Stuart_Rosenfeld

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					EU-RIS: Innovating Regions in
           Europe

        June 17-18, 2002
       Stratford-upon-Avon
        Stuart Rosenfeld
  Regional Technology Strategies


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  Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
   Clusters are economic
ecosystems, not membership
       organizations

  Rule of Thumb 1: Select clusters
 based on systemic relationships that
     provide market advantage

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   Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
   The Dynamics of Clusters
• Flows of:                 Leads to:
• Information Greater knowledge of markets, labor
               markets, technologies.
• Ideas      Diffusion of improvement, innovation
• People     Increased experience, career ladders,
• Goods      More efficient value-added chains
• Services   Expanded expertise, choices
• Capital    Support for modernization, startups
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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
Critical mass attracts external
   economies, cooperation
 creates external economies
   Rule of Thumb 2: The minimum
  firm density necessary is what will
     produce external economies

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   Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
     Hard External Economies
•    Externality                                                        >        Benefit
•   Supply chains                                                       >        efficiency
•   Specialized labor                                                   >        productivity
•   Specialized services                                                >        access
•   More choice                                                         >        costs, quality
•   Range of firms                                                      >        joint ventures

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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
      Soft External Economies
•   Externality > Benefit
•   Association > Vision, planning, influence
•   Trust         > Networking
•   Learning (1) > Tech transfer, innovation
•   Learning (2) > Know how
•   Informal Labor
    Markets       > Career ladders


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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
  Boundaries of clusters are
determined by members --and
     are not constraining

  Rule of Thumb 3: Boundaries are
  set by distances people will travel
   to work, associate, and network

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   Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
Clusters have life cycles
  Rule of Thumb 4: Stages of
development of a cluster shape its
      needs and interests.
                               - Embryonic
                               - Growth
                               - Mature
                               - Decaying

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 Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
                 Success Factors
• Concepts
   - Innovation
   - Imitation and competition
   - Entrepreneurship
• Connections
   - Networks and networking
   - Connections and intermediaries
• Competencies
   - Specialized labor force
   - Industry leaders
   - Talent
   - Knowledge                                                                      9
   Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
                        “Cities of Ideas”
•   More likely to try “anything once”
•   More optimistic
•   Higher interest in politics
•   More artists, musicians, writers
•   Wages 30% above average
•   Church attendance decreasing
•   Club membership decreasing more
•   More interested in other cultures, places
•   More likely to engage in individualistic
    activities             (Robert Cushing)
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        Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
              Common Concerns
•   Can regions create clusters?
•   Is there a risk of being too specialized?
•   Do clusters constitute favoritism?
•   Are firms too competitive to cooperate?
•   Is a rural cluster an oxymoron?
•   Will Internet negate proximity advantage?
•   Do clusters serve low income people/places?
•   Do decaying clusters have an afterlife?

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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
                  Origins of Clusters
    •Place                     •Year                   •Cluster/Origin                       •Reason
•Aalborg, DK                 •1948 •Telecom-SP Radio                                      •Marine indust
•Scotland                    •1940 •Electronics                                           •Security
•Sassuolo, IT                •1600 •Tiles-Rubbiani Co.                                    •Local clay
•Los Angeles                 •1968 •Toys-Immigrants                                       •Costs, distrib.
•Carpi                       •1960 •Straw hats                                            •Fashion shift
•Tupelo, MS                  •1948 •Furn.-Futorian Mfg                                    •Labor, wood
• Central Mass.              •1760 •Plastics-shell combs                                  •Chance
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         Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
            Actions for Regions
• For understanding economies
• For engaging industry
• For organizing and delivering services
• For building a specialized labor force
• For stimulating innovation &
  entrepreneurship
• For marketing the region and state
• For allocating resources and investments
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     Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
      Understanding Regional
           Economies
• Identify clusters
  - measures of scale & concentration
  - local views and intelligence
  - Inventory assets
• Map and model systemic relationships
  - competitiveness factors
  - supply chains
  - knowledge chains
• Benchmark against competitors
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     Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
                US Cluster Basis
Product                                      Carpets in Dalton, Georgia
Process                                      Plastics in Connecticut
Value chain                                  Aerospace in Seattle
Technology                                   Optics & imaging, Rochester
Skills/talent                                New Media, New York City
Resources                                    Wood, Arkansas
Distribution                                 Ports, SE Louisiana
Other                                        Software, Fairfield, Iowa
Other                                        Prisons, Northern NY
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   Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
      Benchmarks for Clusters
•   R&D capacity                                                • Work force & skills
•   Education & training                                        • Proximity to suppliers
•   Capital availability                                        • Specialized services
•   Tool builders/software                                       • Social capital
•   Entrepreneurship                                            • Innovation/imitation
•   Market leaders                                              • Specialized services
•   External connections                                        • Vision and leadership


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        Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
      Measures of Innovation
•   Number of patents
•   Investments in equipment
•   Investments in R&D
•   Number of knowledge workers
•   Number of scientists, engineers,
    technicians

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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
      Actions for engagement

• Establish and recognize cluster
  organizations
• Formalize communications
  channels
• Facilitate networks


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    Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
         Cluster Organizations
•   Arizona Optics Industry Association
•   CIT.MS (Comm. and Information Tech)
•   Connecticut Plastics Council
•   Upper Austria Diesel Technology Cluster
•   Rhode Island Plastics Partnership Council



