and limits are satisfied.
                                        f. Removal of groundwater (for purposes such as mining) up to a maximum
                                           volume of 50 Ml/day.

                                      All other activities are not covered by general authorisations but applications are
                                      currently being considered to permit GA’s for the following:

                                       a. Impeding or diverting flow up to certain limits.
                                       b. Altering the shape of the river bank (with limits).

                                      The following requirements have been identified in terms of General Authorisations:
                                      1. Smaller feed lots need to be included under General Authorisations. The
                                          bearing capacity of the property needs to be taken into account. There is
                                          currently a process underway at a National Departmental level to develop the
                                          criteria for this water use.



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-32
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A



                                      2. Consideration needs to be given following further investigations to relaxing
                                         requirements for general authorisations for Wastewater Discharge for specific
Situation                                types of sewerage works in specific areas. The volume restrictions in this WMA
Assessment:                              need to be waived or adjusted as follows:
(Continued)
                                          •   For higher value oxidation ponds, increase from 1,0 to 1,5 Ml/day
                                         • For sewage plants, increase minimum requirement from 2,0 to 3,0 Ml/day
                                      3. Consideration needs to be given to the fast-tracking of licensing for mine
                                         diggers or including under General Authorisations.
                                      4. General Authorisations need to be reviewed on a regular basis.

                                      In conclusion, it is recommended that the responsibility for the reviewing and future
                                      publication of General Authorisations should be the function of the CMA, currently the
                                      Regional Office. The implementation of this delegated responsibility is currently being
                                      considered by the National Department for application in all WMA’s.


                                                    MANAGEMENT ACTIONS
Required actions, M1. Review and refine the conditions specified for General                                   Regional
responsibilities and  Authorisations on a regular basis to incorporate the                                     Office
priorities:           abovementioned requirements and other necessary adjustments.                             (Priority 1)


References:                    1.       National Water Act , 1998


                                                                                   Version:                   1
                                                                    Strategy
                                                                    Version        Date:                      July 2004
                                                                    control:
                                                                                   Author:                    ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-33
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A




                                                A.3.2 LICENSING STRATEGY


Management                            Licensing of water use (as defined in the National Water Act) should be considered
objective:                            on a continuous basis when applications are received. The licences should be
                                      considered in accordance with the framework as presented below:


                                      Although there is little or no growth in water use forseen in this WMA, the
Situation
                                      licensing of current and new users is still an important water resource issue
Assessment:
                                      facing the WMA, so too is the licensing of water discharges (e.g. urban effluent
                                      returns, mines decanting ground water etc) into the surface water system.

                                      The issuing of new licences is dependent on whether the surface water
                                      resources can meet the existing and future requirements as well as ecological
                                      and social reserve requirements. Therefore, In order to ensure that the
                                      licencing process is meaningful and to ensure that licences are not over-
                                      allocated, it is recommended that a comprehensive database of water users be
                                      created and maintained with all licensing details in this WMA.

                                      Considerations for water abstraction licences:
                                      Due to the “conditional” excess water available in the Vaal River System (see
                                      Strategy A.1.3) the issuing of licences for water abstraction could be considered
                                      under specific conditions as listed below [Ref 1]. This opportunity for new licences
                                      is made possible only as a result of the transfer of water into the system, which
                                      implies that the full cost of the water will have to be charged for the intended user.

                                      Because water is transferred into the system and is available not only to users in the
                                      Vaal WMAs, but also to users in other WMA’s, the allocation of the surplus will
                                      remain under DWAF’s national control.

                                      Directives and guidelines to apply when evaluating new licences to be allocated
                                      from the conditional surplus:
                                      •   No new licence application will be considered unless water conservation and
                                          demand management is satisfactorily practiced and proved. This will apply to
                                          all users.
                                      •   An applicant with direct (mainstream) access to transferred water will be able to
                                          receive a licence for water abstraction at the full cost.
                                      •   An applicant with indirect access to transferred water will be able to receive a
                                          licence for water abstraction at a cost to be determined by the impact of the
                                          abstraction on the water resource.
                                      •   An applicant will be able to receive a license for water abstraction at the
                                          applicable pricing structure provided that one can prove the availability of the
                                          resource.
                                      •   Water quality impacts of any new licence must be considered.
                                      •   When the trading of water rights is considered, the net impact of the water
                                          users involved needs to be taken into consideration . The existing trading policy
                                          on in- sectoral trading should be applied. A draft trading policy and mechanism
                                          has been developed for inter sectoral trading and across WMA trading, and is
                                          awaiting approval from the DG.
                                      •   Included in draft trading policy is that trading of water rights should only be
                                          allowed in cases where the water resource is clearly shared by trading users
                                          and, should they have different reliability requirements, that they be based on
                                          equal impact on the water resource.



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-34
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                           Appendix A




                                      Status with respect to Discharge Licenses:
Situation                             Applications for discharge licences will be addressed through the licencing
Assessment:                           procedures. The forms will be accompanied by the required support documentation,
                                      which includes an impact assessment. Where a CMS is available, the WQO and
(Continued)                           any other conditions contained in the CMS will be used to evaluate the application.
                                      Where a CMS is not available, WQO will be set based on a water user survey and
                                      an ecological assessment of the receiving water body.

                                      Upon completion of the planned Integrated Water Quality Management plan for the
                                      Vaal River Catchment, the CMS and WQO developed for the sub-catchments may
                                      have to be refined based on the integrated plan. This could mean that the discharge
                                      licences issued need to be reviewed.



                                                   MANAGEMENT ACTIONS

                                                                                                             Regional
Required actions,    M1. Assess the current database in terms of licensing information                       Office
responsibilities and     requirements and make recommendations for improvement.
                                                                                                             (Priority 1)
priorities:
                                                                                                             Regional
                                M2. Apply licencing procedures outlined in the above situation               Office
                                        assessment                                                           (Priority 1)


References:                    1.      Vaal River System Analysis Update : Integrated Vaal River System Analysis:
                                       DWAF Report No : P C000/00/18496



                                                                                  Version no.:              1
                                                                   Strategy
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                                                                                  Author:                   ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                              A-35
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                               Appendix A



                      A.4         WATER CONSERVATION & WATER DEMAND STRATEGY

                      A.4.1 WATER CONSERVATION & WATER DEMAND STRATEGY


Management                            To make more effective and efficient use of the existing available water resources in
objective:                            all water user sectors. This will enable the Catchment Management Agency (and
                                      indeed DWAF) to conserve this scarce resource and avoid expensive schemes for
                                      transfers and storage when these may not be necessary if demand is properly
                                      managed.



Situation                             Overview
Assessment:                           Evidence of inefficient water usage can be found in all water use sectors
                                      throughout the country and the value of water seems largely unrecognised by
                                      many water users. South Africa is a developing country that is water stressed
                                      and requires improved management of its limited water resources.

                                      The implementation of water conservation and water demand management
                                      principles is essential in meeting the national goals of basic water supply for all
                                      South Africans and the sustainable use of water resources.

                                      Irrigation is the main water user in this WMA and water conservation and demand
                                      management should be focussed on this user group to obtain maximum savings.
                                      Significant savings can be obtained by reducing conveyance losses in canals,
                                      proper irrigation scheduling, metering and pricing of irrigation water and the
                                      improvement of irrigation systems. For example, the removal of alien vegetation is
                                      considered to be an important step towards the reduction in conveyance losses.

                                      Although urban/industrial uses is a relative small component in this WMA, Water
                                      Conservation and Demand Management Programs or strategies for urban centers
                                      need to be reviewed and if not available, designed as it has a significant impact in
                                      some of the sub-catchments. These programs need to resolve issues related to
                                      conveyance losses, to Unaccounted for Losses, to re-use and to return flows.
                                      These programs must include surface water and groundwater pollution mitigation
                                      strategies that will require monitoring by the CMA. The programs should set best
                                      practice norms and minimum requirements.

                                      Middle Vaal WMA
                                      The Schoonspruit area is an important area where WC &DM measures could have
                                      significant benefits. It has been identified that significant losses are incurred in the
                                      canals downstream of the Ventersdorp and Schoonspruit Eyes. Estimates indicate
                                      that these losses could be as high as 8 million m3/annum on a total requirement of
                                      32 million m3/annum. It is proposed that the implementation of water conservation
                                      and demand management measures to reduce the losses be investigated, and if
                                      found feasible, be implemented in the supply system be assessed.

                                      WC/WDM is also being effectively practiced by farmers in the Schoonspruit sub-
                                      catchment with the result that current irrigation water use in the is less than the
                                      quota. Despite paying according to a fixed allocation, farmers in this area
                                      previously used 80% of quota and now only between 50 to 60% is utilised, due to
                                      the realisation that the existing soil conditions do not suit certain crops. More
                                      efficient farming practices are employed, for example, only one crop per annum is
                                      now produced in certain areas due to the climatic conditions in the region. This
                                      indicates that certain farmers are becoming aware that WC/WDM initiatives can



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-36
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A



                                      actually save them money. The above initiatives by farmers serve as a good
                                      example and should further be encouraged by promoting the utilisation of their
Situation                             savings for increasing their irrigated area, or make the saved allocations available
Assessment:                           for trading to other users (See M2 below).
(Continued)
                                      The current losses in the Sand-Vet system are 20% where the canals are unlined.
                                      There are proposals to construct weirs to improve operations.

                                      Municipalities
                                      There are currently several initiatives by Local Authorities and Service Providers
                                      around the country to implement Water Conservation and Demand Management
                                      (WCDM) measures and it is perceived that large savings could be achieved in the
                                      gross demand of the urban sector.           The benefits of introducing WCWDM
                                      measures, are with respect to improving local availability, postponing capital
                                      expenditure (to extend bulk distribution systems), reducing water supply operating
                                      costs and (potentially) decrease the costs of wastewater treatment due to lower
                                      volumes of return flow. WC/WDM must therefore be promoted in this WMA.




                                                    MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


Required actions, M1. Creating awareness of the benefits of WCDM measures among                               Regional
responsibilities and   Local Authorities as well as at the various Forums that are                            Office
                       active in the Vaal River System.                                                       (Priority 1)
priorities:


                               M2. WC/WDM must be promoted in the agricultural sector.
                                   Farmers must be encouraged to save water by demonstrating                  Regional
                                   to them that WC/WDM has several benefits for them. (eg.                    Office
                                   increase in irrigation area with same quota or trade their water           (Priority 1)
                                   savings.)


                               M3. Applications for allocation of surplus water must demonstrate
                                   Water Conservation and Demand management initiatives and
                                                                                                              Regional
                                   the first priority of solving water deficit problems should be to
                                                                                                              Office
                                   implement WC/WDM. Augmentation options should only be
                                                                                                              (On-going)
                                   considered if it is proved that WC/WDM will not improve the
                                   situation.


