Chapter 2 – outline

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					Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 7: Input and Output
      Input (192)
          o Any data or instructions that are used by a computer.
          o Input devices are hardware used to translate words, sounds, images, and actions
              that people understand into a form that the system unit can process.
          o Keyboard Entry (192)
                    Traditional keyboards—full-sized, rigid, rectangular keyboards that
                      include function, navigational, and numeric keys.
                    Flexible keyboards—fold or roll up for easy packing or storage. They are
                      designed to provide mobile users with a full-sized keyboard with minimal
                      storage requirements.
                    Ergonomic keyboards—similar to traditional keyboards. The keyboard
                      arrangement, however, is not rectangular and a palm rest is provided. They
                      are designed specifically to alleviate wrist strain associated with the
                      repetitive movements of typing.
                    Wireless keyboards—transmit input to the system unit through the air.
                    PDA keyboards—miniature keyboards for PDAs used to send e-mail,
                      create documents, etc.
          o Pointing Devices (194)
                    Mice
                           Mechanical mouse - It has a ball on the bottom and is attached
                              with a cord to the system unit. As you move the mouse across a
                              smooth surface, or mouse pad, the roller rotates and controls the
                              pointer on the screen.
                           Optical mouse has no moving parts. It emits and senses light to
                              detect mouse movement. It can be used on any surface, is more
                              precise, and does not require periodic cleaning.
                           Cordless or wireless mouse is a battery-powered device that
                              typically uses radio waves or infrared light waves to communicate
                              with the system unit.
                           Trackball, also known as the roller ball, to control the pointer by
                              rotating a ball with your thumb.
                           Touch surfaces, or touch pads, to control the pointer by moving
                              and tapping your finger on the surface of a pad.
                           Pointing stick, located in the middle of the keyboard, to control
                              the pointer by directing the stick with your finger.
                    Joysticks, used with computer games, control game actions by varying the
                      pressure, speed, and direction of the joystick. Additional controls, such as
                      buttons and triggers, are used to specify commands or initiate specific
                      actions.
                    Touch screens are a particular kind of monitor with a clear plastic outer
                      layer. Behind this layer are crisscrossed invisible beams of infrared light.
                      This arrangement enables someone to select actions or commands by
                      touching the screen with a finger.
                    Light pens are a light-sensitive pen-like device. They are placed against
                      the monitor, which closes a photoelectric circuit and identifies the spot for
                      entering or modifying data.


Chapter Outline                                                                Page 1 of 8
Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 7: Input and Output
                  
                  A stylus is a pen-like device commonly used with tablet PCs and PDAs.
                  It uses pressure to draw images on a screen.
          o Scanning Devices (196)
                Optical scanner, also known simply as a scanner, accepts documents
                  consisting of text and/or images and converts them to machine-readable
                  form. These devices do not recognize individual letters or images. Rather,
                  they recognize light, dark, and colored areas that make up individual
                  letters or images.
                        Flatbed
                        Portable
                Card Reader (197)
                        Magnetic card reader – encoded information is stored on a thin
                           magnetic strip located on the back of the card. When the card is
                           swiped through the magnetic card reader, the information is read.
                        Radio frequency card readers - has a small RFID (radio
                           frequency identification) microchip that contains the user’s
                           encoded information. Whenever the card is passed within a few
                           inches of the card reader, the user’s information is read.
                Bar code reader
                        Either handheld wand readers or platform scanners.
                        They contain photoelectric cells that scan bar codes printed on
                           product containers.
                Character and mark recognition devices (198)
                        Magnetic-ink character recognition (MICR)—used by banks to
                           automatically read numbers on the bottom of checks and deposit
                           slips.
                        Optical-character recognition (OCR)—uses special preprinted
                           characters that can be read by a light source and changed into
                           machine-readable code.
                        Optical-mark recognition (OMR) - senses the presence or
                           absence of a mark, such as a pencil mark, and is often used to score
                           multiple-choice tests.
          o Image Capturing Devices (198)
                Digital cameras - images are recorded digitally on a disk or in the
                  camera’s memory rather than on film and then downloaded, or transferred,
                  to your computer.
                Digital video cameras record motion digitally on a disk or in the camera’s
                  memory.
                WebCams (Web cameras) are specialized digital video cameras that
                  capture images and send them to a computer for broadcast over the
                  Internet.
          o Audio-Input devices (199)
                Audio-input devices convert sounds into a form that can be processed by
                  the system unit. The most widely used audio-input device is the
                  microphone.



