Foster Care Manual by gdf57j

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									             Foster Care Manual
                                              2009

                          Dogs, Cats & Rabbits
                                                                                  Contents:

                                                                                About the Program I
                                                                                Job Description
                                                                                Whom to call
                                                                                FAQ's

                                                                                Litters & Orphans:
                                                                                Puppies                II
                                                                                Kittens                III

                                                                                Dog Basics            IV


                                                                                Cat Basics             V

                                                                                Rabbit Basics         VI



                              Our Foster Mission
At the Capital Area Humane Society we know that lives are changed when people and animals come
together. Many of those animals come to us broken in body and spirit. Our Mission is to make them
healthy again, restore their trust in humans, and find them homes.

Providing young animals with opportunities to mature, sick or injured animals with opportunities to heal
and un-socialized animals with the opportunities to develop trust in people away from the stress of the
shelter environment, can often make the difference between success and failure.

Fostering is demanding work, both physically and emotionally. This manual is designed to help you deal
with the challenges. We welcome your questions and comments regarding ways we might support you
better. We look forward to working with you to provide happy endings for more and more animals.
Section I
About the Program                                                                   Page 3

Questions to Ask Yourself Before You Foster...
FOSTERING CAN BE REWARDING AND CHALLENGING ARE YOU— READY?
  Why are you fostering?
     Do you love animals and want to help? Are you looking for a new pet?
     Are you afraid that something will happen to an animal if you do not
     foster? Do you want an animal without the long term commitment?
     These are all reasons people foster animals. However, a good foster
     caregiver will understand that animals are being fostered primarily from
     a desire to improve a needy animal’s chances of being adopted.
     Therefore, they will commit their time and energy to that animal in hopes
     of it being the best companion for a future adopter. In doing this, the caregiver has
     given that animal the best possible opportunity for a wonderful life.
  What animals am I equipped to handle?
     All foster animals will have different needs. Consider carefully your schedule, your
     family and other commitments prior to fostering. Experience is
     valuable; however, through proper training you may decide to try
     something new, for example, bottle feeding an orphan kitten.
  Am I emotionally prepared to handle the possibility of loss?
     High risk animals, including bottle babies and ill animals can be
     very stressful to care for. Consider the impact it will have on you
     and your family should an animal pass away.
  Will I be able to let the animal be adopted by someone else?
     Good foster parents know their limits. The shelter does permit,
     foster caregivers to adopt; however, it must be in the caregivers
     and the animal’s best interest. Carefully consider your ability to let
     go to prevent attachments that might be too difficult for you.
  Is it worth the possible risks?
     All living creatures create some type of risk. Animals are no exception. Their health
     and behavior can impact other animals and people. Consider the risks to yourself,
     to your family, to your resident animals and to your home. If you choose to foster, it
     will be necessary to protect all of these through proper handling of the animals,
     including isolation from other pets, proper vaccinations and proper preparation and
     cleaning of your home while you care for the animals. If you are up for the challenge
     and take appropriate precautions, the risk should be minimal.
About the Program                                                                             Page 4

Selection of Foster Caregivers

 All foster caregivers must complete a foster care application that
 will help the coordinator match foster caregivers with the
 appropriate animal for their lifestyle.


 All foster caregivers must sign the foster agreement/liability
 waiver and be capable of meeting the qualifications, duties and
 time requirements stated on the foster caregiver job description.


 Foster caregivers are contacted and asked to respond to requests
 to foster right away so that the animals can be placed quickly. The
 stress and health risk to animals, especially babies, is reduced
 significantly when they are not kept at the shelter.


 Foster caregivers should feel free to say no if they feel ill—                     Caregivers
 equipped to deal with a particular situation or the time
                                                                                    are always
 requirement is not convenient.
                                                                                     needed.
                                                                                       Tell
 Foster caregivers who have dogs at home and are considering
                                                                                     someone!
 fostering a dog must agree to keep resident dogs separate from foster
 dogs/puppies and resident dogs must be current on all vaccines. This is
 is for the health/safety of resident pets. Exceptions may be made for
 cases requiring special socialization but these will be identified by
 your foster coordinator and pre-approved by shelter staff.

 Foster caregivers must be aware that the animals placed in foster
 care are generally considered to be high risk and that sometimes
 animals will not thrive and may die despite all attempts to
 save them.


 Foster caregivers must be able to afford the cost of basic supplies such as cat litter, litter boxes,
 appropriate toys and treats. Food (Hill's Science Diet) will be provided when available. Any
 special foods and all medications will be provided to you.
About the Program                                                                                Page 5

Foster Caregiver Job Description
Objective          Capital Area Humane Society seeks to provide a corps of
                   trained caregivers who will welcome shelter animals into their homes
                   on a temporary basis, and provide the care they need to mature, heal,
                   socialize, or otherwise prepare for adoption into permanent homes.

Coordinator        Tami Pappas


Qualifications     Approval of application by the Program Coordinator
                   All resident animals must be current on vaccines Dogs should be* negative
                                                                      *
                   for heartworm disease. Cats should be FeLV and FIV Negative.

                   Provide adequate facilities at home (should include area in which to
                   confine the animal away from resident animals for health or social reasons)
                   Willingness to commit much time and energy to an animal that
                   will hopefully return to the shelter for adoption
                   Animal handling knowledge required; knowledge of medical
                   treatment of animals helpful
                                                                                            Caregivers
                   Review and acceptance of foster care agreement and waiver               are essential
                                                                                              for the
                                                                                            success of
Specific Duties    Assume responsibility for the safety of foster animals                  our extended
                   Provide proper food, shelter, exercise and attention for animals        stay shelter.
                   Follow special care instructions precisely
                   Immediately report any foster animal problems to coordinator
                   Maintain a level of confidentiality regarding “special needs” animals
                   Foster animals until they are completely healthy or socialized
                   Return each foster animal to the shelter upon request
                   Comply with all Capital Area Humane Society policies regarding acceptance of
                   animals, adoptions, medical care and euthanasia


Time Requirement   A minimum commitment of six months to the volunteer program is encouraged.
                   A great deal of time and emotional commitment is involved. Foster term may
                   range from one week to several months depending on the individual case.


Training           Attend Capital Area Humane Society Volunteer Orientation


Benefits           Great learning opportunity for the entire family
                   Hands-on volunteer work that directly impacts the lives of animals
                   Make a difference while volunteering in the comfort of your own home
                   Perfect for people who love pets, without the long-term commitment
About the Program                                                                      Page 6

 Who to Call.......Foster Coordinator and Shelter Staff

     When it comes to animals, there are no silly questions. Don't hesitate to call!
  For any questions related to the Foster Program, foster animals, medical concerns,
  scheduling, etc, your first call should always be to your Foster Coordinator.
  She/He will advise you and assure that you get the information that
  you need. Once animals leave the shelter and enter foster care, they
  need to remain in foster care until approved by either the shelter
  veterinarian or medical staff. Do not return your foster animals to the
  shelter without this approval unless your foster coordinator has been
  notified and approves the return.

    Foster Coordinator: Tami Pappas
          Schedules and provides support for foster caregivers and all animals
          in foster care . Available via telephone and email 24 hours a day.
          Home 614-844-6448, Mobile 614-747-0272, ttpappas@columbus.rr.com


    Processing Department: 777-7387, ext 224
           Once you have been assigned a foster animal or group, you will need to
           call Processing to schedule an appointment for pick-up. You will also need to
           follow this same protocol when it is time to return your foster animal.
           Your foster animals should never be taken to the shelter without a pre-
           scheduled appointment time.
          If you should need additional pet food, or have a question regarding
          medications that were sent home with you when you picked up your foster
          you can call Processing at 777-7387, ext 224. Please be aware that the
          staff in Processing have many duties throughout the shelter so you may need

    After Hours Emergency:
           For medical emergencies involving your foster animal, your first call should
           be to your foster coordinator. She/He will direct you in regards to how to
           proceed.


   Other Support Staff:

           Tess Kommedal, D.V.M., Shelter Chief Veterinarian
           Audrey Birkhold, D.V.M., Shelter Staff Veterinarian
           Scott Baxter, Animal Care Manager
           Sarah Tayse, Customer Care Manager
           Al Burnard, Vet Services Manager
About the Program                                                                                     Page 7

Selection of Animals to be Fostered
The Capital Area Humane Society foster care program is designed to serve
at-risk animals that have a better chance of preparing for adoption away from the stress of
the shelter environment.

        Animals are approved for the program by the shelter manager,
        veterinarians, processing staff and foster coordinator.

        All attempts are made to determine the behavior status of the animal prior to
        leaving the shelter.

        All attempts are made to determine the health status of the animal prior to leaving
        the shelter. Animals are vaccinated, de-wormed and vet checked when applicable
        prior to placement in foster care.

        No animals known to be aggressive toward people or known biters will be fostered.

        Animals with known contagious diseases or behavior issues are fostered only with full disclosure to the
        caregiver.

Animals to be fostered:
    Ill animals

    Injured animals or animals recovering from surgery

    Juvenile kittens, puppies or bunnies (under 8 weeks of age)

    Orphaned kittens and puppies requiring bottle feeding or special attention

    An abandoned mother with a litter of kittens, puppies or bunnies

    Shy or un-socialized animals

    Animals in protective custody or part of a cruelty case

    Any animal that may need respite from the shelter due to stress or length of stay



Health Risks
It is always a health risk to expose your animal to other animals, whether at the park, the vet waiting room, or
other common animal areas. But if the foster caregiver’s own animals are current on their vaccinations, maintain
a healthy diet and lifestyle, and are not very young or elderly—and therefore, their immune systems are not
compromised—then the health risk should be minimal.

       If you or someone in your household are immune-compromised, consult your doctor before fostering.

       If you or someone in your household is pregnant, talk to your doctor before fostering cats.

       Working or living with animals exposes humans to a group of diseases called zoonoses. A zoonotic dis
       ease is defined as a disease transmitted from animals to humans and also from humans to animals.
       There are about 200 of these diseases. To find out more about them talk to your veterinarian.

                  Proper hygiene, preventative measures and an understanding of these illnesses
                  can reduce the risk of disease.

See the resource section on illnesses for more information regarding health risks.
About the Program                                                                               Page 8

Common Questions and Answers About Fostering
What happens after I agree to foster?
Once you have agreed to take the animal:
   A rehab program is developed by the processing staff and staff veterinarian

   A time is scheduled for you to pick up the animal.

   Care instructions, special equipment, special food, and medications are supplied
   as needed.

   Appointments are scheduled for medical examinations, vaccinations, testing and/or
   de-worming.

   An approximate date is scheduled for the return of the animal.
                                                                                       Capital Area
   We will call you for status reports                                                   Humane
   We love to have progress reports. Pictures or written documentation of suc-
                                                                                         Society
   cess of the animal to send home with its adoptive family is always welcome           maintains
   and encouraged.
                                                                                        ownership
   You get to enjoy the rewards of helping animals that need you.
                                                                                       of all foster
Is the animal mine?
                                                                                         animals.
No, you will be responsible for the care of the animal; however, Capital
Area Humane Society maintains ownership/guardianship of foster animals at
all times and reserves the right to reclaim the animal at any time during the foster period. Should an
animal need to be returned, the foster caregiver will be given the reasons and asked to bring the ani-
mal back to the shelter as soon as possible.

What if I cannot continue to care for my foster animal?
Caregivers who cannot fulfill the entire foster term are asked to contact the foster coordinator as soon
as possible so that other arrangements can be made.
Foster animals must remain in the immediate care of the appointed foster caregiver. Leaving a foster
animal in anyone else's care, unless specific arrangements have been approved by the foster coordi-
nator, is prohibited. The safety and care of this animal have been entrusted to you (the approved fos-
ter home) and to no one else. Do not worry—if you must return the foster animal, we will continue the
care of the animal either at the shelter or in another approved foster home.

Can I say no?
Please say no if you do not feel it is a good time for you to care for a foster animal. The program is de-
signed to provide the best experience for both the animal and the caregiver. Often after a difficult ex-
perience with a very ill foster animal or a bottle—fed baby you may need a break. Please do not feel
obligated to agree to foster. We encourage you to be honest with us and to know your own limits.
There will always be another opportunity to foster.
About the Program                                                                               P a g e9

Common Questions and Answers About Fostering
What are the time commitments?
Commitment and responsibilities depend upon the situation and animal. Animals
going into foster care have often been through much stress. It is essential that foster
caregivers understand that moving the animal from the shelter to the foster home is
also very stressful and emotional. These animals will depend on the foster caregivers
for guidance during this adjustment period. (For example, adjustment periods for
dogs can be anywhere from three days to three weeks.) Don’t give up on a foster
animal. The coordinator is always available to assist you with questions and help.
                                      Estimated Time Commitments
              Frequency               Felines                  Weeks Involved

              Most Common             Weaned Kittens           1-6 weeks

                                      Orphaned Kittens         6-8 weeks
                                      Kittens with Mom         2-8 weeks
                                       URI Cats or Kittens     3-8 weeks
                                      Lactating Mother Cats    1-4 weeks
                                      Injured Cats             1-12 weeks
                                      Un-socialized Kittens    1-8 weeks or more
                                       Un-socialized Cats      1-8 weeks or more             The more
                                      Cruelty Case Cats/Kittens 2-16 weeks or more          attention a
                                                                                          foster animal
              Frequency               Canines                  Weeks Involved
                                                                                           is given, the
              Most Common             Weaned Puppies           1-4 weeks                  better suited
                                      Orphaned Puppies         6-8 weeks                    she will be
                                      Injured Dogs             1-12 weeks                   for her new
                                      Dogs with illness        2-12 weeks                      home.
                                      Lactating Mother Dogs 1-5 weeks
                                      Behavior Cases           1-6 weeks
                                      Puppies with Mom         2-8 weeks
                                      Cruelty Case Cats/Kittens 2-16 weeks or more

              Frequency               Rabbits                   Weeks Involved

              Most Common             Behavior Cases            1-6 weeks

                                      Rabbits with illness      1-8 weeks

The rate at which animals grow, heal and adjust may vary so these should be viewed as estimates
only. If additional health problems develop these foster periods may vary. Foster caregivers will
need to plan on transporting their foster animals to the shelter for veterinary appointments.
Anytime a foster caregiver is unable to complete the foster period, the Foster Coordinator should
be contacted so that alternative placement arrangements can be made. Foster animals should
never be returned to the shelter prematurely without a scheduled appointment.
About the Program                                                                                    Page 10

Common Questions and Answers About Fostering
Where should foster animals stay while at my home?
Areas where a foster animal will be kept should be easy to clean. Avoid areas with carpeting or
upholstery in case of illnesses that require extraordinary sanitation efforts. Rule of thumb...If
it cannot be bleached or heated to over 110 degrees, it should not be used for foster ani-
mals or to house foster animals.

Cats/Kittens Indoors only (do not let your foster cat/kitten outdoors), crate, separate
             room (bathroom, laundry room or closet). Kittens
             should be around people for socialization purposes and should not be isolated.
Dogs            Indoors—crate. When outdoors, dogs should be on a
                leash at all times, unless you are in a securely fenced area. Please note
                that you should not take a contagious dog to an off-leash area. Also, you are
                responsible for the safety and well-being of your foster dog. Foster dogs
                should not be put in a position of possibly fighting with a strange dog; have access to unknown
                visitors when not on a leash; eliminate where the resident dog eliminates.

