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					                                                            Chapter 10
                                          SOCIO-CULTURAL EVALUATION



10.1   Importance of Socio-Cultural Evaluation


       The socio-cultural resources of Central Luzon are potential resource-assets for tourism
       development. These resource-assets has great tourism application that can generate
       community-based livelihood and employment opportunities. The sociocultural
       resources include the traditional communities, archaeological and historical sites,
       festivals, indigenous arts and crafts, cuisine, myths and legends, as well as folklores
       and oral history. These resource-assets represent the country's heritage that is
       reflective of the region's identity.

       Promotions of socio-cultural resources for tourism purposes will require an extensive
       and meticulous evaluation because of the possible "over-exposures" that these cultural
       assets will have to withstand. Socio-cultural evaluation identifies the tourism potentials
       of these resource-assets with relevance to the environmental and cultural settings of
       the host communities. It also identifies the existing and perceived impacts of tourism to
       these socio-cultural assets and to devise appropriate mitigative measures and
       management plans to protect and better enhance cultural heritage for tourism
       development.

       The need to promote the cultural heritage of the Central Luzon region in the tourism
       industry should be balanced with the need to preserve and conserve the sociocultural
       integrity of these resources. The implications of tourism to the cultural heritage of the
       region must be evaluated so that appropriate measures to protect its integrity are put
       in place. Proper application of tourism may be one of the best restraints to the
       depletion and degradation of the region's cultural resources.

       These are ethical considerations in the socio-cultural aspects of tourism that should be
       taken into account in the promotion of the region's cultural heritage. The social aspects
       of tourism on the region's resource-assets will always have implications to the culture
       of the host communities. One facet of tourism development is the attraction of the
       people themselves, their traditions and customs. However, in most cases, once
       communities are made open for public exposition, it becomes vulnerable to alteration
       of their culture.


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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
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       The principal reasons for developing tourism is for economic benefits; however, in
       keeping with the concept of sustainable development, environmental and sociocultural
       considerations must be weighed together to achieve balanced development. Socio-
       cultural considerations must be well rationalized so that planning, developing and
       managing tourism will be successful.



10.2   Socio-Cultural Characteristics

       Central Luzon or Region III comprises the six provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, Nueva
       Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac and Zambales. The total population placed at 6.933 Million in
       1995 makes it as one of the fastest growing populations in the country with a growth
       rate estimated at 2.12% for the period 1990 to 1995. With a total area of 18,231 sq.
       km., population density stands at 380.3 persons/sq.km. In 1990, male-female
       population was estimated at 3,118,227 and 3,070, 489.

       The region is divided into two groups of provinces: the urbanized provinces of Bataan,
       Bulacan, Pampanga and Zambales, and the rural provinces of Nueva Ecija and Tarlac.
       The ratio of urban population to the total population or the urbanization ratio was
       60.3%, considered the highest of all the 13 regions except the NCR. The proximity of
       Bulacan and Pampanga to Metro Manila places the region as the second largest
       receiving region of out-migrants from Metro Manila. Of the total population in 1990,
       Pampanga is the largest with 1.53 million followed by Bulacan with 1.51 million
       resulting to an urban population ratios of 68.7% and 79.9%, respectively.

       Central Luzon is host to four ethnolinguistic groups. These are the Kapampangans,
       Tagalogs, Sambals and the Aetas. The Kapampangans are predominant in the
       provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac while the Tagalogs in the provinces of Bulacan,
       Bataan and Nueva Ecija.

       The population of indigenous cultural communities is estimated at 119,845 individuals
       or 24,354 families. More popularly known as the Philippine Negritos, these short, dark-
       skinned and kinky-haired peoples are found in all parts of the country and are
       considered the earliest inhabitants in the islands. Although called by different names,
       those found in the provinces of Zambales, Bataan, Pampanga and Tarlac are better
       known as the Pinatubo Negritos. More specifically, they identify themselves as the
       Aeta, Abellings (or Aborlin), Dumagat/Remontado. Considered as semi-nomadic, the
       Pinatubo Negritos' striking characteristic is their inexhaustible knowledge of the plant
       and animal kingdoms. This lore includes not only a specific recognition of a
       phenomenal number of plants, birds, animals, and insects, but also includes a
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       knowledge of the habits and behavior of each (Fox 1953). This intimate knowledge of
       their environment may be attributed to their way-of-life as hunters and food-gatherers.
       The scattered villages rarely contain more than three or four households totaling 20 to
       40 individuals. There is no over-all political organization or even strong leadership and
       each village or extended family is an independent communal grouping. Important
       decisions are made by the elder members of each family grouping.

       With the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1990, most of the Pinatubo Aeta have been
       uprooted from their natural habitat and are now distributed in several resettlement sites
       all over the region.

       The Pinatubo Negritos generally speak Sambal, which is also largely spoken by the
       Christian lowlanders of the municipality of Botolan. Depending upon the intensity of
       their personal contacts with their Christian neighbors, the various Negrito groups of
       Central Luzon speak other languages. The Negritos of Bataan speak Tagalog, those of
       Pampanga, Kapampangan and/or Tagalog while Negritos of southern Zambales speak
       Iloko.



10.3   Cultural Impact of Tourism

       Tourism can generate socio-economic impacts because of the possibility of bringing
       social change to the host community. Impacts brought about by tourism can be critical
       to the host communities with very strong traditional and cultural attachment to the
       resource-assets.

       Cultural resources as tourism resource-assets are vulnerable to destructions,
       degradations and disturbances of various kinds. One that may be considered as
       serious impact is the exposure of indigenous people to various foreign cultures once
       they are used for tourism promotion. Indigenous people will likely to be parting with
       their treasured cultural artifacts in exchange for market commodities because they are
       enticed to adopt new culture, acquiring new traits and becoming less and less of what
       they were before.

       Portrayals of traditional culture of indigenous peoples, more often than not, alter the
       ethnicity of the respective cultures and are replaced with modern versions. In most
       cases, the traditional dances, rituals, clothings, religions, are already simulated
       resulting in alterations and degradations.




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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
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       Allowing cultural traditions to be opened to participation from foreign cultures, poses a
       great threat to traditional values. The alteration of indigenous culture is unavoidable
       when confronted with foreign culture.

       Promotion of archaeological and historical artifacts for tourism development
       sometimes can lead to illegal exploitation, pilferage exportation and even theft.
       Proliferation of fraudulent artifacts become rampant when excavated cultural materials
       command high commercial value in the antique markets because of its uniqueness
       and significance in terms of its cultural relevance to the country's prehistory. Because
       antiquities from archaeological and historical sites are part of tourist milieu, mass
       productions of fraudulent artifacts may result in the alteration of the cultural integrity of
       the cultural materials.

       Other perceived impacts of tourism development to cultural resources are impairment
       of scenery to historic monuments and archaeological sites (such as caves and open-
       sites) by tourists facilities such as commercial structures without the aid of proper
       zoning. Cultural sites such as archaeological and historical sites have a carrying
       capacity to accommodate visiting tourists. For example, accommodating visitors to an
       archaeological site inside the cave beyond the capacity limit may lead to the
       deterioration of the site due to over-use and physical proximity.

10.3.1 Conservation of Archaeological and Historical Sites

       Tourism can help justify the conservation of the cultural heritage of Central Luzon. It
       can also be the best deterrent to the degradation and destruction of region's cultural
       heritage. The conservation of archaeological and historical sites lies on the political will
       and the ability of the local or the host communities to protect these cultural resource-
       assets because if these are lost, cultural tourism will never be successful. In the case
       of Central Luzon, tourism may be the impetus for the reconstruction of the rich cultural
       past of the region.

       Preservation of known and significant historical monuments and reconstruction of
       archaeological sites for tourism promotion require sufficient fundings from government
       and private institutions. Re-constructions of archaeological and historical sites also
       demand adequate traditional, as well as legal protection and management
       mechanisms.

       Showcasing the cultural practices of the prehistoric peoples of the region for tourism
       purposes may be done appropriately without having to degrade the integrity of these
       cultural resource-assets. For example, using replicas instead of the actual artifacts

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       in the archaeological site museums may well be one of the best mechanisms to
       preserve and conserve sensitive and very fragile cultural materials.

       Archaeological site museums (open and cave sites) may be developed into major
       cultural tourism attractions. The use of replicas instead of the original cultural materials
       can provide re-constructions of the prehistoric cultural setting of the archaeological
       sites. The reconstruction must be carried out on the basis of complete and detailed
       documentation on the original cultural setting and to no extent on supposition.
       Historicity alone may not be sufficient and it should be supplemented by artifactual
       remains that are culturally significant to make visitors appreciate the history and pre-
       history of the sites.

       There are several significant historical sites in Central Luzon. Among them are: the
       Capas Shrine (Tarlac), Death March markers (Bataan), the Barasoain Church
       (Bulacan), Dalton Pass (Nueva Ecija), Betis Church (Pampanga), and Fort Playa
       Honda (Zambales). The other listings of historical resources provided in this report
       have great contribution to the rich history that shaped-up the region as part of the
       nation.

       The archaeological and historical heritage of the region are non-renewable resource-
       assets. As a policy, the application of tourism as a procedure for conservation of these
       cultural resources can greatly help in minimizing and/or avoiding negative impacts on
       the cultural heritage of the region.

       A Cultural Tourism Program (CTP) to be initiated by the Local Government Units
       (LGUs) with the support of the Provincial Tourism Council (PTC) and Department of
       Tourism (DOT) must be made. The main objectives of the CTP are the promotion,
       enhancement and preservation of these region's cultural resource-assets. The CTP
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       will have put strong emphasis on the appreciation of the cultural values of the egion's
       heritage and that will eventually lead to the effective protection, preservation, and
       management of these cultural resource-assets.

10.3.2 Indigenous Music, Dances and Festivals

       The Central Luzon region is known for its rich indigenous music and dances. These
       cultural resource-assets are reflective of the region's lifestyle and old cultural traditions
       and has great tourism application. In the case of the Aetas in the region, their
       traditional versions of music and dances are always associated with their rituals that
       take place in the context of sociological activities, such as, wedding, birth, good
       harvest, etc.

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       The need to revitalize the indigenous and authentic traditional versions of the music
       and dances of the region must be given with utmost importance. These cultural assets
       enhance the region's cultural appeal with respect to its local tradition. Maintaining the
       authenticity of the local dances and music require special training programmes so that
       modification are carefully controlled.

       Cultural and religious festivals are part of the region's rich cultural diversity. The Fluvial
       Festival of Bocaue and the Obando fertility rites in the province of Bulacan are among
       the religious festivals of the region that are annually celebrated in honor of their patron
       saints. Revitalization and enhancement of these cultural festivals is very important
       because their activities depict the region's cultural identity.

10.3.3 Cultural Development Policy and Program

       The general policies that are applicable to the archaeological, historical and other
       cultural resources of the region is the development of tourism in gradual basis so that
       host communities have the time to adapt, be educated and to learn how to participate
       and benefit from it. Such an approach will provide lead government agencies such as
       the DOT and LGUs sufficient time to monitor the socio-cultural impacts of tourism and
       provide measures before problems get serious.

       Recognizing the value of the country's cultural heritage, the Philippine government
       provides the policy to protect and preserve these cultural assets, the properties and
       histories. Unless development projects recognize the significance of archaeological
       and historical conservation as an integral element in planning, expensive and
       unwanted delays can result and cultural resources can be inadvertently destroyed
       and/or degraded. The existence of protective legislation and policy at the national,
       provincial and municipal level or well-established traditional or adequate management
       mechanism, will be the best deterents for the degradation and destruction of the
       region's cultural resources.

       The basic law that provides protection and preservation of the country's cultural
       heritage is Republic Act 4846, otherwise known as the "Cultural Properties and
       Preservation Act". This law must be implemented through the coordinated effort
       between the local government units, the Philippine National Police (PNP), the
       Department of Tourism and the National Museum.