Chapter Outline                                                             Page 2 of 8
Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 7: Input and Output
                   Voice recognition systems use a microphone, a sound card, and special
                    software. These systems allow users to operate computers and to create
                    documents using voice commands.
                         Voice command mode (202) allows the user to select menu items,
                             toolbars, and dialog box options.
                         Dictation mode allows the user to dictate text directly into a Word
                             document.
         o Making it Work for you (200)
                  WebCams and Instant Messaging (IM)
                  Explains how to setup IM contacts and chat with them.
                  Explains how to setup a video conference with IM software.
                  Explains how to share applications via IM software.
         o MIDI devices (202)
                  Specialized musical instruments that provide input in the form of encoded
                    digital signals representing musical sounds.
                  MIDI devices can be used to create, record, and play back musical
                    compositions.
      Output Devices (203)
         o Output is processed data or information, and typically takes the form of text,
             graphics, photos, audio, and/or video.
         o Output devices are any hardware used to provide or to create output.
         o They translate information that has been processed by the system unit into a form
             that humans can understand.
         o Monitors
                  Display screens or screens
                  Present visual images of text and graphics.
                  Clarity refers to the quality and sharpness of the displayed images, and is
                    composed of four elements
                         Resolution - Images are formed on a monitor by a series of dots or
                             pixels. Resolution is expressed as a matrix of these dots or pixels.
                         Dot (pixel) pitch is the distance between each pixel. The lower
                             the dot pitch, the clearer the images produced.
                         Refresh rate indicates how often a displayed image is updated or
                             redrawn on the monitor.
                         Size or viewable size is measured by the diagonal length of a
                             monitor’s viewing area. The smaller the monitor size, the better
                             the quality of images displayed.
                  Cathode-Ray Tubes (204) - Similar to televisions, these monitors are
                    typically placed directly on the system unit or on the desktop.
                  Flat-panel monitors are much thinner and require less power to operate
                    than CRTs. As a result, flat-panel monitors are rapidly replacing CRTs.
                         Almost all of today’s flat-panel monitors are LCD (liquid crystal
                             display).
                         Passive-matrix, or dual-scan monitors, create images by scanning
                             the entire screen.
                         Active-matrix or thin film transistor (TFT) monitors do not scan
                             down the screen; instead, each pixel is independently activated.