Puppies         Indoors—kitchen (you may want baby gates), bathroom, laundry room, warm and
                dry garage. Puppies should be around humans for socialization purposes and should not be
                isolated. Outdoors only while supervised by an adult. Puppies should never go to areas
                where dogs are allowed off their leash because they are not fully vaccinated and are highly
                susceptible to contagious diseases. Do not allow puppies to eliminate
                where other dog do.                                                               Foster
                                                                                                animals
Rabbits         Indoors—large crate, exercise pen in the kitchen, bathroom, laundry
                room.
                                                                                               should be
                                                                                               kept away
How can I animal proof my house?                                                                  from
Animals are curious creatures. Many are capable of jumping onto high surfaces or                resident
squeezing into the smallest of spaces. To protect your foster animal in your home and to
                                                                                               animals to
safeguard your home, animal proof your house before accidents happen.
                                                                                              avoid health
Kitchen/Bathroom                                                                                 and/or
    Use childproof latches to keep little paws from prying open cabinets                        behavior
    Keep medications, cleaners, chemicals and laundry supplies on high shelves or inside       problems.
    latched cabinets
    Keep trash can liners covered or inside latched cabinets, make sure dental floss is disposed of carefully
    Check for and block any small spaces, nooks or holes inside cabinetry or behind the washer or dryer
    Make sure animals have not jumped into the dryer before you turn it on
    Keep foods out of reach (even if the food is not harmful, the wrapper could be)
Living/Family Room
    Place dangling wires from lamps, DVD’s, VCR’s, TV’s, stereos and phones out of reach
    Keep children’s toys put away. Put away knickknacks until your animal has the coordination and/or under-
    standing not to knock them over
    Block all those places where your vacuum cleaner doesn’t fit, but your animal could
    Remove dangerous items like string and pins and sewing items
    Move houseplants, which can be poisonous, out of reach, including hanging plants that could be reached by
    jumping. See list in this section.
About the Program                                                                                          Page 11

Common Questions and Answers About Fostering
How can I animal proof my house? (continued)

    Keep laundry and shoes behind closed doors (Drawstrings and buttons can cause major
    problems if ingested)

    Keep medications, lotions and cosmetics off accessible surfaces

    Move blind cords and electrical and phone wires out of chewing range

   Move all chemicals to high shelves or behind secure doors

   Clean up all antifreeze from the floor and driveway as one taste can be lethal to animal




What Household Items and plants are Poisonous to Animals?
Advil             Alcohol            Almonds        Aloe Vera         Amaryllis bulb   Anemone        Anthurium
Antifreeze        Apple seeds        Apricot        Arrow grass      Asparagus fern    Aspirin        Autumn crocus
Avocado           Azalea             Baby’s Breath  Balsam            Baneberry        Begonia        Bird of Paradise
Bittersweet       Black-Eyed Susan                   Black Locust     Bleeding Heart   Bloodroot      Boxwood
Buckeye           Burning Bush       Buttercup       Bracken Fern     Cactus           Caffeine       CaladiumCalla Lilly
Castor Bean       Ceriman            Cherry         Ch. Evergreen Ceriman              Cherry         Chinese Sacred
Chocolate         Christmas Rose Chrysanthemum Clematis               Cordatum         Corn Plant     Cornflower
Cornstalk Plant   Crocus bulb        Croton         Cuban Laurel      Cycads           Cyclamen       Daffodil
Daphne            Delphinium         Dieffenbachia Dragon Tree        Dumb Cane        Eggplant       Elaine
Elderberry        Elephant’s Ear Emerald Feather                      English Ivy      Euonymus       Fiddle-leaf Fig
Flax              Florida Beauty Four o'clock       Foxglove          Garlic           Geranium       Golden Glow
Henbane           Hemlock            Herbicides     Hibiscus          Holly            Honeysuckle    Horse Chestnut
Hurricane Plant   Hyacinth           Hydrangea      Indian Laurel     Insecticides      Iris          Jack-in-the-pulpit
Japanese Plum     Java Beans         Jerusalem Cherry                Jimson Weed       Jonquil        Kalanchoe
Lantana           Lily of the Valley                Lily (most forms)                  Locoweed       Lupine species
Madagascar        Marble Queen Marigold             Marijuana         Morning Glory    Mistletoe      Milkweed
Monkshood         Morning Glory Mountain Laurel Mushrooms             Narcissus        Nephtytis      Nightshade
Nutmeg            Oleander           Onion          Peach             Pear             Peony           Periwinkle
Philodendron      Pimpernel          Pikeberry      Plumosa Fern      Poinsettia       Poison Ivy     Poison Oak
Pokeweed          Poppy              Potato         Pothos            Precatory Bean   Primrose       Privet
Rodent Poison     Red Emerald        Red Princess   Rhododendron Rhubarb               Ribbon Plant   Rubber Plant
Sago Palm         Schefflera         Scotch Broom   Shamrock          Skunk Cabbage                   Snail/snail bait
Spurge            Star of Bethlehem                 String of Pearls Sumac             Sweet pea      Swiss Cheese Plant
Taro Vine         Thorn Apple        Tobacco        Tomato            Tulip            Tylenol        Virginia Creeping
Walnut            Weeping Fig        Wild Barley    Wisteria          Yew

Listed are some of the more common household items and plants which may be deadly if ingested. In
some cases, only certain parts of these are poisonous. Use this list as a guideline to make your home
safe. If you suspect your foster animal has been poisoned , contact
your foster coordinator for further instruc tions.
About the Program                                                                                 Page 12

Common Questions and Answers About Fostering
How can I clean my house to prevent illness?
When housing an animal it is important to consider all objects the animal may have
contact with and disinfect them accordingly. This will help protect your animals and
future foster animals. It is also important to consider what cleaning agents are safe to
use on certain surfaces. While all surfaces may not be able to be cleaned, the simple
action of decreasing the numbers of environmental pathogens through washing and/
or vacuuming daily helps.
REMEMBER THE RULE OF THUMB...IF IT CANNOT BE BLEACHED OR HEATED TO OVER 110
DEGREES, IT SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR FOSTER ANIMALS OR TO HOUSE FOSTER ANIMALS.

   The most common organisms we deal with in a shelter are viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi.
   To be effective against each of these organisms a cleaning agent and a disinfectant both must be
   used properly in the correct strength and for the proper contact time.
   Cleaning is the act of removing any dirt, fecal matter, fur or other organic impurities from the item.
   Disinfecting is the process that actually eliminates the disease—causing organisms.

Step One: Cleaning
   Clean the item thoroughly with a type of anti-bacterial soap and warm water.            The best way
   Make sure that all organic material is removed because bleach , the
                                                                                             to prevent
   disinfectant, is inactivated when it comes in contact with organic material and
                                                                                           the spread of
   will not do its job. So, make sure the item is clean before you disinfect.
                                                                                            illness is to
Step Two: Rinse Well                                                                         wash your
                                                                                           hands before
Step Three: Disinfecting
                                                                                              and after
   Disinfect it thoroughly with the proper bleach solution for 10 minutes. Bleach           handling an
   is inexpensive and it acts rapidly against the majority of organisms that your              animal.
   foster animal may have been exposed to but it requires time to do the job and
   it must be made fresh to be the most effective. Rinse thoroughly, bleach is
   toxic to animals if ingested. Lysol, Pinesol and other ''sol'' type products are toxic to cats also.
   Bleach must be mixed appropriately at a 1:32 ratio—this equals 1/2 cup of bleach to one gallon of
   water. MORE is not better it will just make you and the animal sick! Also, please note that bleach is
   a respiratory irritant to cats so it is helpful to air out the area before housing cats in it after cleaning.
   Bleach exception: for ringworm fungus, use 1 1/2 cups bleach per gallon water.
Best Practice:
   Plastic toys, litter pans, cages or crates, floors, etc.
   Remove any solid matter from the item, vacuum floors
   Clean with warm soapy water, remove all specks of organic material, rinse
   Disinfect: Bleach, 1/2 cup bleach, 1 gallon water, for 10 minutes, rinse well and dry
   Bedding, soft toys, etc.
   Wash separately from other household items, add bleach per manufacture’s instructions and dry on high
   heat.
   Food and water bowl, toys, etc.
   Rinse thoroughly and place in dishwasher for cleaning. Wash on sterile cycle.
About the Program                                                                                             P a g e 13

Common Questions and Answers About Fostering
What if my foster animal gets sick ?                       See the section on Possible Signs for Concern
Please contact the Processing department immediately at 614-777-7387, ext 224. The staff is generally in the
building seven days a week between 9:00am and 5:30pm. They may be away from the immediate area, especially
in the mornings and during treatment times so if possible please leave a message.
Shelter veterinarians are on staff for medical appointments to see foster animals. Their hours may vary
so please call processing at 777-7387, ext. 224 to schedule. Some evening and weekend appointments
will generally be available but please be aware that these appointment times fill up quickly so try to plan
accordingly and always call ahead to schedule an appointment.

   If the situation arises after these hours and you feel it is critical to talk to someone
   immediately, please



What if my foster animal bites or scratches?
Foster Caregivers are required to report any unusual aggressive behavior or any bite or
serious scratch that breaks the skin. Ohio law mandates that an animal that bites must be placed on a 10—14 day
quarantine for rabies observation. See the section on Animal Wellness.

All Foster Caregivers are encouraged to have a current Tetanus vaccination for their safety.

If a bite occurs:
                                                                                                     Call with any
    Clean and flush the wound immediately with soap and water
                                                                                                       concerns
    Consult your physician for further instructions                                                   regarding
    Report the incident to your foster coordinator and the Processing Department as                   your foster
    as soon as possible.                                                                               animal…
    A Bite Form and Incident Form must be completed and submitted to the
                                                                                                      We cannot
    Capital Area Humane Society (forms are available at the shelter)                                 help if we do
                                                                                                       not know
    The animal will be scheduled to be seen by the staff veterinarian and depending on
    the circumstances either will return back to the foster home or will stay at the shelter            what is
    during the10—14 day quarantine period.                                                           happening…

If a bite is not reported:                                                                            Try to plan
                                                                                                       ahead as
    It creates a hazard for others handling that animal. An animal that has bitten once is
                                                                                                    things always
    usually less inhibited in biting a second time.
                                                                                                    seem worse at
    If the animal is rabid, it could mean the death of the bitten individual.                        night...so try
Are foster animals ever euthanized?                                                                     to ask
                                                                                                       questions
Much energy, love, time and veterinary care are devoted to animals in foster                        during the day
care, and the shelter is committed to finding homes for ALL of these animals.
                                                                                                       when the
Foster caregivers can feel confident that the shelter will not euthanize any animal
                                                                                                    veterinarian is
unless it becomes seriously ill or injured and is suffering. If no viable medical
treatment is available or the animal poses a threat either through contagion or
                                                                                                      available.
behavior the animal may be euthanized. All attempts will be made to provide
foster caregivers with honesty and compassion in these situations.
About the Program                                                                                Page 14

Common Questions and Answers About Fostering
What supplies do I need to foster?
Supplies will differ depending on what type of animal you foster. This is a list of basic
items that will be good to have on-hand. Unique requirements will be supplied by the
shelter.
   Washable bedding, including towels and blankets
   Washable food, water dishes and animal bottles for orphans
   Clay cat litter and washable litter pans (more than one for multiple cats)
   Toys (avoid toys with strings, buttons, eyes or other parts that an animal could
   choke on)
   Hot water bottle or some other safe item for keeping an animal
   warm
   Preferably Hill's Science Diet products appropriate for the age of the animal
   Rawhides or Kongs for dogs and puppies
   Washable leashes
   Newspaper or shredded paper                                                          To prevent
                                                                                       health risks,
   Cardboard hiding boxes for cats or rabbits
                                                                                      keep supplies
   Baby gates for confinement                                                            for foster
   Rectal thermometer and Vaseline                                                        animals
                                                                                      separate from
   Cotton swabs and cotton balls
                                                                                     resident animal
   Nail clippers                                                                         supplies.
   Large dog crate
   Cat carrier
   Bleach and antibacterial detergent


What if I need supplies?
Hill's Science Diet pet food, special diet foods are supplied at pick-up of the foster Animal. For additional
supplies, for example medication, KMR (Kitten Milk Replacement), Esbilac (Puppy Milk
Replacement) or other specialty items please call 614-777-7387, ext. 224 and schedule a pick
up time. Please call before your supply is gone. Sometimes special arrangements must be
made for medication preparation and for other items. We want to ensure they are available
when you arrive.
About the Program                                                                                  Page 15

Common Questions and Answers About Fostering
How do I know when to return my foster animal?
At the time you pick up your foster animal a tentative date should be determined.
This is an estimate because all animals mature at different rates or animals with
injuries may recover sooner. *Please note, the vaccine protocol and schedule may
vary as the medical staff deems necessary.
General guidelines for returning fosters would be when:
   Weaned or Orphaned kittens
     Weigh 2 lbs., eating dry Kitten Chow, have a good health check and have
     been vaccinated and de-wormed at least once.

   Kittens with Mom
       Kittens weigh close to 2 lbs., no longer dependent on “mom” for nutrition, eating
       dry Kitten Chow, good health check and have been vaccinated and de-wormed at
       least once.
      Mom cat has had a good health check, and has been vaccinated and de-wormed at least once and is no
      longer producing milk.

   Cat or Kitten with Illness
      Completed medication, no signs of active illness, have had a good health check,
      have been vaccinated and de-wormed at least once, normal activity level has
      returned.

   Injured Cat or Kitten
       Completed treatment for injury, have had a good health check, have been
       vaccinated and de-wormed at least once, normal activity level has returned.

   Un-socialized Cats or Kittens
      Socialized to the extent that they can be handled safely, can tolerate the shelter environment, have had a
      good health check and have been vaccinated and dewormed at least once.

   Weaned or Orphaned Puppies
     Weigh close to 5 lbs. or are at least 7 weeks of age, eating dry Puppy Chow, have a good health check
     and have been vaccinated and de-wormed at least once.

   Injured Dog or Puppy
       Completed treatment for injury, have had a good health check, have been vaccinated and de-wormed at
       least once, normal activity level has returned.

   Dog or Puppy with Illness
      Completed treatment for injury, have had a good health check, have been vaccinated and de-wormed at
      least once, normal activity level has returned.

   Puppies with Mom
      Puppies weigh close to 5 lbs. or are at least 7 weeks of age, no longer dependent on “mom” for nutrition,
      eating dry Puppy Chow, have had a good health check and have been vaccinated and de-wormed at
      least once.

      Mom dog has had a good health check, and has been vaccinated and de-wormed at least once and is no
      longer producing milk.

   Protective Custody Animal: Return date is dependent upon court case or other legal solution.
Section II
Litters and Orphans                                                                            Page 2

Puppy Care: Basics
Puppies under the age of 8 weeks need a mother—either a dog or a human surrogate.
They are very vulnerable in a shelter and the chance to get them into a foster home
within 24 hours is a chance to save their lives. The following guidelines will help you
with the care of your puppies and will help you understand the policies and procedures of the fos-
ter care program.

Please keep the following items on this list in mind before you agree to bring foster
animals into your home.

   A foster animal could potentially carry illness into your home that could affect your resident
   animals' (or humans') health.

   To protect people, young children should not handle the foster puppies and everyone should
   wash their hands after handling animals and their fecal waste.

   To protect other dogs, foster animals should be separated from household pets for at least two
   weeks. This means that you should also prohibit the sharing of food and water bowls and toys.

   Puppies should be de-fleaed before they enter your home and as often as necessary to keep
   fleas off of them, because fleas can spread disease among your other animals and to people.

   You should wash your hands with soap and water before handling your own animals or children
   and you may also want to change clothes.

   You should routinely disinfect the foster puppies’ quarters and disinfect the entire premises be-
   fore new puppies are introduced.

   The best way to disinfect the area is to remove all organic material and fecal debris and then
   soak with a mild bleach solution (1 part bleach to 32 parts water) for at least 10 minutes. All sur-
   faces, bowls, toys, etc. need to be disinfected (so you probably want to keep puppies in a room
   without carpeting, hardwood floors and so forth).

