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Microwave Amplifier Design _part 1_

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  • pg 1
									      San Jose State University
Department of Electrical Engineering



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SENIOR PROJECT

   Microwave Amplifier Design
            (part 1)
                    by



              Steve Garcia
              Jaime Cordoba
              Inderpreet Obhi


             December 15, 2003
Objective

The goal of our senior design project was to design and build a prototype single stage Microwave power
amplifier operated at 2.4 GHz with a linear region of operation up to our desired output of 1 watt or 30
dBm. This project was chosen because of its apparent complexity and the RF design experience that
would be gained by the end of the project.

Project Specifications:

As a design team, we came to the conclusion that we wanted to design our amplifier to operate in the 2.4
GHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) Band. Typical 2.4 GHz Microwave amplifiers on the
market were researched and comparable target specifications were proposed. The overall target
specifications of the amplifier design are as follows:
                    • Operating frequency @ 2.4GHz
                    • Output power of 1 watt (30 dBm)
                    • Obtain a gain of +10 ~12db
                    • 1dB compression >= 30dbm
                    • Cost < $ 100

Application

The applications of our proposed device include many products in the field of microwave
communications. One of the important applications of a Microwave power amplifier is in the output stage
of a transmitter where a signal needs amplification before it is transmitted. A high power amplifier is
needed for transmitting a signal through an antenna and a medium. The Microwave power amplifier
amplifies the input signal after the signal has been modulated in the transmitter. The High power
amplification step is necessary for every application of antenna transmission.


                           Mixer
                                                                                      RF output
                                                                                      Transmitted
   Data                                              High
   Signal                                            Power
                                                     RF Amp




                                             Modulated
               Local                          Signal
              Oscillator


Figure 1: General Transmitter Output Stage
Design Methodology

A power amplifier is an amplifier that takes a low or intermediate level signal and significantly boosts its
power level. At low frequencies this might be a trivial design which would only involve the careful
choice of a DC bias circuit designed for maximum power output. But our chosen amplifier design is
designed to operate at the microwave frequency of 2.4 GHz. When operating at this frequency,
transmission line theory comes into the picture. The high frequency and short wavelength of microwave
energy make for difficulties in analysis and design of microwave components and systems. Matching of
the input and output of the transistor must be considered and designed around. A typical block diagram of
a single-stage RF amplifier is shown below.



                                                                                             Output
                                                              Input                         Matchng
                                                             Matchng        Transistor      Network
                                                             Network                         M2
                                                               M1
               RF
               AMP                                                          Biasing
                                                                            Network




Figure 2: General Microwave Amplifier Topology

This was the basic topology that we adhered to through our design procedure. The basic design flow for
this topology is as follows:
    • Choose an Microwave Transistor based on design specifications
    • Design a DC Biasing circuit for desired operation: Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class AB
    • Design the Input and Output Matching Circuits based on the desired type of amplifier: Low-Noise
        Amp, High-Gain Amp, or High-Power Amp

Because our design is that of a high-power device, there is a more specific design flow to follow when
designing a high-power microwave amplifier that is illustrated in the book, Microwave Circuit Design
Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques by Vendelin, Pavio, and Rohde. This design method is based
strictly on using small-signal S-parameters for the design of M1 (the input matching circuit) and M2 (the
output matching circuit). It also addresses the proper form of biasing for maximum output power. The
design flow is as follows:
     • Obtain transistor static IV curves
     • Using IV curves, design the bias circuit for the transistor in order to achieve Class A operation
     • Obtain the transistor S-parameters for the determined bias values
     • Using IV curves, define the optimum load line for maximum output power and determine the
         resistance value, RL, corresponding to this load line
     • Design M2 for maximum output power using the value of RL
   •   Determine S11’ with M2 at output and design input matching circuit, M1, for zero reflection.

The IV curve of the transistor is the starting point for the design. An example of one is shown below:


                                                           useable
               ID          Load
                           Line
                                                           region




    useable
    region




                                                                                                  VDS
                                      Operating Point


Figure 3: FET Transistor IV Curve

From the IV curve, the usable regions of ID and VDS can be determined. For Class A operation, the DC
operating point should be centered in these usable regions. This determined operating point will define
the VGS and VDS in the bias circuit design.