                                                                                                              Regional
                               M4. Measures need to be implemented in the Schoonspruit sub-
                                                                                                              Office
                                   catchment to address losses in this area.
                                                                                                              (Priority 1)


                               M5. DWAF needs to work with municipalities in stressed
                                                                                                              Regional
                                   catchments to initiate WC/WDM measures. A set of guidelines
                                                                                                              Office
                                   is required to assist local authorities with formulating and
                                                                                                              (Priority 1)
                                   implementing WC/WDM.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-37
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                        Appendix A




References:                    1.     Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability
                                      and Utilisation, DWAF Report No. P WMA 09/000/00/0203
                               2.     Water Resources Situation Assessment : Middle Vaal Water Management Area,
                                      DWAF Report No. P WMA 08/000/00/0302
                               3.     Vaal River System Analysis Update : Integrated Vaal River System Analysis:
                                      DWAF Report No : P C000/00/18496

                                                                               Version no.:              1
                                                                 Strategy
                                                                 Version       Date:                     July 2004
                                                                 control:
                                                                               Author:                   ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                            A-38
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                  Appendix A




               A5.              INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT & SUPPORT MAIN STRATEGY

                                A.5.1. LOCAL AND CATCHMENT LEVEL STRATEGY



Management                            The Regional Office (as the interim CMA) needs to take institutional control of all
objective:                            Water Resource Management functions and will be supported by DWAF Head
                                      Office Directorates.   Their main objective is to responsibly manage the water
                                      resources of the Middle Vaal WMA in the interim until such time as the Catchment
                                      Management Agency can take over some of the functions.



Situation                             General
Assessment:                           In planning for the CMA process, the Middle Vaal WMA has been split into 7 sub-
                                      catchments. Forums have been established in 2 of the sub-catchments, namely the
                                      Schoonspruit Forum and the Sand-Vet-Allemanskraal Forum. The process to
                                      establish the others are in progress.

                                      The structure of these forums are planned and implemented by the Regional office
                                      of DWAF. They are normally made up of interested and concerned citizens, as well
                                      as the major water users, water service providers and DWAF. The function of the
                                      forums is to play an active role in the practical review and implementation of the
                                      various water resource management issues in the catchments. Problems with
                                      representivity at these forums however threaten their effective existence. Currently
                                      interested and affected parties are however included on a study basis only, mainly
                                      concerned with water quality. It is the intention to start initiating remaining forums in
                                      2005 as the CMA process is expected to commence in 2006.

                                      Institutions at District and Local Municipal level are relatively new on the scene and
                                      water resource and water service capacity is slowly being built in these institutions.
                                      Liaison between the various institutions needs to be encouraged in the interest of
                                      integrated water resources management in the Middle Vaal WMA.

                                      Irrigation boards are currently being transformed to Water User Associations. This
                                      process will continue and these institutions will fulfil their roles in line with the NWA ,
                                      WSA and the NWRS. The Klerksdorp Irrigation Board is in the process of being
                                      transformed into a Water User and the Koppies Irrigation Board is also in the
                                      process of converting into a Water User Association. The Sand-Vet Catchment
                                      Management Committee is also in the process of being formed. Other Water User
                                      Associations in the WMA include the Ventersdorp Dolomitic WUA.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                  A-39
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                           Appendix A




                                                  MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


Required actions, M1. Continue assisting NGO’s and CBO’s in the establishment and
                      empowerment of the local water resource management authorities.
responsibilities and  More support (especially basic financial support) needs to be Regional
priorities:           considered to the founding of forums, since they fulfil a key role in Office
                                      the establishment of these institutions. Promotion of these forums is (Priority 1)
                                      crucial in order to ensure that the forums are representative of all the
                                      role players / stakeholders in the catchment.



References:                    1.     Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability
                                      and Utilisation, DWAF Report No. P WMA 09/000/00/0203




                                                                                 Version no.:               1
                                                                  Strategy
                                                                  Version        Date:                      July 2004
                                                                  control:
                                                                                 Author:                    ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                             A-40
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                               Appendix A




                                              A5.2          POVERTY ERADICATION



Management                            The main objective is to contribute to the eradication of poverty through the provision
objective:                            of basic Community Water Supply and creation of employment in developing
                                      Community Water Supply and Sanitation Infrastructure. Due to the mostly rural
                                      composition of the population and dependence on agriculture, make specific
                                      allowances for irrigation water to resource poor farmers (RPF).



Situation                             Local water resources in this WMA is limited and water is transferred into the WMA
Assessment:                           at a high cost to meet the needs of water users, particularly users that contribute
                                      significantly to the economy of the country. As set out in the licencing strategy, new
                                      water use will be supplied at full cost. Poverty eradication schemes are unlikely to be
                                      sustainable if the full cost is applied. Opportunities will therefore have to be found
                                      where the existing water allocations are made available for poverty eradication
                                      schemes. Similarly water saved through WC&DM, particularly in the agricultural
                                      sector, can be used. The Department must identify opportunities and facilitate the
                                      transfer of water allocations from the commercial irrigation sector to Resource Poor
                                      Farmers (RPF).

                                      DWAF has identified the need to implement programmes to eradicate poverty as
                                      part of government’s overall objective of addressing poverty. Water is not available
                                      from surface water resources for allocation to irrigation projects but it is possible to
                                      obtain water from small farm effluent or groundwater resources. Several poverty
                                      eradication schemes to use effluent for small irrigation projects, such as woodlots,
                                      were therefore started in the Middle Vaal WMA (Wesselsbron, Bloemhof, Kroonstad
                                      & Stillfontein), but these initiatives have not been successful to date due mainly to
                                      poor soil quality and poor management.

                                      It is evident that these schemes need to be coordinated with other relevant
                                      authorities, such as the Department of Land Affairs and the Department of
                                      Agriculture, in order to ensure the successful implementation of these poverty
                                      eradication initiatives.

                                      The following requirements to alleviate poverty have been identified :

                                      1. The Department must identify opportunities (specifically groundwater) and
                                         facilitate the transfer of water rights from the commercial irrigation sector to RPF.

                                      2. The Department of Land Affairs and the Department of Agriculture should be
                                         contacted to find out if they have any plans, which the Department can support.
                                         In addition, DWAF needs to give assistance in terms of making available
                                         information on water availability in certain catchments.

                                      3. Resource Poor Farmers need to be encouraged to form WUAs in order to
                                         obtain subsidies from DWAF.

                                      4. Implement standard poverty eradication principles in the managing and
                                         administrating of water supply schemes funded by DWAF.

                                      4. Poverty Eradication should be included, as far as possible, in any new
                                         developments funded by DWAF.



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                 A-41
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                       Appendix A




                                               MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


Required actions, M1. Actively pursue the implementation of poverty eradication initiatives             Regional
responsibilities and  in the process of providing water supply and sanitation systems in                Office
priorities:           rural areas.                                                                      (On-going)


                                M2. If these poverty alleviation schemes are shown to be feasible,
                                    the Department should encourage and facilitate transfer of          Regional
                                    water rights from the commercial irrigation sector (via trading),   Office
                                    facilitate the submission of the necessary licence applications     (On-going)
                                    and formation of the required institutional structure.


                                                                                                        Regional
                                M3. Collaboration with the Departments of Land Affairs and
                                    Agriculture in terms of schemes relating to Equity farmers.         Office
                                                                                                        (Priority 1)

                                                                                                        Regional
                                M4. Encourage RPFs to associate with or form WUAs in order to
                                    qualify for subsidies and incentives in the pricing policy.         Office
                                                                                                        (Priority 1)


References:



                                                                             Version no.:               1
                                                              Strategy
                                                              Version        Date:                      July 2004
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                                                                             Author:                    ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                          A-42
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                           Appendix A



                                            A.6.    ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY



Management                            Ensuring that there is a balance between the need for development (i.e.
objective:                            including all activities undertaken by DWAF) and the need to protect the natural
                                      and social environment for the benefit of all.



Situation                             DWAF has been very proactive over the years regarding the institution of
Assessment:                           international best practice in the field of Integrated Environmental
                                      Management. The Directorate: Water Abstraction and Instream Use has
                                      recently published the Department’s Environmental Implementation and
                                      Management Programme and is currently developing specific strategies to
                                      implement processes that will take due consideration of all impacts that water
                                      resource and other water management activities will have on our broader
                                      environment in which we live.

                                      There is a current drive to determine the Reserves and Resource Quality
                                      Objectives of all rivers in the WMA in order to facilitate the licensing process as
                                      well as effective water management. There is also a need to operationalise the
                                      Reserve and Resource Quality Objectives once they have been determined.

                                      In an effort to properly manage the environment, all the mines are forced to
                                      have an EMP in place for their on-going operations as well as for mine
                                      closures. EMPs are also required for the small diamond digging operations.

                                      Biomonitoring is currently carried out by the Department for the Sand-Vet, Vals
                                      and Schoonspruit sub-catchments.




                                                                                  Version:                  1
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DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                              A-43
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A




  A.7        WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT & MANAGEMENT STRATEGY



                                        A.7.1 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT STRATEGY



Management                            Implement system management measures to optimally utilise the available water
objective:                            resources, in terms of short-term benefits and to maintain the reliability of supply
                                      over the long-term. The aim is to postpone the need for the development of new
                                      costly infrastructure for as long as possible into the future while saving operating
                                      costs over the short-term.


                                      General
Situation                             There are no major industries or operational power generation facilities in this
Assessment:                           WMA. Mining and agriculture are the primary economic activities occurring in
                                      this catchment [Ref 1].

                                      General trends in the Middle Vaal Water Management Area are the continued
                                      concentration of economic development and population in the urban centres
                                      and mining districts, and a decline in rural population. Mining water
                                      requirements have also decreased due to a general decline in mining activity in
                                      some areas and more efficient water use by mines in other areas. The net
                                      result is an expected decline in water use in the catchment.

                                      The Middle Vaal WMA is part of the Vaal River System. This system is
                                      supported by water supply infrastructure located in surrounding WMAs and
                                      countries. Any future growth in the water requirements of the Middle Vaal WMA
                                      will be met by transfers. The planning of the future infrastructure development
                                      and implementation is discussed in detail in the Vaal and Orange Overarching
                                      ISPs. For details these reports should be consulted.

                                      Vaal Sub-catchment
                                      There is an operational problem at the Balkfontein abstraction point as storage
                                      at the Balkfontein weir is too low. Consequently releases from the Vaal Dam
                                      need to coincide with actual water requirements in this catchment to ensure
                                      that the weir does not overflow or that water shortages do not occur.