   It is best to have only one litter at a time (rear the puppies in cohort groups) rather than con-
   stantly adding new puppies in with others. Keeping them in cohorts allows you to prevent dis-
   ease mixing among cohorts and to having to disinfect between groups.
   It is possible even with these precautions that resident dogs could be exposed to mild infections
   such as kennel cough. Ask the foster coordinator for more information if this is a concern.
Litters and Orphans                                                                          Page 3

Puppy Care: Basics
Supplies you will need before you bring home puppies:
  Box or carrier
     You may want to use the carrier in which you took the litter home. It will provide
     a familiar-smelling, dark, quiet home for your foster puppies. However, a bigger box may be
     desirable, as it will allow you to see in, as well as provide plenty of room for the mother and the
     new, growing litter of puppies.
  Newspapers
    Keep several layers in the bottom of the box, and they will come in handy when the puppies
    start to roam around the room.
  Shredded Paper
     Use as bedding but ensure puppies do not eat it or become tangled.
  Water bowls
    Heavy and impossible to tip. Should be stainless steel or porcelain/ceramic, NOT plastic,
    as plastic is difficult to disinfect because it is so porous.
  Food bowls (at least 2)
     One is for the eat-at-will dry food, the other for canned food. You can use aluminum trays,
     paper plates or whatever you have; any relatively flat plate or saucer will do. The larger the
     litter, the larger the plate should be so that no one gets crowded out.
  Food
     You should have dry puppy chow, canned puppy food (Purina products preferred), and
     all-meat baby food (must not contain vegetables or onion powder). Offer several choices to
     weaned puppies to determine their preferences.
  Heating pad, hot water bottle, or infrared lamp
     Unless the nursery is at least 85° and your puppies are 2 weeks or older, you need to supply
     extra heat. BE SURE THAT THE PUPPIES HAVE ROOM TO MOVE AWAY FROM THE HEAT
     (leave room for mom if she is with them). For instance, if you are using a heating pad, place it
     under a towel so that it covers only half of the floor area of their box. The heating pad should
     be on "low" or "medium." If you use a hot water bottle, keep it where dog can't destroy it.
  Clean towels and blankets
  Toys
     Plastic, disinfectable toys are good to reuse for new litters. Do not use personal items such as
     socks, caps, shoes, etc.
  Scale
     Although not critical to success, a food or postal scale will be very helpful in monitoring small
     puppies’ growth, which can be variable among breeds.
  Puppy bottles
  Esbilac (milk replacement formula for puppies)
Litters and Orphans                                                                             Page 4

Puppy Care: Bir th
If you are fostering a pregnant dog during her final week of pregnancy, it is important
to remember she may not have a big appetite because the puppies are crowding her
internal organs. Feed her several small meals daily, rather than one or two larger
meals. Leave water out at all times and remember that food requirements increase for pregnant dogs.

Prepare an area for the mother to have her puppies. Make it a dry, warm, relatively dark and out-of-
the-way place, and put Mom in it. If she doesn't want to stay in it, don't insist, but you can encourage
her by petting her and giving her little food treats. If your nursery room is not that warm, you can make
it warmer by wrapping a heating pad in a towel, setting it on "low," and placing it under HALF of the
nursery area so that the mother and puppies can remove themselves from the heat source if they
choose. One word of warning: you might consider wrapping duct tape or a cord protector around the
cord, as some puppies tend to chew them!



The birth of puppies, or kindling
The majority of dogs give birth with no problem or need for outside help. Before delivery, the bitch
may become irritable and restless. She will search for a place to have her puppies. Lead her to the
designated nursing area. If she has her puppies outside of the pre-assigned area, let her. When she is
completely done with the delivery, move them all into the designated area.

Many dogs want you to stay with them, and will try to follow you if you leave. You will probably have
to spend some time with this kind of dog soothing her. Often after the birth of the first couple of pup-
pies, she will be very busy and not so dependent on your presence. Other bitches will try to get away
from you and hide. Give her the space she needs, but keep checking in on her regularly. It is quite
possible that you will miss the birth process entirely. You might wake up one morning or come home
from work to find the new family born, dry, and nursing.
Litters and Orphans                                                                           Page 5

Puppy Care: Bir th
Stages of canine labor
The first stage may take 12 hours, during which the bitch may begin to act restlessly.
She may become very active, and appear to be uncomfortable, sometimes whining loudly.

In the second stage, the water breaks, and straw colored fluid is passed. A puppy will be delivered a
few minutes later. The bitch will lick the puppy clean and bite through the umbilical cord. She is bond-
ing with her puppies through this process, and learning to recognize them as her own. Do not disturb
her. It may look as if her treatment is too rough, but she is actually stimulating breathing and blood
circulation. Puppies should begin nursing between subsequent births.

In the final stage, the placenta follows a few minutes after delivery of a puppy. The mother will proba-
bly eat some or all of the placentas. Puppies are born anywhere from minutes to hours apart, so most
deliveries can take a significant amount of time. Litter sizes can be variable depending on the breed.
Larger litters of 10 or more are possible.

If a puppy is not born within 2 hours and the mother appears to be continually straining or in distress,
call your foster care coordinator immediately or after hours page the humane officer to get veterinary
assistance. She may need a Caesarean or a drug called oxytocin to stimulate contractions. If the
mother is content and happy, she is probably finished, though there have been cases in which a dog
resumed delivery sometime later.
Litters and Orphans                                                                       Page 6

Puppy Care
 Confinement
 No fostered animals should be allowed outside for the first few weeks. When out-
 side, the puppies should be kept in a secured area and under direct supervision.

  Young puppies should be kept in a large box or kennel lined with a towel for easy cleaning. It is
  very important to keep the puppies warm, and a heating pad is ideal for this. The heating pad
  should be placed under HALF of the towel (so they can move away from the heat if they need to)
  and set on "low." The more puppies in your litter, the better able they will be to keep warm by
  sleeping together in a heap. Small litters and singletons need more help keeping warm. Keep
  puppies away from heaters or cold drafts.

 Eliminating
 If puppies are not urinating and defecating on their own (when they are less than 2 weeks old),
 they will need to be stimulated. This should be done every few hours (often right after feeding) by
 gently rubbing a warm , wet paper towel on the puppies anus and genital area. They will urinate
 and defecate into the paper towel.

 Keeping puppies clean
 A mother works hard to keep her puppies clean, grooming them thoroughly to remove any sticky
 messes they may get into, such as food or feces. Keeping puppies clean in the absence of their
 mother can be a messy business, but it is extremely important. A flea comb will get rid of dried
 feces in the fur. You can also stroke a puppy with a warm, damp cloth, using short strokes to mimic
 a mother's tongue. Be sure to dry him well, so he can't chill.

 Socializing
 Part of your job is to convince the puppies that humans are kind and loving. Outgoing, friendly
 puppies can be cuddled and played with freely, after spending a day or so to accustom themselves
 to a comfy box in a quiet room. Shy puppies will need more encouragement. Try sitting on the floor
 with a puppy held against your chest, supported underneath, and facing outwards, so he can't see
 how big and scary you are. Stroke him and speak gently, telling him how cute and brave and fabu-
 lous he is (puppies love to hear that!). Any introductions of dogs to other dogs or cats to dogs
 should be made with great care and under constant supervision. Remember that foster animals
 should be isolated from resident animals to reduce health risks to the puppies.
Litters and Orphans                                                                      Page 7

Puppy Care
 General concepts of feeding
 Commercially available puppy formula should be given at the puppy's body
 temperature, about 100 degrees. Once the can is opened or the powder recon-
 stituted, unused formula should be kept refrigerated and discarded after 24
 hours.

  It is best to feed the puppies one-by-one, and on a counter-top—this allows
  them to feed with all four feet on the counter, and their heads level, much as
  they would if they were nursing from their mom. Some puppies prefer to nurse
  standing on their hind legs while holding the bottle. They will require a little
  support from you in this position. Gently open a puppy's mouth with one finger
  and place the tip of the nipple on his tongue. If he won't eat, try stroking him.
  Pull lightly on the bottle to encourage vigorous sucking. Be sure to tilt the bottle
  up slightly to prevent the puppy from inhaling too much air. Do not force the
  puppy to nurse, or allow him to nurse too fast. Avoid feeding a puppy while he
  is cradled on his back - if the fluid goes down the wrong way, it may end up in
  his lungs.

  After each feeding, the puppy should be burped. Hold him against your shoul-
  der and gently massage his back or pat it lightly.

  Overfeeding is as dangerous as underfeeding puppies! Keep an eye on your
  puppies at feeding time and monitor how much each is eating. If you see signs
  of diarrhea, separate them until you find out which one is sick. Your puppies
  will generally regulate their own food intake. If they need more food, they may
  whine or suck on their litter mates. A good indication that they are getting
  enough to eat is the size of their bellies—they should be filled out after a meal,
  but not bloated.
Litters and Orphans                                                                                    Page 8

Puppy: Expectations and Care at Each Age
    0-1 Weeks

Feeding: Bottle feed 1/2 tablespoon formula every 2 - 3 hours. If the bitch is with the puppies,
they should nurse vigorously and compete for nipples. Newborns can nurse up to 45 minutes at
a time. Be sure to watch puppies nursing at least once a day, if the bitch will permit it. Check that everyone is
nursing and that there isn't too much jockeying for position. A great deal of activity and crying could indicate a
problem with milk flow, quality or availability. When the bitch reenters the box, there should be some fussing
for only a few minutes before everyone has settled down to serious nursing.

Environment: The temperature of the nest box should be nice and warm: 85-90 degrees. Chilling is the num-
ber one danger to newborn puppies.

Behavior and training: At one week of age, the puppies should be handled minimally.
Puppies will sleep 90% of the time and eat the other 10%.

    1-2 Weeks

Feeding: Bottle-feed formula every 2 - 3 hours, until puppies are full but not bloated.

Environment: Floor temperature of the nest box should be 80 to 85 degrees.

Behavior and training: Ear canals open between 5 and 8 days. Eyes will open between 8 and 14 days. They
open gradually, usually starting to open from the nose outward. All puppies are born with blue eyes, and ini-
tially no pupils can be distinguished from the irises—the eyes will appear solid dark blue.

Healthy puppies will be round and warm, with pink skin. If you pinch them gently, their skin should spring back.
When you pick a puppy up, it should wiggle energetically and when you put it down near the mom it should
crawl back to her. Healthy puppies seldom cry.

    2-3 Weeks
Feeding: Bottle feed formula every 3-4 hours, until puppies are full but not bloated.

Environment: The floor temperature of the nest box should be 75 to 80 degrees.

Behavior and training: If there is a bitch, she will begin to spend larger periods of time out of the nest,
though she will not go far from it.

Puppies begin to crawl around day 18 and can stand by day 21. They will begin to play with each other, biting
ears, tails and paws even before their teeth have come in. Their milk teeth are cut during this period. They learn
to sit and touch objects with their paws.

Puppies begin their socialization phase—they will be strongly influenced by the behavior of their mother for the
next six weeks. To further socialize puppies, increase the amount of handling, and get them accustomed to hu-
man contact. It is important not to expose them to anything frightening; children may seem intimidating and
should be supervised closely while visiting to ensure gentle handling.
Litters and Orphans                                                                            Page 9

Puppy: Expectations and care at each age
   3-4 weeks

Feeding: Bottle feed formula every 4 hours, until puppies are full but not bloated.
Puppies may start lapping from a bowl.

Environment: The floor temperature of the nest box should be 70 to 75 degrees from this
point onward.

Behavior and training: Adult eye color will begin to appear, but may not reach final shade for an-
other 9 to 12 weeks. Puppies begin to see well and their eyes begin to look and function like adult
dogs' eyes. Puppies will start cleaning themselves, though their mother will continue to do most of the
serious cleaning.

   4-5 weeks

Feeding: Bottle feed as needed to keep pups from crying with hunger. Puppies usually can drink and
eat from a saucer by 4 weeks. Weaning should be done gradually. Introduce them to solid food by of-
fering warmed canned food, mixed with a little water into a gruel, in a shallow saucer. You can begin
by placing one puppy by the plate of canned food gruel, and hoping for the best—if she starts eating,
great! Her littermates will probably copy her and do the same. But without mom around to show them,
many puppies do not have a clue about feeding time. The puppies will walk in it, slide in it, and track it
all over the place. Sometimes one will begin lapping right away, and in its anxiety to consume as
much as it can, it will often bite the edge of the plate. Some will prefer to lick the gruel from your fin-
gers. Some will start licking your finger after they sniff it, then slowly lower your finger to the plate
and hold it to the food. The puppies need to learn to eat with their heads bent down. Sometimes it
takes two or three meals before they catch on. If they do not seem interested enough to even sniff your
finger, try gently opening the puppies' mouth and rubbing a little of the food on their teeth. Hopefully
then they will start licking your finger. If they're still not getting the idea, you can take a syringe
(without a needle) and squirt a small amount of gruel directly into the back of their mouths.

If there is a bitch present, she will usually begin weaning by discouraging her puppies from nursing;
however, some dogs (particularly those with small litters) will allow nursing until the puppies are old
enough for permanent homes. Some nursing activity is the canine equivalent of thumb-sucking, that is,
for comfort only. Even if puppies appear to be nursing, they may not be getting all the nutrition they
need from mom. Make sure they are eating food and gaining weight.

Be sure that the puppies have access to fresh water in a low, stable bowl.

Behavior and training: Begin housebreaking at four weeks. Use a pile of newspapers in a corner.
After each feeding, place the puppy on the papers or outside for him to go to the bathroom. Be pa-
tient! He may not remember to do this every time, or may forget where to find the papers, but he will
learn quickly. Be sure to give the puppies lots of praise when they first start using their papers or cry
to go out. It is a good idea to confine the puppies to a relatively small space, because the larger the
area the puppies have to play in, the more likely they will forget where the papers are. Keep the pa-
pers clean and away from their food.
Litters and Orphans                                                                           Page 10

Puppy: Expectations and care at each age
   5-6 weeks

Feeding: Feed gruel 4 times a day. Thicken gruel gradually. Introduce dry food and water. If you are
fostering a litter with their mother, continue weaning. For reluctant eaters, try mixing any meat-
flavored human baby food with a little water. The meat flavor is often more appealing to the picky eat-
ers.
    Behavior and training: At about five weeks, puppies can start to roam around the room, under
supervision. The strongest, most curious puppy will figure out how to get out of the nest. The others
will quickly follow.



   6-7 weeks

Feeding: Should be eating dry food well. Feed the puppies at least three meals daily. If one puppy
appears food-possessive, use a second dish and leave plenty of food out so that everyone is eating.
Although they may not eat much at a single sitting, they like to eat at frequent intervals throughout the
day.
   Behavior and training: By this time, you have "mini-dogs." They will wash themselves, play
games with each other, their toys, and you, and many will come when you call them. Be sure to take
them to their papers or outside after meals, during play sessions, and after naps. These are the usual
times that puppies need to eliminate.


   7-8 weeks

Feeding: Offer dry food 3 - 4 times a day. Leave down a bowl of water for them to eat and drink at
will. If you have a litter with a bitch, she should only be allowing brief nursing sessions, if any. DO
NOT feed the puppies table scraps.


   8 + weeks

Feeding: Offer dry food 2 times a day. Leave down a bowl of water for them to eat and drink at will.
    Behavior and training: By the end of this week, prepare yourself to return them to the shelter to
find homes. They are also old enough for early spay or neuter.
Litters and Orphans                                                                          Page 11

Puppy: Medical Wellness
Keeping puppies healthy & recognizing common problems
A healthy puppy has bright eyes, a nice coat, and a plump belly. Younger puppies are
content to sleep between feedings. As they approach 8 weeks they begin to spend
more time playing. Normal body temperature for a puppy is 100 - 102.5. Unfortunately, puppies do
become ill and sometimes die while being fostered, so it is important to take steps to prevent disease
and treat it appropriately as soon as it appears.
A note about treating your puppy: In general, if you need to treat a puppy, try to medicate him in an
impersonal way. If you hold the puppy in your lap to medicate him, he will associate being picked up
with being medicated, and think the worst every time you go to cuddle him. It is better to put the
puppy up on a countertop, maybe wrapping him in a towel to administer medication. It is also worth
while to give extra praise to a young puppy after medicating him, as this will help ease the stress of the
situation.