In order to obtain maximum power from this device, we must define a load line that fully spans these
usable regions. The slope of this load line will determine the large-signal load impedance, RL, for
maximum transistor output power. In other words, RL is used as the goal impedance to be presented to
the device’s drain terminal by the output circuit in order to achieve maximum RF power output. This
value of RL defines the output matching circuit, M2. The Smith chart is then used to define the lossless
output circuit M2 by matching RL to 50Ù at the design frequency.

With M2 designed, the input matching circuit, M1, can then be designed using S11’. M1 should be
designed for zero input reflection. To do this, the Smith chart is used by matching S11’ to 50Ù at the
design frequency.

This design method should result in a high power amplifier with little input reflection, ÃIN. It should be
observed that the output match will be poor because it is intentionally mismatched in order to achieve
maximum RF power generation. In other words, the output match is optimized on RL rather than the
device's S22.
It should be noted that this design method for high power works even though small-signal S-parameters
are used as a design basis. Ideally, large signal S-parameters should be used because power amplifiers are
inherently large signal components. This is because they operate into the power saturation area of the IV
curve which is, in most cases, a non-linear region. Ideally, a set of large-signal S-parameters would
include these non-linearities and would characterize a transistor for high power applications but
unfortunately device manufacturers do not provide them. This is because the measurement of large-signal
S-parameters is difficult and is not properly defined. Fortunately, small-signal S-parameters are suitable
for use in large-signal amplifier design when they are operating in Class A.

Although this design procedure may seem straight forward, the actual design process turned out to be
much more involved.


Design Environment: Microwave Office

It was obvious from the start that our amplifier would need to be designed in the software environment if
we actually wanted to build it. There are several software packages in the industry that are used for the
design and simulation of RF circuits. The one that we chose to use was Applied Wave Research’s
Microwave Office. The primary reason for this choice was that we could obtain our own trial copy which
gave us much more flexibility in the design process. Microwave Office is one of the top three industry
standard RF design and simulation packages which also made it very attractive. Learning the use and
capabilities of the software through the design process turned out to be very time consuming but the
experience gained with the software will no doubt be invaluable in an RF career.
We also used Agilent Technology’s Advance Design Software for parallel design and comparison in the
early stages of design. This was done primarily to gain a little experience with comparable software.

Design Phase I: Obtaining a Non-Linear Device Model

The first step in the whole design process was to choose a transistor. We chose the Filtronic LP1500
transistor in a P100 package which is a 1 Watt power PHEMT. The LP1500P100 is a packaged
Aluminum Gallium Arsenide / Indium Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs/InGaAs) pseudomorphic High
Electron Mobility Transistor (pHEMT). This transistor was chosen because it met all of the requirements
for our target specifications.

The most unexpected problems that we encountered when we started our design was that there are no
perfect non-linear models for microwave transistors. The non-linear model given for the LP1500 does not
generate the actual S-parameters of device test data that they also supply. Filtronics supplies, on their
website, a Cutice-Cubic Non-Linear Device Model is given along with a set of actual S-parameters of a
tested LP1500P100 device at a specific DC bias. But when we compared this test data with the S-
parameters that are generated by the non-linear device model in Microwave Office simulation, the values
did not match at our design frequency of 2.4 GHz. We found the solution to this problem by consulting a
professional in the design field. We were advised to optimize the non-linear device model for our design
frequency by adjusting various parameter values in the non-linear model. The Curtice-Cubic non-linear
device model that we obtained from Filtronics has a total of 36 parameters. The optimization procedure
of the non-linear model involved changing arbitrary values one at a time, running S-parameter simulation,
and comparing the results of simulation with that of the given device test data. This was an especially
time consuming procedure because it is a hit-and-miss method. We first had to determine which of the 36
device model parameters made the most significant changes in the S-parameter simulation. Then we had
to adjust them while watching all 4 S-parameters. This was quite frustrating because changing one
parameter might bring one of the S-parameters values come with in the desired range but would, at the
same time, make another S-parameter deviate further from the desired value. We realized how hard it
was to bring every device model S-parameter close to that of the actual test data values, so we
concentrated on optimizing the input and output matching S-parameters; S11 and S22 respectively, while
allowing more error within the through parameters; S21 and S21. This decision was made because
obtaining the right matching in the simulation environment would ensure good matching in the realized
amplifier circuit. In other words, designing around a device model with S11 and S22 close to the actual
device values should guarantee a properly matched circuit when it is actually built. It should be noticed
that optimization would not necessarily be needed if the amplifier circuit were only to designed and tested
in the software environment.