                                      Sedibeng Water also enjoys a conditional water use from Allemanskraal when
                                      the dam is overflowing, provided that the reserve requirements are catered for.
                                      This water is cheaper and of a better quality than water from the Vaal River.

                                      Responsibility
                                      There is a need to centralise system management to some extent, i.e. it should
                                      be controlled by National Government. This is essential to ensure that control
                                      of national water resources is not in the hands of a WMA. Operational issues
                                      relating to blending, releases, etc. are overarching in nature and therefore
                                      should be controlled by National Government. The operation and management
                                      of local resources, such as tributary dams, will be the responsibility of the CMA.




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-44
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                          Appendix A




                                                 MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


Required actions, M1. The operation of the system to control the flow in the main stem of
responsibilities and  the Vaal River System is planned for by annual operating analyses
priorities:           that is an overarching function of the National Department. The Regional
                                      DWAF Regional Office has to participate in the annual operating Office
                                      analysis to determine the operating rules to apply for specific supply (on-going)
                                      situations to ensure that the required management measures are
                                      implemented timeously.



                               M2. Determine and implement operating rules for the tributary dams in Regional
                                   this WMA, including Allemanskraal, Erfenis, Johan Neser, etc. Office
                                   Although water restrictions in the Vaal River System is an
                                                                                                         (Priority 1)
                                   overarching issue which will be dealt with at National level, the CMA
                                   can implement restrictions that only affects users from a local
                                   resource, viz. tributary dams.



References:                    1.     Water Resources Situation Assessment : Middle Vaal Water Management Area,
                                      DWAF Report No. P WMA 08/000/00/0302




                                                                                Version no.:               1
                                                                 Strategy
                                                                 Version        Date:                      July 2004
                                                                 control:
                                                                                Author:                    ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                             A-45
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                Appendix A




                               A.7.2 RECREATION ON DAMS & RIVERS STRATEGY



                                      To regulate recreation on all water bodies in the catchment, but also to restrict
Management                            access to levels that do not negatively impact on the natural environment or on the
                                      local population.
objective:

                                      Developments must adhere to guidelines and criteria specifically prepared for
                                      recreational purposes. These developments must be evaluated on a consistent
                                      basis taking into account the need for such a development as well as the
                                      implications on the environment, current water users and public safety.



Situation                             All the water bodies are important for recreational purposes, especially in the interior
Assessment:                           of South Africa. There are several recreational sites located in the Middle Vaal
                                      WMA, viz. Schoonspruit Dam, Rietspruit Dam, Schoonspruit, Kroonstad, Virginia
                                      Boat Club, Vaal Reefs Nature Reserve, Bloemhof Dam Nature Reserve, Willem
                                      Pretorius at Allemanskraal Dam, Koppies Dam, Erfenis Dam nature reserve,
                                      Orkney Vaal, Faanmeintjies near Klerksdorp & Stilfontein ,etc. [Ref 1]

                                      The Directorate: Social and Ecological Studies have fairly sophisticated processes
                                      to determine the impacts of recreation on water bodies and to promote recreation
                                      and tourism within realistic frameworks.

                                      The following information is also crucial for this WMA in terms of recreation:

                                      1. It is important that the dam sites located in the Lower Vaal be exploited for
                                         recreational use
                                      2. The rezoning of these sites for recreation and the investigation of mechanisms
                                         for development is required, eg. Privatisation, Concessions, etc.
                                      3. The impact of pollution on the river systems is of particular significance to users
                                         of rivers and dams for recreational purposes and requires regular monitoring.
                                         (see section A.8)


                                                    MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


Required actions, M1. DWAF needs to encourage developments around existing dams for Regional
responsibilities and  recreational use by making these sites available to the tourism and
                                                                                          Office
priorities:           leisure industry. DWAF is responsible for rezoning of these sites
                                                                                          (On-going)
                                        and Provincial Administration to assume management control.


References:                    1.      Water Resources Situation Assessment : Middle Vaal Water Management Area,
                                       DWAF Report No. P WMA 08/000/00/0302



                                                                                     Original version:           1
                                                                     Strategy
                                                                     Version         Date:                       July 2004
                                                                     control:
                                                                                     Author:                     ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-46
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A




                                      A.7.3 PUBLIC HEALTH & SAFETY STRATEGY



Management                            The water resource needs to be protected, and it must be ensured that users in
objective:                            the Vaal River Catchment area are safe from the effects of poor water quality
                                      that can create health problems (e.g. cholera), and it must be ensured that
                                      strategies are in place to deal with floods and droughts as these impact on the
                                      socio-economic environment.



Situation                             In the Middle Vaal area, the primary concern regarding public health and safety
Assessment:                           relates to the quality of water in the Vaal River. It is considered that swimming in
                                      the Vaal River can be dangerous to public health and measures need to be put in
                                      place to protect people, eg. Adequate bio-monitoring is required in the Vaal River to
                                      provide water quality data that could be used in issuing of warnings to potential
                                      swimmers. The illegal disposal of medical waste is considered to be a problem.

                                      The Department’s current commitments are associated with:

                                      •   Managing floods and drought disasters by direct intervention on the ground.
                                      •   Reducing pollution and preventing serious or hazardous pollution events and
                                          promoting dam safety.
                                      •   DWAFs (and the CMAs in some cases) future commitments under National
                                          Disaster Management Act which is to be promulgated in 2003 will be:
                                      •   DWAF/CMA will be required to become involved in supporting and enforcing
                                          disaster management planning by all relevant authorities.
                                      •   Drafting a National Flood Management Policy (DWAF).
                                      •   Dam safety policy (DWAF).
                                      •   Co-operating with the Department of Agriculture on drought relief strategies and
                                          policy formulation.
                                      •   Pollution of water resources (ie limiting health hazards such as cholera).
                                      •   Cooperation with others toward development of a warning system for water
                                          quality

                                      The following requirements have been identified for this catchment with regard to
                                      public health and safety:

                                      1. There is a lack of emergency preparedness plans for flooding of dams.
                                      2. There is need for comprehensive operation and maintenance manuals for all
                                         dams in the catchment.
                                      2. Water quality needs to be maintained at a safe level for aquatic ecosystems, as
                                         well as for human recreational and consumptive needs




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-47
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                             Appendix A




                                                 MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


Required actions, M1. Apply the existing roles and delegated responsibilities regarding
responsibilities and  flood management control and disaster management rules. For the
priorities:           main stem of the Vaal River, this is dealt with as a national issue and
                                      for the tributaries and smaller dams, it must be dealt with at a
                                      regional level. The issues related to flood management are dealt with
                                      in the Vaal Overarching ISP.


                               M2. Flood preparedness plans and O&M manuals are in the process Regional
                                   of being updated. The contents of the updated manuals must be Office
                                   communicated and implemented.                                 (Priority 1)



References:                    1.     Water Resources Situation Assessment : Middle Vaal Water Management Area,
                                      DWAF Report No. P WMA 08/000/00/0302




                                                                                Version no.:                  1
                                                                 Strategy
                                                                 Version        Date:                         July 2004
                                                                 control:
                                                                                Author:                       ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                             A-48
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                              Appendix A




                   A.8        MONITORING AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGY




Management                            The design and implementation of effective monitoring networks and repository
objective:                            databases to ensure adequate quantification of the balance between sustainable
                                      water use and protection for surface freshwater bodies and groundwater.


Situation                             Water use control
Assessment:                           Irrigation is by far the main water user in this WMA and almost no data is available
                                      on the actual water use by and return flow from irrigation, as irrigation abstractions
                                      are not gauged.

                                      As the irrigation sector is the largest water user in many sub-catchments, and at the
                                      same time has the poorest available data regarding water use and return flows, it is
                                      recommended that projects should be initiated to obtain better information regarding
                                      irrigated areas and the monthly irrigation water usage as well as irrigation return
                                      flows.

                                      Monitoring networks and data capturing.
                                      Resources currently available for monitoring are generally inadequate throughout all
                                      existing systems. Some notable issues in the ISP-area are briefly discussed below:

                                          Although groundwater potential and use is significant in this WMA, groundwater
                                          monitoring is inadequate in terms of ambient water levels in aquifers used by
                                          municipalities.
                                          Biomonitoring and monitoring of fish indices are undertaken throughout the
                                          Middle Vaal WMA, specifically in the Sand/ Vet, Vals, Elandspruit, Skoonspruit,
                                          Vaal, Vet and Rhenosterspruit.
                                          Inadequate monitoring of water quality throughout the catchment. Adhoc
                                          monitoring generally occurs downstream of sewage treatment plants.
                                          Compliance monitoring by the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs and
                                          the mines
                                          Bacteriological monitoring occurs in the KOSH area
                                          Rainfall and Streamflow monitoring occurs to some extent throughout the WMA
                                          Monitoring of irrigation use is inadequate, e.g. Abstraction from the Vaal River is
                                          not measured accurately.

                                      Information Management
                                      Information Management in the Lower Vaal is problematic due to the difficulties
                                      experienced with the existing information management systems, viz. WMS and
                                      NGDB (National Geohydrological Database). Water use control is an issue on the
                                      whole of the Vaal and can be managed better if more information is available and if
                                      more attention is given to data capture and storage. It is important to continue
                                      monitoring, specifically regarding water quality. This issue has to be dealt with at a
                                      regional level and needs to be in accordance with National policy.