Recognizing illness & when to call your foster coordinator
If you have a sick puppy, you should always call your foster coordinator and discuss the problem. She
may advise you to come in or provide you with general advice over the phone.
One of the first steps you can take to evaluate your puppy's health is to take his temperature. To take
the temperature of your puppy, you will need a regular human thermometer and some KY Jelly. Don't
forget to shake down the mercury in the thermometer first. Then wipe KY on the thermometer and in-
sert just the tip into the puppy's anus. Hold it there for at least a minute and then read. If the puppy's
temperature is over 103 or under 99, it is important to call your foster coordinator for immediate assis-
tance.
If a foster puppy should die, you should keep the body cool but not frozen and transport it to the shel-
ter so that a full autopsy can be performed.
Litters and Orphans                                                                          Page 12

Puppy: Medical Concer ns
Abnormal signs to watch for in a puppy:
   Continuous diarrhea
   Continuous vomiting
   Bleeding of any kind: nose, urine, stool
   Any trauma: hit by car, dropped, limping, stepped on, unconscious
   Specific disease conditions in puppies


   Diarrhea
Diarrhea is common in puppies and can be caused by parasites, viruses, bacteria, food changes,
stress, overfeeding, and other causes. If the diarrhea is mild and the puppy is otherwise alert and
playful, you can try giving it less food but more often. If the diarrhea is severe, lasts more than
3 or 4 feedings, or contains blood or obvious parasites, you should call your foster coordinator and
bring in as much as possible of the feces in a Ziploc bag.

One of the causes of diarrhea that may be detected by microscopic examination in coccidiosis, due to
the protozoan Eimeria spp. This single-celled parasite is most common in puppies, but is occasionally
found in adults. If the symptoms of coccidiosis persist following treatment, an effort will be made to
identify other possible causes of diarrhea.



   Mites
Mange mites are tiny parasites which live on the skin and hair follicles of puppies. Sarcoptic mites
cause intense itching, noted by destructive scratching. Because mites are microscopic organisms our
veterinarian will need to perform a skin scraping to diagnose their presence. Different types of treat-
ment may then be prescribed depending on the type of mite that your puppy has.



   Fading puppies
Once in a while, one or more puppies in a litter that were healthy and vigorous at birth will begin to
"fade" after a week or two of life. They will stop growing, begin to lose weight, stop nursing and crawl-
ing. They may cry continuously and lose the ability to stay upright. The mother dog may push them
out of the nest, where they often chill and starve to death. Puppies fade very quickly - they will not last
48 hours without veterinary care, and many will not recover even with intensive care.
Often there is no clear cause or reason for this condition—it has been linked to birth defects, environ-
mental stress and infectious disease. Early veterinary treatment is imperative, but even with tube
feeding, rehydration and monitoring, many, if not most, fading puppies will die.
Litters and Orphans                                                                         Page 13

Medical Concer ns
   Ringworm
Ringworm is actually caused by a fungus, related to athletes foot. On people and dogs,
ringworm is most often shaped in a regular ring. The dog's fur will fall out, leaving a
round bare spot with a visible ring. Ringworm causes little distress and is not an emergency, but it is
contagious to cats, dogs, and people. If you or your pets contract ringworm, you will need to seek
treatment from your doctor and veterinarian (respectively). Everything the puppies touched while in
your home will need to be disinfected with a bleach solution (at least 1 part bleach to 10 parts water)
for at least one hour contact time, as ringworm spores can easily spread among other dogs and re-
infect their hosts. Call your foster coordinator for instructions.
     * If ringworm condition is confirmed, your home may be quarantined for a
        period for future fostering to prevent continued contaminations.


   Kennel cough
Kennel cough is an extremely contagious respiratory disease that is often seen in animal shelters. Pup-
pies with kennel cough typically cough or sneeze, and have nasal discharge. Kennel cough is often
very difficult for puppies to overcome and will require veterinary attention. Call your foster coordina-
tor for instructions.


   Vomiting
If your puppy is vomiting, it is possible that the puppy is eating his meals too quickly. You should
watch him when he eats and not allow him to eat too much too quickly. If your puppy is over 4 weeks
old you may mix a little Kaopectate (1/8 - 1/4 teaspoon) into his food. If your puppy vomits 2-3 times in
a row, it should see a veterinarian. Call your foster coordinator for instructions.

   Fleas
Fleas are insects that love to feed on puppies. Although each flea only consumes a
small drop of blood, fleas commonly attack in large numbers and an infestation can lit-
erally lead to anemia and even death. It is essential that your home be free of fleas before bringing
home a small puppy. Your foster dog or puppy will have been flea treated if it is old enough. If you
see any signs of live fleas on your foster dog or puppy, contact your foster coordinator promptly.
You may see signs of dead fleas that are remnants of the flea treatment taking effect.
  3015 Scioto-Darby Executive Court
        Hilliard, Ohio 43026

        Phone: 614-777-7387
         Fax: 614-777-8449

        www.cahs-pets.org




Acknowledgments
Capital Area Humane Society credits and thanks:
Geauga Humane Society’s Rescue Village and the following people and
organizations who provided training, support and/or documentation in
developing this Foster Care Manual:

UC Davis, Shelter Medicine Program, protocol
was adapted from the Pets In Need foster handout,
available at www.sheltermedicine.com
Litters and Orphans




       Section II
Litters and Orphans                                                                Page 2
Kitten Care: Basics
Kittens under the age of 8 weeks need a mother – either a cat or a human surrogate.
They are very vulnerable in a shelter and the chance to get them into a foster home
within 24 hours is a chance to save their lives. The following guidelines will help you
with the care of your kittens and will help you understand the policies and procedures
of the foster care program. Please keep the following items on this list in mind before
you agree to bring foster animals into your home.

   A foster animal could potentially carry illness into your home that could affect your
   resident animals’ (or humans’) health.

   To protect people, young children should not handle the foster kittens and everyone should
   wash their hands after handling animals, fecal waste, or litter boxes.

   To protect other cats, foster animals should be separated from household pets. This
   means that you should also prohibit the sharing of food and water bowls, litter boxes
   and toys.

   Kittens will be de-flead by the shelter processing staff before they enter your home. If
   you see live fleas on your foster kittens, call your foster coordinator.

   You should routinely disinfect the foster kittens’ quarters and disinfect the entire
   premises in between foster groups.

   The vest way to disinfect the area is to remove all organic material and fecal debris and
   then soak with mild bleach solution (1 part bleach to 32 parts water) for at least 30
   minutes. All surfaces, bowls, toys etc. need to be disinfected (so you probably want to
   keep kittens in a room without carpeting or hardwood floors if possible).

   It is best to have only one litter (rear the kittens in cohort groups) rather than constantly
   adding new kittens in with others. Keeping them in cohorts allows you to prevent
   disease mixing among cohorts and to disinfect between groups.

   It is possible even with these precautions that resident cats could be exposed to mild
   infections such as URI (Upper Respiratory Infection). Ask the foster coordinator for
   more information if this is a concern.
Litters and Orphans                                                                              Page 3
Kitten Care: Basics
Supplies you will need before you bring home kittens:
     Box or carrier         The shelter will supply a carrier for you to bring your foster animals home in. You may
     want to use this carrier in the foster room to provide a familiar smelling, dark, quiet home for your foster
     kitties. However, a bigger box may be desirable, as it will allow you to see in, as well as to provide plenty of
     room for the mother and the new growing litter of kittens.


     Newspapers            Keep several layers in the bottom of the litter box, and they will also come in handy when
     the kittens start to roam around the room and into their litter box.


     Big litter box for mother cat and small litter box for kittens                           An oblong cake
     pan is perfect, or cut-off cardboard boxes such as a shoebox lid will work well for the kittens.


     Cat litter    Any non-clumping variety of litter will be fine. The clumping litter may be dangerous if
     ingested by a kitten.


     Water bowls         Heavy and impossible to tip. Should be stainless steel or porcelain/ceramic if possible,
     NOT plastic as plastic as plastic is difficult to disinfect because it is so porous.


     Food blows (at least 2)             One is for the eat-at-will dry cat or kitten food, and the other for canned
     food. You can use TV dinner trays, paper plates, or whatever you have; any relatively flat plat or saucer will
     do. The larger the litter, the larger the plate should be so that no one gets crowded out.


     Food      You should have both dry kitten chow and canned cat food if kittens are under 8 weeks of age. Dry
     Hills’ Science Diet kitten and cat food will be provided by the shelter when available.


     Hot water bottle          Unless the nursery is at least 85◦ and your kittens are 2 weeks or older, you need to
     supply extra heat. If the mom is with them a hot water bottle is probably not needed. Make sure to place it
     under a towel and that there is ample room for both the mother and kittens to move away from it.


     Clean towels and blankets            Clean bedding is essential and should be changed regularly. Soiled
     bedding should be washed in hot water with a mild bleach solution.


     Toys      Disinfectable toys are good to reuse for new litters. Kittens can also amuse themselves with empty
     toilet paper rolls and empty cardboard boxes. Young kittens do not respond to cat nip. Kittens will also play
     with anything they can find. Drapes, lampshades and crystal ornaments are as much fun as the toys listed
     above. Be sure to “kitten-proof” your home. As they grow, their climbing abilities will develop, so anything
     that is irreplaceable should be kept out of reach!


     Scale     Although not critical to success, a food or postal scale will be very helpful in monitoring small
     kittens’ growth, which averages 4 ounces per week. There are some donated scales available for loan from
     the shelter when available.
Litters and Orphans                                                                     Page 4
Kitten Care
General care of kittens:

      Confinement
        Young kittens should be kept in a large box or cat carrier lined with a towel for easy cleaning. It
        is very important to keep the kittens warm. The more kittens in your litter, the better able to
        keep warm by sleeping together in a heap. Small litters and singles need more help keeping
        warm. A hot water bottle is best, and there should be a towel between the bottle and the
        kittens. DO NOT USE HEATING PADS. Keep kittens away from heaters or cold drafts.

      Eliminating
        If kittens are not urinating and defecating on their own (when they are less than 2 to 3 weeks
        old), they will need to be stimulated. This should be done every few hours (often right after
        feeding) by gently rubbing a warm, wet paper towel on the kittens’ anus and genital area. They
        will urinate or defecate into the paper towel.

      Keeping the kittens clean
        A mother works hard to keep her kittens clean, grooming them thoroughly to remove any
        sticky messes they may get into, such as kitten food or feces. Keeping the kittens clean in the
        absence of their mother can be a messy business, but it is extremely important. A flea comb will
        get rid of dried feces in the fur. You can also stroke a kitten with a warm damp cloth, using
        short strokes to mimic a mother’s tongue. Be sure to dry him well so he can’t chill. Sometimes
        cat litter and dried feces can become caked on the underside of the tail or between the kitten’s
        toes. This may be softened and removed by dipping the kitten’s back end into a basin of warm
        water. Many kittens will not even notice that they are partially wet, but some will protest
        violently, and scramble to escape, so beware of sharp little claws!

      Proper socialization
        Any introductions of cats to other cats or cats to dogs should be avoided and are not permitted.
        Par of your job is to convince the kittens that humans are kind and loving. Outgoing, friendly
        kittens can be cuddled and played with freely, after spending a day or so to accustom
        themselves to a comfy box in a quiet room. Shy kittens will need more encouragement. Try
        sitting on the floor with a kitten held against your chest, supported underneath, and facing
        outwards so he can’t see how big and scary you are. Stroke him and speak gently, telling him
        how cute and brave and fabulous he is (kittens love to hear that!). Continue this for about 30
        seconds, then put him down before he starts squirming. You want this to be a pleasant
        experience. The kitten will not be impressed, but if you cuddle him often enough, he will learn
        to love it. Sometimes holding a pair of kittens helps – they seem to reassure each other.
Litters and Orphans                                                            Page 5
Kitten Care: Feral/Unsocialized

   Feral kittens are a special challenge to socialize.

   The earlier feral kittens separate from their mother, the more likely they are to adapt
   to people. Even at 6 weeks, feral kittens can act like little tiger cubs. If your kittens
   are fearful and run away when you approach, try sitting or lying quietly on the floor near
   them and let them come to you. Spend time quietly in their presence to get
   them accustomed to your company. Stroke them and talk to them gently while they are
   eating to further reinforce positive associations.

   There is no such thing as a “bad” kitten. Even if your liter doesn’t enjoy being held and
   cuddled, if they will tolerate being stroked and don’t cower under the sofa,
   they will make someone a wonderful pet. Not everyone wants an affectionate lap
   cat. Many people prefer cats who are more independent and somewhat aloof companions.

   Also, it is useless to punish a “naughty” kitten. Their little minds do not grasp deductive
   reasoning. Try distracting a mischievous kitten with something else
   until he forgets whatever he was doing (it should not take long!).
Litters and Orphans                                                            Page 6
Kitten Care:

   General concepts of feeding

   Kitten formula should be given at the kitten’s body temperature, about 100 degrees. Once
   the can is opened or the powder reconstituted, unused formula should be kept refrigerated
   and discarded after 24 hours. NEVER give a kitten cow’s milk or anything else besides the
   formula. Make this formula available to kittens only a the direction of the shelter staff.

   It is best to feed the kittens one-by-one, and on a counter-top. This allows them to feed
   with all four feet on the counter, and their heads level, much as they would if they were
   nursing from their mother. Some kittens prefer to nurse standing on their hind legs while
   holding the bottle. They will require a little support from you in this position. Gently open
   a kitten’s mouth with one finger and place the tip of the nipple on his tongue. If he won’t
   eat, try stroking him. Pull lightly on the bottle to encourage vigorous sucking. Be sure to
   tilt the bottle up slightly to prevent the kitten from inhaling too much air. Do not force the
   kitten to nurse, or allow him to nurse too fast. Avoid feeding a kitten while he is cradled
   on his back – if the fluid goes down the wrong way, it may end up in his lungs.

   After each feeding, the kitten should be burped. Hold him against your shoulder and
   gently massage his back or pat it lightly.

   Overfeeding is as dangerous as underfeeding kittens! Keep an eye on your kittens at the
   feeding time and monitor how much each is eating. If you see signs of diarrhea, separate
   them until you find out which one is sick. Your kittens will generally regulate their own
   food intake. If they need more food they may whine or suck on their litter mates. A good
   indication that they are getting enough to eat is the size of their bellies – they should be
   filled out after a meal, but not bloated. The next section of this protocol discusses amounts
   of food required at various stages of kittenhood.
Litters and Orphans                                                                                 Page 7
Kitten Care: Expectations and care at each age
                                            Weight Chart

                             Age                                     Weight
                      At Birth                       3.0 – 3.7 ounces
                Three to Four Weeks                 11.7 – 15 ounces
                    Eight weeks                     1.7 – 2.0 pounds
               *Kittens should gain approximately ¼ pound per week.
        *A kitten must weigh at least 2¼ - 2½ pounds before being adoptable.

 0 – 1 Week of Age
 Feeding: Bottle feed ½ tablespoon formula every 2 – 3 hours. If the mother cat is with the kittens, they should
 nurse vigorously and compete for nipples. Newborns can nurse up to 45 minutes at a time. Be sure to watch
 kittens nursing at least once a day, if mom cat will permit it. Check that everyone is nursing and that there isn’t too
 much jockeying for position. A great deal of activity and crying could indicate a problem with ilk flow, quality or
 availability. When the mother cat reenters the box, there should be some fussing for only a few minutes before
 everyone has settled down to serious nursing.