       The need to create a community-based Cultural Tourism Program (CTP) may well be
       the best restraints to the destruction and degradation of cultural resources of the
       region. The CTP must complement the regional development plan for tourism of
       Region III that must be supported by national government agencies such as the
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       National Economic Development Authority (NEDA), as well the Congress and which
       will run in tandem with the national short, medium, and long term socio-economic
       development strategy of the region.

       Under the community-based CTP, an agency that handles the preservation and
       management of cultural resources must be created. The task of this agency is to
       identify and register significant cultural resources and properties of the community.
       This agency will review and develop plans that are likely to cause positive arid adverse
       impacts of the CTP programs on cultural resources. Training programs will also be an
       essential component of the CTP because it will impart knowledge and understanding
       of the significance of cultural properties to the cultural workers (curators, guides, etc.).
       As has been emphasized, the host communities should be part of the planning and
       development process of tourism so that they have an influence in the decision-making
       and feel that they are part of the tourism development.

       Community museums provide ideal venues to the preservation and conservation of.
       the cultural heritage of the host community. Exhibitions of the community's cultural
       heritage products render appreciation and enrichment of visiting tourists, both local
       and foreign. Developing and maintaining community museums may be assigned to the
       local government units, colleges and universities as well as private and non-profit
       organizations. Ideally, the six provinces of the Central Luzon region must have
       provincial and community museums.

       The enactment of the Local Government Code of 1993 that mandates the local
       government to establish a provincial, city or municipal council for the promotion of
       culture and arts, may well be the best opportunity for the local government to become
       actively involve in the protection and promotion of the community's cultural heritage.

       Proposed development plans for CTP will require an Archaeological Impact
       Assessment (AIA) if archaeological resources as cultural assets are utilized for tourism
       promotion. The conduct of an AIA will help identify impacts and determine what
       appropriate mitigating and management measures will be recommended to prevent
       and/or minimize loss of what could be significant cultural resources of the region. The
       AIA will also assist public and private sector management and development agencies
       in the design and implementation of effective integrated resource management plans.




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10.4   Social Impact of Tourism

       Tourism has the potential to contribute positively to socio-economic development if
       managed, planned and controlled by the people who stands to benefit, or suffer, from
       its implementation. Whatever the means chosen, its development depends at least in
       part on an assessment of the impacts it is likely to have. The social impact of tourism
       development will then depend on the role of tourism within the development strategy of
       the whole region.

       The major constraints already identified by the JICA Study Team serves to define the
       type of tourism the region should develop. Tourism in Central Luzon had been
       dependent on the two US bases for decades. With its withdrawal, the region lost its
       largest market segment and caused a slump in the region's tourism sector.

       Recognition of its weaknesses and the determination for economic recovery (tourism
       industry being identified as one potential) pushed the tourism sector to revitalize the
       industry.

       This renewed enthusiasm for tourism development in the six provinces was manifested
       in the consultations conducted with representatives from LGUs, Tourism Councils,
       academe and NGOs. Leaders from the indigenous cultural communities interviewed
       have shown interest but with some caution towards tourism development.

       Central Luzon has the greatest number of unemployed persons among the regions,
       after NCR and Region 9. Although the region ranks among those regions with the
       lowest underemployment rate (percentage of those working less than 40 hours a
       week), the situation in Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, and Tarlac calls for improvement.

       The withdrawal of the U.S. Forces from Clark Air Base and the Subic Naval Base
       resulted in the loss of jobs of about 77,034 workers employed in Subic and 42,617 in
       Clark. Businesses that depended on U.S. personnel and their families have closed
       shop. The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo is another factor for the displacement and loss of
       jobs and livelihood for residents affected by lahar flow.

       Tourism development in the area would mean the creation of new jobs and the
       opportunity for people to increase their income and standard of living. Employment
       generated, for example in hotels and restaurants, is generally known to yield earnings
       at least as high as, and often higher than those in agriculture. The attraction of
       employment in tourism and related activities will bring rural people to major centers of



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       economic activity. Such movement would likely result in over population, traffic
       congestion, sprouting of squatter colonies, vagrants/beggars.

       Tourism has secondary spillover effects in other sectors. Increased demand for food
       products, souvenirs, and other goods will generate employment in agriculture, food
       processing, handicrafts, and light manufacturing. Jobs will also be created in
       construction and capital goods industries when new hotels and resort complexes are
       built. Special problems may arise, however, when construction booms end and
       unemployment results. The demand for construction workers, if not met locally, would
       bring in migrant workers. The flux of people may have important social impacts on the
       welfare of members of the local community, positively by generating temporary jobs in
       activities serving the construction workers, and negatively by straining the capacity of
       community services. As it is now, delivery of basic social services are wanting for
       improvement. Population growth in the region is expected to double in 27 years, two
       years earlier than the Philippines doubling time for 29 years. The concern is how fast
       the requirements for food, housing, water, jobs, schools, and other needs are met.

       Tourism affects the welfare of the local community through changing the range,
       prices, and quality of the goods and services available for consumption.

       The proliferation of tax and duty-free shops both in the Subic Bay Freeport Zone and
       Clark Special Economic Zone also has its positive and negative impacts. While
       residents in nearby communities surrounding these SEZs can avail privileges,
       procurement of imported products with prices comparable to locally made goods may
       be detrimental to our local manufacturers.

       On the other hand, the easy procurement of these products by residents in
       communities near the SEZs provides households an alternative source of income.

       Sari-sari stores are usually resorted to as additional sources of income for most
       households in the rural areas.

       Other perceived impacts of tourism development in key areas would be the rapid loss
       of agricultural lands, shift from subsistence farming, land sales and higher prices,
       migration to urban centers, increase in the urban poor population.




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10.5   Host and Guest Relationship

       Tourism is synonymous to travel and travel involves contact between peoples of varied
       cultures. Such contact may cause certain modifications in the lifestyles of destination
       communities depending on the length of stay and frequency of tourists/visitors in
       tourist destinations.

       Tourist-host encounters are said to occur in three main contexts: where the tourist is
       purchasing goods or services from the host, where the tourist and host find themselves
       side by side, for example at the beach or a nightclub performance, and where the two
       parties come face to face with the object of exchanging information or ideas. (de Kadt,
       1979)

       Based on DOT's assessment, existing foreign tourism flow is largely concentrated in
       Manila and other major centers such as Cebu so that direct interaction between
       visitors and host communities outside cities is limited.

       Central Luzon is said to have had little experience of international tourism in the real
       meaning as assessed by the JICA Study Team. Statistics show that the region's visitor
       arrivals in 1990 was 53,460 where 49% were inbound (foreign) tourists. Among the
       region's six provinces, Pampanga accounted for almost half of the foreign arrivals
       (taking around 80%) while Zambales accounted for 10%. [Statistics for foreign arrivals
       include Balikbayan Filipinos (Visitors from the USA and Canada include considerable
       numbers of naturalized Filipinos who tend to stay at friends and relatives' homes
       (DOT). Concentration of foreign visitors in these two provinces may either be partly or
       largely attributed to the presence of US bases in the cities of Angeles and Olongapo.
       The region's share of tourists from the USA is even higher than that of the Philippine
       average in 1990.(Source: DOT - International Tourists by Country of Origin in 1990)

       Angeles and Olongapo have long been projected as sex tour destinations. For
       decades, residents of these cities and neighboring municipalities have been used to
       the presence of US military personnel and other foreign nationals who frequent the
       entertainment joints that dotted the highways and streets of the cities. The women in
       the 'entertainment' industry are the most vulnerable sector exposed to dehumanizing
       situation. Prostitution is a form of sexual and racial discrimination where women are
       treated as commodities to be bought. (Lee, 1992)

       Direct interactions are largely experienced, though confined, in hotels and restaurants
       and beach resorts. Information elicited from some female workers in restaurants did


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       not manifest any resentment or hostility towards tourists. To them, there are good and
       bad ones to be dealt with.

       Disparity in the standard of living of foreign tourists and domestic tourists is another
       concern where values and attitudes of people in tourist destinations may change and
       become prejudicial to the local community. Filipino hospitality is a selling point of
       tourism in the country. In many instances, foreign visitors get preferential treatment
       over local ones. With their capacity to pay more, enterprising local people usually jack-
       up prices of goods and services.

       Demonstration Effects

       The demonstration effect phenomenon or "changes in attitudes, values, or behavior
       which can result from merely observing tourists" (de Kadt, 1979) will require an
       intensive study of the day-to-day activities of households and communities in identified
       tourism areas. While the effect of tourist activities is most easily and frequently seen in
       the local patterns of consumption, tourism is but one factor among many (i.e. radio,
       television and commercial advertising) that may cause changes in patterns of
       consumption especially in the rural areas.

       Proposed plans of converting agricultural lands into golf courses introduce a way of life
       of the "leisure class" which may alienate the local community. Recreational activities
       now being promoted as tourist attractions are affordable only to the privileged class.
       The exposure of the young population, whether urban or rural, will result to the
       possible loss of Filipino traditional games or past-time activities. Tourism development,
       if it is to be responsible, should be sensitive to the needs of the local people.

       Tourism should serve as a vehicle for Filipinos to be proud of their culture, to
       experience and appreciate the beauty and diversity of their own country.


10.6   The Indigenous Cultural Communities and Tourism

       Tourism development must take into consideration the presence of indigenous cultural
       communities distributed in the different provinces of Central Luzon. Although
       insignificant in number, probably comprising around 2% of the total population of the
       region, the Negrito population, original occupants in areas surrounding the Zambales
       and Pampanga ranges and now displaced by Mt. Pinatubo's eruption has a crucial role
       to play in tourism development.

       With ongoing development in Subic and Clark, the traditional way of life of indigenous
       peoples of Central Luzon will again be in danger of degradation, if not total extinction.
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       Further displacement is expected by Aeta communities occupying areas within and
       around SBF and Clark Special Economic Zone.

       Tourism has always treated the indigenous population as objects for exhibit which
       includes their material culture, traditions and customs. The Aeta of Zambales and
       Pampanga, whose skill for jungle survival was utilized by U.S. forces, is now a tourist
       attraction in the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. Plans are now underway to develop
       resettlement areas for lahar victims as tourist destinations. And almost always, their
       participation in development processes are taken for granted or completely ignored,
       relying on intermediaries, e.g. agencies created to represent or to speak in their behalf.

       If tourism's main goal at the national level are to enhance and contribute to social
       cohesion and cultural preservation; and to develop tourism on an environmentally
       sustainable basis, the indigenous people's involvement in the planning and
       implementation of tourism plans and projects is essential.

       Indigenous peoples have existed in harmony with ecosystems such as the forests for
       thousand of years which attests to their ability to successfully manage a sustainable
       environment. It is because of this and the fact that they defended these lands with their
       lives that indigenous peoples can rightfully be called the original environmentalists.
       The Aeta is an intrinsic part of the region's environment .

       It is a well known fact that the resources on which tourism is based are fragile and that
       the growing demand for improved environmental quality goes hand-in-hand with
       tourism development.

       Tourism development in Central Luzon should be guided with the following where it
       pertains to the rights and welfare of the indigenous cultural communities

       1. The recognition of the right of indigenous peoples to self-determination. "The
           principle of self-determination as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations and
           in Article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
           is essential to the enjoyment of all human rights by indigenous peoples. Self-
           determination includes, inter alia, the right and power of indigenous peoples to
           negotiate with States, on an equal basis, the standards and mechanisms that will
           govern relationships between them."

           The right to self-determination states that by virtue of this right all peoples can
           freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and
           cultural development.


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       2. Integral to this right to self-determination is the right of indigenous peoples to
           traditional lands, resources and economies.

           This right of ownership and control over traditional lands and resources is
           increasingly being recognized as a fundamental right of indigenous peoples.

           Article 14 of the ILO Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, No. 169, states
           that: "The rights of ownership and possession of the peoples concerned over the
           lands which they traditionally occupy shall be recognized. In addition measures
           shall be taken in appropriate cases to safeguard the right of the peoples
           concerned to use lands not exclusively occupied by them, but to which they have
           traditionally had access to for their subsistence and traditional activities. Particular
           attention shall be paid to the situation of nomadic peoples and shifting cultivators
           in this respect."