                                      A study defining the data requirements to support the system analysis model was
                                      undertaken as part of the Vaal River System Analysis Update Study. The main
                                      recommendations from the study report with the title ”Data Inventory: Vaal Water
                                      Supply System Area” should form the point of departure for the identification of all



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-49
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                              Appendix A



Situation                             monitoring needs.
Assessment
(continued):                          The following gaps in the knowledge base have been identified:
                                      1. Limited, almost no measured data available with regards to irrigation water use
                                          outside the government schemes.
                                      2. Rainfall monitoring to calculate recharge of groundwater in the focus areas are
                                          required, viz. Schoonspruit and KOSH areas.
                                      3. Streamflow monitoring is inadequate. The measurement of flow entering the
                                          Middle Vaal Catchment from the Upper Vaal is required, only if the blending
                                          option stops.
                                      4. Groundwater monitoring is inadequate in aquifers used by municipalities and
                                          agriculture, in terms of yield, quality, contamination, etc. Only the Schoonspruit,
                                          KOSH and Wesselbron areas are adequately covered.
                                      5. Reliability of quaternary-based irrigation data. A need exists to determine crop
                                          distribution and type on a quaternary catchment scale. This should be provided
                                          by the verification process.
                                      6. Inadequate information exists on Blackfly and other invertebrates, Algae
                                          blooms outside the Middle Vaal, and fish data. An extension of bio-monitoring
                                          is required to address this gap.
                                      7. There is a need to develop an integrated monitoring and information
                                          management plan. The plan must assess requirements, priorities, costs and
                                          provide motivation for funding.
                                      8. Additional flow gauges in the lower reaches of the Vals (at Bothaville) and
                                          Sand-Vet Rivers would make the hydrological model run more accurately in this
                                          catchment.
                                      9. A fuller record of water quality is required for Bloemhof Dam. Quality and flow
                                          from the new weir at Bloudrift Bridge in the Sand River would be useful. Water
                                          quality monitoring at C4H004, below the confluence of the Sand and Vet rivers
                                          is also required.
                                      10. Existing monitoring stations that were constructed for the hydrological model,
                                          and later vandalized, need to be repaired and re-commissioned.
                                      11. Streamflow measurement is required in the Lower Vet before water enters
                                          Bloemhof Dam.
                                      12. Koekemoerspruit weir needs to be upgraded.
                                      13. Vierfontein mine needs a weir (to be constructed at their cost) to measure the
                                          decant from the mine.

                                      The following issues pertaining to monitoring and evaluation also need to be
                                      addressed:

                                      1. Details of the various data related problems and shortcomings are given in the
                                         recommendations of the relevant study reports and should be consulted to
                                         evaluate and prioritise the monitoring needs.

                                      2. The National Water Act requires the Minister to establish national monitoring
                                         systems for water resources to collect appropriate data and information
                                         necessary to assess:
                                          •   The quantity, quality and use of water in water resources.
                                          •   The rehabilitation of water resources.
                                          •   Compliance with resource quality objectives.
                                          •   The health of aquatic ecosystems.
                                          •   Atmospheric conditions, which may influence water resources.
                                          •   Other data and information, which may be necessary.



DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                                A-50
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A




                                      3. Clear direction is required from National DWAF regarding the monitoring,
                                         capture and storage of information. Roles and responsibilities of the National
                                         and Regional offices need to be clearly outlined.
                                       4.




                                                    MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


  Required actions, M1. As part of the Over Arching ISPs a need was identified to undertake
  responsibilities      an assessment of all the monitoring needs to support Integrated
  and priorities:       Water Resource Management in the Vaal and Orange river National /
                                        catchments. The most important needs are given in the situation Regional
                                        assessment of this strategy. Details of the monitoring needs must
                                        be obtained from the recommendations given in the relevant study (Priority 1)
                                        reports. Responsibility for all monitoring requirements must be co-
                                        ordinated at WMA level.


                                                                                                   Regional
                                M2. Develop a strategy and action plan to monitor irrigation water
                                                                                                   Office
                                    use.
                                                                                                   (Priority 1)


                                M3. Flow gauging facilities have been recommended, in previous
                                                                                                       Regional
                                    reports, at specific abstraction points as well as effluent
                                                                                                       Office
                                    discharge points in order to provide adequate data for calibrating
                                    and verifying the water quality models.                            (Priority 1)



                                M4. An extension of the biomonitoring programme is required to all
                                    sub-catchments in the Middle Vaal, as well as to cover all Regional
                                    relevant biomonitoring requirements, eg. Blackfly and other (Priority 1)
                                    invertebrates, algae blooms, fish, etc.



                                M5. The following gaps need to be addressed:
                                        •   Existing monitoring stations that were constructed for the
                                             hydrological model, and later vandalized, need to be repaired
                                             and re-commissioned.                                          Regional
                                        •   Streamflow measurement is required in the Lower Vet before Office
                                             water enters Bloemhof Dam.                                    (Priority 1)
                                        •   Koekemoerspruit weir needs to be upgraded.
                                        •   Vierfontein mine needs a weir (to be constructed at their cost) to
                                             measure the decant from the mine.



References:                    1.      Middle Vaal Water Management Area: Overview of Water Resources Availability
                                       and Utilisation, DWAF Report No. P WMA 09/000/00/0203
                               2.      Water Resources Situation Assessment : Middle Vaal Water Management Area,
                                       DWAF Report No. P WMA 08/000/00/0302
                               3.       Vaal River System Analysis Update : Integrated Vaal River System Analysis:
                                        DWAF Report No. P C000/00/18496




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-51
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                Appendix A




                                                  Version no.:   1
                                       Strategy
                                       Version    Date:          July 2004
                                       control:
                                                  Author:        ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304   A-52
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                            Appendix A




                                      A.9     ISP IMPLEMENTATION MAIN STRATEGY



Management                            The above-mentioned strategies and approaches need to be implemented in future
objective:                            depending on priority. The work needs to be carried out by the designated
                                      responsible party, either the Regional Office or National Directorate. The activities
                                      in the ISP should be included in the annual budget cycles of the relevant
                                      directorates. Detailed scheduling of activities should be undertaken through the
                                      normal business planning human resource scheduling of DWAF.

                                      To gradually phase in a thorough public involvement process in parallel with the
                                      establishment of the Catchment Management Agency and the drafting of the
                                      Catchment Management Strategy. It should be communicated to the public and
                                      stakeholders that the ISP is DWAF’s initial input to the formulation of the Catchment
                                      Management Strategy.



Situation                             The current Internal Strategic Perspective, as its name implies, has been intended
Assessment:                           to achieve a common water resources management approach within the
                                      Department and the intention is that the document will be made available to
                                      stakeholders once the first version is completed.

                                      Interaction has been limited to stakeholder awareness regarding this ISP
                                      development process. It is envisaged that the finally accepted Lower Vaal WMA
                                      ISP will be circulated to water user associations, forums and other pertinent
                                      stakeholder groups to inform them of the way in which DWAF wants to manage the
                                      water resources of the catchment. Stakeholder comment will then be requested.

                                      This effort may need community education with a view to empowering these
                                      stakeholders to fully understand the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry’s
                                      perspective and in so doing to be capacitated to yield constructive comment.

                                      The ISP is intended to provide DWAF’s input to the development of the Catchment
                                      Management Strategy, which will involve a thorough public participation process.
                                      This process could commence within a year or three (to be debated at the
                                      workshop) after the Lower Vaal WMA ISP depending on the approval of the
                                      Catchment Management Agency establishment proposals by the Minister.




                                                    MANAGEMENT ACTIONS


Required actions,    M1. List of strategies that need to be tackled along with the bigger picture Regional
responsibilities and     and assign responsible persons. These officials may need to employ Office
priorities:              others depending on the scale of the assignment.
                                                                                                  (Priority 1)


                                M2. Design a public involvement/participation process (using current Regional
                                    forum structures) that will eventually lead up to the formulation of a Office
                                    Catchment Management Strategy.                                         (Priority 1)




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                               A-53
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                        Appendix A



                                                                                                          Regional
                                M3. Submit proposal to DWAF National for approval.                        Office
                                                                                                          (Priority 1)


                                M4. Communicate to Catchment Management Forums, Bulk Users, Regional
                                    Provincial Liaison Committees, Municipal Managers, etc. Initially Office
                                    circulate the finalised Lower Vaal WMA ISP to water user (Priority 1)
                                    associations, forums and other pertinent stakeholder groups to
                                    inform them of the way in which DWAF wants to manage the water
                                    resources of the catchment. Stakeholder comment will then be
                                    requested.


                                                                                                     Regional
                                M5. To get feedback from stakeholders in terms of reviewing the ISP. Office
                                    Incorporate comments and revise accordingly                      (Priority 1)



                                M6. Preparation of presentation material for strategic decision-makers, Regional
                                    as well as operational managers. Develop toolkit for presentation of Office
                                    ISP’s to the various stakeholders and roleplayers.                   (Priority 1)

                                                                                                          Regional
                                M7. Undertake presentation “roadshow”.                                    Office
                                                                                                          (Priority 1)


                                                                              Version:                   1
                                                                Strategy
                                                                Version       Date:                      July 2004
                                                                control:
                                                                              Author:                    ISP Study




DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304                           A-54
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA




Appendix B : Maps and Figures




Report No. PWMA 09/000/00/0304
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  INKOMATI WMA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     North JHB up
                                                                                                                                      CROCODILE WEST AND                                                                                                                                                                                                                  West Rand up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to Rustenburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to Pretoria and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Hartbeespoort Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                OLIFANTS WMA                                                                                                                                     INKOMATI
                                                                                                                                      MARICO WMA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     P B W                                                                                                                                                                                                       WMA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               W B P



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Komati Basin
                                            Vaal-Gamagara                                                                                                                      MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Arnot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Gladde-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Spruit
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Elandskuil Dam                                                                                                              UPPER VAAL                                                                                                                                                                    Witbank
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Duvha                Hendrina
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      P                                       P          P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WMA                                                                                                                                                                            Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              P                  P               P

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Kendal
                                                                 LOWER VAAL WMA                                                                                                                                                              Ventersdorp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Southern-western JHB                                      East Rand up to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Wildebeesfontein
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Komati                                    Nooitgedacht
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Vygeboom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                up to Carletonville
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (West of JHB)                                             (Secunda area)                                   S    (Benoni,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rynfield &                                  Kriel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rietspruit Dam                                                                                                              W B P                                            B P W                                                JP Marais)                              P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Klerkskraal                                                                                                                                            S   (Daveyton)
    LOWER ORANGE WMA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Dam                                                                                                                                                                                                       P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          S (Dekema &                       S (Jan Smuts &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rondebult)                                                              Matla
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Klerksdorp IB                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tsakane)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Boskop Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          S (Vlakplaats)                                              Trichardsfontein
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              S (Ancor &




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Klip River




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Vaal - Olifants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Waterval)                         McComb)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mooi GWS,Klipdrift MB                                                                                                     S
                                                                                                                                                                          Johan Neser                                                                                                                           and Vyfhoek MB
                                                                                             Wentzel Dam                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SASOL II + III
                                                     P                      Harts River                                                                                   Dam                                                                                                                                                                                                                           P