 Environment: The temperature of the nest box should be nice and warm, 85 to 90 degrees. Chilling is the
 number one danger to newborn kittens.

 Behavior & Training: At one week of age, the kittens should weigh 4 oz., and should be handled minimally.
 Kittens will sleep 90% of the time and eat the other 10%.

 1 – 2 Weeks of Age
 Feeding: Bottle feed formula per manufacturer’s instruction every 2 – 3 hours until kittens are full but not
 bloated. Usually kittens will consume at least ½ tablespoon of formula per feeding.

 Environment: Floor temperature of the nest box should be nice and warm, 80 – 85 degrees.

 Behavior & Training: Kittens at 2 weeks of age will weigh about 7 ounces. Ear canals open between 5 and 8
 days. Eyes will open between 8 and 14 days. They open gradually, usually starting to open from the nose outward.
 Short-haired cats’eyes will usually open earlier than those of Persian ancestry. All kittens are born with blue eyes,
 and initially no puppies can be distinguished from the irises. The eyes will appear a solid dark blue.

 Healthy kittens will be round and warm, with pink skin. If you pinch them gently, their skin should spring back.
 When you pick a kitten up it should wiggle energetically and when you put is down near the om it should crawl
 back to her. Healthy kittens seldom cry.

 To determine the sex of the kittens, hold a kitten tummy-up in your hand. In females, the vulva is a vertical slit
 above the anus, they are close together. In males, the penile opening is above the anus but they are separated by a
 raised scrotal sac and thus seem far apart. It is easier to see the differences between sexes if you examine all the
 kittens and then find two who don’t have matching equipment. Don’t worry if it is unclear, by the time the kittens
 are ready for permanent homes, their sex will be obvious.
Litters and Orphans                                                                                Page 8
Kitten Care: Expectations and care at each age
Continued…..
 2 - 3 Weeks of Age
 Feeding: Bottle feed formula per manufacturer’s instruction every 2 – 3 hours until kittens are full but not bloated.
 Usually kittens will consume at least ½ tablespoon of formula per feeding.

 Environment: Floor temperature of the next box should be nice and warm, 75 – 80 degrees.

 Behavior & Training: If there is a mother, she will begin to spend larger periods of time out of the nest, though
 she will not go far from it.

 Kittens will weigh about 10 ounces. Their ears will become erect. Kittens begin to crawl around day 18. Kittens can
 stand by day 21. They will begin to play with each other, biting ears, tails and paws even before their teeth come in.
 Their milk teeth are cut during this period. Kittens learn to sit and touch objects with their paws.



 3 – 4 Weeks of Age
 Feeding: Bottle feed formula according to manufacturer’s instruction every 2 – 3 hours until kittens are full but
 not bloated. Usually kittens will consume at least ½ tablespoon of formula per feeding. At this stage kittens may
 start lapping from a bowl.

 Environment: Floor temperature of the nest box should be nice and warm, 70 –755 degrees.

 Behavior & Training: Kittens will weigh about 13 ounces. Adult eye color will begin to appear, but may not
 reach final shade for another 9 – 12 weeks. Kittens begin to see well and their eyes begin to look and function like
 adult cats’ eyes. Kittens will start cleaning themselves, though their mother will continue to do most of the serious
 cleaning.



 4 – 5 Weeks of Age
 Feeding: 3 tablespoons (1 – ½ ounces) formula every 8 hours. They can usually drink and eat from a saucer by 4
 weeks of age. Weaning should be done gradually. Introduce them to solid food by offering warmed canned food,
 mixed with a little water to make a gruel, in a small saucer. You can begin by placing one kitten by the plate of
 canned food gruel, and hoping for the best. If one kitten begins to eat, the others may copy the behavior. But
 without mom around to show them, many kittens do not have a clue about feeding time. The kittens will walk in it,
 slide in it, and track it all over the place. Sometimes one will begin lapping it up right away, and in its anxiety to
 consume as much as it can, it will often bite the edge of the plate. Some will prefer to lick the gruel from your
 fingers. Some will start licking your finger after they sniff the plate. Slowly lower your finger to the plate and hold
 it in the food. The kittens need to learn to eat with their heads bent down. Sometimes it takes two or three meals
 before they catch on. If they do not seem interested enough to even sniff your finger, try gently opening the kittens’
 mouth and rubbing a little of the food on their teeth. Hopefully then they will start licking your finger. If they’re
 still not getting the idea, you can take a syringe (without a needle) and squirt a small amount of gruel directly into
 the back corner of their mouths.
Litters and Orphans                                                                                   Page 9
Kitten Care: Expectations and care at each age
Continued…..
 If there is a mother present, she will usually begin weaning by discouraging her kittens from nursing; however,
 some cats, particularly those with small litters, will allow nursing until the kittens are old enough for permanent
 homes. Some nursing activity is the feline equivalent of thumb-sucking, for comfort only. Even if kittens appear to
 be nursing, they may not be getting all of the nutrition they need from mom. Make sure they are eating food and
 gaining weight. They should have fresh water available at all times.

 Behavior & Training: Begin litter training at four weeks. Use a low box with one inch of non-clumping litter or
 shredded newspaper. Do not expose the kittens to clumping variety of litter, as it is harmful if ingested. After each
 feeding, place the kitten in the box, take his paw, and gently scratch the litter. Be patient! He may not remember to
 do this every time, or may forget where to find the litter box, but he will learn quickly. Be sure to give kittens lots of
 praise when they first start using their boxes. Most will use it room the start, but like other babies, might make an
 occasional mistake. It is a good idea to confine the kittens to a relatively small space, because the larger the area, the
 Kittens have to play in, the more likely they will forget where the litter box is. Keep the litter box clean and away
 from their food.



 5 – 6 Weeks of Age
 Feeding: Feed gruel 4 times a day. Thicken gruel gradually. Introduce dry food and water. If you are fostering
 a litter with their mother, continue weaning. Some kittens will not like canned food. For reluctant eaters, try
 mixing any meat flavored human baby food with a litter water. The meat flavor is often more appealing to the
 picky eaters. Be sure the brand you get does not contain onion powder as this ingredient can be hazardous to
 kittens.

 Behavior & Training: at about 5 weeks, kittens can start to roam around the room, under supervision. They
 will weigh about 1 pound and the testicles of male kittens will become visible. The strongest, most curious kitten
 will figure out how to get out of the nest. The others will quickly follow.

 Play with your kittens daily! It is a good idea to wear long sleeves and pants, as they can play roughly and their
 claws are sharp. If you sit on the floor they will play “king of the mountain” using your knees and shoulders as
 vantage points. This game is lots of fun and good exercise for them. Some kittens may be fearful at first. Do not
 force yourself on them. You can get them used to your presence by sitting in the middle of the room making phone
 calls, this way they hear your voice but do not feel threatened. Make them an important part of your household
 activities and accustom them to sounds like the TV, vacuum cleaner and other household sounds.



 6 – 7 Weeks of Age
 Feeding: Should be eating canned and dry food well. Feed the kittens at least three meals daily. If one kitten
 appears food-possessive, use a second dish and leave plenty of food out so that everyone is eating. Bear in mind
 that a kitten at this age has a stomach roughly the size of an acorn, so although they may not eat much at a single
 sitting, they like to eat at frequent intervals throughout the day.
Litters and Orphans                                                                          Page 10
Kitten Care: Expectations and care at each age
Continued…..
Behavior & Training: By this time, you have “mini-cats”. They will wash themselves, use scratching posts, play
games with each other, their toys, and you, and many will come when you call them. Be sure to reintroduce them to
their litter box after meals, during play sessions, and after naps. These are the usual times that kittens need to use the
litter box.




  7 – 8 Weeks of Age
  Feeding: Offer wet food 3 – 4 times a day (each kitten will be eating a little over one can of food
  Per day). Leave down a bowl of dry kibble and water for them to eat and drink at will. If you
  have a littler with a mother cat, she should only be allowing brief nursing sessions, if any. DO
  NOT feed the kittens table scraps. Unless otherwise instructed by shelter Medical or Processing
  staff, feed only Hills Science Diet kitten and cat food.



  8 + Weeks of Age
  Feeding: Offer wet food 2 times a day. Leave down a bowl of dry kibble and water for them to
  eat and drink at will.

  Behavior & Training: By the end of the 8th week, kittens should weigh 2 pounds each. If all the
  kittens weigh 2 pounds, take a deep breath and prepare yourself to return them to the shelter.
  They will need about another week to 10 days to reach the 2 ¼ to 2 ½ pounds.

  When kittens have reached the required weight, call the Processing Department to schedule an
  appointment to have them vaccinated and checked for approval to move to the adoption floor.
  If there are any concerns noted at that final examination, or they are weighed and found to be
  slightly underweight, you may be asked to take them home until they are approved.

  If you have a mother cat, she may still be producing milk. You can take her in for the kittens
  final check up. The staff will check the mother to see if she is actively producing milk. If she is,
  she may need 2 to 3 additional weeks in foster care to dry out her mammary glands.

  If you are taking the mother, you will likely need a second carrier which you can obtain from the
  shelter. Transport one or more of the kittens with the mother so that she does not get overly
  stressed in transit hearing them but not being able to see them. She may not be able to count but
  she will know the difference between seeing some and seeing none.
Litters and Orphans                                                          Page 11
Kitten: Medical Concerns
Keeping kittens healthy & recognizing common problems
A healthy kitten has bright eyes, a sleek coat, and a plump belly. Younger kittens are content to
sleep between feedings. As they approach 8 weeks they begin to spend more time playing.
Normal body temperature for a kitten is 100 to 102.5. Unfortunately, kittens do become ill and
sometimes die while being fostered, so is important to take steps to prevent disease and treat it
appropriately as soon as it appears.

A note about treating your kitten: In general, if you need to treat a kitten, try to medicate him in a
personal way. If you hold the kitten in your lap to medicate him, he will associate being picked
up with being medicated, and think the worst every time you go to cuddle him. It is better to put
the kitten on the counter top, maybe wrapping him in a towel to administer medication.


Recognizing illness & when to call your foster coordinator
If you have a sick kitten, you should always call your foster coordinator and discuss the problem.
She will advise you about when to contact medical staff.

One of the first steps you can take to evaluate your kitten’s health is to take his temperature. To
take the temperature of your kitten, you will need a regular human thermometer and some KY
Jelly. Don’t forget to shake down the mercury in the thermometer first. Then wipe KY on the
thermometer and insert just the top into the kitten’s anus. Hold it there for at least a minute and
then read. If the kitten’s temperature is over 103 or under 99, it is important to call your foster
coordinator for immediate assistance.

If a foster kitten should die, contact your foster coordinator as soon as possible. You should keep
the body cool but not frozen and transport it to the shelter so that the remains can be cared for.

Abnormal signs to watch for in a kitten:
    Runny discharge from the eyes or nose
    Lac of appetite
    Lethargy (lack of energy)
    Diarrhea lasting more than 3 or 4 feedings (12 hours)
    Vomiting
    Weight loss
    Coughing or sneezing
    Hair loss or scaly skin
Litters and Orphans                                                        Page 12
Kitten: Medical Concerns
Continued…….
Emergencies requiring immediate veterinary attention
      Continuous diarrhea
      Continuous vomiting
      Bleeding of any kind: nose, urine, stool
      Any trauma: dropped, hit by a car, limping, stepped on, unconscious
      Difficulty breathing
      A kitten that does not respond or that hasn’t eaten for more than one day

Specific disease conditions in kittens
Diarrhea
Diarrhea is common in kittens and can be cause by parasites, viruses, bacteria, food changes,
stress, overfeeding and other causes. Kittens can become dehydrated very quickly. If diarrhea is
severe, lasts more than 3 to 4 feedings (12 hours), contains blood or obvious parasites, you should
call your foster coordinator and whenever possible, bring in a sample of the feces in a Ziploc bag.

There are several types of parasites that are not uncommon in kittens. Among them are
roundworms that they can get from their mother. These worms can come up in vomitus or stool.
The cysts of roundworms (“spaghetti”) can persist for years in soil and be spread to other cats or
human children. Cats and kittens will sometimes have tapeworms either on their feces or anus
(“rice”). Whipworms are another fairly common parasite. Even if the actual worms are not
visible, the cat or kitten may still have parasites which can be identified microscopically by the
shelter veterinarian.

There are also a number of viral causes of diarrhea, with panleukopenia being the most
devastating. Diarrhea can easily lead to dehydration, especially in young kittens and should
therefore be monitored closely.

Ear Mites
Ear mites are tiny parasites which live in the ear canal. They cause intense itching, noted by
scratching behind the ears and violent head shaking. Inside the ears you may see crumbly, dark
brown discharge, which may smell bad (the discharge closely resembles coffee grounds). Ear
mites are contagious to other cats and can be treated with ear drops or injections.
Litters and Orphans                                                           Page 13
Kitten: Medical Concerns
Continued……
Fading Kittens
Once in a while, one or more kittens in a litter that appear healthy and vigorous at birth will begin
to “fade” after a week or two of life. They will stop growing, begin to lose weight, and stop
nursing and crawling. They may cry continuously and lose the ability to stay upright. The
mother cat may push them out of the nest, where they often chill and starve to death. Kittens fade
very quickly – they will not last 48 hours without veterinary care, and probably will not recover
even with intensive care.

Feline Leukemia (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency (FIV)
FeLV and FIV are retroviruses cats/kittens get from other cats/kittens (or their moms). In the early
stages, infected cats appear healthy but over months to years, they develop severe, ultimately fatal
disease. The blood test for FeLV can be performed at any time and will be helpful for deciding
which kittens

Upper Respirator Tract Infection (URI)
URI is, unfortunately, common in animal shelters. It is caused by airborne viruses and bacteria
which are contagious and spread very quickly.

Signs of URI to watch for:
   Sneezing and discharge from eyes or nose
   Congested breathing
   Loss of appetite
   Lethargy
   Dehydration

Vomiting
If your kitten is vomiting, it is possible that the kitten is eating his meals too quickly. You should
watch him when he eats and not allow him to eat too much too quickly. If you kitten vomits 2 – 3
times in a row, you should contact your foster coordinator.
Litters and Orphans                                                         Page 14
Kitten: Medical Concerns
Continued……
Ringworm
Ringworm is actually caused by a fungus, related to athletes foot. On people ringworm is most
often shaped in a regular ring. On cats, ringworm most often appears as irregularly-shaped spots
of fur loss. The skin of the furless areas will look rough and scaly. The spot will get larger, and
additional spots will appear, most often on the face, ears and paws first. Sometimes the spots will
be more regular rings, with furless, scaly circles and visible red ring at the outside edge.

Ringworm causes little distress and is not an emergency, but it is contagious to cats, dogs and
people. If you or your foster animal contracts ringworm, you will need to seek treatment from
your doctor and our shelter veterinarian (respectively). Everything the kitten touches while in
your home will need to be disinfected with bleach solution (1 part bleach to 10 parts water) for at
least 1 hour contact time, as ringworm spores can easily spread among cats and re-infect their
hosts. If you have fostered a litter with ringworm, you will need to wait for a period of several
months before fostering again. Details regarding this process and the specific length of time will
be communicated to you by the foster coordinator.
      Capital Area Human Society
      3015 Scioto-Darby Executive
                 Court
         Hilliard, Ohio 43026

          Phone: 614-777-7387
           Fax: 614-777-8449

           www.cahs-pets.org




Acknowledgements

Capital Area Humane Society credits Geauga Humane Society’s
Rescue Village and thanks the following people and organizations who
Provided training, support and/or documentation in developing this
Foster Care Manual.