       3. The recognition that the non-dominant, traditional subsistence economies of
           indigenous peoples are viable, and environmentally sustainable.


10.7   Women in Tourism Development

       Women make up half the world's population but have remained peripheral or invisible
       in development processes. In the Philippines, they make up about half of the workforce
       both in the national and regional levels. Women are a significant portion in the labor
       force in community, social and personal services; wholesale and retail trade; financing,
       insurance, real estate and business services; and manufacturing (IBON Facts &
       Figures, 15 March 1987). In the agricultural sector where 2.3 million Filipino women
       are directly involved only 900,000 receive wages while 1.4 million are not
       compensated. While there are about as many women engaged in agriculture as they
       are in administrative, executive and managerial portions, female agricultural workers
       receive the lowest pay among employed women.

       With the Philippines gearing up toward becoming a newly industrialized country by the
       year 2000 under the Philippine 2000, the expected conversion of prime agricultural
       lands for non-agricultural use will have deleterious effects on the livelihood and food
       resources of peasant and urban poor households. The massive displacement of rural
       families dependent on subsistence production and the subsequent increase in demand
       for jobs and food would mean further deterioration of the economic and social well
       being of poor families, especially the women and children. To cite some figures from a
       study made by the Philippine Peasant Institute, rural women comprise 60 percent of all
       females in the country. The continuous decline of female labor participation in
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       agriculture is reflected in the current migration patterns where higher rates of female
       mobility to the cities and across provinces is indicated.

10.7.1 Tourism and the Issue of Prostitution

       One of Philippine tourism's major concern is the unfavorable image (it has projected)
       of Manila as a sex tour destination and of which the DOT has done little effort to wipe-
       off (JICA Study). Manila as a gateway to Central Luzon, has taken over from Bangkok
       as the cheap sex capital of South East Asia (Santos and Lee, 1989). Outside Manila,
       the cities of Angeles and Olongapo where Clark and Subic are located, respectively,
       are known to be entertainment centers which have long served US servicemen as their
       Rest and Recreation destinations. For many years, the economy in the baselands
       were dependent on the two big US military facilities until its withdrawal in 1991. The
       entertainment industry as an attraction in these two cities in Central Luzon would later
       serve as tourist destinations for foreign nationals seeking night entertainment.
       Prostitution has become the most significant economic activity around the base lands,
       particularly in Angeles and Olongapo as there was no other industry except the
       entertainment business.

       Prostitution, to use a definition by WEDPRO (Women's Education, Development,
       Productivity & Research Organization), is an industry where women's subordinated
       status, especially in the realm of her sexuality, has become a commodity in the 'free
       market' - where women's and children's bodies are the dominant object of a price tag
       in the flesh trade. In fact and despite prostitution being illegal in the Philippines,
       government is found to be complicit in the sex industry and profits from it. A study has
       shown that fifty five percent of the total revenue of the local government of Angeles
       City in 1987 came from Rest and Recreation establishments. Women in the
       entertainment industry are required to obtain licenses from the local government to
       work as entertainers, waitresses, dancers, massage parlor attendants and to undergo
       regular smear tests.

       Despite pronouncements made by the Presidents of the Philippines - Corazon Aquino
       in 1986 and Fidel V. Ramos in 1995 to address prostitution, the development of the
       economy in these two major cities are showing signs towards the expansion and
       perpetuation of the R & R business in these areas. Development plans in the proposed
       major industrial estates in the region include recreation centers for investors and
       tourists.

       During the first quarter of 1990, the total number of R & R establishments around Clark
       and Subic was registered at around 1,567 and 615, respectively. A survey done by a
       women's research institution estimated some 55,000 prostituted women, registered
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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
       and unregistered in Angeles and Olongapo and did not include child prostitutes. While
       the pull-out of the US bases and Mt. Pinatubo eruption have badly affected the
       entertainment industry, recent studies conducted on prostitution have shown an
       increase in entertainment establishments specifically in Angeles City. However, in
       Olongapo City, R & R infrastructure has been radically downsized as there is an
       attempt by city officials to change the image of the city. Only a small red light district
       remains in Barangay Baretto and where dancing and bar fining (taking out of women
       from the bars for a fee) have been prohibited.

       The magnitude of prostitution industry in the country had become one of the most
       observable indicators of the socio-economic situation of thousands of Filipino women.
       The incidence of poverty in the region increased from 33.8% in 1988 to 35.5% in 1991.
       Current statistics in immigration pattern have indicated that there are more female in-
       migrants than male.

       Tourism development as an economic strategy, if it is to serve the majority of the
       Filipino people who live in the rural and underdeveloped areas, must not overlook the
       social costs of economic development. Tourism should be integrated into the broader
       development goals of local communities and should be sensitive to their local
       environment, culture, needs and interests.

       Prostitution is a persistent social problem that has assumed serious proportions and
       therefore needs a systematic, sustained, deliberate and concerted program of action
       that involves all sectors of society. Primarily, it is government's responsibility to
       address this problem in terms of socio-economic opportunities for the disempowered
       and marginalized sectors of society. Tourism is a welcome opportunity for women who
       bear the burden of poverty. Their active participation in plotting the directions of
       tourism development in their areas must be ensured. The capacity to organize
       themselves must be encouraged and strengthened.




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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                                            Chapter 11
                                              DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS



11.1   Introduction


       The development strategies for the CLTMP can be translated into specific programs
       and projects that can harness and/or enhance tourism development while at the same
       time, preserving/conserving the resources/assets. These proposed programs and
       projects are envisioned to have positive impacts particularly in the promotion and
       appreciation of the region's tourism development.



11.2   Tourist Attraction Improvements


       Tourist attractions to be offered by CLTMP are grouped into: cultural, archaeological,
       heritage and historical, resort and leisure, business/industrial, ecology and
       trainings/conferences and fully discussed in Chapter 3. These attractions are shown in
       loops and these loops are identified in every province, as shown in Chapter 12.



11.3   Accommodations Development Program


       Table 11.1 presents the accommodation capacity requirements of CLTMP in order to
       accommodate the expected visitor arrivals for each target year.




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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                        T a b l e 11.1
               A C C O M M O D AT I O N C A P A C I T Y R E Q U I R E M E N T S

                                                                  TARGET YEAR
 No.                PARTICULAR
                                                         2000            2005        2010


 1.0   Domestic Market
        No. of Visitors                                    255,316       489,887         877,962
        Ave. Stay (Nights)                                      3.6           3.6             3.6
        Ave. Room Density                                          2.0        2.0             2.0
        Rooms Required                                          1,937      3,451           5,773
 2.0   Foreign Market
        No. of Visitors                                    103,813       159,069         214,325
        Average Stay (Night)                                     6.48       6.48            6.48
        Average Room Density                                       1.5        1.6             1.7
        Room Required                                           2,234      2,942           3,443

       TOTAL ROOM REQUIREMENT                                   4,171      6,393           9,216
       Less: OPENING CAPABILITY c/                              3,535      3,903           4,309
       ADDITIONAL ROOM REQUIREMENT                                636      2,490           4,907

a/     Assumed occupancy rates: year 2000 - 65%; 2005 - 70%, - 2010 - 75%.
b/     Assumed occupancy rates: year 2000 - 55%; 2005 - 60%; 2010 - 65%.
c/     Assumed growth rate of 2% per year for without - the - project condition, using
        1995 data (Total : 3,202 for hotel, lodging houses & resort).
Based on the additional room requirement and using an average estimated cost per room of
                  1/
about P525,000.00 , the total investment requirements for the respective target years are as
follows:

                     Year 2000                -                      P 333.90 M

                     Year 2005                -                               P 1,307.25 M

                     Year 2010                -                      P 2,576.18 M



11.4      Parks and Recreational Facilities Development Program

          In line with the First Lady's Clean and Green Program, every province/municipality/city
          in the region are undergoing their respective beautification and cleanliness program.
          This is aimed to improved the quality of life of the residents. Most of these projects are
          funded by local funds or sourced outside through the initiative of LG officials.

          Table 11-2 shows the summary of some LGU - initiated tourism projects in the
          respective provinces composing Region III. This list was based on the results of
          Visioning Exercises and documents provided for by DOT-Region III. These projects
          will require a budget of P 2,068.50 million.



11.5      Utilities and Related Services

          Programs for the development of utilities cover telecommunication network; water
          supply; sewerage treatment and disposal; power and energy; flood control, drainage
          and shoreline protection; sanitation and waste management; transportation services
          like airports, seaports, road works, and railways.




-------------------------------------------
1/
  Obtained from the Handbook on the Construction Industry compiled by Davis Langdon & Seah,
                      th
  Philippines, Inc., 4 Quarter 1996
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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
       a) Telecommunication Network

           Improvement of telecommunication network will abide with the program provided
           for by private franchise operators like PLDT, DIGITEL and PILTEL and BUTEL.
           Optic fiber cable are planned for installation along the main roads covering some
           1,400 km. and 122 stations.

       b) Water Supply and Sewerage Systems

           On-going programs for water supply address the Mt. Pinatubo Affected Areas, the
           Bulacan Central Water Supply, Olongapo City Water Supply, the LWUA Water
           Supply Program for Central Luzon, and the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
           Improvement Program. Inefficient water supply systems shall be rehabilitated.
           Towns and barangays having less than 20,000 population shall be provided with
           appropriate water supply through the various implementing agencies like DPWH or
           DILG. Formation of Water Districts or Barangay Water and Sanitation Association
           (BWSA) shall be encouraged.

       c) Power and Energy Supply

           As indicated in Section 6.4.4, the power supply in the region is sufficient.
           Previously, 50 percent of the region's generating capacity comes from
           hydroelectric plants, while the rest were contributed by the thermal and gas turbine
           power plants. Conversion of Bataan Nuclear plant to a natural gas plant may
           change this ratio in favor of non-hydro-based sources of power. The coming in of
           additional BOT or BTO power projects will further ensure power sufficiency in the
           region.

       d) Flood Control, Drainage and Shoreline Protection

           The provision for flood control and drainage structures in identified flood prone
           areas is one of the many infrastructure agenda the region requires, to preserve
           and protect the tourism assets.

           Major shoreline protection facilities and river bank stabilization structures may
           likewise be pursued in identified wave-eroded shores and overflooded river banks.
           Some of the mitigating projects intended for the region will include the following:

              Pampanga Delta Development, Flood Control Component; and,

              Construction of 700 m Seawall at Masinloc.


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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
       e) Sanitation and Waste Management

            The continued increase of hazardous wastes produced by industries, agriculture -
            related activities, hospitals, and laboratories is a serious concern in the process of
            development. It is, therefore, a must that safe handling and disposal techniques of
            severe wastes must be thoroughly and appropriately studied and implemented.
            Solid waste problems are often the last priority by both the government and the
            private sectors, threatening the stability of the environment. This scenario has an
            adverse impact on tourism development.

            A long range educational campaign shall be initiated by the civic organizations,
            regarding the appropriate storing and disposal of solid/liquid wastes water. Further,
            the government of the LGU's should be more strict in the implementation of wastes
            and sanitation ordinances.

            Zero waste management program could be piloted in the proposed tourism
            projects. The program should cover the dissemination of pertinent information to
            tourists inculcating in their minds the necessity of keeping the environment clean
            and green.

            Solid Waste Management Improvement Pilot Projects can be initiated in Abucay
            (Bataan), Meycauayan (Bulacan), Palayan City (Nueva Ecija), Angeles City
            (Pampanga), Camiling (Tarlac) and Olongapo City (Zambales) as a prelude to
            operating and constructing a final disposal site.

       f)   Transportation Services Development

            Transportation is one of the major support facilities in the development of tourism
            sites.

            Airports

            The region will continue to rely on the Subic and Clark International Airports and
            also will be benefited from the tourist traffic offered by the NAIA. Other airports like
            in Castillejos and Iba of Zambales province and Plaridel of Bulacan can help
            tourists get chartered flights to and from Metro Manila and other urban centers of
            the country.