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               rand
                                                                                                                                                   Makwassie                                                                                           Klerksdorp                                                                                                                                                                                                      S (Bickley,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   S                                                                                                                                                      Zwartkopjes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          rbos
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Stilfontein                                                                                                                                                                                                       Marievale &             Bossiespruit Dam                     Knoppiesfontein                                                                     Westoe Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              S                                                                                                                                                          Grundlingh)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Suike
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Orkney                                                              Potchefstroom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vereeniging/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               W                                              W
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vanderbijl Area
                                                                       Taung Dam                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Olifantsvlei,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 S (Heidelberg)                                                                                                             P
                                                                                    Vaalharts and                               Wolmaranstad
                                                                                                                                                     S                                                                                                               Buffelsfontein                                                                  Klipdrift Dam        B P                               Goudkoppies &                                                                                                                                                 W
                                                                                    Taung                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Loopspruit                                                       W                           Bushkoppies)                                                                       Grootvlei                                                 Tutuka                                                          P               Jericho Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Camden
                                                                                                                                                               Leeudoringstad                                                                                                                                                                                                              Daleside
                                                                       Spitskop Dam                                                                                                                                                 Vaal Reefs                                                                                                                                                          B                                                                                                  Grootfontein            P




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mooi River
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    General Mining
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Hartbeesfontein
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      P                                                              P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               W                                                                                                                                                (Meyerton)       S




                                                                                                                                                                                                             Schoonspruit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         W                                                                                                                                                                                                                                RW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S                                                                                                                            Grootdraai            P




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vaal River
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Zuikerbosch                                                                                                                                    Morgenstond
                                                                       Harts GWS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (Sebokeng &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Vanderbijl)          RW                                                                   W                                                                                                                                                         Dam
                                        Douglas                                                                                                          Bloemhof Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           P   Midvaal WC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Vaal GWCA                                                                 Vereeniging                                                                 P         Lethabo              Vaal Dam
                                        Weir                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rietpoort IB                                                                            P   W
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Weir
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             W
                                                                                                P                                                                                           P                                                                                                           Koppieskraal                                                                                                  S                                                     Lethabo
                                                                                                        Vaalhartz Weir        Vaal River                                                                                                 Vierfontein                                                                                                      Vaal Barrage                                                                                                                  P                                                                       Grootdraai
                                                                                                                                                                           Sedibeng Water


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         PS                                                                  IB                                                                                                   (Leeukuil)                                                intake                                                                              Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 W                                                                                                                          station




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Renoster River
                                   P                                                                                                                                                                                        Vals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   P B




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Klip River
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wilge River
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               W B                                                                                                        SASOL 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Heyshope Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                rivie
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ri
                                      Marksdrift
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Parys
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     r


                                                                                             Kimberley                                                                                                   S                                                Viljoenskroon                                   W
                                                                                                                                                            Vet River




                                                                                                                                                                                                         B W                                                                                             Reitz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              USUTU TO UMHLATUZE
                   Orange




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lethabo
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Welkom                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   W
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           B     Kroonstad                                                                                                                           W B                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WMA
                                                                                                                                                     Sand/Vet                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Heilbron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Weltevrede
                                                                                 UPPER ORANGE WMA                                                    GWS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Renoster
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           GWS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Liebenbergsvlei
                                   Ramah Branch
                                   Canal                                                                                                                                                                                                        Serfontein                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                P
  Middel                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dam                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Majuba
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Saulspoort Dam                                                                                                                              Zaaihoek Dam
 Orange
Irrigation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Koppies                                                                                                  LESOTHO                                                                                                                              W
    Area                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Dam                                                                                                                                                    Muela Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                            Sand River




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          THUKELA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WMA
                                  P       Orange -Riet Canal                                                                                                                                                                Virginia                                                                                                                                                                  Katse Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             H                                                                                                        Drakensberg Pumped
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Mohale Dam                                                                                                                                                                       Storage Scheme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kilburn Dam
                                  Sceiding                                                                                                                                                                                  P B
                            H                                                                       RIET -MODDER                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Matsoku                                                                                                                                                                     P                                    P
                                                                                                      SUBSYSTEM                                                                                                             W                                                                                                                                                                                                Weir                                                                                                          Driekloof/                                                                                                Driel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Senqunyane River
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Sterkfontein Dam                                                                                              Barrage
                                 Vanderkloof
                                                                                                                                                      Erfenis                                Allemanskraal Dam                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Woodstock
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Senqu River                                                                         Metsi Matso Dam
                                                                                                                                                      Dam                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                r Dam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Witsieshoek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Rive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              el
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         uk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fika Patso Dam                                                                                             Th
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            on




                                                                                               B                De Hoek   B        Knellpoort
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       al




                                                                                                                                                           Wepener
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      C




                                       Phillipolis
                                                                                                        W                              Novo
                                                                                                                                                                    B W                                          Armenia
                                                     B                                              B                                    P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       er




                                                                                                            Bethulie                                                P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Riv




                                                                                                                               P
                                                         Un




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Caledon                                                                                                                                            LEGEND:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    e




                                Vanderkloof GWS                                                                          W
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ng
                                                            de




                                                                                                             Welbedacht               P Tienfontein
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ra
                                                              rC




                                                                                            Bethulie                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sewage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Catchment Boundery                                          Industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S                                                                                     WMA Boundary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                O




                                                                                                                                                                        Zastron
                                                                on




                                                                                                                                                                                                             Vanstadensrus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Treatment Work
                                                                   s
                                                                 tru




                                                                                                                                      Smithfield
                                                                                                                                                                          P B W                                                  B                                                                                                                                                                                        Proposed Reservoir
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          B           Balancing Reservoir                                                                                                             Water Flow
                                                                   cti




                                                                                                                                                         Rouxville
                                                                                                                                       P B W
                                                                      on




                                                                                                                                                                                              S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Powerstation
                                                                                                                             Egmont
                                                                                   P P W                                                       S         P B W                                                                               Orange                                                                                                                                                                       Tunnel                                                      Reservoir
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          H           Hydro Power
                                                                        P                     H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 P                            Pumpstation
                                                                                                              Gariep                       S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Urban                                                       Irrigation                                                                                                                      Water
                                                                            Colesberg                                              Aliwal North                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pipeline/Canal                               W           Purification Plant
                                                                                                    Or h
                                                                                                     Fis
                                                                                                      an
                                                                                                         ge
                                                                                                           -




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Last Updated 8/9/2003_WRP_P0083_Graphics_C-1




                                                                                                                                      CENTRAL REGION:
                                                                                                                                      VAAL RIVER OVER ARCHING ISP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Schematic of the Integrated Vaal River System
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     B-1
                                                          CROCODILE(WEST) AND MARICO




                                                                 Ventersdorp
                                                                    #
                                                                    S                                                         GAUTENG
                                    #
                                    S Coligny
         NORTH WEST                                                Rietspruit




                                                          it
                                                 Skoonspru
                                   Johan Neser
                                                  #
                                       Klerksdorp S




                                                                                                       l
                                                                                                    Vaa
LOWER VAAL
                              Middle Vaal                      #
                                                               S Orkney       Rhe
                                                                                 nos
                                             l                                      te                                                UPPER VAAL
                                          Vaa
                                                                                    r
                        #
                        S Wolmaransstad                                                                      #
                                                                                                     Koppies S           Heilbron
                                                                                                                              #
                                                                                                                   Koppies S
                                                         #
                                                         S Bothaville




                                                                                                                          Rheno
                                                               Vals




                                                                                                                               ster
  Bloemhof                                                                                 Rhenoster / Vals
         #
         S                                                                                     #
                                                                                               S Kroonstad
  Vaal           Bloemhof

                                                                                                                        Lindley
                                                                                                                               #
                                                                                                                               S
                                                                                                                                      Val
                                 Vet                               #
                                                                   S Welkom                                                              s
                                                               Sand               #
                                                                       S Virginia S Ventersburg
                                                                       #                                                  d
                                                                                                                       San
                                          Gro
                                             ot-V




                                                                                               Allemanskraal
                                                 et




                              #
                              S Bultfontein                                                                      #
                                                                                                                 S Senekal
                                                                 Sand / Vet
                                                                      Erfenis S Winburg
                                                                              #
                                                                             Klei
                                                                                 n-
                       FREE STATE                                                                      Marquard
                                                                                                       #
                                                                                                       S
                                                                                  Vet




    Water Management Areas
                                                                                Gro
                                                                                   ot-V
    Sub-Areas
                                                                                     et




    Provincial Boundaries
    Rivers                                                                         #
                                                                                   S Excelsior
  #
  S Towns
    Dams
Sub-Catchments
     Allemanskraal
     Erfenis                           UPPER ORANGE
     Johan Neser
     Rhenoster                                                                                                                        LESOTHO
     U/S Bloemhof
     Vals
     Vet                                                                  0               25          50          75           100           125   150 km




                                                     Location of Sub-Areas and Sub-Catchments                                                      B-2
                                                828




559




Middle Vaal Water Management Area : Transfers         B-3
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA




Appendix C : List of Towns in Middle Vaal WMA




Report No. PWMA 09/000/00/0304
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                Appendix C


       Table C-2:       Summary of key areas and towns with notes on their water resources
                Name of town        Quaternary                               Key notes

                                     catchment

        Rhenoster: Key Area 1

        Petrus Steyn/Mamafuedu         C70A       •    Situated in the Rhenoster sub-catchment close to           the
                                                       catchment divide with Liebenbergsvlei.

                                                  •    Supplied from own sources, incl. groundwater.

        Heilbron/Phiritona             C70C       •    Supplied from Rand Water.

        Edenville/Nqwathe              C70D       •    Supplied from own sources, including groundwater.

                                                  •    Shortages in groundwater supply were reported.

        Koppies/Kwakwatsi              C70F       •    Receives water from Koppies Dam.

                                                  •    Historic yield analysis indicated no shortage in supply.

        Viljoenskroon/Rammulotsi       C70K       •    Receives water from the Rhenoster River.

                                                  •    During dry periods water is pumped from the Vaal River.

        Vals: Key Area 2

        Arlington/Leratswana           C60B       •    Situated in the Vals sub-catchment.

                                                  •    Supplied from own sources, incl. groundwater.

        Lindley/Ntha                   C60B       •    Situated next to main stem of Vals River.

                                                  •    Supplied from the Vals River.

        Kroonstad/Maokeng              C60D       •    Serfontein Dam (capacity of 25 million m3) supports town.

                                                  •    Historic yield analysis indicated significant shortages in
                                                       supply (refer to Table D-1).

                                                  •    The supply problem is confirmed by the fact that
                                                       Kroonstad is currently being restricted.

        Bothaville/Kgotsong            C60J       •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.

        Steynsrus/Matlwantlwang        C60E       •    Situated in a high yield groundwater area.

                                                  •    Supplied from own sources, including groundwater.

        Johan Neser: Key Area 3

        Goedgevonden                   C24C       •    Situated in the Rietspruit sub-catchment.

                                                  •    Groundwater potential of key area is currently being
                                                       investigated.

        Coligny/Thabologang            C24F       •    Situated in the Taaibosspruit catchment area.

                                                  •    The quality of water from boreholes might be a problem.