Chapter Outline                                                               Page 3 of 8
Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 7: Input and Output
                  E-books, also known as e-book readers, are handheld, book-sized devices
                   that display text and graphics.
                 Data projectors are connect to microcomputers and project computer
                   output just as it would appear on a monitor.
                 High-definition television (HDTV) - the merger of microcomputers and
                   television. HDTV delivers a much clearer and more detailed wide-screen
                   picture than regular television.
         o Printers (205)
                 Translate information that has been processed by the system unit and
                   present the information on paper.
                 Features
                        Resolution - the clarity of images produced and measured in dpi
                           (dots per inch). The higher the dpi, the better the quality of images
                           produced.
                        Color capability
                        Speed - measured in the number of pages printed per minute.
                        Memory - The more memory in a printer, the faster it will be able
                           to create large documents.
                 Ink-jet printers (206)
                        Spray ink at high speed onto the surface of paper.
                        The most widely used printers.
                        Come in Black only or Color.
                        Reliable, quiet, and relatively inexpensive.
                        Typical ink-jet printers produce 17 to 19 pages per minute of
                           black-only output and 13 to 15 pages of color output.
                 Laser printers
                        Use a laser light beam to produce images with excellent letter and
                           graphics quality.
                        Come in Black only or Color.
                        Reliable, quiet, but more expensive than an ink-jets.
                        Faster than ink-jets and are used in applications requiring high-
                           quality output.
                 Thermal printers (207) use heat elements to produce images on heat-
                   sensitive paper.
                 Dot-matrix printers form characters and images using a series of small
                   pins on a print head.
                 Plotters are special-purpose printers for producing maps, images, and
                   architectural and engineering drawings.
                 Photo printers are special-purpose printers designed to print photo-
                   quality images from digital cameras.
                 Portable printers are designed to work with a notebook computer, and
                   may be ink-jet or laser printers, print in black and white or color, and
                   connect with USB or parallel port connections.
         o Audio-Output devices (208) - translate audio information from the computer into
            sounds that people can understand. The most widely used audio-output devices
            are speakers and headphones.
      Combination Input-Output devices
Chapter Outline                                                              Page 4 of 8
Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 7: Input and Output
          o Fax Machines - To send a fax (output), these devices scan the image of a
             document converting the light and dark areas into a format that can be sent
             electronically over standard telephone lines. To receive a fax (input), these
             devices reverse the process and print the document (or display the document on
             your monitor) using signals received from the telephone line.
          o Multifunctional devices (MFD), also known as all in one (AIO) devices,
             typically combine the capabilities of a scanner, printer, fax, and copy machine.
          o Telephony is the transmission of telephone calls over computer networks.
                  Computer-to-computer
                  Computer-to-traditional telephone
                  Traditional telephone-to-traditional telephone
          o Terminals (209)
                  Dumb terminals can be used to input and receive data, but it cannot
                     process data independently.
                  Intelligent terminals are microcomputers with communications software
                     and communications link to connect the terminal to the larger computer or
                     to the Internet. Typically have only one type of secondary storage (an
                     internal hard disk drive), a sealed system unit, and no expansion slots.
                  Network terminals do not have a hard-disk drive and must rely on a host
                     computer or server for application and system software.
                  Internet terminals provide access to the Internet and typically display
                     Web pages on a standard television set.
      Careers in IT (210)
          o Technical writers prepare instruction manuals, technical reports, and other
             scientific or technical documents.
          o Work for computer software firms, government agencies, or research institutions.
          o They translate technical information into easily understandable instructions or
             summaries.
          o Requires a college degree in communications, journalism, or English and a
             specialization in, or familiarity with, a technical field.
          o Annual salary in the range of $40,000 to $60,000
      A Look to the Future (211)
          o Electronic interpretation
                  The company SpeechGear has developed a machine called Interact that
                     takes verbal statements in one language, converts the statements to text,
                     translates that text to another language, and then vocalizes the translated
                     text.
                  Computers have a difficult time understanding idioms.
                  Have difficulty correctly identifying words by their context.