            Seaports

            The ports of Mariveles (Zambales) and Limay (Bataan) are serving passenger
            transport to and from Manila. The port of Subic, a former naval base, is planned to



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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
           be converted into a commercial cargo port. These ports need improvement to
           augment their passenger and cargo handling capability.

           A vessel modernization scheme is also encouraged on boats plying the sealane
           between Manila and the ports of Mariveles and Limay.

           Road Works

           As indicated in Section 4.4.1, Central Luzon or Region III has the most complete
           road network in the Philippines. Noted links are the north-south trunkline consisting
           of three major roads: the North Luzon Expressway, the Manila-North Road and
           Daang Maharlika Road. While the situation shows positive outlook, a lot of roads
           are still needed, following transportation improvement measures as indicated
           below:

           a) Short Term Proposals

               Listed projects under short term requirements are:

                   Dinalupihan-Olongapo Road;

                   Damage Road & Bridge Rehabilitation;

                   Access Roads to Settlement;

                   Angeles Bypass Development;

                   Cabanatuan Bypass Development; and,

                   Cabanatuan Common Bus Terminal.

               Its completion within the short term will definitely boost not only tourism
               industry but also socio-economic activities in the region.

           b) Medium Term Proposal

               Projects listed are:

                   Manila Coastal Road;

                   Sierra Madre (Marginal) Highway;

                   Iba-Tarlac Road;

                   Capas-La Paz-Cabanatuan Road;

                   Mariveles-Bagac-Morong-Olongapo Road; and,

                   Tarlac Bypass.



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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                 The construction of these roads under the medium term proposal will provide a
                 continuity of the road improvement program, thereby assuring good road link
                 to boost tourism and other economic activities of the region.

           c) Long Term Proposal

                 Projects listed under the long term proposal are:

                    Dinalupihan-Angeles Road;

                    Manila Coastal Road (Its construction starts at short term period);

                    Rural Road Development (Its construction starts at short term period);
                     and,

                    Sierra Madre (Marginal) Highway (Its construction will start at the medium
                     term period).

       Railway

       For railway, the rehabilitation/upgrading of PNR Mainline North is the most pressing
       need.



11.6   Human Resources Development Program

       Tourism development includes both physical aspects and human resources training
       aspects to manage all the tourism assets, facilities, services and amenities.

       Presently, the National Manpower and Youth Council is in-charge of training tourism
       manpower like waiters, bartenders, information/office clerks, cooks, pantrymen and
       bakers.

       Various colleges and universities found in the region could also be one of the venues
       of learning the tourism trade.




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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
Project Description

The project is envisioned to be a world-class resort. Strategically located, this 1.9 sq. km. lake
is less than a kilometer away from the Zambales coast and is connected by a navigable river to
China Sea. It is about five kilometers from the foot of the Zambales mountain and, therefore,
provides opportunities for ancillary tourism development. Its proximity to the fish sanctuary at
China Sea would enable tourists to go scuba-diving and indulge in water sports activities. In
keeping with a naturebased development, the over-all design adopted shall center on the
preservation of the lake, the mangrove and the forest reserves.

To enhance the financial viability of the project, some facilities, still in keeping with the over-all
theme of ecology-based development, shall be incorporated. This includes camp site facilities,
log-cabins, 36 hole golf course, international golf and country club, first class beach resort with
a mix of hotels, serviced apartments, townhouses and retirement homes, restaurants
specializing in marine-based products. Because of its idyllic setting, it is recommended that
convention facilities be likewise included either as a separate structure or combined with the
hotel. Said convention hall shall include a training cum livelihood display center and a business
service center catering to the needs primarily of farmers in the area. An office for the forestry
personnel/rangers and/or those managing the log cabins shall also be incorporated in the plan.
(See Figure 11-1).

Other facilities to be provided include: marina, scuba diving facilities, sports fishing and water
sports facilities. Other than the establishment/development of agro-based and aqua-based
livelihood projects which are proposed to form part of the over all plan, a reforestration
component is likewise recommended to be an integral part of the project.

Project Status

The local government has passed several resolutions to declare Uacon Lake as a national
park. However, other than a resolution, it did not gain much headway basically due to the
absence of political will/decisiveness and local government support. Inadequacy of exposure of
the project's potential to those who could make a difference (both in the private and
government sectors) may be largely attributable to the project's present pathetic status.

Project Cost

The project requires some P357.86M; breakdown of which is shown in Table 11.4.




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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
11.7    Overall Tourism Development Timeplan Implementation

       The over-all summary of the proposed tourism development program implementation
       together with its investment cost is shown in Table 11.3. It includes the tourist
       attractions improvements, accommodations, parks and recreational facilities,
       infrastructure and transportation networks, human resources training, marketing
       development/promotions program, environmental management program and socio -
       cultural tourism program.



11.8   Financial Assessment of Typical Project Models

       Under the Central Luzon Tourism Master Plan, typical models of tourism projects are
       identified and these include:

          Proposed Leisure and Livelihood Complex (LCC) utilizing the Uacon Lake of
           Sta Cruz, Zambales;

          Proposed Candaba Swamp Development at Candaba, Bulacan; and,

          Heritage Tourism District at San Miguel, Bulacan.

       For this report, a financial assessment is conducted on the proposed Leisure and
       Livelihood Complex and proposed Candaba Swamp Development. For the proposed
       Heritage Tourism District, only a description is included. The project profiles of each
       typical models are elaborated below.



       a) Uacon Lake Resort Complex

       Rationale/Objectives

       To showcase the development of an eco-tourism project in the region by capitalizing
       nature's bounty at Uacon Lake, the adjacent forested areas and the rural agricultural
       lands. Through judicious planning, the three major project components shall be
       made to enhance its others peculiar asset with the maintenance of the area's
       ecological balance as the pervading theme.




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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
       Timetable

               FS Preparation                       -            6 months

               Bidding/BOT Arrangements             -            3 months

               Project Construction (4 phases)      -            4 years



       Project Viability Indicators

       Income statement projection of the proposed LLC shows a net income after tax of P 7.
       59 million during the first year of operation and this figure gradually increases through
       the years. A net income stream is maintained by the project during its 25year life span.

       In like manner, cashflow projections show a net cashflow throughout the project life
       span. Furthermore, the Financial Internal Rate of Return (FIRR) is estimated to be
       above the market hurdle rate of 16 percent. The said viability indicators are
       summarized below:

       Net Present Value                 P51.5M at 16% discount rate

       Internal Rate of Return          18.8%

       Benefit-Cost Ratio                1.3

       b) Candaba Resort

       Rationale/Objectives

       The proposed Candaba Resort at Candaba, Pampanga is aimed at providing
       motorists, which include passers-by, overnight travelers and campers, rest and
       relaxation areas and related facilities where they could experience and enjoy the
       natural beauty of the site's surroundings. The resort provides for a viewing cottage and
       other amenities for use of the visitors.

       Project Description

       The project involves primarily the construction of Main Building and viewing area, a
       restaurant, kiosk, cottages, swimming pool, a lagoon with a waterfall, cabanas and
       control huts.

       Technically, the project shall be located within a 5-hectare area overlooking sites of
       natural beauty or attraction. The project entails the construction of parking area,
       boardwalk, sanitary sewer system, and garbage bin. (Figure 11-2).

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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
       Project Cost

       The required amount is about P31.75 million, the breakdown is shown in Table 11.7.

       Timetable

               FS Preparation                        3 months

               Bidding/BOT Arrangement               3 months

               Project Construction                  1 year

       Project Viability

       Income statement projection of the proposed Candaba Resort shows a net of income
       after tax of P3.69 million during the first year of operation and this figure gradually
       increases through the years. A net income stream is maintained by the project during
       its 25-year life span.

       In like manner, cash flow projections show a net cashflow throughout the project life
       span. Furthermore, the Financial Internal Rate of Return (FIRR) is estimated to be
       above the market hurdle rate of 16 percent. The said viability indicators are
       summarized below:
       Net Present Value                    P48.05 at 16% discount rate

       Internal Rate of Return :            36.60%

       Benefit-Cost Ratio                   1.84

       c) Heritage District at San Miguel, Bulacan

       Rationale/Obiectives

       Bulacan is full of historical places and events. She is a birthplace of many heroes and
       artists. The preservation and restoration of a heritage district at San Miguel, Bulacan
       can persuade people who are not part of the immediate community to visit and enjoy
       the culture, values, objects, structures and programs which make up the heritage of
       San Miguel. This project could showcase other districts like in Malolos, Bustos in
       Bulacan and Talavera in Nueva Ecija. (Figure 11-3).

       Project Description

       The Heritage District at San Miguel, Bulacan shall be developed into a community
       based tourisms. Each building/structure shall maintain its special character relative to


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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
       its contribution to the Philippine history, constitute a district's major attractiveness to
       tourists. Its conservation and restoration proces shall follow the following steps:
                Step 1     -       Conduct a community based tourism planning by setting the
                                   visions and missions, do strategic planning, identify key
                                   players and solicit their commitments.

                Step 2     -       Elicit community support by putting in the legislative agenda
                                   the land use and zoning plan, set tourism services and
                                   facilities standards, provide tax incentives, pass heritage and
                                   conservation ordinances, undertake traffic management,
                                   promotion and preservation of indigenous people's tourism.

                Step 3     -       By organizing the community to provide service like visitor's
                                   bureau, tourism council and proper coordination with the
                                   Executive and Legislative bodies of the local government.

                Step 4     -       Improve Capability Building by undertaking aggressive
                                   marketing program, tourism trainors training, tour operations
                                   and tour guiding, services quality standard training, food and
                                   beverages and proper housekeeping.


                Step 5     -       Focus a good marketing and promotions by conducting trade
                                   shows, educational tours for tour operators, develop travel
                                   manual and sending invitation to other tourism gateways or by
                                   direct mailing.

       Project Status

       At present, there is a San Miguel Municipal Tourism office that is linked to the Bulacan
       Provincial Tourism Office. Both are government offices primarily task to develop the
       tourism industry in the locality. Some serious planning and legislative supports are
       needed to emphasize its tourism direction. These activities may entail a regular budget
       to sustain its operation.

       There is a need to enhance the participation of NGO's especially owners of these
       collections of built and historical resources. This is to entice them to preserve the
       historical value of these structures/buildings without downgrading the usefulness of the
       structure itself.



11.9   Project Profiles

       To show the details of some of these programs, individual project profiles are
       presented at the last pages of this chapter.




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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                      PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                         :        Cultural Development Program

PROJECT                                   :        Reconstruction and Conservation
                                                   of Fort Playa Honda
                                                   Barangay Parel, Botolan, Zambales

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                           :       DOT-PTA/NHI/National
                                                           Museum

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCES                  :        DOT-PTA/LGU/International
                                                   Grant

ESTIMATED COST                            :        P 8.5 Million

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

A significant cultural asset of the province of Zambales is Fort Playa Honda. Fort Playa Honda
is the fortress structures that was built at the mouth of Bangcal River during the 17th century
A.D. This historical site was utilized as habitation and fortification that provided protection
against marauding enemies, the Dutch and moro invaders. European and Chinese tradeware
ceramics attributed to the 15th and 18th centuries A.D., respectively, were discovered inside
the perimeter walls of Fort Playa Honda. This structure is one of the few remaining historic
edifice of Zambales province depicting the rich cultural history of the region.

At present, the existing walls of Fort Playa Honda is being eroded by water actions from
Bangcal River. The restoration and conservation of Fort Playa Honda is a very urgent and
important undertaking because it is already at the verge of destruction at the rate that erosion
is taking place.

IMPACT

The project will have positive impact in the preservation and conservation of historical
resources as cultural assets for tourism development. Conservation of this cultural heritage
product which otherwise might be lost by erosion may reinforce or renew the sense of pride of
the Zambalenos.




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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                      PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                         :       Cultural Development Program

PROJECT                                   :       Creation of Provincial Museums
                                                  in Provincial Capitals of Region III

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                          :       DOT-PTA/National
                                                          Museum/DECS/LGUs

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCES                  :       GOP/International Grants

ESTIMATED COST                            :       P 300 Million

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

A provincial museum in every provincial capital of the six provinces of Region III will be a major
tourists attractions and destination of the region. The museums will show case the province's
unique cultural heritage where objects of historical, archaeological, cultural, scientific, and
aesthetic values are collected, studied, preserved and exhibited for public appreciation,
enjoyment and education.