                                                  •    Supplied from own sources, including groundwater.

                                                  •    Groundwater potential is currently being investigated.



        Ventersdorp/Tshing             C24E       •    Supplied from Rietspruit and groundwater resources.

                                                  •    Groundwater potential is currently being investigated.


        DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304      C-1
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                  Appendix C


                Name of town           Quaternary                              Key notes

                                       catchment



        Vaal: Key Area 4

        Stilfontein/Khuma                  C24A      •    Supplied from Midvaal Water.

        Orkney/Kanana                      C24B      •    Supplied from Midvaal Water.

        Vaal Reefs                         C24B      •    Direct abstractions are made from Vaal River.

                                                     •    Abstractions are supplemented with water supplied from
                                                          Midvaal Water.

        Vierfontein                        C24B      •    Direct abstractions from Vaal River.

        Hartbeesfontein/Tigane             C24H      •    Supplied from own sources, including groundwater.

        Klerksdorp/Jouberton               C24H      •    Supplied from Midvaal Water.

        Leeudoringstad/Kgakala ($)         C25A      •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water and groundwater.

                                                     •    Operational problems at the Balkfontein abstraction point
                                                          due to small storage in the Vaal River might cause
                                                          shortages in supply to Leeudoringstad, Makwassie and
                                                          Wolmaransstad.

        Allanridge/Nyakalong               C25B      •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.

        Odendaalsrus/Kutlwanong            C25B      •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.

        Witpoort/Rulaganyang               C25C      •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.



        Bloemhof Incremental: Key Area 5

        Makwassie/Lebaleng ($)             C25D      •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water and groundwater.

                                                     •    Operational problems at the Balkfontein abstraction point
                                                          due to small storage in the Vaal River might cause
                                                          shortages in supply to Leeudoringstad, Makwassie and
                                                          Wolmaransstad.

        Wolmaransstad/Tswelelang ($)       C25D      •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.

                                                     •    Operational problems at the Balkfontein abstraction point
                                                          due to small storage in the Vaal River might cause
                                                          shortages in supply to Leeudoringstad, Makwassie and
                                                          Wolmaransstad.

        Wesselsbron/Monyakeng              C25F      •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.



        Allemanskraal: Key Area 6

        Paul Roux/ateng-Tse-               C42A      •    Situated next to river in headwaters of the Sand River.
        Ntsho/Motlomo                                •    Supplied from own sources, including groundwater.

        Senekal/Matwabeng                  C42C      •    Situated next to main stem of Sand River.




        DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304         C-2
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA                                                                                      Appendix C


               Name of town            Quaternary                                  Key notes

                                       catchment

        Erfenis: Key Area 7

        Marquard/Moemaneng                C41A          •    Situated in headwaters of the Laaispruit at catchment
                                                             divide of Caledon and Vet Rivers.

                                                        •    Water supply problems are currently being experienced.

                                                        •    Although there is a municipal dam with storage capacity of
                                                             2.28 million m3 to supply town, the location of the dam is
                                                             such that local runoff might be inadequate to fill dam.

        Winburg/Makeleketla               C41A          •    Situated next to the main stem of the Laaispruit.

        Excelsior/Mahlatswetsa            C41C          •    Situated next to the main stem of the Groot-Vet River.

                                                        •    Receives water from the Bloem Water system.

        Verkeerdevlei/Tshepong            C41D          •    Situated in the Klipspruit catchment area.

                                                        •    Supplied from own sources, including groundwater.

        Vet: Key Area 8

        Theunissen/Masilo                 C41G          •

        Ventersburg/Mnamahabane           C42H          •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.

        Henneman/Phomolong                C42J          •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.

        Virginia/Meloding                 C42J          •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.

                                                        •    Virginia’s water requirements are mainly abstracted from
                                                             Allemanskraal Dam.

        Welkom/Thabong                    C42J          •    Supplied from Sedibeng Water.

        Bultfontein/Phahameng             C43A          •    Supplied from own sources, including groundwater.

        Hoopstad/Tikwana                  C43C          •    Situated next to Vet River.


               Shading denotes water supply problems




        DWAF Report No P WMA 09/000/00/0304            C-3
ISP : MIDDLE VAAL WMA




Appendix D : Groundwater Report




Report No. PWMA 09/000/00/0304
  DEVELOPMENT OF
INTERNAL STRATEGIC
   PERSPECTIVES
GROUNDWATER OVERVIEW FOR
  MIDDLE VAAL CATCHMENT
     MANAGEMENT AREA

                 Prepared by:
            JA Pretorius and I Dennis
   Darcy Groundwater Scientists and Consultants
                  Bloemfontein



                   Prepared for:
       Directorate Water Resource Planning
                       DWAF
                 Private Bag X313
                      Pretoria




               SEPTEMBER 2003
                                          TABLE OF CONTENTS

1     OVERARCHING ISSUES ........................................................................................................ 3

    1.1     AVAILABILITY OF GROUNDWATER INFORMATION IN THE CATCHMENT AREA ............................... 3
    1.2     OVERVIEW OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES AND USE THROUGHOUT THE CATCHMENT AREA .... 3
      1.2.1       Industrial and mining.................................................................................................. 3
      1.2.2       Agriculture.................................................................................................................. 4
      1.2.3       Domestic .................................................................................................................... 5
    1.3     GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE CATCHMENT AREA ............................................................... 5
      1.3.1       Natural ....................................................................................................................... 5
      1.3.2       Point and diffusive pollution ....................................................................................... 5
    1.4     GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING REQUIREMENTS IN THE CATCHMENT AREA .... 7
      1.4.1       Current groundwater monitoring ................................................................................ 7
      1.4.2       Management .............................................................................................................. 8
      1.4.3       Current (quality and quantity) requirements .............................................................. 8
    1.5     POVERTY ERADICATION AND THE ROLE GROUNDWATER CAN PLAY IN THE CATCHMENT ............. 8

2     GROUNDWATER ACCORDING TO GEOLITHOLOGICAL UNITS AND CATCHMENTS
ASSOCIATED OR ENCLOSED WITH THE UNITS (1: 1000 000 GEOLOGY). ............................ 8

3     RIVERBED SAND AQUIFERS (SUMMARIZED FROM DRISCOLL, 1986)........................... 9

4     GROUND WATER/SURFACE WATER LINKAGE ................................................................. 9

5     REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 12




                                                                       2
1       Groundwater Issues in the Middle Vaal
        The following is a brief description of the major groundwater issues in the Middle Vaal Water
        Management Area (WMA). The issues are discussed in terms of the three sub-catchments within
        the WMA namely, the Middle Vaal (C224 & C25), Sand/Vet (C43,C42 & C41) and Rhenoster/ Vals
        (C70 & C60).

1.1     Availability of groundwater information in the catchment area
        The following data sources with regard to groundwater are available:
        • NGDB database
        • WARMS database with verification information this includes data of water abstraction for towns
           and agriculture.
        • Catchment Management Strategy (CMS) Phase 1 and 2 studies in Klerksdorp goldfields
           (KOSH) area
        • Ventersdorp surveys and other related projects regarding this dolomitic compartment
        • Wesselsbron survey done by DWAF
        • GH Reports, WRC projects and related MSc Thesis’s, the Catchment Management Strategy
           (CMS) of the Sand/Vet
        • Geohydrological maps
        Data is readily available where there are active mining activities due to the management and
        control structures in place in these areas. Data are also generated in these areas due to the fact
        that these areas are targeted by DWAF as areas of concern with regard to quality and quantity of
        groundwater. The focus of the CMS studies are also in these areas. There is however less data
        available on groundwater in the Sand/Vet catchment than the Schoon Spruit/ Koekemoer Spruit
        catchments. This can be contributed to two factors: at the time of CMS development in the
        Sand/Vet groundwater was not considered to be “public water” as is now the case under the New
        Water Act of 1998, and the impacts on groundwater is less pronounced than in the KOSH area due
        to the nature of the aquifers in the Sand/Vet catchments.
        Data on agricultural use is very poor, except in specific areas under stress which were targeted by
        DWAF e.g. Ventersdorp and Wesselsbron. Groundwater is utilized by agriculture for small scale
        irrigation (< 1ha) feedstock watering and household use throughout the WMA but limited data is
        available on abstraction volumes and quality of these points. With regard to larger scale irrigation
        from groundwater the data should become available once the WARMS database’s data is verified.
        Some data on abstraction for domestic supply in towns, where the bulk water supply is from
        groundwater or it is augmented with groundwater, is also available on the WARMS database. The
        largest gap on data for groundwater use and resources is in the Renoster/Vals sub-catchments.
        There is little mining or industrial development in these catchments and the only data available is
        from the WARMS database. No studies targeted at groundwater have been initiated in this area.

1.2     Overview of groundwater resources and use throughout the catchment area

1.2.1   Industrial and mining
        In the Middle Vaal sub-catchment mining plays a major role in the economic development of the
        area, especially in the KOSH area. Gold mining has taken place in this area since the late 19th
        century. The impacts from the gold mining activities on groundwater has only been recognised as
        early as 1960 when localised dewatering became an issue at Stilfontein Gold Mine. Only more
        recently has the impacts on the quality of the groundwater and the interaction with the Vaal River
        become a concern. Due to the characteristics of the underlying geology the relationship with the
        surface water resources play a significant role (See Section 4).