Below is a graphical representation of the actual device Test Data S-parameters (Blue Trace), the non-
optimized model (Green Trace), and our final optimized device model (Pink Trace). Notice the
optimization at our design frequency, 2.4 GHz of S11 and S22.
       S[1,1]
       LP1500 Test Data                           LP1500 S11
       S[1,1]




                                                           1.0
                                                                                                    Swp Max




                                              0.8
       Optim ized Package Model
                                                                                                      18GHz




                                 6
       S[1,1]




                               0.




                                                                               0
       Factory Package Model




                                                                              2.
                   4
                 0.
                                                                                                    0
                                                                                               3.

                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                               5.0
       0.2


                                                                                                                    10.0
                         2.4 GHz




                                                                                                        10.0
                         r 0.13
                   0.2




                                    0.4



                                            0.6


                                                     0.8

                                                            1.0




                                                                  2.0



                                                                        3.0

                                                                                   4.0
                                                                                         5.0
   0




                         x -0.23
                                                                                                                -10.0


       -0.
             2                            2.4 GHz                                                                 0
                                          r 0.11                                                        -4
                                                                                                          .0
                                                                                                               -5.


                                          x -0.37
2.4 GHz -0.4                                                                                   -3
                                                                                                 .0


r 0.11                                                                        2.
                                                                                 0
                                .6




x -0.18
                                                                                -
                               -0




                                              -0.8




                                                                                                      Swp Min
                                                           -1.0




                                                                                                       0.5GHz
                               LP1500 S11
0
                                            DB(|S[1,1]|)
            2.4 GHz                         LP1500 Test Data
            -1.738 dB                       DB(|S[1,1]|)
-1                                          Optimized Package Model
                        2.4 GHz             DB(|S[1,1]|)
                        -1.854 dB           Factory Package Model

-2


-3
           2.4 GHz
           -2.164 dB
-4


-5
     0.5                5.5              10.5                         15.5   18
                              Frequency (GHz)
                                                                                                              2
                                                                                                            1.
  S[2,2]




                                                                                                  0
                                  LP1500 S22




                                                                                                1.
  LP1500 Test Data




                                                                                           9
                                                                                         0.
  S[2,2]
                                                                             Swp Max
                                                                                   8
                                                                                 0.
  Optimized Package Model                                               7
                                                                      0.

  S[2,2]                                                          6


                                                                               18GHz
                                                                0.
  Factory Package Model
                                                            5
                                                          0.


                                                       0 .4


                                                  0 .3


                                   2.4 GHz      0.2


                                   r 0.73      0.1
0.5




            0.6




                      0.7




                            0.8



                                   0.9



                                         1.0




                                                                1.2




                                                                                         1.4



                                                                                                      1.6



                                                                                                                  1.8


                                                                                                                        2.0
                                   x -0.12
                                               -0 .1                      2.4 GHz
                                               -0.2                       r 0.83
                                                  -0 .
                                                      3                   x -0.35
                                                           4
                                                       -0 .

                                                             .5
                                                          -0
2.4 GHz                                                         -0
                                                                   .6
                                                                                  Swp Min
r 0.79                                                                -   0.
                                                                             7


x -0.35                                                                          -0
                                                                                   0.5GHz
                                                                                    .8
                                                                                           .9
                                                                                       -0
                                LP1500 S22
 -5

 -7         2.4 GHz
            -12.92 dB
-10


-13
                          2.4 GHz                DB(|S[2,2]|)
-16                       -13.55 dB              LP1500 Test Data

                                                 DB(|S[2,2]|)
                                                 Optimized Package Model
-19          2.4 GHz
                                                 DB(|S[2,2]|)
             -15.28 dB                           Factory Package Model
-22
      0.5                5.5              10.5                      15.5   18
                               Frequency (GHz)
                                                                                                                   2
                                                                                                                 1.
      S[1,2]




                                                                                                       0
                                       LP1500 S12




                                                                                                     1.
      LP1500 Test Data




                                                                                                9
                                                                                              0.
      S[1,2]
                                                                                   Swp Max
                                                                                        8
                                                                                      0.
      Optimized Package Model
                                                                               7
                                                                             0.
      S[1,2]
      Factory Package Model                                            6


                                                                                     18GHz
                                                                     0.