The provincial museums may be complimented with books, brochures or pamphlets
highlighting the cultural heritage and values of the six provinces of the region. These museums
as tourism resource-assets can also be enjoyed and appreciated by the local communities
providing a sense of cultural self-confidence.

IMPACT

This project will have a positive impact in creating awareness and appreciation of the rich
cultural heritage of the region. The provincial museums can be made into major tourism
destinations that can generate revenues from local and foreign tourists. However, measures
must be put in place to prevent over commercialization of the regions' cultural resources and
the possibility of losing its cultural integrity. Proper management and curation will be necessary
to avoid loss of authenticity of cultural heritage products when presented as tourism
attractions.




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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                         PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                            :         Cultural Development Program

PROJECT                                      :         On-Site Archaeological Museum

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTE                                 :    (ON DOT-PTA/National Museum/LGUs

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCES                     :         DOT-PTA/LGUs

ESTIMATED COST                               :         P 10 Million

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

The on-site archaeological museum is a new concept that is now emerging as a tourism
strategy for cultural development. On-site museum refers to those built on the actual
reconstruction of the cultural setting of significant prehistoric sites based on the archaeological
excavation. Historicity alone will not be sufficient to promote the prehistoric sites as tourist
destinations. Facts should be supplemented by artifactual evidences that are visually and
intellectually gratifying to tourists and local visitors.

The artifactual evidences from the archaeological excavations of the open-burial sites in Bgy.
Dolores of the municipality of Porac, Pampanga, indicated the cultural setting of the region's
prehistoric people as early as the Metal Age period (approximately 200 B.C. to 600 A.D.). The
Dolores site can be turned into an on-site museum with the actual reconstruction of the cultural
setting of these prehistoric burial sites based on the archaeological excavation. The
reconstruction will be carried out on the basis of completed and detailed documentation of the
original setting of the Dolores Site.

The Dolores Site can be made into a major tourist attraction and destination. Using replicas on
the actual context of prehistoric cave sites as "on-site" museums, the Metal Age period burial
practices can be showcased. The significance of these archaeological findings is the
reconstruction of the unique prehistoric burial practices in the region.

IMPACT

The on-site archaeological museums in Bgy. Dolores, Porac, Pampanga will have positive
impacts as cultural assets for tourism development. This project when complimented by
brochures and pamphlets highlighting the cultural significance of the burial site, will promote
direct awareness and appreciation of the rich cultural history of the region. This project when
properly developed, programmed, and managed, will have an important tourism application
that can generate revenue in foreign and local earnings.

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Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                      PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                         :       Cultural Development Program

PROJECT                                   :       Archaeological Excavation of
                                                  Prehistoric Habitation Site in
                                                  Bgy. Bamban, Masinloc, Zambales

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                          :        DOT-PTA/National Museum/LGUs

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCES                  :       DOT-PTA/International Grants

ESTIMATED COST                            :       P 1 Million

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

The prehistoric open-site habitation in Bgy. Bamban, Masinloc, Zambales was a fishing village
possibly dated to the Sung Dynasty Period (960 to 1279 centuries A.D.). Artifactual evidences
indicated that a thriving trade network existed between this fishing village and China, and
possibly Thailand during the 10th to 13th centuries A.D. Chinese and Thai tradeware ceramics
were found in association with several eathernware net weights, potteries and animal and fish
bone fragments which were initially discovered in the ground surface.

The cultural materials that will be recovered from the archaeological excavation will be part of
the museum items that will be exhibited at the provincial museum for public appreciation,
enjoyment and education. Part of the archaeological research activity is the cultural awareness
programs to inform host communities of the significance of the habitation site in Bgy. Bamban
to the prehistory of the country.

IMPACT

The archaeological excavation of the prehistoric habitation site in Bamban, Masinloc,
Zambales will provide a vital link to the prehistoric past of the region. It will have positive
impacts because this project promotes direct awareness and appreciation of the rich cultural
history not only of the province but for the region as whole.




_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                     PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                        :        Cultural Development Program

PROJECT                                  :        Archaeological Impact Assessment
IMPLEMENTING

ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                          :       National Museum

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCES                 :        DOT-PTA/LGUs

ESTIMATED COST                           :        P 1 Million

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

The main rationale in conducting Archaeological Impact Assessments (AIA) is to identify
existing archaeological and historical resources that will be developed for the tourism
development program. Included in the AIA is the aim to develop and review plans that are
likely to cause positive and negative impacts on the cultural assets due to their tourism
application and to develop appropriate mitigating and management measures.

The main task of the AIA is also to identify the tourism values of archaeological and historical
resources as cultural assets, to proliferate them, and preserve them from degradation or
dilution in the process of tourism development.

IMPACT

The project will have positive impact in the preservation and conservation of archaeological
and historical resources as cultural assets for tourism development.




_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                       PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                          :        Cultural Development Program

PROJECT                                    :        Restoration of the Capas Death March Shrine

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                            :       National Historical
                                                            Institute/LGUs/DOT

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCES                   :        DOT-PTA/LGUs

ESTIMATED COST                             :        P 5.0 Million

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

The Capas Death March Shrine in Capas, Tarlac is a major historical landmark in the region.
The shrine was built to commemorate the sufferings of Filipino-American soldiers at the hands
of the Japanese Imperial Army during the infamous "death march" of World War II. At present,
the state of the Capas Death March Shrine is deteriorating because of the lack of proper
maintenance and financial sustenance to keep it attractive for public viewing.

The Capas shrine can be made into a major tourism destination because of the significance of
the historical event that is attached to it. The restoration of the shrine will renew a sense of
pride in the war veterans who were once part of the significant war event.

IMPACT

The restoration of the Capas Death March Shrine will have positive impacts which will be an
impetus for revitalizing cultural awareness to the local community and for the tourists. Likewise,
the restoration project will reinforce conservation of the cultural heritage of the region.




_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                      PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                         :       Cultural Development Program

PROJECT                                   :       Lights and Sounds
                                                  Camp O'Donnell, Capas, Tarlac

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                          :        DOT-PTA/NHI /LGUs

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCES                  :       DOT-PTA/LGUs

ESTIMATED COST                            :       P 5.0 Million

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

The "lights and sounds" project is the re-enactment of the historical event depicting the actual
sufferings of the Filipino-American soldiers at the concentration camp in Camp O'Donnell in
Capas, Tarlac during World War II. The "lights and sounds" project will be an annual event
which may be appropriately held during the celebration of the Philippine Independence Day.

The re-enactment will be made at the exact location where the concentration camps were
situated. Reconstruction of the actual historical event will be made using replicas of the prison
camps and life-size mannequins depicting the soldiers that were part of the event. The re-
enactment is supported with the simulation of computerized lights and sounds to dramatize the
actual historical event.

IMPACT

The project will have positive impact because it reinforces the sense of pride of the Filipino-
American soldiers' bravery, gallantry and valor. Likewise, it will also renew the sense of
nationalism for the sacrifices of the Filipino soldiers who died and survived in World War II.




_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                        PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                            :        Cultural Development Program

PROJECT                                      :        Creation of an Agro-Industrial Museum

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                              :        Hacienda Luisita/DOT/NM/NHI

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCES                     :        Hacienda Luisita/DOT

ESTIMATED COST                               :        P 12 Million

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

Hacienda Luisita is an agro-industrial estate which is currently being developed to attract more
business and leisure tourists. At present, the hacienda boasts of its world-class golf course,
commercial mall, including its sugar cane plantation and milling operations thus, it has become
a tourist destination in the province of Tarlac.

The creation of an Agro-Industrial Museum as an added feature will help develop Hacienda
Luisita into a major tourist attraction and destination. The museum will showcase the history of
Hacienda Luisita including the families that were behind in its establishment and development.
Likewise, the museum will also feature the evolution and the development of sugar cane
milling operations and processes from traditional to the latest technology. Sugar based native
products, such as tinaclob, muscovado, inuyat, etc., will be featured.

Visit to the museum will be supplemented with an actual trip to the sugar cane plantation and
milling sites riding the train carts along its existing internal railways.

IMPACT

The creation of an Agro-Industrial Museum will have a positive impact because Hacienda
Luisita will not only provide leisure to tourists but educational experiences as well.




_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                       PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                        :       Institutional Establishment and
                                                 Strengthening

PROJECT                                  :       Core Group Establishment Seminar
                                                 Workshop

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                         :       DOT/PTA/LG Us

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCE                  :       DOT-PTA/LGUs

ESTIMATED COST                           :       P 0.30 Million

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

To disseminate information regarding the institution that will be established which will oversee
and implement the Regional Tourism Plan to assure consistency compliance of units for the
Regional Tourism Development Plan implementation approach. To generate interest and elicit
active- participation and suggestions from the private and government sector agencies
concerned.

Impact

The project envisions generation of support from the various levels of the agencies and entities
involved as regards coming up with an acceptable and workable entity that will have
jurisdiction over the planning area.




_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                        PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                           :          Institutional Establishment and
                                                       Strengthening
PROJECT                                     :          Study on Alternative Institutional Entities to
                                                       implement the region's Tourism
                                                       Development Plan

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                               :       DOT/PTA/LGUs

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCE                     :          DOT-PTA/LGUs

ESTIMATED COST                              :          P 300,000

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

To provide choices of the type of entity that will implement the Regional Tourism Development
Plan based on results of the study highlighting the positive and negative points of the different
type of institutions/entities that will be proposed.

Impact

The project will give the entities/agencies and LGUs on insight on what institutions might be
established that will best ensure compliance with the Regional Tourism Development Plan.




_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                      PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                         :       Solid Waste Management Improvement
                                                  Pilot Project

PROJECT                                   :       Construction and operation of final disposal
                                                  sites. These pilot project will cover Abucay
                                                  (Bataan), Meycauayan (Bulacan), Palayan
                                                  City (Nueva Ecija), Angeles City (Pampanga),
                                                  Camiling (Tarlac) and Olongapo City
                                                  (Zambales).

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                          :        DILG, LGU, DOH

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCE                   :       ADB Loan

ESTIMATED COST                            :

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

During pre-construction phase, land acquisition is the main activity. At construction phase, the
project requires for a sanitary landfill site, transportation of construction materials, and
operation of heavy equipment. At Operation and Maintenance Phase, the activities should
focus on the transportation needs of solid waste by collection vehicles; the disposal of solid
waste and the provision of soil cover.

Impact

Impacts during pre-construction phase can be determined as soon as the land is acquired.
During construction phase, there will be an increase in traffic volume, noise and vibration levels
due to transportation of construction materials; increase in air pollution and noise brought
about by operation of heavy equipment. During Operation and Maintenance Phase, expect an
increase in traffic volume created by waste collection vehicles and odor generated from
disposal site and waste collection vehicles, depending on sanitary landfill level.

Centralization of garbage collection and disposal will bring a controlled sanitary garbage
disposal and will definitely improve the health conditions of the community.




_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                      PROJECT PROFILE



PROGRAM COMPONENT                         :     Infrastructure Project

PROJECT                                   :     Bypass Construction. This project covers
                                                Cabanatuan City (Nueva Ecija), Angeles City
                                                (Pampanga), Olongapo City (Zambales) and
                                                Tarlac..

IMPLEMENTING
ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION                        :         DPWH

POSSIBLE FUNDING SOURCE                   :     ADB Loan

ESTIMATED COST

PROJECT RATIONALE AND
DESCRIPTION

This project requires construction of bypasses on the indicated places mentioned above.

Impact

Some cultivated land maybe turned into road, and residents maybe resettled. Also, airpollution
and noise vibration will occur by virtue of the operation of heavy equipment and transportation
of construction materials.

However, bypass roads will mean more length and more communities that can be served and
better opportunities for economic activities.