UC Davis, Shelter Medicine Program, protocol was adapted from the Pets in Need foster
handout, available at www.sheltermedicine.com.
Section IV
Dog Basics                                                                                  Page 2

Getting Star ted...
Fostering a dog can be a wonderful experience but will require preparation and
patience to ensure that the dog adjusts to its new temporary home with minimal
stress. Follow these guidelines and remember to call your foster coordinator
with any questions or concerns.
Foster caregivers will be given specific instructions based on the particular
needs of your foster dog. Each dog is unique and should be treated accordingly.
Common reasons adult dogs are fostered:
   Mother dog that has finished nursing puppies
   Pregnant dog waiting to give birth (See the Litters and Orphan Puppy Care section of this manual)
   For socialization and to assess behavior in a home environment
   For a break from the shelter
   Injured dog that needs to heal
   Sick dog that needs to recuperate

What you will need:
   Quiet room, separated from resident animals to reduce health risks
   Crate or baby gate for confinement
   Leash
   Water bowls (elevated for large breed dogs)
   Heavy and impossible to tip. Should be stainless steel or porcelain/ceramic, NOT plastic, as plastic
   is difficult to disinfect because it is so porous.
   Food bowl (elevated for large breed dogs)
   Food
   Hills Science Diet Products are preferred and provided when available.

   Clean towels and blankets

   Toys
   Plastic, disinfectable toys are good to reuse for new dogs. Dogs need things to do. Choose toys
   without strings or plastic parts that may be swallowed and become a hazard. (See the Appropriate
   Chew Toys in this section for more options).

   Disinfectable brushes and nail clippers
   Grooming is very important to dogs and trimmed nails will be important to you.

   Stain and odor remover for accidents (such as Nature’s Miracle or Get Serious) Just in case...
Dog Basics                                                                                      Page 3

Getting Star ted...
When your foster dog or puppy first arrives at your home he will need to be kept in
a single room, especially when you are at work or away from the house. So find a
room where you can confine him. It would be ideal if it is a room where you spend
a large part of your day, since dogs are pack animals and want to be with you. A
kitchen or family room is perfect. Use a baby gate to block off the entrances to
these rooms. By keeping the dog/puppy in one room, you are helping to prevent
“accidents” that may occur because of stress of adjustment to your routine. You are
also helping to housetrain the dog, and so you must be able to monitor his activi-
ties. The shelter recommends that you use a crate in this room for times when you are away from the
house. See the section on Crate training for details.

Dog Proofing the Room:
Walk into the room you are going to confine your foster dog to and look around. Ask yourself:

   Do you have room for his crate?
   Do you have quick access to the outside for bathroom emergencies?
   Is there anything that can be chewed that you don’t want chewed? Drapes, Couches? Rugs?
   Are there exposed electrical wires?
   Is there anywhere the dog can hide? Will you be able to get him out if he does?
   Are there coffee tables with objects that can be knocked off by a wagging tail?
Once you have removed any hazards, decided where you will set up the crate. Place the crate in a
quiet, low traffic area of the room. Put a blanket in the crate, because this is where you will be teach-
ing your foster dog/puppy to sleep. (Note: you may want to move the crate to your bedroom at bed-
time since the dog may be frightened and sleeping in the same room is a great bonding experience
for you and the dog/puppy.) Decide where you will place his food and water bowls and set up the
baby gates before you bring the dog home.
First Days:
Shelter dogs are unique and have been through a multitude of changes including who cares for them,
where they sleep, what they eat, etc. Keep this in mind when you bring your foster dog home and give
the dog the appropriate time for adjustment.
About Bathing:
Dogs that have just had surgery or been flea treated, should not receive a bath upon arriving at the
foster home. Please consult with your foster coordinator or Processing staff to get instructions on if and
when your foster animal can or should be bathed and what specific products are safe for your situation.
Adjustment will happen primarily through consistency of routine and the following:
   Try not to overwhelm your foster dog with too much in the first days. Keep visitors to a minimum
   and give the dog time to adjust to you before meeting everyone you know.
   Choose a location for the food and water dishes. Maintain that location and the feeding schedule.
   Decide on the rules, For example, if you do not want your foster dog on the furniture, be consistent
   from day one and do not let the dog on the furniture.
   As a general rule, no children under 12 years old should be left alone and unsupervised with a
   dog. Do not allow children to do to the dog what you would not allow the child to do to a younger
   sibling. Teach children to leave a dog alone when he is eating, chewing and sleeping.
Dog Basics                                                                                            Page 4

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Food Guidelines:
The food you feed your foster dog is important because as the saying goes, “You are
what you eat,” applies to dogs as well as to humans. It especially applies to dogs
whose immune systems have been compromised by stress or exposure to disease.
The shelter feeds a mixture of foods but primarily Hill's Science Diet products.

According to the Whole Dog Journal, what you should look for on a food label:
   The label should be very specific: “chicken” is better than “poultry”; “chicken meal” is better
   than “chicken by-products,” which is better than “chicken digest,” which is better than “animal
   digest,” (which is the worst!).
   Good sources of protein are whole meats or single source meat meal, like “chicken meal” rather
   that “poultry meal.”
   A whole-meat source as one of the first two ingredients (chicken or chicken meal).
   Whole, unprocessed grains, vegetables, and other foods (unprocessed food has a great chance of
   having its nutrients and enzymes intact).

Foods should not contain:
   Meat by-products

   Fats or proteins named generically (like animal fat, meat meal). It should instead read beef fat, chicken fat or
   lamb meal (more specific)

   Food fragments (brewer’s rice, corn gluten, etc.)

   Artificial preservatives (BHA, BHT or ethoxyquin)

   Artificial colors

   Sweeteners

   Propylene glycol
Dog Basics                                                                                   Page 5

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Feeding Guidelines
Create a consistent schedule for feeding your foster dog. Whether you feed him
once a day or twice a day, feed at the same time every day. Do not feed any
“people” food. You do not know what his adoptive family will want to do, so don’t
start a habit that they will have to break-by feeding only dog food, you are discour-
aging begging.

Amount of Food (Feeding will depend on the age and size of your foster dog.)
Adult dogs:
   Dry adult dog food twice a day, once in the morning and once at night
Nursing mothers and puppies:
   Dry puppy food (extra calories), twice a day
Adolescent dogs (4 months-1 year):
   Dry puppy food, twice daily
Weaned puppies (6 - 8 weeks-4 months):
   Dry puppy food, three to four times per day. Moisten the food with water or puppy formula
Un-weaned puppies (4-8 weeks):
   Canned food at 4 weeks
   Introduce dry puppy food at 5 weeks and gradually change toward mostly dry food week by week
   Feed 4 times per day
Dogs/puppies should have fresh water available at all times.


Diet Change
Some animals react to a change in diet with diarrhea. If this happens, call your foster coordinator and
schedule an appointment with the shelter veterinarian.
Dog Basics                                                                                                Page 6

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Advantages of crate training:
A crate is a rectangular enclosure with a top and a door, made in a variety of sizes pro-
portioned to fit any type of dog.

   Peace of mind when leaving your foster dog at home alone.

   Expedites the process of housebreaking and managing destructive behavior.

   The crate can travel with your foster dog and serve as his “security blanket”.

   Gives your foster dog a “den” to which he can retreat when tired, stressed, or ill.

   A crate should always be large enough to permit any age dog to stretch out flat on his side without being
   cramped and to sit up without hitting his head on top.

   For an adult dog: measure the distance from tip of the nose to base of the tail to determine the crate’s length.

   For a puppy, measure as above, then add 12 inches for anticipated, rapid growth.

   Crates should be placed close to a “people area” – kitchen, family room, etc.

   To provide your dog with a sense of den security and privacy, place the crate in a            Crates are
   corner and/or have the sides and back loosely draped with a sheet or large towel.          available at the
                                                                                               shelter. Your
   Crates are NOT intended for frequent, long-hours usage for the convenience of an                foster
   absent foster caregiver.                                                                     coordinator
   Many problem behaviors of adult dogs arise from the lack of a feeling of security
                                                                                              will assist you
   when left alone. Hopefully, a crate can fulfill this need.
                                                                                                    with
                                                                                               instructions.
Getting started with the crate for the dog
   Start by securing the door in an open position.

   Encourage the dog to investigate the crate by tossing “special” treats inside (Example: cheese and/or bits
   of hotdog).

   When the dog enters and comes back out, praise him enthusiastically.

   When he begins to enter the crate confidently, place his bedding and something of yours inside. Coax him
   to lie down and relax. Continue to use food if necessary.

   Shut the door briefly while you sit beside him or when people are visible and/or audible nearby.

   When you are confident the dog will remain quietly in the crate, you may leave him alone.

   Give him a chew toy, a Kong or a safe bone to attract his attention.

   Start with brief stays in the crate (1/2 to 1 hour) until he has accepted the crate as his “special place”.
Dog Basics                                                                                  Page 7

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Getting started with the crate for the puppy
   Make sure you section off an area of the crate if it is large and you have a puppy. If
   the crate is too big the puppy will eliminate in one corner and sleep in another
   corner. Some crates come with dividers, otherwise use cardboard or a metal
   cookie sheet for a safe divider. Partition to make the appropriate size.

   Establish a “crate routine” immediately, closing the puppy in at regular 1 to 2 hour
   intervals during the day and whenever he must be left alone for 3-4 hours.

   Remember when establishing your routine: take their age in months, add one, and that is the num-
   ber of hours the puppy can “hold it” during the day.

   Give him a safe chew toy. Pick a “special toy” or treat which the puppy only gets when in his crate.
   This will help him to learn good things come with crate time.

   Remove collar and tags; they might get caught in an opening.




                                                                                        Crates
                                                                                       should be
                                                                                      safe places
                                                                                       and never
                                                                                      associated
                                                                                         with
                                                                                      negativity.
Dog Basics                                                                                Page 8

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Effective housetraining relies on the dog’s desire to eliminate in a different
location away from where she sleeps and eats. It is necessary to assume any
foster dog may have challenges with house-soiling depending on his individ-
ual needs.
Your foster care coordinator will be able to provide a detailed guideline for
the dog you have. However, here are the basic things you will need to assist
any dog with good house manners:

Equipment
   An appropriately-sized dog crate or baby gate for confinement.
   A number of chew toys.
   Very tasty treats, such as petrified hotdog pieces or freeze-dried liver.

Guidelines
   A general rule of thumb is that a dog can “hold it” while confined is the
   number of months old they are plus one. So a three month old golden re-
   triever can “hold it” for 4 hours. This of course would not necessarily             Give the
   work for small breed dogs that have small breed bladders. They will re-            adult dog
   quire more frequent visits outside.                                             three minutes
   Feed your foster dog on a schedule, and he’ll eliminate on a schedule.           to eliminate.
                                                                                   If they do not
   Keep your foster dog’s diet consistent. High quality, dry kibble produces       go, take them
   the least amount of waste.                                                        back inside
   Paper training risks only partial housetraining, as a dog/puppy learns that     and try again
   it is acceptable to relieve him/herself indoors. Therefore, avoid this as an      in an hour.
   option unless the dog is ill or unable to go outside. In this case provide
   consistency in the type of substrate and location in the house where it is
   acceptable for the dog to eliminate. A suggestion would be a large litter
   box lined with either a roll of turf (ideally) or absorbent housebreaking
   pads sprinkled with soil or grass clippings. This will allow the dog to de-
   velop a preference for eliminating on soil or grass.
   Take the dog to the same place in the yard each time to eliminate. This
   repetition will allow the dog to understand what is expected of him. Try
   to choose a location that is different from your resident dog or where
   other dogs may have eliminated to prevent health risks.
   Allow the dog to eliminate prior to going on a walk or playing. The dog
   will learn that the reward for eliminating in the proper place is to go for a
   walk or play, thus reinforcing the behavior.
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Housetraining Guidelines:
Establish a Routine
Take your foster dog out at the same times every day. For example, first thing in
the morning when he wakes up, when you arrive home from work, and before
you go to bed.
Choose a location not too far from the door to be the bathroom spot. Always take
your foster dog, on leash, directly to the bathroom spot. Take him for a walk or
play with him only after he has eliminated. If you clean up an accident in the
house, leave the soiled rags or paper towels in the bathroom spot. The smell will
help your foster dog recognize the area as well as the place where he is sup-
posed to eliminate.
Praise your foster dog lavishly every time he eliminates outdoors. You should
even give him a treat. You must praise him and give him a treat immediately af-
ter he has finished and not wait until after he comes back inside the house. This
step is vital, because rewarding your foster dog for eliminating outdoors is the
only way he will know that is what you want him to do.
While your foster dog is eliminating, use a word or phrase like “go potty,” that
                                                                                        Consistency
you can eventually use before he eliminates to remind him of what he is sup-
posed to be doing.                                                                     and patience
                                                                                        are the keys
Supervise, Supervise, Supervise                                                        to successful
Do not give your foster dog an opportunity to soil in the house. He should be               house
watched at all times when he is indoors. You can tether him to you with a six-foot        training.
leash, or use baby gates, to keep him in the room where you are. Watch for
signs that he needs to eliminate, like sniffing around or circling. If you see these
signs, immediately take him out on a leash, to his bathroom spot. If he elimi-
nates, praise him lavishly and reward him with a treat.

Confinement
When you are unable to watch your foster dog closely, he should be confined to
an area small enough that he won’t want to eliminate there. It should be just big
enough for him to comfortably stand, lie down and turn around in. This could be
a portion of a bathroom or laundry room blocked off with boxes or baby gates.
Or you may want to crate train your foster dog and use the crate to confine him.
(See the section on Crate Training). If he has spent several hours in confinement,
when you let him out, take him directly to his bathroom spot and praise him
when he eliminates. Remember to give him three minutes to eliminate. If he has
not gone during this time, return him to his area of confinement or crate and try
again in a few minutes.
Dog Basics                                                                                Page 10

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Housetraining Puppies
Housetraining puppies calls for vigilance, patience, and plenty of commit-
ment. Do not expect the house training process to be completed until your
foster puppy is at least 6 months of age or older. By following the procedures
outlined below, you can minimize house soiling incidents, but virtually every
puppy will have accidents in the house, and more likely, several. Expect acci-
dents. If you allow your foster puppy to eliminate frequently in the house, he
will get confused about where he is supposed to eliminate, which will prolong
the housetraining process.

Establish a Routine
The more consistent you are in following the basic housetraining procedures,
the faster your foster puppy will learn acceptable behavior.
   Puppies need to be taken outside to eliminate immediately after meals,
   naps, and bursts of play.
   Pick a bathroom spot near the door. Always take your foster puppy to this
   spot. Pace back and forth, and chant an encouraging phrase (“Go Potty!”).
   Only go for longer walks after elimination has occurred. Protect your fos-
   ter puppy’s health by choosing a spot where your resident dog or other
   dogs do not eliminate.                                                             Training
                                                                                      puppies
   Praise your puppy lavishly each time he eliminates outdoors. You may             takes a lot of
   give treats immediately after he’s finished. Reward him/her before com-
                                                                                     energy and
   ing indoors. It is important that your pup recognizes that the reward is for
                                                                                    commitment.
   eliminating outdoors.