                                                                 5
                                                               0.



                               2.4 GHz
                                                            0 .4
                                                                                   2.4 GHz
                               r 1.03                  0 .3
                                                                                   r 1.05
                               x 0.05                0.2
                                                                                   x 0.04
                                                    0.1
0.5




              0.6




                         0.7




                                 0.8



                                        0.9



                                              1.0




                                                                     1.2




                                                                                              1.4



                                                                                                           1.6



                                                                                                                       1.8


                                                                                                                             2.0
                               2.4 GHz              -0 .1



                               r 1.06               -0.2


                               x 0.04                  -0 .
                                                           3


                                                                4
                                                            -0 .

                                                                  .5
                                                               -0

                                                                     -0
                                                                        .6


                                                                               0.
                                                                                  7
                                                                                       Swp Min
                                                                           -

                                                                                      -0
                                                                                        0.5GHz
                                                                                         .8
                                                                                                .9
                                                                                            -0
                               LP1500 S12
-10




-20
            2.4 GHz
            -29.12 dB
                                                DB(|S[1,2]|)
                          2.4 GHz               LP1500 Test Data
-30                       -30.11 dB             DB(|S[1,2]|)
                                                Optimized Package Model
                  2.4 GHz                       DB(|S[1,2]|)
                  -30.89 dB                     Factory Package Model

-40
      0.5               5.5              10.5                      15.5   18
                              Frequency (GHz)
                                                  LP1500 S21
Mag Max                                                                                            Swp Max




                                                           90




                                                                      75
                                            105
20                                                                                                  18 GHz
                                                         2.4 GHz




                                                                                 60
                                 12
                                                         Re 0.84

                                  0




                                                                                          45
                                                         Im 4.24
                       13
                        5



                                                                                                   30
       15
            0


                                                                                                            15
 165                                                                             2.4 GHz
                                                                                 Re 1.36
-180                             2.4 GHz                                         Im 6.79                          0



                                 Re -0.04                                                                   -15

  -165                           Im 5.07
                                                                                                   -3
                                                                                                        0
                   0
            -   15                                              S[2,1]
                                                                LP1500 Test Data

                                                                                          -4
                            35




                                                                                               5
                                                                S[2,1]
                        -1




                                                                Optimized Package Model
                                                                                  -6
                                       20




                                                                                      0
                                      -1




                                                  -105




                                                                           -75




5                                                               S[2,1]                             Swp Min
                                                                -90




Per Div                                                         Factory Package Model              0.5 GHz
                                             LP1500 S21
    30
                                                                  DB(|S[2,1]|)
                    2.4 GHz                                       LP1500 Test Data
                    16.81 dB                                      DB(|S[2,1]|)
    20                                                            Optimized Package Model
                                       2.4 GHz
                                                                  DB(|S[2,1]|)
                                       14.09 dB                   Factory Package Model


    10


                2.4 GHz
      0         12.72 dB


   -10
          0.5                   5.5                   10.5                       15.5         18
                                           Frequency (GHz)




Design Phase II: IV Curve

With an acceptable device model obtained, the actual design process could begin. The curvetracer in
Microwave Office was used to generate the LP1500 IV curves from which an operating point and load
line could be determined.
                                                                                    IVCurve (mA)
                                          IV Curve of LP1500                        CurveTrace
   700
   650
   600
   550
   500
   450
   400
   350
   300
   250
   200
   150
   100
    50
     0
         0    1   2    3    4    5    6    7   8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
                                               Voltage (V)




From this IV curve, the operating point was designed. The DC bias values turned out to be VDD=8.5
Volts and VGS= -0.5 Volts. The maximum power load line was determined and has a RL value of 22
ohms. RL was then translated to the Smith Chart and matched to 50 ohms using lumped elements.
                                                        Smith Chart           Match to 50
                    RL= 22                                                    ohms      Swp Max




                                                                1.0
                                                    0.8
                    ohms                                                                                                       1




                                         6
                                       0.




                                                                                        0
                                                                                       2.
                              4
                            0.
                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                        3.