_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Final Report for the Tourism Master Plan for Region III (Central Luzon)
Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)
                                                                 Table 11.2
                                           SUMMARY OF LGU-INITIATED PROJECTS IN REGION III

          Province/Project                                                         Cost (PM)   Submitted by
Bataan
1.    Democracy & Boundary Marker in Balsik, Hermosa                                   5.00    Provl. Govt. of Bataan
2.    Development of Surrender Site into Historical Park at Balanga                    8.00    Provl. Govt. of Bataan
3.    Development of Tourism Beach Resort at Morong                                   10.00    Municipality of Morong
4.    Eco-tourism Project at Tala, Orani                                               6.00    Municipality of Orani
5.    Development of Waterfall at Palili, Samal                                       10.00    Municipality of Samal
6.    Improvement of Sibul Spring at Abucay                                           10.00    Municipality of Abuca
7.    Development of Dunsulan Falls at Pilar Const. of Road                            6.50    Municipality of Pilar
8.    Restoration of Ca etano Arellano ancestral home at Orion                         3.00    DOT/LGU
9.    Restoration of Zero Kilometer Marker Death March at Mariveles and Bagac          8.00    DOT/LGU
10.   Construction of Bataan Tourism Center at Balanga                                30.00    Provl. Govt. of Bataan
11.   Construction of Tourist Halfway Inn at Balsik, Hermosa                          12.00    Municipality of Hermosa


Bulacan
1.    Beautification of Bocaue River                                                  25.00    Provl. Govt. of Bulacan
2.    Improvement of Pamarawan Beach Resort                                           10.00    DOT/LGU
3.    Construction of Pulilan Landmark                                                10.00    DOT/LGU


Nueva Ecija
1.    Development of Labi Natural Spring                                              10.00    Provl. Govt. of Nueva Ecija
2.    Development of the lace of death of Dona Aurora Quezon at Bongabon               5.00    Municipality of Bon abon
3.    Development of Olivete Natural Spring at Bongabon                               10.00    Municipality of Bon abon
4.    Establishment of Prov'I. Tourism Center at Palayan City                         30.00    Provl. Govt. of Nueva Ecija
5.    Improvement of Historical Landmarks at Talu to                                   6.00    DOT/LGU
6.    Improvement of Historical Landmark of the "First Cry of Nueva Ecija"             8.00    Provl. Govt. of Nueva Ecija
7.    Construction of Municipal Museum and Tourism Center at San Isidro               15.00    Municipality of San Isidro
            Province/Project                                           Cost PM    Submitted by
8.       Improvement of Wa as Monument Historical Landmarks              15.00    DOT/LGU
9.       Development of Hot Spring at Sitio Mainit, San Isidro, Laur     10.00    Municipality of Laur
10.      Development of La bak, Malotabe and Alintutuan Falls            19.50    DOT/LGU
11.      Improvement of Bato Ferry River"Summer" Resort `                  6.50   DOT /LGU
12.      Develo ment of Diamond Park in B . Tazabo, San Jose City          8.00   San Jose City
13.      Improvement of Palaspas Falls                                     6.50   DOT/LGU


Pampanga
1.       Clark Field Centennial Park                                     1,500    Clark Airbase
2.       Construction of On-Site Archeological Museum at Porac             8.50   DOT/LGU
3.       Mt. Ara at Development                                          72.00    DOT
4.       McArthur Highway Dev't. bet. S.F. & Angeles City)               40.00
5.       Sunken Church at Bacolor                                        10.00


Tarlac
1.       Restoration of the Ca as Death March Shrine                       5.00   DOT/LGU
2.       Lights and Sound Proj.at Camp 0' Donnell in Capas                 5.00   DOT/LGU
3.       Development of Tarlac Tourism Complex at Paniqui                30.00    Provl. Gov't. of Tarlac
4.       Restoration of Century old Convent                                5.00   DOT/LGU


Zambales
1.       Reconstruction of Fort Playa Honda                                8.50
2.       Construction of Zambales Convention Center at Iba               30.00    Provl. Gov't. of Zambales
3.       Conversion of Mt. Ta ulao to Eco-Tourism Resort at Palaui       25.00    DOT/LGU
4.       Subic Municipal Park at Subic                                     6.50   DOT/LGU
5.       Conversion of Ramon Ma sa sa House into a
            Heritage House at San Antonio                                15.00
6.       Rehabilitation of Small Parks in Olongapo City                    5.00
                                            TOTAL                      2,068.50
                                                        Table 11.3
                       OVERALL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT TIMEPLAN IMPLEMENTATION (MP)
                    Projects/Activities      Funding Source      Agency Responsible         1997-2000   2001-2005   2006-2010

1.0 TOURIST ATTRACTIONS
1.1 Highway/Loop Destinations                                    Private Sectors, NGO's         -           -           -
1.2 Local Attractions                                            Private Sectors, NGO's         -           -           -
1.3 Touring/Viewing/Shopping                                     Private Sectors, NGO's         -           -           -
1.4 Support Facilities                                        DOT, LGU, Pvt. Sector,NGOs    2,068.50    2,482.20    2,978.64



2.0 ACCOMMODATION FACILITIES                                         Private Sector          333.90     1,307.25    2,576.18
3.0 PARKS & RECREATIONAL
FACILITIES                                                           LGU's, NGO's             510         260         130
4.0 INFRASTRUCTURES
4.1 Telecommunications Network
4.2 Water Supply
4.2.1 Mt. Pinatubo Affected Areas                                                             960
4.2.2 Bulacan Central Water Supply                               Bulacan Water District       735         735         735
4.2.3 Olongapo City Water Supply                                   Olongapo City WD           355
4.2.4 LWUA Water Supply                                                                       231
4.2.5 Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Imp.                            ADB-DILG                115
4.3 Sewerage Treatment & Disposal
4.4 Power & Energy
4.4.1 300MW Bataan Comb. Cycle Power                                     NPC
4.4.2 60OMW Masinloc Coal-Fired Thermal        ADB,J-Exim                NPC
4.4.3 Enron II Diesel Power Plant                 BOT                    NPC
4.4.4 Edison Cogen Power                         BOO                     NPC
4.4.5 Masinloc-Labrador 230KV Trans. Line        KFW                     NPC
4.4.6 Northwestern Luzon Backbone T/L        WB,J-Exim,ICG               NPC
4.5 Flood Control, Drainage &
Shoreline Protection
4.5.1 Pampanga Delta Dev't.-FC Comp.             OECF                   DPWH
4.5.2 Const. of 700M Seawall at
Masinloc
4.6 Sanitation & Waste Management                 ADB                    DILG
4.7 Social Infrastructure
4.7.1 Health Facilities                                                  DOH
4.7.2 Educational Facilities                                             DECS
5.0 TRANSPORTATION SERVICES
&INFRASTRUCTURE
5.1 Airports
5.1.1 Clark Int'I. Airport                                               BCDA
5.1.2 Subic Int'I. Airport                                               SBMA                 250
5.1.3 Castillejos                                                        DOTC
5.1.4 Iba                                                                DOTC
5.2 Seaports
5.2.1 Port of Mariveles                                                  PPA
5.2.2 Port of Limay                                                      PPA
5.2.3 Vessel Fleet Modernization                                     Private Sector
5.3 Road Works
5.3.1 Manila Coastal Road                                     DPWH & Private Sector (BOT)
5.3.2 San Fernando-Dinalupihan Road                                     DPWH
5.3.3 Dinalupihan-Olongapo Road                                         DPWH
5.3.4 Dinalupihan-Angeles Road I                                        DPWH


NOTE: Built-Operate-Transfer (BOT); Govt. of the Phil. (GoP); Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF); Asian Dev't. Bank
(ADB); Japan Export/Import Bank (J-Exim); World Bank (WB).
Projects/Activities                            Funding Source   Agency Responsible              1997-2000   2001-2005   2006-2010

5.3.5 Damaged Road 8 Bridge Rehab.                   ADB                    DPWH
5.3.6 Access Roads to Resettlement                                        DPWH, LGU
Areas Deft.
5.3.7 Rural Road Dev't.                              ADB                    DPWH
5.3.8 Angeles Bypass Dev't.                                                 DPWH
5.3.9 Cabanatuan Bypass Dev't.                                              DPWH
5.3.10 Cabanatuan Common Bus Terminal                                     DILG-LGU
5.3.11 Sierra Madre (Marginal) Highway                                      DPWH
5.3.12 North Luzon Expressway Ext.                   BOT               PNCC/BENPRESS              1,948       1,168
5.3.13 Iba-Tarlac Road                                                      DPWH
5.3.14 Capas-La Paz-Cabanatuan Road                                         DPWH
5.3.15 Mariveles-Bagac-Morong-Olongapo Rd.                                  DPWH
5.3.16 Tarlac Bypass                                                        DPWH
5.3.17 Olongapo Bypass                                                      DPWH
5.3.18 Manila-Bataan-Subic Coastal Road                                     DPWH
5.4 Railway
5.4.1 Rehab./Upgrading of PNR Mainline North                                 PNR
                       TOTAL                                                          16,512.67 5,308.40    4,784.45    6,419.82




NOTE: Built-Operate-Transfer (BOT); Govt. of the Phil. (GoP); Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF); Asian Dev't. Bank
(ADB); Japan Export/Import Bank (J-Exim); World Bank (WB).
                                                  Table 11.4
                             PROPOSED LEISURE & LIVELIHOOD COMPLEX
                                    UACON LAKE, ZAMBALES

                                        PROJECT COST ESTIMATES

               PAY ITEMS                                  QTY          UNIT COST          AMOUNT
                                                                                          (P million)

A. AMENITIES

    1. Golf Course (hole)                                   18         13,400,000            241.20
    2. Aquatic Sanctuary (lot)                               1          3,500,000               3.50
    3. Convention Center (sq. m.)                        1,000               8,200              8.20
    4. Reforestation Center
          -Office (sq. m.)                                  50              10,000              0.50
          - Log cabin (units)                              300             100,000             30.00
    5. Beach Resort
          - Lodging & restaurants (units)                   10          3,500,000              35.00
    6. Park Development (lot)                                1          8,000,000               8.00
    7. Hotel (room)                                         50             525,000             26.25

Sub-Total AMENITIES                                                                          352.65

B. SITEWORKS

    B.1 PARKING AND WALKS AREAS

    1. 150 mm thk Agg. Base Course (cu. m.)              2,250                 375              0.84
    2. 50 mm Gravel Base (cu. m.)                          400                 350              0.14
    3. Landscaping (sq. m.)                            30,000                    75             2.25
    4. Walkway with Trelis (sq. m.)                        750                 900              0.68
Sub Total WALKS, PARKING AREAS                                                                  3.91

    B.1 SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM
    1. Septic Tanks, Leaching Fields, etc. (lot)             1             700,000              0.70

    B.2 DRAINAGE SYSTEM
    1. Provision of Drainage Structures (lot)                1             600,000              0.60



TOTAL - SITEWORKS                                                                               5.21


TOTAL PROJECT DEVELOPMENT COST                                                               357.86

Note: Housing, livelihood center, agriland centers, roads, water supply and electrical/power supply system can be
provided by a particular government agency or an interested private sector.
                                                                                  TABLE 11.5
                                                    INCOME STATEMENT PROJECTIONS – LEISURE & LIVELIHOOD COMPLEX (UACON LAKE)
                                                                      CENTRAL LUZON T0URISM MASTER PLAN
                         ITEM                                                                                                                      Y E A R
ASSUMPTIONS:                                            1        2        3       4       5       6       7       8       9       10      11       12    13        14      15      16      17      18      19      20      21      22      23      24


 Number of Motorists – Viewers1/ (000)                    365     374      383      393     403     413     423     434     445     456     467      479     491     503     516     529     542     555     569     584    598    613    628    644
 Entrance Fee/Motorist-Viewers 2/                      I 5.00   16.50    18.15    19.97   21.96   24.16   26.57   29.23   32.15   35.37   38.91    42.80   47.08   51.78   56.96   62.66   68.92   75.82   83.40   91.74 100.91 111.00 122.10 134.31
 Total Revenues from Entrance Fees(000,000) 3/           5.48    6.17     6.96     7.85    8.85    9.98   11.25   12.68   14.30   16.12    18..6   20.50   23.11   26.06   29.38   33.12   37.35   42.11   47.48   53.53 60.36   68.05 76.73 86.51