Handling Accidents and Clean-ups
If you didn’t see the accident happen, resist the urge to correct your foster
dog. Don’t ever rub his nose in it, don’t hit him, don’t yell at him, and don’t
punish him. He will not understand what you are punishing him for even if it
only happened a moment ago. He will more likely think he is in trouble for
whatever he is doing at that particular instant which could have very confusing
results and could also create fear in the dog that will only complicate the
house-soiling issue.
Dogs have an amazing sense of smell. So, make sure you thoroughly clean the
spot where the accident happened. To thoroughly clean the spot use an enzy-
matic cleaner like Nature’s Miracle. If your foster dog or puppy seems to pre-
fer a specific spot in your home, try to make that spot as inaccessible or as un-
attractive as possible.
Dog Basics                                                                            Page 11

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Socialization Guidelines:
Lots of human contact is important for recovering, sick, injured or ne-
glected dogs. Human handling is especially important for the healthy de-
velopment of puppies.
Playtime is a reward for your foster dog. Be sure to give him several min-
utes of playtime periodically through the day. Do not play tug of war or
wrestle with any dog, because this game may teach aggressive behaviors that we may not
want the dog to learn. If you have a shy or fearful dog, do not throw the toy toward the dog,
because he may think you are throwing things at him and become more fearful. After you
have finished playing with a toy, put it away. You are then controlling the toy and playtime.
When giving the dog a toy or treat, have him sit before giving it to him. That way he has to
work to get the toy or treat-making a toy a reward.
Dogs should be exercised every day. A daily walk or run will release excess energy. A dog
that is exercised regularly will tend to sleep when you are not at home –and a sleeping dog
cannot do undesirable things, such as bark.
The more you can get your foster dog out into the world, the better socialized he will be. Get
him used to different people and different environments. This shoud always be under
careful supervision.

If you are fostering a puppy, make sure he has lots of new experiences, so that he is well so-
cialized and will be adaptable as an adult. Since it is best not to take a puppy out in public un-
til he is fully vaccinated, bring new experiences to him. Have friends over and invite children
over to play. (Always supervise playtime with children and dogs closely!)

Handle your foster dog or puppy paws frequently to help them learn to tolerate nail trimmings.

Take your puppy for car rides to see different environments and get used to the car. Puppies
need to go to the bathroom frequently, so be sure they eliminate before you go on a car ride,
and keep the ride brief, since they will need to go again.
Dog Basics                                                                                            Page 12

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Basic Training Commands:
Use the reward word (“YES!”). Begin teaching your foster dog or puppy this word by saying
the word and then giving a treat. Treats should be small and easily chewed/swallowed. Small
pieces of hot dog or soft, moist dog treats work nicely.
Test whether your foster dog knows the reward word. If he looks at you when you say it, he is
beginning to learn it. Once the dog knows the reward word, use it to reward desired behav-
iors. The most desired behavior to reward initially is the dog looking at you. All further train-
ing requires that he look at you (that you have his attention).

“Touch”
Teach your foster dog to touch your hand. Hold the palm of your hand near his face. Wait for him to touch it, and
then give him a treat. Keep your hand still once it is near his face. Do not reward mouthing. As he learns this,
gradually put your hand in other positions so he has to move to touch it.

“Sit”
Hold a hot dog right above the dog’s nose and move it slowly backwards to lure him into the sit position (he
should fold into a sit). As soon as he sits, give the reward word and the hot dog. Resist the urge to physically
push the dog into a sit. Doing this will not help the dog learn and could be harmful or upsetting to the dog.

“Down”
Once the dog has learned SIT, begin working on DOWN. From a sit position, lure the dog with a hot dog starting
at his nose and guiding him down to the ground by moving the hot dog straight down to the ground. Putting the
hot dog on the ground between his front legs may help the dog learn to lie down.

“Okay”
After the dog has learned SIT and DOWN, it is time for him to learn a RELEASE word. This is one word to mean
an exercise is over. Use the word “okay”. Do not allow the dog to “break” a command until you give the RE-
LEASE word. The goal is for your foster dog to remain under command until he/she hears the release word.

Controlled Walking (“Let’s Go”)
Start in an area that is quiet and has few distractions. With a hot dog in your hand, walk backwards a few steps
luring the dog. The dog should follow your hand. Make sure that your hand is at the level of the dog’s nose (if it
is too high, the dog will jump up). Give the reward word when the dog is following you and then give him the hot
dog. When he is following you for a few steps, you can then turn clockwise (keeping your hand in the same posi-
tion) so the dog is walking with you. Give the reward word and the hot dog. Once your dog is readily walking
with you on your left, there is no need to start by backing up.
Gradually lengthen the number of steps you can take with your foster dog by your side. Be prepared to go back
to a smaller number of steps if your dog is having difficulty. Use the hot dog as a lure at the dog’s nose to shape
his behavior (in other words to get him to walk in a controlled fashion by your side).
Continue working on the CONTROLLED WALKING. Gradually lengthen the number of steps you take with your
dog by your side. Begin to eliminate luring him with food. Talk to your dog while you are walking. Treat him
when he is doing well.
Begin making right turns and left turns as you walk. Lure with food around the turns.
Continue working on CONTROLLED WALKING. Use food as a reward and no longer as a lure.
Dog Basics                                                                                               Page 13

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Appropriate Chew Toys:
   Chewing is a normal behavior for dogs.
   Puppies, like human babies, naturally explore their surroundings by putting things in
   their mouths.
   Puppies also chew to relieve their gums, develop strong jaws and help the adult teeth
   come in.
   When dogs feel confined, bored, isolated, or stressed they may engage in destructive
   behaviors such as chewing. For these reasons, you should provide a variety of toys ap-
   propriate for your dog’s size and age. Four or five should be available at a time.
   Praise your dog each time she approaches and picks up the chew toy.
   Make toys a part of play. It is best to rotate toys every few days. This will keep your puppy from getting
   bored with the same toys everyday.

Always be safe in choosing a chew toy:
As a general rule, if your dog can fit the whole toy in his mouth, the toy is too small and could be unsafe.
Dogs and puppies should never be left unattended with chew toys. All toys listed should be made available to
foster animals only when supervised.

Choices of toys:
   Vinyl and Latex: Best for light chewers. Many have squeakers, which make it more fun for the dog.

   Rubber and Nylon: Good for aggressive chewers. Very durable. Some come with holes (Ex.: Kong® toys),
   into which you can insert treats to entice dogs to chew and play.

   Plush Fleece, or Canvas toys: Good for light to semi-aggressive chewers. Washable. Often contain
   squeakers.

   Balls: A great, cheap toy that most dogs enjoy is a tennis ball. Most tennis balls are composed of a rubber
   core covered by wool, cotton, or nylon.

Choice of Chew Bones:
Chewing is good for keeping tarter from building up on the teeth, which in turn helps prevent bad breath. Chew
bones may include: rawhides, Nylabones®, and sterilized beef bones. Choose a bone that matches your dog’s
chewing rate and chewing habits. Keep in mind that dogs may be choosy about their bones. If at first you don’t
succeed, try other bones until you find the perfect chew. Never leave a dog alone with bones of any type!

   Steralized Beef Bones - Femur bones are better because they normally do not break. Rib bones and smaller bones break
    into shards that present choking and digestive hazards.
   Nylabones® - Nylabones® are unique therapeutic devices designed to satisfy the chewing instinct of ag-
   gressive chewing dogs, and are often safer than some dog chews, as Nylabones® will not splinter or break
   off in chunks.

   Nylabone Edibles® : Contain no plastic, and no added salt, sugar, preservatives or color additives. All
   Nylabones® are available in a variety of sizes including: petite, regular, wolf, giant, and super. Choose a
   size appropriate for your dog.

   Greenies® - Freshens breath & reduces odors, improves health of dogs’ gums, decreases oral bacteria,
   cleans teeth & reduces dental calculus. Greenies® come in a variety of sizes. Choose a size that best fits
   your dog.
    3015 Scioto-Darby Executive Court
          Hilliard, Ohio 43026

          Phone: 614-777-7387
           Fax: 614-777-8449

          www.cahs-pets.org




Acknowledgm en ts

Capital Area Humane Society credits and thanks Geauga Humane Society's
Rescue Village and the following people and organizations who provided training,
support and/or documentation in developing this Foster Care Manual.


  Seattle Animal Shelter, Seattle, Washington
  Humane Society of Boulder Valley, Boulder, Colorado
  Denver Dumb Friends League, Denver, Colorado
  Pets For Life Behavior Series, Humane Society of the Untied States,
  www.petsforlife.org
  UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Shelter Medicine Proto-
  cols, Kate Hurley, DVM, MPVM available at
  www.sheltermedicine.com.
  Mar Vista Animal Hospital, Pet Web Library available at
  www.marvistavet.com
  Bucks County, SPCA
Section V
Cat Basics                                                                                  Page 2

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Fostering a cat can be a wonderful experience but will require preparation and
patience to ensure that the cat adjusts to its new temporary home with minimal
stress. Follow these guidelines and remember to call your coordinator with any
questions or concerns.
Foster caregivers will be given specific instructions based on the particular needs of your fos-
ter cat. Each cat is unique and should be treated accordingly.
Common reasons adult cats are fostered:
   Mother cat that has finished nursing kittens

   For socialization and to assess behavior in a home environment

   For a break from the shelter

   Injured cat that needs to heal
                                                                                  Adult cats do
   Sick cat that needs to recuperate
                                                                                     not like
What you will need:                                                               change...be
                                                                                   patient and
   Quiet room, separated from resident animals to reduce health risks
                                                                                 give them time
   Box or carrier                                                                   to adjust.
   Big litter box and cat litter
   Any non-clumping variety of litter will be fine.
   Water bowls
   Heavy and impossible to tip. Should be stainless steel or porcelain/ceramic, NOT plastic, as plastic
   is difficult to disinfect because it is so porous.
   Food bowls (at least 2)
   One is for the eat-at-will dry cat food, the other for canned food.
   Food
   Dry Hill's Science Diet Cat Chow is recommended. See coordinator for any specific food needs.
   Clean towels and blankets
   Toys
   Disinfectable toys are good to reuse for new cats. Cats are creative when playing. Paper wads
   are often more entertaining than expensive toys. Choose toys without strings or other items that
   may be swallowed and become a hazard.
   Disinfectable brushes and nail clippers
   Grooming is very important to cats and trimmed nails will be important to you.
   Stain and odor remover for accidents (such as Nature’s Miracle or Get Serious)
   Just in case...
Cat Basics                                                                                              Page 3

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The territorial nature of cats makes transitions of any kind very difficult. A cat’s typical
reaction in a stressful situation is to run and hide. Therefore, it will be important for
your foster cat to establish control over her/his environment at once and for you to pre-
pare for your foster cat prior to his arrival at your home.
Cat-proofing the room:
Walk into the room into which you are going to confine your foster cat and look around. Ask yourself:

   Do you have room for the litter box?
   Do you have access to water for ease in clean-up and food prep?
   Is there anything that can be scratched that you don’t want scratched? Drapes? Couches? Rugs?
   Are there exposed electrical wires?
   Are there hanging cords from blinds, etc.?
   Is there anywhere the cat can hide? Will you be able to get him out if he does?
   Are there breakables that can be knocked off or broken by a curious cat?
First Days:
When you arrive at your home, open up your cat carrier and let the cat decide whether he or she wants
to explore or to remain inside the carrier. Many times a cat will remain inside the carrier for hours.
Give the cat time to adjust to his new territory. Come back to the room to visit often, but let the cat set
the pace of the visit. Do not force your attention on a cat. When hr wants attention, he will ask for it.
When the cat is more comfortable in the room (it may take a day, week or more) open the door and let
him explore the rest of the house at his own pace. (Of course, this is only if you have no other pets and
there are no apparent health risks regarding this cat.) Cats usually begin investigating at night, mak-
ing short explorations interspersed with rapid retreats to their safe haven. It is rare for a cat to explore
a new territory without hesitation.
If a cat is allowed to adapt to a new environment at his own speed, everything will work out in good
time. The length of time needed to establish territory will depend on temperament, past experiences
and whether there are other cats or dogs already present in the foster home. Be patient and call your
coordinator for help.
Adjustment will happen primarily through consistency of routine and the following:
   Choose a location for the litter box...then do not relocate it. If you have concerns about that particular loca-
   tion, add another box in a different spot.

   Choose a location for the food and water dishes away from the litter box (cats do not like to eat where they
   “go”). Maintain that location and the feeding schedule.

   Cats need hiding places to call home base. The carrier the cat travels home from the shelter in will work be-
   cause it has familiar smells (even if it’s shelter smell).

   Provide a cardboard shoebox to hide or play in. Cats cannot resist a good box!
   Provide a scratching surface. Carpet squares will suffice in a pinch. Cats need to scratch. Scratching allows
   the cat to mark his/her territory and will comfort the cat.

   As a general rule, no children under 12 years old should be left alone and unsupervised with a cat or kittens.
   Do not allow children to do to the cat what you would not allow the child to do to a younger sibling. Teach
   children to leave a cat alone if the cat’s behavior indicates this.
Cat Basics                                                                                      Page 4

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Food Guidelines:
The food you feed your foster cat is important because as the saying goes, “You are
what you eat,” applies to cats as well as to humans. It especially applies to cats whose
immune systems have been compromised by stress or exposure to disease. The shel-
ter feeds Hill's Science Diet cat food products.
Create a consistent schedule for feeding your foster cat. The most common feeding schedule for a
healthy cat that does not have special dietary needs will be to leave dry Cat Chow food out all the
time. Cats tend to be nibblers and generally do not eat a whole meal at one time. Do not feed any
“people” food. You do not know what his adoptive family will want to do, so don’t start a habit that
they will have to break — by feeding only cat food, you are discouraging begging.
Never: feed a cat/kitten cow’s milk. It is difficult to digest and causes diarrhea.


Amount of food (Feeding will depend on the age and size of your foster cat.):
Adult cats:
   Dry adult cat food, fresh daily, for the cat to eat at will. (Unless directed by your foster coordinator
   differently.)
Nursing mothers and kittens:
   Dry kitten food (extra calories), available all day for at-will feeding.
Adolescent cats (4 months-1 year):
   Dry kitten food, available all day for at-will feeding.
Weaned kittens (6 - 8 weeks-4 months):
   Dry kitten food, all day for at will feeding. Moisten the food with water or kitten formula. (Wetted
   food will spoil quickly and cause bacterial infections and diarrhea, do not allow wet food to set out
   for more than 1 hour.)
Un-weaned kittens (4-8 weeks):
   Canned food at 4 weeks (avoid fish flavors unless a cat/kitten is not eating well.)
   Introduce dry kitten food at 5 weeks and gradually change toward mostly dry food week by week.
   Feed 4 times per day.
Cats/kittens should have fresh water available at all times.

Diet Change
Some animals react to a change in diet with diarrhea. If your foster cat shows signs of diarrhea
contact your foster coordinator and schedule an appointment with the shelter veterinarian.
Cat Basics                                                                                              Page 5

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Litter Box Guidelines
Cats instinctively want to eliminate in a loose, grainy substance. However, medical
problems or stress factors can interfere. Call your foster coordinator for detailed in-
structions if your cat is eliminating out of the box. Your foster care coordinator will
also be able to provide a detailed guideline for the specific cat you have.

Basic things you will need to assist any cat with good house manners:
Equipment
   An appropriately-sized litter box. General rule the bigger, the better. Older cats and kittens re-
   quire lower sides on the box for ease in getting in and out of the box.
   Clay, low dust litter.
   Do not use scoop-able litters because they retain smells and if not changed frequently can lead to
   litter box avoidance. Scoop-able litters can also aggravate upper respiratory infections due to the
   dust and lastly, kittens that groom the clumping litter from their coats can have digestive prob-
   lems.
Guidelines
   Place the litter box in an area of the room where the cat has a good view. (Cats do not like sneak
   attacks when they are vulnerable doing their “business”.)
   The litter box should not be located next to machinery, for example a washer or dryer, that may
   startle the cat. The cat will associate fear with the litter box and then avoid using it.
   To avoid problems. Clean the litter box often. Cats are very meticulous and have an excellent
   sense of smell. If you can smell the box, the cat has already been offended for days. In addition,
   cats carry residue on their paws when they leave the box. The less fecal material there is to move
   around, the less opportunity there will be for the cat to lick his paws and re-infect himself with
   parasites.
   Scoopers and boxes should be cleaned regularly with warm soapy water and disinfected with a
   bleach solution of 1:32. This will prevent the spread of any parasites for this foster cat and any cats
   you may foster in the future.
Handling Accidents and Clean—ups
   If you catch your cat in the act of eliminating outside the litter box, do something to interrupt him. Immedi-
   ately take him to the litter box and set him on the floor nearby. If he wanders over to the litter box, wait and
   praise him after he eliminates in the box. If he takes off in another direction, he may want privacy, so watch
   from afar until he goes back to the litter box and eliminates, then praise him when he does.