                                                                                                                        0
                                                                                                                   4.
                                                                                                                        5.0
                  0.2


                                                                                                                            10.0




                                                                                                                 10.0
                                 0.2




                                            0.4



                                                  0.6


                                                          0.8

                                                                  1.0




                                                                        2.0



                                                                                 3.0

                                                                                            4.0
                                                                                                  5.0
              0




                                                                                                                         -10.0

                        2
                  -0.                                                                                                      0
                                                                                                                        -5.
                                                                                                                   .0
                                                                                                                 -4

                                                                                                          .0
                                 .4
                                                                                                        -3
                            -0



                                                                                         .0
                                                                                       -2
                                        .6
                                       -0




                                                   -0.8




                                                                                                                 Swp Min
                                                                -1.0




                                                                                                                      -1



This determined the output match M2. M1 was then designed using S11’ on the smith chart as described
earlier. The final lumped element circuit is shown below.
                                                                                                                          DCVS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DCVS
                                                                                                                         ID= VGS1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ID= VDD1
                                                                                                                          V= -0.5 V                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   V= 8.5 V




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SUBCKT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ID= S1
                                                                                                                       INDQ                                                                                           NET= "LP1500 Package Model"                                                                                                       I NDQ
                      PORTFN                                                                                             ID= Lrfchoke1
                        P= 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ID= Lrfchoke2
                                                                                                                          L= 100 nH                                                                                                                                                                                                                           L=100 nH
                         Z=50 Ohm                                                                                         Q= 0
                      Freq=2.4 GHz                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Q= 0
                                                                                                                         FQ=0 GHz                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FQ=0 GHz
                       Pwr=16 dBm                                                                                           CAP
                                                                                                                       ALPH= 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                               IND
                       Ang=0 Deg                                                                                           ID= C1                                                                                                                  2                                                                                                    ALPH=1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           I D=L2
                      Tone=1                                                                                                C= 10.34 pF                                                                                                                                                                                                                      L= 1.64 nH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CAPQ                                   PORT
                                               CAPQ                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     P=2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ID= Cdcblock2
                                                 ID= Cdcblock1 IND                                                                                                                                                                                 3                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Z=50 Ohm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CAP                                                   C= 100 pF
                                                  C= 100 pF    ID= L1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ID= C2                                                 Q= 0
                                                  Q= 0          L= 1.17 nH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    C= 1.49 pF                                           FQ=0 GHz
                                                 FQ=0 GHz                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ALPH=1
                                               ALPH=1




Because the circuit was to be built on a substrate, a mixed lumped element microstrip design had to be
generated based on the above design. This is because every connection between all of the elements are in
actuality microstrip pieces and therefore had to be considered and modeled in the design. This was a very
long and drawn out process but it finally yielded a working circuit. This is the final circuit in Microwave
Office along with the S-parameters and 1 dB compression point determination:


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     VIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ID= V4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       D = 50 mil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       H = 32 mil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        T= 1.4 mil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     RHO=  1




                                                                                                                                                                                              VIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                ID= V3
                                                                                                                                                                                                 D= 50 mil                                                                                  MLIN
                                                                                                                                                                                                 H= 32 mil                                                                                  ID=TL16
                                                                                                                                                                                                 T= 1.4 mil                                                                                 W =160 mil
                                                                                                                                                                                              RHO= 1                                                                                         L = 500 mil




                                                                                                                                                                                      MLIN                                                                                                  CAPQ
                                                                                                                                                                                      ID=TL15                                                                                                   ID=Cdcblock3
                                                                                                                                                                                      W =160 mil                                                                                                 C= 1000 pF
                                                                                                                                                                                       L = 500 mil                                                                                              Q =0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              F Q = 0 GHz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ALPH=1                     RES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ID=RD1                         DCVS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     D = VDD1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       R = 22.5 Ohm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       V= 15.78 V