                                                     3
        There are five major gold mines active in the area and several diamond mine activities (varying
        from small scale one man operations to larger scale operations). Groundwater is abstracted for
        different uses at these mines (Darcy, 2002).
        The largest volumes are abstracted at Stilfontein Gold Mine’s Margaret Shaft. Although Stilfontein’s
        underground operations has ceased for more than ten years pumping at Margaret shaft continues
        for the safety of the downgradient mines. The volume of water abstracted daily is estimated at 32
        Ml/d. The water is utilized by a number of users: at DRD – North West Operations for process
        water (7 Ml/d), water supply to a number of private plots north of Stilfontein where the cone of
        depression influence the local groundwater levels, and most recently Mine Waste Solutions use the
        water at the Chemwes plant for the reworking of the old Stilfontein tailings dams (18 Ml/d). Any
        excess is discharged to the Koekemoer Spruit. Groundwater is also abstracted from other
        operating shafts in the KOSH mining area for safety and the water is utilized as process water.
        The second largest abstraction of groundwater is from “scavenger” boreholes on the northern
        banks of the Vaal River on Anglogold’s property. These boreholes serve as a barrier for polluted
        groundwater emanating from tailings and waste rock deposits in a high permeability zone of the
        dolomites. This water is utilised in the gold recovery processes. Some small-scale abstraction is
        also done for the purpose of irrigation at recreational and sports parks on the mine properties.
        Skeat mine located north-west of Klerksdorp is totally dependent on groundwater. Process water is
        abstracted from old underground shafts and domestic water is abstracted from boreholes. The
        numerous diamond diggings and mines utilize large amounts of water from alluvial type aquifers in
        the catchment. There have been claims that the activities from the diggers have an impact on the
        aquifers yields but up to date these claims have not been substantiated by proper investigations.
        The groundwater use in the Free State Goldfields differs from KOSH due to the difference in
        geology and aquifer types. The history of gold prospecting and mining in the Free State goes back
        to the late 19th century when gold was discovered and mined near Vredefort, but it took a
        considerable time before any substantial gold deposits were found in the north-western Free State -
        development only started after 1948.
        Although mining has reduced significantly from the boom in the 1980s there are still five major
        mining houses involved in gold mining today and two diamond mines. Due to the large quantities of
        water present in the mined Witwatersrand rocks, a large quantity of water (120 -150 Ml/d) is
        pumped to the surface for accessibility each day (Cogho et al., 1992). This groundwater however
        has average conductivities of 500 mS/m and cannot be used for drinking or irrigation purposes. A
        small portion is diluted with potable water and used as process water and the remainder is pumped
        to evaporation areas and pans. This has a negative impact on the localized shallow aquifers in the
        area (see Section 1.3). The yields of the shallow aquifers are very low and thus little abstraction
        takes place for other uses by the mines. Both in the KOSH and Free State Goldfields areas the
        only industrial activities utilizing groundwater is related to the mining industry.
        In the Renoster/Vals catcments there are little or no mining and industrial activities impacting on
        groundwater. Some diamond mining development is currently taking place north of Kroonstad and
        the industries (mainly food processing) at Viljoenskroon that utilize groundwater as a source.

1.2.2   Agriculture
        As previously stated in the ISP document agriculture plays a major role in terms of economic
        development in the WMA. Almost every farm unit in the WMA is dependent on groundwater for
        domestic and stock watering use. No numbers are available on the total abstraction volumes for
        this use. There are only two areas where large-scale irrigation takes place from groundwater
        resources. This is in the Ventersdorp dolomitic compartment and from the Karoo aquifers north of
        Wesselsbron. The Ventersdorp compartment has been studied in several investigations since its
        declaration as a Government Subterranean Water Control Area and the latest figures on irrigation
        volumes are 40.9Mm3/a for irrigation and 1.3Mm3/a for mining activities. (S Veltman, 2003)




                                                     4
        A study undertaken during 2002 by DWAF has indicated that there is large-scale irrigation from
        groundwater resources north of Wesselsbron but no current volumes of abstraction have been
        calculated (Hohne, 2002).

1.2.3   Domestic
        As previously discussed groundwater is utilized for individual domestic use in most rural and
        farming areas. Very few towns are solely dependent on groundwater as resource in the WMA due
        to the excellent surface water bulk supply network. Towns that are dependent (partially or
        completely) on groundwater in the Middle Vaal sub-catchment are: Ventersdorp, Hartbeesfontein,
        Coligny, Leeudoringstad, Makwassie, Hartbeesfontein, Dominiumville and several rural/ tribal
        villages in the Ventersdorp municipal area.
        Towns in the Sand/Vet catchment that utilize groundwater include: Bultfontein, Marquard,
        Verkeerdevlei and Paul Roux. And in the Renoster/Vals catchment are: Petrus Steyn, Steynsrus
        and Edenville.
        Private boreholes in urban areas are often utilized for garden irrigation and domestic uses such as
        filling of swimming pools, etc. No data is available on the abstraction volumes or number of
        boreholes in use in urban areas.

1.3     Groundwater quality in the catchment area

1.3.1   Natural
        From the 2002 Wesselsbron survey it was found that the occurrence of natural pans and the
        resulting evaporation from these pans result in slightly increased salinity of the natural groundwater.
        Electrical conductivities are normally in the range of 100 –200 mS/m but in the vicinity of the pans
        the values increase to about 300 mS/m. Figure 1 shows the documented total dissolved solids for
        the area as mapped by Simonic (1999).
        The poor quality groundwater that is abstracted from the deep mining areas in the Free State
        Goldfields are another example of natural occurring poor quality water. The water originates in the
        Ecca formations and is of typical Na-Cl type water, found in marine depositional sediments with
        high salinity (500mS/m).

1.3.2   Point and diffusive pollution
        There are several sources of point and diffuse groundwater pollution in the WMA. Most of these
        sources are related to mining activities.
        In the Middle Vaal sub-catchment the following sources contribute to the degradation of the
        groundwater quality. Gold mining activities related to groundwater pollution in the KOSH area
        include: Acid mine/ rock drainage (both in the mine workings and on surface at waste rock dumps);
        waste deposits such as tailings dams and waste rock dumps; recirculation of process water
        between metallurgical plants, tailings dams and underground; return water dams; incidents such as
        pipe bursts and other spills at gold metallurgical plants; decant and abandoned mines (Darcy,
        2002).
        Water quality is typical higher than normal salinity with a Ca-Mg-Na-SO4 or carbonate rich
        character. The pH’s is normally in the neutral range due to the neutralizing effect of the dolomitic
        geology. Some enrichment is found in metals such as Fe, Mn and Al but is restricted due to the
        neutral ph of the water.
        The old Vierfontein colliery is currently decanting into the Vierfontein Spruit, which flows north into
        the Vaal River east of Orkney, the quality of which is characterised with high in salinity and sulfate
        values. The volume decanting has not been accurately measured up to date. Abandoned mines
        and tailing deposits is another uncontrolled source of diffuse pollution in the area.




                                                      5
                          Figure 1        Total dissolved solids


The characteristics of the dolomitic aquifers in the KOSH area is the cause that the impacts on the
groundwater regime differs from the impacts found in the Free State Goldfields. The higher
permeability allows for more drainage of water from unlined surface water bodies such as tailings
and associated return water dams and other process water dams. Less evaporation areas are thus
found in the KOSH area. Formation of sinkholes is another negative impact associated with the
pollution of the groundwater, dissolution by low pH source water and fluctuations in waterlevels
leads to the formation of sinkholes.
The Groundwater/ surface water interaction between the dolomites is another matter of concern
and the volume of water contributed to the Vaal River has been estimated at 73.1 Ml/day with the
enormous associated salt load to the river system (IWQS, 1995). (As part of the second phase
CMS study a detailed water and salt balance will be compiled for the Middle Vaal sub-catchment.)


Agricultural activities are a source of diffuse water contamination. The contribution of each farm on
a local scale is often fairly small but the contribution on a catchment scale needs to be included in



                                             6
        assessing any pollution situation. Most findings regarding this issue can only be assessed in a
        generic way due to the lack of real data in the WMA.
        Nitrates are the contaminant of most concern (Conrad et al, 1999), since they are very soluble and
        do not bind to soils, nitrates have a high potential to migrate to groundwater. Because they do not
        evaporate, nitrates/nitrites are likely to remain in water until consumed by plants or other
        organisms. Generally on a local scale the areas of intense cultivation are the major contributors in
        terms of inorganic nitrates. The primary inorganic nitrates, which may contaminate drinking water,
        are potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate both of which are widely used as fertilizers. Where
        feedlots are operated the contribution of organic nitrates to groundwater contamination can be far
        more problematic, but for most farming activities organic nitrate is not a severe problem in South
        Africa.
        Other contaminants of concern are pesticides and herbicides. The contribution of these to
        groundwater contamination is very difficult to quantify on catchment scale and site specific data
        relating to likely loading/application volumes and history, soil profile and local geohydrology are
        required.
        In the Sand/Vet sub-catchment activities associate with gold mining also have the largest impact on
        the groundwater quality. The impacts are mostly the same as described above with the exceptions
        of the large evaporation pans and areas, the water quality (Na- Cl – type) of the deep aquifers and
        the shallow low yielding Karoo aquifers underlying the mining activities, which keep the pollution
        localized surrounding the sources. Although a definite connection between the pans and the
        groundwater has not been proven the evaporation pans and areas are also associated with
        localized groundwater pollution. The water is typical of a SO4, Na, Ca – Cl type with associated
        low pH which cause metals to be mobilized in the groundwater. The groundwater pollution together
        with contaminated run-off contributes to the salination of the Sand River in the area.
        Activities related to urban areas can also result in localized or even diffuse pollution of groundwater.
        In the Welkom area poor management of sewage treatment works contribute to the groundwater
        pollution by discharging raw sewage directly in into evaporation pans. Other sources of pollution
        are landfill sites, on-site sanitation (especially in informal settlements) and spills resulting from
        accidents or leaking underground tanks.
        In Renoster/Vals catchment the only definite problem that was identified is the localized
        groundwater pollution from food manufacturing factories. The issues relating to urban and
        agricultural activities can also apply here.

1.4     Groundwater management and monitoring requirements in the catchment area

1.4.1   Current groundwater monitoring
        There are three levels of groundwater monitoring in the Middle Vaal WMA. There is the National
        monitoring network, Regional networks and compliance monitoring (Veltman, 2003). There may be
        some overlapping between the three levels of monitoring but each level serves a different purpose.
        Most of the monitoring points in the catchments are shown on Figure 1.
        The national monitoring network or ZQM network has the purpose of measuring ambient
        groundwater quality and samples for macro chemical analyses are taken once every six months.
        There is 7 ZQM monitoring boreholes located in the Middle Vaal WMA.
        On regional level or level 2 there are the following boreholes for the purpose of resource
        management:
        • Schoonspruit dolomitic compartment (9 quality, 3 monthly; 15 WL, monthly; 3rainfall data
           loggers, 1 rainfall sampler, yearly for Cl, H-isotope, O-isotope)
        • Wesselsbron (8 quality, monthly; 14 WL, monthly, 2 rainfall data loggers)
        • KOSH (7 WL orphimedes; 11 quality, monthly; 4 WL, monthly, 2 rainfall samplers)




                                                       7
        For the purpose of compliance monitoring there are site-specific boreholes at mines and
        municipalities (solid waste sites). The positions and number of boreholes is depended on the
        individual permits or licenses at the sites.

1.4.2   Management
        Regarding management of groundwater resources the following structures or projects are in place
        or are being developed:
        Catchment Management Strategies (CMS):
        •   Schoon/ Koekemoer Spruit catchments are currently in the second phase of CMS development
            and specific groundwater issues will be addressed.
        •   Sand/Vet catchments are in the implementation phase of the CMS with an established
            Catcment Management Committee. There is however a lack of adequate groundwater
            management options in the current CMS.
        Water user Associations:
        •   Ventersdorp Dolomite WUA is currently waiting for approval from the Minister.
        Licenses (permits) are currently under review to address site specific groundwater issues
        Reserve Determinations that are completed or underway for the purpose of licence applications
        include: C60G (rapid), C24F (preliminary) and C24C (preliminary).