 Percent of Consumers (Food etc.)                         50       50       50       50      50      50      50      50      50      50      50       50      50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50
 Number of Motorists-Consumers (000)                     183      187      192      197     201     206     212     217     222     228     234      239     245    252    258    264    271    278    285    292    299    307    314    322
 Average Value of Consumption/Head2/                   30.00    33.00    36.30    39.93   43.92   48.32   53.15   58.46   64.31   70.74   77.81    85.59   94.15 103.57 113.92 125.32 137.85 151.63 166.80 183.48 201.82 222.01 244.21 268.63
 Total Revenues from Consumption(000,000)               5.48     6.17     6.96     7.65    8.85    9.98   11.25   12.68   14.30   16.12   18.18    20.50   23.11  26.06 29.38 33.12    37.35 42.11   47.48 53.53 60.36    68.05 76.73 86.51


 Number of Log Cabin                                     150    300    300    300    300    300    300    300    300    300    300    300    300     300     300     300     300     300     300     300     300     300     300     300
 Occupancy Rate                                         30%    50%     701   70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%
                       4/
 Number of Camp-Nights                                16,425 54,750 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,550 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650 76,650
 Rate/log Cabin (P) 2/                                300.00 330.00 363.00 399.30 439.23 483.15 531.47 584.62 643.08 707.38 776.12 855.94 941.53 1035.68 1139.25 1253.17 1378.49 1516.34 1667.98 1834.77 2018.25 2220.07 2442.08 2686.29
 Total Revenues from Camp-Nights(000,000)               4.93  13.07  27.82  30.61  33.57  37.03 40.74   44.81  49.29 54.22 59.64    65.61 72.17    79.38 87.32 96.06 105.66 116.23 127.85 140.64 154.70 170.17 187.19 205.90



REVENUES:


 Entrance Fees                                           5.48    6.17     6.96     7.85    8.85   9.98 11.25   12.68  14.30 16.12 18.16    20.50 23.11   26.06 29.38 33.12    37.35 42.11   47.48 53.53 60,36    68.05 76.73 86.51
 Consumers' Fees from Viewers                            5.48    6.17     6.96     7.85    8.85   9.98 11.25   12.68  14.30 16.12 18.18    20.50 23.11   26.06 29.38 33.12    37.35 42.11   47.48 53.53 60.36    68,05 76.73 86.51
 Camp-Nights Fees                                        4.93   18.07    27.82    30.61   33.67  37.03 40.74   44.91  49.29 54.<2   59.64  65.61 72.17   79.38 87.32 96.06 105.66 11623 127.85 140.64 154.70 170.17 187.19 205.90
 Consumer Fees from Campers5/                            1.48    5.42     8.35     9.18   10.10  11.11 12.22   13.44  14.79 16.27 17.89    19.68 21.65   23.82 26.20 28.82    31.70 34.87   38.36 42.19 46.41    51.05 56.16 61.77
 Golf Course (P15,000,000 /yr.)                                          15.00    16.50   18.15  19.97 21.96   24.16  26.57 29.23 32.15    35.37 38.91   42.80 47.08 51.78    56.96 62.66   68.92 75.82 83.40    91.74 100.91 111.00
 Convention Center( P360,000/yr.)                                                  3.60    3.96   4.36   4.79   5.27   5.80   6.38   7.02   7.72   8.49   9.34 10.27 11.30    12.43 13.67   15.04 16.54 18.20    20.02 22.02 24.22
 Beach Resort (P2,700,000/yr)                                    0.54     1.08     1.62    2.16   2.70   2.97   3.27   3.59   3.95   4.35   4.78   5.26   5.79   6.37   7.00   7.70   8.47   9.32 10.25 11.28    12.41 13.65 15.01
 Hotel Operation(P5,000,000/yr)                                                    5.00    5.50   6.05   6.66   7.32   8.05   8.86   9.74  10.72 11.79   12.97 14.27 15.69    17.26 18.99   20.89 22.97 25.27    27.80 30.58 33.64
 Total Revenues                                        17.36    36.37    66.17    82.20   91.23 101.17 111.83 123.63 136.70 151.15 167.15 184.87 204.48 226.20 250.26 276.90 306.41 339.10 375.33 415.47 459.96 509.28 563.95 624.57


LESS: OPERATING COSTS


 Adm., Repair, & Maint.(15 % of Total Revenues           2.60    5.46     9.93    12.33   13.68   15.18   16.77   18.55   20.50   22.67   25.07    27.73   30.67   33.93   37.54   41.53   45.96   50.87   56.30   62.32   68.99   76.39   34.59   93.69

 Consumer Viewer Fees (68%)                              3.72    4.20     4.73     5.34    6.02    6.78    7.65    8.62    9.72   10.96   12.36    13.94   15.71   17.72   19.98   22.52   25.40   28.63   32.28   36.40   41.04   46.27   52.17   58.83

 Consumer Camper Fees (68%)                              1.01    3.69     5.68     6.24    6.87    7.55    8.31    9.14   10.06   11.06   12.17    13.38   14.72   16.19   17.81   19.60   21.55   23.71   26.08   28.69   31.56   34.71   38.19   42.00

 Total Operating Costs                                   4,73    7.88    10.41    11.58   12.88   14.34   15.96   17.77   19.78   22.02   24.53    27.32   30.44   33.91   37.79   42.12   46.95   52.34   58.37   55.09   72.60   80.99   90.36 100.83


NET OPERATING PROFIT (NOP)                             12.63    28.49    55.76    70 62   78.35   36.83   95.87 105.87 116.92 129.13 142.63 157.55 174.05 192.29 212.46 234.78 259.46 286.76 316.96 350.38 387.36 428.29 473.59 523.74


LESS: INCENTIVE FEE (7.5% NOP)                           0.95    2.14     4.18     5.30    5.88    6.51    7.19    7.94    8.77    9.68   10.70    11.82   13.05   14.42   15.93   17.61   19.46   21.51   23.77   26.28   29.05   32.12   35.52   39.28


NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX

(Including Depreciation and Finance Charges)           11.68    26.35    51.58    65.33   72.47   80.32   88.68   97.93 108.15 119.44 131.93 115.73 160.99 177.87 196.53 217.17 240.00 265.25 293.19 324.10 358.31 396.17 438.07 484.46


LESS: INCOME TAX (35%)                                   4.09    9.22    18.05    22.86   25.37   28.11   31.04   34.28   37.85   41.80   46.17    51.01   56.35   62.25   68.79   76.01   84.00   92.84 102.62 113.44 125.41 138.66 153.33 169.56


NET PROFIT AFTER TAX                                       7.59   17.13   33.53   42.46   47.11   52.21   57.64   63.65   70.30   77.64   85.75    94.73 104.65 115.61 127.74 141.16 156.00 172.41 190.57 210.17 232.90 257.51 284,75 314 .90
Notes:
1/
   At 1000 motorist/viewers/day for 365 days, growing @ an avorago of 2.5%/year
2/
  To Increase by 10% every year
3/
   Based on 100% of the motorist-viewers multiplied by the entrance fees
4/
   No. of tog cabin x 365 clays per year
5/
   Based on 30% of the camp-night fees
                                                                                     TABLE 11.6
                                                           CASH FLOW PROJECTIONS-LEISURE 8 LIVELIHOOD COMPLEX (UACON LAKE)
                                                                        CENTRAL LUZON TOURISM MASTER PLAN

                                  0       1        2       3       4       5       6       7       6       9       10      11      12      13      14      15      16      17      16      19      20     21     22     23     24     25
CASH INFLOWS
  Equity                        117.44 120.00 105.00        0.00    0.00    0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
  Total Revenues                        17.36  36.37       66.17   82.20   91.23 101.17 111.83 123.63 136.70 151.15 167.15 184.87 204.48 226.20 250.26 276.90 306.41 339.10 375.33 415.47 459.96 509.28 563.85 62457 691.78
  Total Cash inflows            117 44 137.36 141.37       66.17   82.20   91.23 101.17 111.83 123.63 136.70 151.15 167.15 184,67 204.48 226.20 250.26 276.90 306.41 339.10 375.33 415.47 459.96 509.28 563.95 624.57 691.78
CASH OUTFLOWS
1. Capital Investments
  A. Amenities
      Golf Course               96.48   96.48    96.48
      Aquatic Sanctuary          3.50
      Convention Center                   4.10    4.10
      Reforestation
        Office                    0.50
         Log Cabin               15.00   15.00
      Beach Resort                       7.00     7.00     7.00    7.00    7.00
      Park Development                            2.00     2.00    2.00    2.00
      Hotel                                      13.12    13.12
  B. Siteworks
      Parking and Walk Areas     1.96   1.96
      Sanitary Sewer System             0.35   0.35
      Drainage System                   0.30   0.30
  Total Capital Investment      117.44 125.19 123.35       22.12    9.00    9.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00    0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
2. Operating Costs                       4.73   7.88       10.41   11.58   12.09   14.34   15.96   17.77   19.76   22.02   24.53   27.32   30A4    33.91   37,79   12.12   46.95   52.34   58.37   65.09  12.50  80.99  90.36 100.83 11253
3. Incentive Fees                        0.95   2.14        4.16    5.30    5.88    6.51    7.19    7.94    8.77    9.68   10.70   11.82   13.05   14.42   15.93   17.61   19.45   21.51   23.77   26.28  29.05  32.12  35.52  39 28  43.44
  Total Cash Outflows           117.44 130.87 133.37       36.71   25 88   27.76   20.85   23.15   25.71   28.55   31.71   35.23   39.14   43.49   48.33   53.73   59.73   66.41   73.85   82.14   91.37 101.65 113.11 125.88 140 11 155.98

NET CASH FLOW                     0.00     6.49    8.00    29.46   56.33   63.47   80.32   88.68   97.93 108.15 119.44 131.93 145.73 160.99 177.87 196.53 217.17 240.00 265.25 293.19 324,10 358.31 398.17 438.07              48446 535.81




Cost                            117.44 130.97 133.37       36.71   25.88   27.76  .2085  23.15  25.71  28.55  31.71  35.23  39.14           43.49 48.33  53.73  59.73  66.41   73.85  32.14  91.37 101.65 113.11 125.88 140.11 155.98
Revenue                           0.00  17.36  36.37       66.17   82.20   91.23 101,17 111.83 123.63 136.70 151.15 167.15 184.87          20448 226.20 250.26 276.90 30'6.41 339.10 375.33 415.47 459.96 509.28 563.95 62457 691.76

Net                             -117.44 -113.51   -97.00   29.46   56.33   63.47   80.32   88.66   97.93 108.15 119.44 131.93 145.73 160.99 177.87 196.53 217.17 240.00 265.25 293.19              32410 358.31 396.17 438.07 484.46 535.81
                                                                       -
FIRR                            18.87%

Discount Rate                   16.00%

NPV                              51 50

B/C Ratio                         1.13
                                       Table 11.7
                                PROPOSED CANDABA RESORT
                                   CANDABA,PAMPANGA

                                  PROJECT COST ESTIMATES

          PAY ITEMS                                       QTY           UNIT COST        AMOUNT
                                                                                         (P million)
A. AMENITIES
   1. Main Building & Viewing Area (unit)                   1            3,600,000          3.60
   2. Restaurant/Bathhouse (sq.m.)                         250              14,000          3.50
   3. Kiosk (units)                                         3               40,000          0.12
   4. Cottages (units)
       Overnight type                                     30              100,000         3.00
       Single type                                        20              180,000         3.60
       Duplex type                                        20              250,000         5.00
   5. Viewing Cottage                                       1              420,000         0.42
   6. Pool (4-6 feet depth & wading pool)                   1            3,500,000         3.50
   7. Lagoon & Cascading Waterfall                          1            3,300,000         3.30
   8. Cabanas (units)                                      20               80,000         1.60
   9. Control Huts                                          5               20,000         0.10
Sub-Total Amenities                                                                        27.74