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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
                     Legsource.com
                    (Hosiery Cluster)
•   Industry communication infrastructure
•   Maintain company database
•   Assist firms in website development
•   Search for new business opportunities
•   Government procurement assistance
•   Video conferencing technology
•   e-commerce assistance to suppliers

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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
      Response to a Technical Knitting
      Question (From Glenn @ Top Gun
                  Hosiery)
Question: We are having yarn tails protruding from the sock
  where the yarn feeder changes take place our KnitBetter
  knitting machines. Does anyone have a solution for this
  problem?
Response from Tim @ Big Mill:
Machine Supplier has a new 2 feed tail attachment that we
  have used to help with the problem. tim@bigmill.com
Response from Eric @ Machine Supplier:
We offer a 2 feed tail attachment that can be added to the 2nd
 feed to address the yarn tail ends. Please contact me at
 eric@machinesupplier.com for more details
     Networks and Clusters
Clusters grow…
Networks are constructed
   Clusters require no cooperation…
   Networks require cooperation
     Clusters attract external economies
    Networks generate external economies
         Clusters are systems…
         Networks are alliances
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     Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
   Connecticut Plastics Council:
     From Network to Cluster
• 1993: Six companies in Naugatuck Valley
  approached by industrial services
• 1994: $500,000 state grant
• 1996: Hartford seminar
• 1997: Growth to 48 members along Route 8
  corridor, become Connecticut Plastics Council
• 1997: Incorporated as 501c3
• 2001: Officially launched by state as “cluster”

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      Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
     Actions for organizing and
         delivering services

•   Collect and disseminate info. by cluster
•   Establish one-stop cluster hubs
•   Form cross agency cluster teams
•   Facilitate external connections



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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
    External Linkages are Crucial
•   Prevent lock-in
•   Source of inspiration, innovation
•   Benchmarking
•   Potential markets/customers




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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
Actions for stimulating innovation
      and entrepreneurship

•   Invest in innovations and start ups
•   Support cluster based incubators
•   Facilitate entrepreneur networks
•   Form innovation networks
•   Build technology cluster hubs

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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
    Examples of Technology Centres
Ireland
• Sligo IT - Toolmaking & Research
• Cork IT - Clean Technology Centre
• Limerick IT - CAD/CAM Training & Design
Valencia, Spain
•   Ibi - Toys (1985)
•   Alco - Textiles (1985)
•   Valencia -Plastics ( 1990)
•   Benicrio - Furniture (1984)
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        Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
Actions for Building Cluster Workforce

 • Qualify specialized labor force
 • Use clusters as context for learning
 • Establish cluster skills centers
 • Form partnerships between education
   & clusters
 • Support regional skills alliances
 • Create inter-regional cluster alliances
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     Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
            College Cluster Hubs
•   Staff experienced in cluster
•   Develops & improves curricula
•   Engages and works with cluster leaders
•   Technology and market scanning
•   Maintains contacts with other regions
•   Brokers specialized services
•   Conducts needs assessments, research
•   Organizes forums, workshops, study tours
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     Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
      British Centers of Vocational
             Excellence (70)
    Program                              FE College                                            LSC
Fashion/clothing                      London Institute                                    London Central
Mechatronics                          Newham Coll.                                        London East
Printmedia/graphic M. Bolton College                                                      Birm’ham/Solihull
Digital imaging                       S. Nottinghamshire                                  Nottinghamshire
High tech eng.                        Plymouth College                                    Devon-Cornwall
Hospitality/cater’g                   Thanet College                                      Kent& Midway

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         Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
Hosiery Technology Center at Catawba
      Valley Community College
• Trains entry level workers and
  technicians
• Trains management and customers
• Brokers networks
• Provides testing facility
• Demonstrates new equipment
• Maintains web site for jobs, market
  opportunities
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     Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
    Galway-Mayo IT Furniture
     College at Letterfrack
• Programs in furniture production and
  management
• Hosts furniture technology center
• Supports new enterprise development
• Focuses on design
• Seminars for industry


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     Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
Multi-Institutional Innovation and
       Learning Exchanges
Networks of 6 to 10 community colleges
with common interests or problems that
agree to work collectively toward
innovative solutions and improved
methods by sharing development,
approaches, and/or experiences.


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    Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
     Actions for marketing and
         branding clusters
•   Target inward investment
•   Promote clusters
•   Form export networks
•   Look for opportunities to brand regions
    and/or clusters



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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
 Silicon Valley
                                                      Silicon Alley
         Silicon Glen             Silicon Fen
 Silicon Forest         Silicon Beach
Silicon Ditch                 Silicon Bog
   Silicon Tundra Silicon Sandbar
        Silicon Parkway     Silicon Polder



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       Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
    Actions for Allocating
 Resources and Investments

• Incentives or set asides for multi-firm
  cluster project
• Invest in cluster R&D
• Fund critical foundation factors


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     Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
Examples of Technology Centers

• Ohio’s Edison Centers
• New York’s Center for Adv.Technology
  and Regional Technology Dev Centers
• Valencia Technology Centers
• ERVET
• Ireland’s Technology Centres (Forfás)


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    Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org
                  www.rtsinc.org
        Stuart A. Rosenfeld
Regional Technology Strategies, Inc.
      205 Lloyd St., Suite 210
     Carborro, NC 27510, USA
           919 933-6699
       rosenfeld@rtsinc.org

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   Helping people and places innovate, collaborate, and prosper.   www.rtsinc.org

				
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