                                                                                                                                                                                        CAPQ
                                                                                                                                                                                          ID= Cdcblock4
                                                                                                                                                                                           C= 1000 pF                                                                    MLIN
                                                                                                                                                                                           Q=0                                                                          ID=TL10
                                                                                                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                                                                                          F Q = GHz                                                                     W = 160 mil
                                                                                        MSUB                                     DCVS                                                   ALPH= 1                                                                          L = 500 mil
                                                                                            Er= 3.38                           I D = VGS1
                                                                                             H= 32 mil                          V = -0.4775 V
                                                                                             T= 0.669 mil                                                                                                                                                                                                       INDQ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ID= Lrfchoke2
                                                                                          Rho= 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                    L = 1000 nH
                                                                                          Tand=0.0021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Q=7
                                                                                        ErNom= 3.38                                                                                    MLIN                                                                                                                       F Q = 0.00796 GHz
                                                                                         Name= R O 1                                                                                 I D = TL3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MLIN                                                                          ALPH=1
                                                                                                                                                                                     W = 160 mil                                  ID=PAD10
                                                                                                                                                                                       L = 500 mil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  W =50 mil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   L=100 mil
                                                                                                                                                INDQ
                                                                                                                                                    ID=Lrfchoke1                                                                                         W 1=238.8
                                                                                                                                                     L = 1000 nH                                                                                                                                                                                                                               W4=59.79                     MTEE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ID= TL12
                                                                                                                                                    Q =7                                                                                                 L1=480.8                                                                     IND                                                      L4=32.17                     W 1=W 4 mil                  CA P
                                                                                                                                                  F Q = 0.00796 GHz                                                                                                                                                                   ID=L 3                                                                                                             ID=DCblock2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            W 2=74.5 mil
                                                                                                                                                ALPH=1                                        MLIN                                  MSTEP$                                             3                                               L =M2ind nH                                                                          W 3=120 mil                   C=1000 pF
                                                                                                                                                                                              ID=PAD9                               I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D = TL22
                                                                                                                                                                                              W =50 mil                                                                          2               1                                                                                                                          1         2
                                                                                                                                                                                               L=100 mil
PORT_PS1
    P=1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MLIN                    MTEE                                                                                                           MLIN                            3                                       MLIN           PORT
    Z=50 Ohm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  M2ind=1.8
                                                                              MTEE                                                                                                                                                                     I D = TL8                 I D = TL9                                                                                                     ID=TL11                                                                 ID= TL14       P= 2
PStart=0 dBm                                                                  I D = TL5                                                                                                                                                                W = W 1 mil               W1= 120 mil                    MLIN                                             MLIN                          W=W4mil                                                                 W = 74.5 mil   Z= 50 Ohm
PStop=30 dBm                                                                                                W4in=240
                                                                              W 1=W 4in mil                                                                                                                                                    2         L = L1 mil              W2= W 1 m i l                I D = PAD5                                        ID=PAD6             MSTEP$      L = L4 mil                                                              L = 500 mil
PStep=0 . 2 d B                                                               W 2=120 mil                   L4in=10                                                                                                                                                              W3= 160 mil                  W = 120 mil                                       W =120 mil          ID= TL19
 Ang=0 Deg                                                                                                                                                                       3               MSTEP$
                                                                              W 3=120 mil                                                                                                      I D = T L21                                                                                                      L = 60 mil                                       L =60 mil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1
                                                                              2            1                                                                                1           2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           MLIN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ID= PAD7
                   MLIN                                                             3             MLIN                         MLIN                                         MTEE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           W = 120 mil
                  ID=TL7         CAP                                                                                         I D = PAD2                 M1cap=39             ID= TL2                         W1in=423.2
                                 ID=DCblock1                                                     ID= TL4          MSTEP$                                                                                                                                                                                                                         M2cap=0.5                                                                                  L=60mil
                  W =74.5 mil                                                                    W = 4in mil
                                                                                                      W          ID=TL18     W = 120 mil                                    W1= 1 2 0 m i l                                                    3
                                  C=1000 pF       MLIN                                                                                                                                                       L1in=167.7
                   L = 500 mil                    ID= PAD4                                        L = L4in mil                 L = 60 mil                CAP                W2= W1in mil
                                                                                                                                                         ID= C1
                                                  W = 120 mil                                                                                                               W3= 1 6 0 m i l
                                                   L=60mil                                                                                                C= M1cap pF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SUBCKT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ID=S1
                                                                                              MLIN                                                                                                                                                               NE T = "LP1500 Package Model"
                                                                                            I D = PAD1                                                                                                         MLIN
                                                                                                                                                                                                             I D = TL1                                                                                                                                                                                       CA P
                                                                                            W = 120 mil                                                                                                      W = W 1in mil
                                                                                              L = 60 mil                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ID=M2cap1
                                                                                                                                                                                                               L =L 1 i n m i l                                                                                                                                                                               C= M2cap pF