B. SITEWORKS

B.1 Board walk (meters)                                    400                1500          0.60

B.2 Parking Area (light vehicle & bus)
    1. 150 mm thk Agg. Base Course (cu. m.)              2,250                     375      0.84
    2. 50 mm Gravel Base (cu. m.)                         750                      350      0.26
    3. Landscaping (sq. m.)                              20,000                     75      1.50
Sub Total Parking Area                                                                      2.61

B.3 Sanitary Sewer System
    1. Septic Tanks, Leaching Fields, etc. (lot)            1              500,000          0.50

B.4 Garbage Bin                                             1              300,000          0.30
Sub-Total Siteworks                                                                         4.01

TOTAL PROJECT DEVELOPMENT COST                                                            31.75

Note: Road, water supply and electrical/power supply system can be provided by a
     government agency or an interested private sector.
                                                                                                       TABLE 11.8
                                                                                     INCOME STATEMENT PROJECTIONS - CANDABA RESORT
                                                                                           CENTRAL LUZON TOURISM MASTER PLAN

                          ITEM                                                                                                                          Y E A R
ASSUMPTIONS:                                               1        2        3           4      5       6       7       8       9       10      11      12      13      14      15      16      17      18      19      20      21      22      23      24


 Number of Motorists - Viewers1/ (000)                       146     150      153      157        161     165     169     174     178     182     187     192     196     201    206     211      217     222     228     233    239    245    251    258
 Entrance Fee/Motorist-Viewers2/                           15.00   16.50    18.15     19.97     21.96   24.16   26.57   29.23   32.15   35.37   38.91   42.80   47.08   51.78   56.96   62.66   68.92   75.82   83.40   91.74 100.91 111.00 122.10 134.31
 Total Revenues from Entrance Fees(000,000                  2.19    2.47     2.78      3.14      3.54    3.99    4.50    5.07    5.72    6.45    7.27    8.20    9.24   10.42   11.75   13.25   14.94   16.84   18.89   21.41 24.14 27.22 30.69 34.60


 Percent of Consumers (Food etc.)                             50      50       50        50        50      50      50      50      50      50      50      50      50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50     50
 Number of Motorists-Consumers (000)                          73      75       77        79        81      83      85      87      89      91      93      96      98    101   103     106   108     111    114    117    120    123    126    129
 Average Value of Consumption/Head3/                       30.00   33.00    36.30     39.93     43.92   48.32   53.15   58.46   64.31   70.74   77.81   85.59   94.15 103.57 113.92 125.32 137.85 151.63 166.80 183.48 201.82 222.01 244.21 268.63
 Total Revenues from Consumption(000,000)                   2.19    2.47     2.78      3.14      3.54    3.99    4.50    5.07    5.72    6.45    7.27    8,20    9.24 10.42 11.75 13.25 14.94 16.84 18.99 21.41 24.14 27.22 30.69 34.60


 Number of Cottages d Cabanas                                90     90     90     90     90     90     90     90     90     90     90     90     90      90      90      90      90      90      90      90      90      90      90      90
 Occupancy Rate                                            30%    50%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%    70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%     70%
 Number of Night-Stays4/                                  9,855 16,425 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995 22,995
 Rate/Cottage or Cabanas (P) 5/                          300.00 330.00 363.00 399.30 439.23 483.15 531.47 584.62 643.08 707.38 778.12 855.94 941.53 1035.68 1139.25 1253.17 1378.49 1516.34 1667.98 1834.77 2018.25 2220.07 2442.08 2686.29
 Total Revenues from Night-Stays(000,000)                  2.96   5.42   8.35   9.18 10.10 11.11 12.22 13.44 14.79 16.27 17.89 19.68 21.65 23.82 26.20 28.82 31.70 34.87 38.36 42.19 46.41 51.05 56.16 61.77


REVENUES:


 Entrance Fees                                              2:19    2.47     2.78      3.14      3.54    3.99    4.50    5.07    5.72    6.45    7.27    8.20    9.24   10.42   11.75   13.25   14.94   16.84   18.99   21.41 24.14 27.22 30.69 34.60
 Consumers' Fees from Viewers                               2.19    2.47     2.78      3.14      3.54    3.99    4.50    5.07    5.72    6.45    7.27    8.20    9.24   10.42   11.75   13.25   14.94   16.84   18.99   21.41 24.14 27.22 30.69 34.60
 Night-Stays Fees                                           2.96    5.42     8.35      9.18     10.10   11.11   12.22   13.44   14.79   16.27   17.89   19.68   21.65   23.82   26.20   28.82   31.70   34.87   38.36   42.19 46.41 51.05 56.16 61.77
 Consumer Fees from Staying Guests                          0.89    1.63     2.50      2.75      3.03    3.33    3.67    4.03    4.44    4.88    5.37    5,90    6.50    7.14    7.86    8.65    9.51   10.46   11.51   12.66 13.92 15.32 16.85 18.53
 Total Revenues                                             8.22   11.98    16.42     18.21     20.21   22.42   24.89   27.62   30.66   34.04   37.80   41.98   46.63   51 80   57.56   63.96   71.09   79.02   87.84   97.67 108.62 120.81 134.38 149.51


LESS: OPERATING COSTS


 Adm.. Repair, & Maint.(15% of Total Reven                  1.23     1.80     2.46       2.73    3.03    3.36    3.73    4.14    4.60    5.11    5.67    6.30    6.99    7.77    8.63    9.59   10.66   11.85   13.18   14.65   16.29   18.12   20.16   22.43
 Consumer Viewer Fees (68%)                                 1.49     1.68     1.89       2.13    2.41    2.71    3.06    3.45    3.89    4.39    4.94    5.57    6.29    7.09    7.99    9.01   10.16   11.45   12.91   14.56   16.42   18.51   20.87   23.53
 Consumer Night-Staying Fees (68%)                          0.60     1.11     1.70       1.87    2.06    2.27    2.49    2.74    3.02    3.32    3.65    4.02    4.42    4.86    5.34    5.88    6.47    7.11    7.82    8.61    9.47   10.41   11.46   12.60
 Total Operating Costs                                      2.09     2.78     3.60       4.01    4.47    4.98    5.55    6.19    6.91    7.70    8.59    9.59   10.70   11.95   13.33   14.89   16.62   18.57   20.74   23.17   25.88   28.92   32.33   36.13


NET OPERATING PROFIT (NOP)                                  6.13     9.20   12.82     14.21     15.74   17.44   19.33   21.43   23.76   26.34   29.21   32.39   35.93   39.86   44.22   49.07   54.46   60.45   67.10   74.50   82.73   91.88 102.06 113.38


LESS: INCENTIVE FEE (7.5% NOP)                              0.46     0.69     0.96       1.07    1.18    1.31    1.45    1.61    1.78    1.98    2.19    2.43    2.69    2.99    3.32    3.68    4.08    4.53    5.03    5.59    6.20    8.89    7.65    8.50


NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX

(Including Depreciation and Finance Charges)                5.67     8.51   11.86     13.14     14.56   16.14   17.88   19.82   21.98   24.37   27.02   29.96   33.24   36.87   40.91   45.39   50.38   55.92   52.07   68.92   76.53   84.99   94.40 104.86


LESS: INCOME TAX (35%)                                      1.98     2.98     4.15       4.60    5.10    5.65    6.26    6.94    7.69    8.53    9.46   10.49   11.63   12.90   14.32   15.89   17.63   19.57   21.73   24.12   26.78   29.75   33.04   36.71

NET PROFIT AFTER TAX                                     3.69    5.53    7.71     8.54           9.48   10.49   11.62   12.88   14.28   15.84   17.56   19.48   21.60   23.97   26.59   29.50   32.74   36.34   40.35   44.80   49.74   5524    61.36   88.17
Notes:
          1/
             At 400 motorist/viewers/day for 365 days, growing @ an average of 2.5%/year
            2/
                 To increase by 10% every year
            3/
                 Based on 100% of the motorist-viewers multiplied by the entrance fees
            4/
              No: of cottages/cabanas x 365 days per year
            5/
              Based on 30% of the night-stays fees
                                                                                             TABLE 11.9
                                                                                CASH FLOW PROJECTIONS -CANDABA RESOR
                                                                                 CENTRAL LUZON TOURISM MASTER PLAN

                                       0            1       2        3         4         5        6        7           8           9           10       11      12      13       14        15       16       17       18        19        20      21     22      23     24      25
CASH INFLOWS
  Equity                                   31.75    0.00     0.00    0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00    0.00     0.00            0.00        0.00     0.00    0.00    0.00     0.00       0.00    0.00     0.00   0.00       0.00       0.00    0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00   0.00
  Total Revenues                                    8.22    11.98   16.42     18.21      20.21    22.42   24.89    27,62           30.66       34.04    37.80   41.98   46.63    51.80      5756    63.96    71.09 79.02       &7.84      97.67 108.62 120.61 134.38 149.51 156 35
  Total Cash Inflows                       31.75    8.22    11.98   16.42      1821      20.21    22.42   24.89    27.62           30.66       34.04    37.80   41.98   46.63    51.80     57.56    63.96    71.09 791.02      89.&4      97.67 1013.62 120.61 134.38 1,19.51 166.36
CASH OUTFLOWS
1. Capital Investments
  A. Amenities
      Main Bldg. & Viewing Area            3.60
      Restaurant/Bathhouse                 3.50
      Kiosk                                0.12
      Cottages                            11.60
      Viewing Cottage                      0.42
      Pool                                 3.50
      Lagoon & Waterfall                   3.30
      Cabanas                              1.60
      Control Huts                         0.10
  B. Siteworks
      Board walk                           0.60
      Parking Area                         2.61
      Sanitary Sewer System                0.50
      Garbage Bin                          0.30
  Total Capital Investment                 31.75    0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00       0.00     0.00    0.00        0.00         0.00        0.00     0.00    0.00    0.00     0.00      0..00     0.00    0.00    0.00       0.00      0.00   0.00  0.00   0.00      0.00    0.00
2. Operating Costs                                  2.09     2.78     3.60     4.01       4.47     4.98    5.55        6.19         6.91        7.70     8.59    9.59 10.70      11.95     13.33    1.4.89   16.62 18.57        20.74     23.17 25.88 28.512 32.33      36.13   40.39
3. Incentive Fees                                   0.46     0.69     0.96     1.07       1.18     1.31    1.45        1.61         1.78        1.98     2.19    2.43    2.69     2.99       3.32     3.68    4.08    4.53       5.03      5.59   6.20  6.89   7.65      8.50    9.45
  Total Cash Outflows                      31.75    2.55     3.47     4.56     5.07       5.65     6.29    7.00        7.80         8.69        9.68    10.79   12.02 1-.1.40    14.93     16.65     18.57   20.71 2'.4.10      25.77     28.75 32.099 35.62 39.911     44.64   49.84

NET CASH FLOW                               0.00    5.67     8.51   11.86     13.14      14.56    16.14   17.83    19.82           21.98       24.37    27.02   29.96   33.24 36.117       40.91    45.39    50.38    55.92     62.07     68.92   76.53 134.99   94.40 104.68 116.52




Cost                               31.75     2.55    3.47    4.56    5.07     5.65      6.29    7.00    7.80    8.69        9.68       10.79    12.02   13.40   14.93   16B5    18.57    20.71    2110   25.77    28.75 32,09 35.82 39.913 44.64 49.84
Revenue                             0.00     8.22   11.98   16.42   18.21    20.21     22.42   24.89   27.62   30.66       34.04       37.80    41.38   46.63   51.80   57.56   63.96    71.09   79.02   87.84    97.67 108.62 120.81 134.38 149.51 166.36

Net                            -31.75        5.67    8.51   11.86   13.14    14.56     16.14   17.88   19.82   21.98       24.37       27.02    29.96   31.24   36.87   40 91   45.39    50.38   55.92   62.07    68.92    76.53 134.99    94.40 104.88 116.52

FIRR                         36.600,6

Discount Rate                 16.00%

NPV                                48.05

B/C Ratio                           1.84

				
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