1.4.3   Current (quality and quantity) requirements
        No formal quality and quantity requirements have been set to date but DWAF is in the process of
        addressing the issue.

1.5     Poverty eradication and the role groundwater can play in the catchment
        Often groundwater is an inexpensive resource to develop for domestic water supply for
        communities that are located far from existing surface water bulk supply systems. However
        cognizance has to be taken of the groundwater quality and exploitability when the level of sanitation
        is considered.
        Emerging farmers can also benefit by the exploitation of groundwater for irrigation and livestock
        farming and the WUAs could play an active role in this regard.
        In order to aid the government’s initiative with regard to Mineral Development especially for small-
        scale mining operations, DWAF could play an active role in the water licensing process.



2       Groundwater according to geolithological units and catchments associated
        or enclosed with the units (1: 1000 000 geology).
        Exploitable aquifers are found in four major Geological Supergroups: The Karoo Supergroup,
        Transvaal Supergroup, Ventersdorp Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Supergroup (see Figure 2).
        There are also limited aquifers found in alluvial deposits along streams and rivers.
        Karoo sediments of the Ecca and Beaufort Groups, which consist of mainly sandstones, mudstones
        and shales, cover a large portion of the WMA. The aquifers are secondary aquifers with water
        associated with fracturing of the porous medium. Groundwater is often associated with dolerite
        intrusions and the yields are very variable between 0.1 – 10l/s depending on the type and fracturing
        of the sediments. Yields are normally higher in the Beaufort group than in the Ecca (Barnard,
        2000).
        Ventersdorp group lavas outcrops at some places in Goldfields area and the Transvaal,
        Ventersdorp, Witwatersrand groups and some basement rocks represent the majority of aquifers in


                                                      8
    the KOSH area. The most significant aquifer in the region is the Malmani dolomite, which forms
    part of the Chuniespoort Group of the Transvaal Sequence. Although this aquifer extent in terms
    of outcrop region is small, as a resource this is the most important groundwater related body in the
    area. This represents the most southerly extent of an arc of dolomite outcrop, which extends as
    far north as Johannesburg and constitutes one of the most extensive and heavily utilised
    groundwater resources within South Africa. Although the dolomite has a relatively low primary
    permeability, the development of karstic features due to the preferential solution along
    discontinuities such as joints, faults and bedding planes has served to develop the secondary
    permeability of the rock mass, particularly in chert-rich units such as the Monte Christo and the
    Eccles Formations. Groundwater movement within the dolomite aquifer in this area is known to be
    associated by north-south trending joints and faults which have experienced preferential solution
    and flow takes place towards the Vaal River and points of abstraction such as Margaret Shaft at
    Stilfontein Gold Mine.
    Other lower yielding aquifers are found in the Timeball shales and Hekpoort andesites from Pretoria
    group. The Ventersdorp andesites (lavas) and Witswatersrand quartzites can, where weathered,
    be aquifers or sometimes be seen as aquicludes. Some basement granites represent aquifers in
    the Hartbeesfontein area.



3   Riverbed Sand Aquifers (summarized from Driscoll, 1986)
    Very few riverbed sand aquifers are found in the WMA and no data is available on the
    characteristics or exploitability. However the general characteristics of riverbed sand aquifers can
    be summarized as:
    • Coarse gravels and sands are more typical of alluvial deposits. However, flood plains consist
        mainly of fine silt.
    • Alluvial deposits grain size varies considerably, fine and coarse materials are intermixed. The
        hydraulic conductivities vary between 10-3 to 103 m/d and their porosities vary between 25 –
        70%. However, flood plain porosities usually range 35 – 50% and the hydraulic conductivities
        vary between 10-8 – 10-1 m/d.
    • In general riverbed aquifers are high recharge areas and often recharge deeper underlying
        aquifers and are unconfined in nature.
    • The surface-water groundwater interaction is often intermittent (depending on the elevation of
        the water level, groundwater may recharge the surface water body or the surface water may
        recharge groundwater). This is normally dependent on the rainfall cycle. Therefore boreholes
        drilled into these aquifers are almost always successful.


4   Ground Water/Surface Water Linkage
    This area exhibits certain regions where there is pronounced interaction between surface and
    groundwater. The two regimes are therefore well-linked and should be integrated to manage any
    water related issues in these catchments.
    Ways in which groundwater and surface waters interact (streams and rivers particularly) include:
    •   Decant from mines. Examples include the water being fed from the south into the Vaal from the
        decanting and partially flooded Vierfontein coal mine.
    •   Pumpage from mines into surface water. The most pronounced of these is probably the
        Stilfontein mine water, which is pumped from Margaret shaft into the Koekemoer Spruit. Winde
        (2001) explains in detail how the pumping influences the flow, temperature, and hydrochemical
        interactions and consequent contaminant transport within this Spruit.




                                                 9
Figure 2   Middle Vaal Geology




                                 10
•   Recirculation of water in the mines overlain by dolomite. In the northerly KOSH mines this is a
    particular problem leading to heightened salination and increased pumping with the associated
    costs. This circulation is also suspected of increasing the dissolution of subsurface dolomites
    and may lead to sinkhole formation.
•   Eye flows. Two separate types of eye flow are important. Firstly the eye’s below the mining
    areas are important in the overall seepage of groundwater, much of it with elevated sulphates
    and TDS into the Vaal river. Observed yields of the "eye" is reported to fluctuate considerably
    with season and available records indicate that the flow in recent years has ranged between a
    maximum of 23 775 m3/day in April 1989 and 3 583 m3/day in November 1989 (L & W
    Environmental 1993).
•   The other important eye flow is the flow of the natural eyes such as the Schoonspruit eye. The
    flow from this eye is one of the controlling factors in the flows within the Schoonspruit. Kok
    (1972) reports that the flow from the Schoonspruit eye under natural conditions was
    approximately 32.63 Mm3/year, while Polivka (1987) reports 55.4 Mm3/year for all the springs
    around the Schoonspruit area. The surface water study elaborates on the influence of this eye
    on the Schoonspruit and its water users.
•   Seepages into the streams. Hearne (1996) estimated that approximately 73.1 Ml/day of
    groundwater finds its way into the Vaal and its tributaries. This adds approximately 211 tonnes
    of dissolved solids and 121 tonnes of sulfate to the Vaal. The well field currently used by Vaal
    River Operations was established to reduce this impact.
•   Surface/groundwater interactions are also important in the Stilfontein/Koekemoer spruit area,
    where leakage from the spruit in to dolomites has been reported (Darcy, 2002). The decrease
    in flow in this stream might lead to decreased infiltration and the water volumes currently
    anticipated may show a decrease.
•   Natural groundwater flow towards rivers and streams. This base flow can be defined as the
    part of stream flow that is attributable to long-term discharge of groundwater to the stream.
    Based flow estimates per quaternary catchment as calculated by Van Tonder and Dennis
    (2003) are summarized in Table 1.
            Table 1:        Estimated base flow per quaternary catchment
           Quaternary                   Quaternary
                      Base flow (Mm3/a)            Base flow (Mm3/a)
           catchment                    catchment
             C24A             3           C60A             4
             C24B             2           C60B             4
             C24C             14          C60C             3
             C24D             1           C60D             2
             C24E             2           C60E             2
             C24F             5           C60F             2
             C24G             2           C60G             2
             C42A             3           C70A             3
             C42B             3           C70B             3
             C42C             4           C70C             3
             C42D             2           C70D             2
             C42E             3           C70E             2
             C42F             3           C70F             2
             C42G             2           C70G             3
             C42H             1           C70H             1
              C42J            3            C70J            2
             C42K             2           C70K             3
              C42L            1



                                            11
5   References
    Barnard, H ( 2000) Groundwater Map of 2526 Johannesburg, DWA&F.
    Cogho VE, Van Niekerk LJ, Pretorius HPJ and Hodgson FDI (1992) The Development of
    Techniques for the Evaluation and Effective Management of Surface and Groundwater
    Contamination in the Orange Free State Goldfields, WRC Report No. K5/224
    Conrad, JE, Colvin, C, Sililio, O, Gorgens, A, Weaver, J and Reinhardt, C (1999) Assessment of
    the Impact of Agricultural Practices on the Quality of Groundwater Resources in South Africa. WRC
    report 641/1/99.
    Darcy Groundwater Scientists and Consultants (March 2002) A Catchment Management Plan for
    the Schoon Spruit and Koekemoer Spruit Catchments - A Situation Analysis, Report for DWAF Free
    State Region.
    Driscoll, FG (1986) Groundwater and Wells, Second Edition. Johnson Flitration Systems Inc., St
    Paul, Minnesota.
    Hearne C L, (1996) KMMA. Investigation into the Impact of Diffuse Seepage from Gold Mines in the
    Klerksdorp Region on Water Quality in the Vaal River., Phase 1
    Hohne S (June 2002) Groundwater Evaluation of C25B (Wesselsbron) Catchment, DWAF Report
    GH 3979.
    Institute for Water Quality Studies, (1995). The impact of diffuse load reduction from the Vaal
    Reefs, Hartebeestfontein Gold Mine, Buffelsfontein and Stilfontein mines on the water quality in the
    Vaal river. Report to the Department of Water Affairs : Pollution Control (Highveld Region).
    Kok, T.S (1972) Wes Transvaal en Noord- Kaap- Water beplanningsstreek:Geologie, Fonteine en
    Myne in Opvangsgebied Department of Mines Report GH 1758.
    L & W Environmental(1993)    Klerksdorp Regional Groundwater Study.      A Report to the
    Klerksdorp Mine Managers Association.Polivka, J (1987) Geohydrological investigation of the
    Schoonspruit compartment in the dolomite area of Ventersdorp DWAF Technical report No GH
    3524
    Simonic M (1999) Electronic Atlas on Groundwater Quality.           Available on Water Research
    Commission web site at: http://www.wrc.org.
    Van Tonder GJ and Dennis I (2003) Aquifer characterization GIS. Water Research Commission,
    Pretoria, South Africa.
    Veltman S, (2003).Pers. Com. DWAF. Geohydrology Free State.
    Winde, F ( 2001) Slimes dams as source of uranium - contamination of streams - the Koekemoer
    Spruit (Klerksdorp gold-field) as a case study, Proceedings Conference on “Environmentally
    Responsible mining in Southern Africa.




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