                                                                                                                                                              MLIN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MLEF
                                                                                                                                                              ID=PAD3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ID=TL23
                                                                  IND                     M1ind=58
                                                                  ID= L1                                                                                      W =120 mil                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            W = 120 mil
                                                                   L= M1ind nH                                                                                 L = 60 mil                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            L = 60 mil




                                                                MLIN
                                                                I
                                                                D = PAD0806
                                                                W = 120 mil
                                                                  L=60 mil




                                                                  MSTEP$
                                                                 ID=TL17




                                                                 MLEF                              L6in=2687
                                                                 ID= TL6
                                                                 W = W6in mil
                                                                   L=L6in mil                      W6in=165.1
          2.4 GHz
           14.56 dB Magnatude of S Parameters
15                                                                                                                                               0


                                                                                                                        DB(|S[1,1]|) (R)
                                                                                                                        LAYOUT

10        2.4 GHz                                                                                                       DB(|S[2,1]|) (L)
                                                                                                                        LAYOUT
                                                                                                                                                 -10
          -2.763 dB                                                                                                     DB(|S[1,2]|) (R)
                                                                                                                        LAYOUT
                                                                                                                        DB(|S[2,2]|) (R)
                                                                                                                        LAYOUT

 5                                       2.4 GHz                                                                                                 -20
                                         -10.3 dB


 0                                                                                                                                               -30
                                            2.4 GHz
                                             -28.12 dB
-5                                                                                                                                               -40
     1                                  2                     3                                                   4                        4.8
                                                      Frequency (GHz)

 S[1,1]
 LAYOUT                                     Smith Chart S Parm
                                                            1.0




 S[2,2]                                                                                                    Swp Max
                                                0.8




 LAYOUT                                                                                                     2.8GHz
                                   6
                                 0.




                                                                                 0
                                                                                2.




                      4
                          0.
                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                  3.

                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                             4.
                                                                                                                  5.0
              0.2                                                  2.4 GHz
                                                                   r 1.10
                                                                                                                   10.0
                                                                   x -0.67
                                                                                                           10.0
                           0.2




                                   0.4



                                              0.6


                                                      0.8

                                                             1.0




                                                                    2.0



                                                                          3.0

                                                                                     4.0
                                                                                           5.0
          0




                     2.4 GHz
                     r 0.32                                                                                       -10.0
                     x -0.98
                 2
              -0.                                                                                             0
                                                                                                                  -5.
                                                                                                       0        .
                                                                                                             -4

                                                                                                 .0
                        .4
                                                                                                      -3
                      -0
                                                                                .0
                                                                                 -2
                                   .6
                                 -0




                                               -0.8




                                                                                                            Swp Min
                                                            -1.0




                                                                                                              2GHz
                                                                                    IVCurve (mA)
                                                                                    CurveTrace

                        IV Curve and Dynamic Load Line at 1dBC                      Dynamic Load Line (mA)
                                                                                    Final Layout

700
650
600
550
500
450
400                                                      8.657 V
350                                                      308.9 mA
300
250
200
150
100
 50
  0
      0        1   2    3     4    5   6    7    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
                                                Voltage (V)




                                                                         DB(PGai nSP[PORT_1,PORT_2,1])
                                           Gain vs Input Power           POWER_LAYOUT
                                                                                                                       16
                                                                                                                       15
                                                                                                                       14
                                                                                                                       13
          -10 dBm
           14.56 dB                                                                                                    12

                                                            13.21 dBm                                                  11
      1 dB compression of gain                               13.55 dB                                                  10
      at input power of
      13.21 dBm                                                                                                        9
                                                                                                                       8
                                                                                                                       7
                                                                                                                       6
-10       -8       -6    -4       -2   0        2     4     6   8   10   12      14          16              18   20
                                                    Power (dBm)
                                         P1dB Compression
  35
            AMtoAM[PORT_2,1] (dBm)
            power


  30
                Compression
                Point at
  25            29.24 dBm

  20                                                        13.5 dBm
                                                            29.24 dBm
  15


  10


   5
       -10 -8     -6     -4     -2   0     2 4     6 8    10 12 14 16 18 20
                                            Power (dBm)




Which, in physical layout looks like this:
This layout was translated to the appropriate file for the circuit milling machine after which the circuit
was built and tested.




                                                                             VDD



                                                                           Outpu
                                      Input


                                     VG


                                     GND

								
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