Chapter Outline                                                              Page 5 of 8
Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 7: Input and Output
      Input (192)
          o Input devices are hardware used to translate words, sounds, images, and actions
              that people understand into a form that the system unit can process.
          o You can emphasize that it is how users put data into the system.
          o Keyboard Entry (192) – Students are familiar with most types of keyboards. If
              they aren’t then you can use the following figures to help illustrate what they are.
                    Traditional keyboards—You can use figure 7-4 on page 193 to help
                      illustrate the different features on a traditional keyboard.
                    Flexible keyboards—figure 7-1 on page 192 can help illustrate what a
                      flexible keyboard looks like.
                    Ergonomic keyboards—figure 7-2 on page 192 is a good illustration of
                      an ergonomic keyboard
                    Wireless keyboards—
                    PDA keyboards—figure 7-3 on page 193 illustrates this type of keyboard
          o Pointing Devices (194) – Most students are familiar with the various pointing
              devices, so you can have them list the different types of devices they know and
              discuss their uses.
                    Mice
                    Joysticks
                    Touch screens
                    Light pens
                    Stylus
          o Scanning Devices (196) - Most students are familiar with the various pointing
              devices, so you can have them list the different types of devices they know and
              discuss their uses.
                    Optical scanner,
                           Flatbed
                           Portable
                    Card Reader (197)
                           Magnetic card reader
                           Radio frequency card readers
                    Bar code reader
                    Character and mark recognition devices (198)
                           Magnetic-ink character recognition (MICR
                           Optical-character recognition (OCR
                           Optical-mark recognition (OMR)
          o Image Capturing Devices (198)
                    Digital cameras – The Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #1 on page
                      220 has the students research how digital cameras work. This can be used
                      as a lab to accompany the lecture.
                    Digital video cameras
                    WebCams (Web cameras) There are two exercises at the end of the
                      chapter that can help further the students knowledge on this subject.
                           First, Applying Technology exercise #1 WebCams and Instant
                               Messaging has the students use the section Making IT Work for
                               You: WebCams and Instant Messaging on pages 200 and 201 to


Key Terms                                                                       Page 6of 8
Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 7: Input and Output
                              begin research on the subject. You can use it as a lab by having
                              them configure and use the software.
                          Second, Writing About Technology exercise #1 WebCams can be
                              used as a homework project to expand on the lab/lecture and delve
                              deeper into ethical issues.
         o Audio-Input devices (199)
                  Applying Technology exercise #3, Voice Recognition can be used as a lab
                     to further the students’ knowledge on the subject. It has them research the
                     many features of the software and how it can be used.
         o MIDI devices (202)
                  Specialized musical instruments that provide input in the form of encoded
                     digital signals representing musical sounds.
                  MIDI devices can be used to create, record, and play back musical
                     compositions.
      Output Devices (203)
         o Most students are familiar with the various pointing devices, so you can have
             them list the different types of devices they know and discuss their uses.
         o Monitors
                  Cathode-Ray Tubes (204) -
                  Flat-panel monitors
                          Passive-matrix, or dual-scan monitors,
                          Active-matrix or thin film transistor (TFT)
                  E-books
                  Data projectors
                  High-definition television (HDTV)
         o Printers (205)
                  Ink-jet printers (206)
                  Laser printers
                  Thermal printers (207)
                  Dot-matrix printers
                  Plotters
                  Photo printers
                  Portable printers
         o Audio-Output devices (208)
      Combination Input-Output devices
         o Fax Machines
         o Multifunctional devices (MFD)
         o Telephony –The end-of-chapter features provide two exercises that can work well
             for labs either together or singly. First, Applying Technology exercise #2,
             Internet Telephones, has the students research the web site and learn about the
             features of telephony services. Second, Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #2,
             How Internet Telephones work, is a more in-depth study of the service. It has the
             students discover the devices used, the advantages and disadvantages of the
             services, and diagram a computer-to-computer telephony.
         o Terminals (209)
                  Dumb terminals
                  Intelligent terminals

Key Terms                                                                     Page 7of 8
Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 7: Input and Output
                  Network terminals
                  Internet terminals
      Careers in IT (210)
          o Technical writers prepare instruction manuals, technical reports, and other
             scientific or technical documents.
          o Work for computer software firms, government agencies, or research institutions.
          o They translate technical information into easily understandable instructions or
             summaries.
          o Requires a college degree in communications, journalism, or English and a
             specialization in, or familiarity with, a technical field.
          o Annual salary in the range of $40,000 to $60,000
      A Look to the Future (211)
          o Electronic interpretation
                  This is a good technology to have an open discussion about. You can
                     have the students research the topic and present the pros and cons of the
                     issue.




Key Terms                                                                    Page 8of 8

				
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