   Confine the cat to the room where the litter box is located. Sometimes given too many choices, especially
   kittens, will go where they are at the time.

   Cats have an amazing sense of smell. So, make sure you thoroughly clean the spot where the accident hap-
   pened. To thoroughly clean the spot, use an enzymatic cleaner like Nature’s Miracle.

   Put another litter box where the accident happened. There is obviously a reason the cat chose a particular
   spot. Look at the situation from the cat’s perspective.
Cat Basics                                                                                        Page 6

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Socialization:
   Lots of human contact is important for recovering, sick, injured or neglected cats.
   Human handling is especially important for the healthy development of kittens.
   Playtime is a reward for your foster cat. Be sure to give him several minutes of
   playtime periodically through the day. Do not play or wrestle with any cat by using your hands,
   because this game may teach aggressive behaviors that we may not want the cat to learn. If you
   have a shy or fearful cat, do not throw the toy toward the cat, because he may think you are throw-
   ing things at him and become more fearful.
   The more you can get your foster cat out into the world, the better socialized he will be. Get him
   used to different people, different sounds (vacuum cleaner) and environments. If you are fostering
   a kitten, make sure he has lots of new experiences, so that he is well socialized and will be adapt-
   able as an adult. Since it is best not to take a kitten out in public until he is fully vaccinated, bring
   new experiences to him. Have friends over and invite children over to play (Always supervise
   playtime with children and kittens closely!) Take your cat/kitten for car rides to see different envi-
   ronments and get used to the car. Keep in mind that kittens need to go to the bathroom frequently,
   so be sure they eliminate before you go on a car ride, and keep the ride brief.

Toys:
   Cats sleep 16—18 hours a day. The remainder of the time they are ready to pounce on fun moving
   toys. Choose appropriate toys for cats. Never leave a cat/kitten alone with strings, feathers, rib-
   bons or small objects that could be swallowed and cause choking or an obstruction.
   Cats and kittens love moving objects and to hunt. Provide your foster cat with toys that move easily
   like ping pong balls and hide treats around the room to hone his “hunting” skills.

For safety:
   Make sure the cat/kitten is in his carrier at all times when out of the house or in the car.
   Watch your foster cat/kitten carefully around doors to the outside. No escaping please!



See the Medical Wellness section of this manual for medical concerns and
speak to your foster coordinator regarding your foster cat’s health.
   3015 Scioto-Darby Executive Court
         Hilliard, Ohio 43026

         Phone: 614-777-7387
          Fax: 614-777-8449

         www.cahs-pets.org




Acknowledgments
Capital Area Humane Society credits and thanks Geauga Humane
Society's Rescue Village, and the following people and organizations
who provided training, support and/or documentation in
developing this Foster Care Manual.

  Seattle Animal Shelter, Seattle, Washington
  Humane Society of Boulder Valley, Boulder, Colorado
  Denver Dumb Friends League, Denver, Colorado
  Pets For Life Behavior Series, Humane Society of the Untied
  States, www.petsforlife.org
  UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Shelter Medicine
  Protocols, Kate Hurley, DVM, MPVM available at
  www.sheltermedicine.com.
  Mar Vista Animal Hospital, Pet Web Library available at
  www.marvistavet.com
Section VI
Rabbit Basics                                                                                 Page 2

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Rabbit Facts:
  The average life expectancy of rabbits is 7-10 years.
  Rabbits love and need to chew. Chewing wears their front incisors down, which is im-
  portant because these can continue to grow throughout the rabbit’s life.
  Rabbits become better socialized through regular handling.
  Rabbits are easily litter-trained, if given patience, time and positive rewards like food or praise.
  Rabbits do shed and will do so about every three months.
  Rabbits need to be groomed at least weekly to promote a healthy coat and cut down on hairballs,
  the leading cause of death among rabbits.
  Rabbits are inquisitive, intelligent, social and playful.
  For a prey animal such as a rabbit, the greatest threat comes from predators. Rabbits have acute
  vision, hearing and sense of smell. They can die from the threat of an attack as easily as an actual
  attack by dogs, cats, owls, possums, foxes, or hawks.
  Rabbits do not tolerate hot weather and can easily die of heatstroke on an 80-degree day.
  Rabbits won’t eat if there is nothing to drink.
  House trained rabbits can be left loose in bunny-proofed rooms.
  Rabbits can learn to get along well with other resident pets such as cats, dogs or other rabbits.
Rabbit Basics                                                                              Page 3

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What do I need to get set up for a foster rabbit?
   Roomy cage allowing the rabbit to stretch 2 times the size of its body
   Resting board (cardboard or untreated wood)
   Litter box and clips to fasten to side of cage
   Pellet Litter
   2 heavy crockery dishes: One for food and one for water
   Water bottle (back-up)
   Hay (Timothy or Grass)
   Rabbit Food: fresh greens, hay, and pellets
   Slicker Brush and Flea comb
   Toys: Things to chew on, jump up on, and push around
   Some time in your schedule

                                                                                Rabbits will not
Quick tips on understanding rabbits:                                              eat if there is
Behavior                                    Possible Meaning                    nothing to drink.
                                                                                 Make sure your
   Sitting in a corner and panting          Stress
                                                                                  foster rabbit
   Panting                                  Overheated                          always has fresh
                                                                                      water.
   Inactive                                 Depressed, health problem
   Ears laid back suddenly                  May soon box or nip
   Pressing belly to floor                  Gas Pain
   Pressing head into your hand             Wants head to be “groomed”
   Stomping feet                            Anger, fear, danger signal for other rabbits
   Tooth grinding (gentle)                  Happiness
   Tooth grinding (vigorous)                Pain
   Zig, zags, jumps, “dancing”              Happiness
Rabbit Basics                                                                                         Page 4

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Setting up a your foster rabbit’s house:
   Provide a roomy house where the rabbit can stretch at least 2 times the length for comfort. No
   cage smaller than 24” by 24” should be used for any sized rabbit.

   Wired cage floors will give rabbits sores on their feet. Buy a cage without a wire floor or provide a resting
   board made from untreated wood or cardboard.

   Place the cage in a place out of direct sunlight or drafts. See the section on House Rabbits for more ideas on
   toys, playtime and litter training.

   Do not put your foster rabbit on pine or cedar shavings. Both have been proven harmful to small mammals.
   Instead use corncob bedding, pelleted newspaper, or hay.

   An untrained rabbit should be confined when you are not home to supervise.



Cleaning Your Foster Rabbit’s House:
   Rabbits like their area neat and tidy. Their house should be cleaned DAILY to prevent a build up of urine and
   feces. All dishes and toys should also be cleaned.

   Use a regular dish detergent to clean. Make sure to rinse and dry all items thoroughly.

   If you can smell your rabbit, then you are not cleaning often enough.

   Replace all items back into your rabbit’s house. Don’t worry about where you put things; most rabbits prefer
   to do their own interior decorating.



Handling Your Foster Rabbit:
   Remember, rabbits are a prey species. They can startle or frighten easily. With regular handling, your
   bunny will begin to look at you as a friend.

   Go slowly; give the rabbit a chance to smell you.

   When picking up a rabbit, make sure you support his body weight, front and back.

   If they start squirming or kicking, then they don’t feel safe. Re-adjust how you are holding your rabbit.

   A rabbit’s kick packs a strong punch. Rabbits use their hind feet to protect themselves in an attack.

   Never pick up a rabbit by the ears or scruff.

   Keep their nails trimmed to prevent scratches.

Rabbits and Children:
“Under the right circumstances, children and bunnies can have a loving, stable relationship. Parents are instru-
mental in teaching sensitive, caring and responsible behavior.” Rabbit Rescue News 1996, Vol.II, Issue 6
Children should be supervised at all times with rabbits. Small children under the age of 8 should not handle rab-
bits due to the risk of injury to the rabbit from kicking or jumping if picked up incorrectly and the risk to the
child, due to the sensitivity of rabbits.
Rabbit Basics                                                                                Page 5

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Feeding Guidelines:
PELLETS:
The chart below should represent the maximum amount of pellets your foster rabbit
should receive. Pellets should not be fed as the main diet, but as a treat.
   2-4 lbs Rabbit           1/8 cup pellets
   4-8 lbs Rabbit           1/4 cup pellets
   8-10 lbs Rabbit          1/2 cup pellets
   11-15 lbs Rabbit         3/4 cup pellets

Providing A Balanced Diet:
Hay:
Is an important component in a rabbit’s diet. (Timothy Hay)
Water:
Without water, rabbits will not eat. Fresh water should be available at all times and should be
changed frequently.
Fresh foods:
Feed 1 heaping cup of fresh veggies per 5 lbs of body weight. Rabbits, who are not accustomed to re-
ceiving greens, should be started on them gradually.
   Arugla
   Beet tops
   Cabbage
   Clover
   Collard Greens
   Dandelion Greens
   Endive
   Escarole
   Kale
   Parsley
   Romaine Lettuce
   Turnip Greens
Rabbit Basics                                                                             Page 6

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Feeding Guidelines
Fresh foods: TREATS
The following should be given as treats with no more than1 tablespoon per 4 lbs of body weight.
   Apples
   Bananas
   Blueberries
   Cactus Fruit
   Carrots
   Mango
   Melon
   Papaya
   Peaches
                                                                                Too many
   Pears                                                                      sweets are not
   Persimmons                                                                    good for
                                                                               bunnies or
   Pineapple                                                                    children!
   Raspberries
   Raisins (2-3)
   Strawberries
   Tomatoes
Rabbit Basics                                                                                 Page 7

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Grooming

Coat Care:
Rabbits are clean, tidy animals and groom themselves the same way cats do. They shed every three
months and alternate between light and heavy shedding.
   Rabbits can get hairballs the same way, but unlike cats, rabbits cannot vomit.
   Weekly to daily brushing is important to remove any loose hair and prevent hairballs that block a
   rabbit’s digestive tract.
   Complications due to hairballs are the leading cause of death in domestic rabbits.
Nails:
Nails can grow to be very long and sharp. Long nails are uncomfortable for the rabbit because it af-
fects the proper angle of their feet.
   Work under good light when clipping your bunny’s nails.
   On light colored nails, look for the place where pink meets white. The pink area is called the
   “quick.”
   Cut the tip of the white part a little bit below the quick.
   On dark colored nails, the quick may be hard to see, but it is usually visible under good light.
Keep a styptic pencil or a bar of soap handy in case you accidentally cut into the quick. If you do, ap-
ply the styptic pencil to the nail or stick the nail into the bar of soap. That will stop the bleeding.


Teeth:
   The teeth of a rabbit grow throughout the rabbit’s life. It is important to check them to ensure they
   are wearing evenly and that the upper and lower incisors are properly aligned.
   Sometimes a rabbit’s teeth do need to be clipped back — consult your veterinarian to be shown
   the procedure.
   Provide things for your rabbit to chew on like hay, to help the rabbit wear down his teeth naturally.
Rabbit Basics                                                                                                Page 8

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Health Guidelines
The list below are easy things you can check at home. If you check every month, you will
be able to spot a problem in its early stage and contact your foster coordinator with any
concerns.
    Nails:
    Trim if necessary. If you find a broken nail, make sure it has healed properly.

    Feet:
    Check the bottom of each foot for sores. Sores are a good place for infections to start.

    Teeth:
    Make sure they are properly aligned. The top teeth should line up and slightly overlap the bottom teeth.

    Eyes:
    Should be bright and clear with no discharge from eyelashes or tear ducts.

    Ears:
    Ears should be clean and free of irritation or discharge.

    Nose:
    Look for moisture or a colored discharge. Also check the inside of each leg for dirty, matted fur. If you see
    these signs call your foster coordinator immediately.

    Chin:
    Check under the chin for a waxy build-up from the scent glands. If you see this, wash it off with warm water
    or trim off with blunt-ended scissors.

    Genital Scent Glands:
    Check for a waxy build-up on either side of the genitals. If you see this, the area can be wiped with a Q-tip,
    tissue or cotton ball dipped in warm water.

    Lumps & Bumps:
    Check your rabbit all over for any strange lumps or bumps. If you feel anything, you might want to have a
    veterinarian find out what they are.

    Skin Coat:
    Check for FLEAS: If you find fleas, you can use a flea powder or water based (non alcohol) flea spray that is
    safe to use on kittens. Do not treat the animal’s head. If you notice a negative reaction (like diarrhea) discon-
    tinue use.
    Check for flakes or scabs. If you see scabs and your rabbit is free of fleas, he/she might have mites. Consult
    a veterinarian for treatment.

    Hair Balls:
    Surgery should be a last resort for the treatment of hairballs. Lots of exercise, sufficient roughage and regu-
    lar brushing play a huge role for a healthy pet.
    Other treatments below maybe helpful:
    Cat lax
    Petromalt
    Papaya enzyme tablets
    Pineapple juice
Spaying and neutering is important for rabbits due to the overwhelmingly high rate of cancer. Spaying and neutering re-
duces aggression and territorial marking; (most noted loss of bathroom habits and spraying). Compared to a few years ago,
there is anesthesia proven to be safe for use in rabbits. All rabbits are spayed or neutered prior to adoption.
Rabbit Basics                                                                                             Page 9

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Litter Box Guidelines:
   Litter-Training:
   Litter training is the first step in making your bunny into a real house rabbit even if you don’t wish to leave
   him loose why you are not home. Litter training will make it easier for you to clean up after your bunny.

   Litters:
   When choosing a litter for you rabbit, select something made of pellets. Do not use scoop-able or un-
   clumping clay cat litters due to the dust. They can give your rabbit respiratory problems.

   Set up the litter pan with litter in it and place it in the corner of your bunny’s cage
   that he/she already uses as a bathroom spot.
   Attach the litter box using metal clips or drill small holes in the box to secure to the sides using twisty ties.

   Confine the rabbit to the cage when you are not at home.
   When you are home, select a training room that has been bunny-proofed and has an easy –to-clean floor
   (tile or linoleum). Linoleum can be slippery so make sure to trim nails before letting your bunny loose in
   the training room.

   Do not let him/her into another room in the house until he/she is ALWAYS urinating in the
   litter box.
   If your foster bunny has an accident outside the box, wipe it up immediately with white vinegar. If white
   vinegar doesn’t work, use a good enzymatic cleaner. Stay away from products that contain ammonia since
   that is what’s in rabbit urine.

   When you first let him/her out of the cage, stay in the training room.
   If your foster bunny deposits any dropping on the floor, immediately pick him/her and the droppings up
   and place both in the litter box. Pet your bunny while he/she is sitting in the litter box while saying, “What a
   good boy/girl!”

   Spend as much time in the training room with him/her as you can (read a book).
   Once your foster bunny has the training room mastered, then and only then can you let him/her out into an-
   other room.

   Allow the litter box to stay a little dirty while your rabbit is learning.
   If you are constantly cleaning it, he/she will think it is supposed to stay clean. If you use organic litter, it
   makes for wonderful fertilizer for flowers beds or a compost pile.

   Be consistent, gentle, firm yet patient. Your bunny will learn.
Rabbit Basics                                                                                          Page 10

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Toys:
Rabbits love to play by tossing or pushing stuff around. Rabbits also like to chew! Most of
the toys listed below are edible except the few that are marked. Beware of plastic, sharp
metal or items that can break into little pieces.
   Rolls of toilet paper & paper towels
   Cardboard core inside paper towels or toilet paper
   Paper cups (not plastic coated) (Supervise.)
   Newspaper or scrap white paper
   Straw baskets
   Canning jar rings
   Rolled oats box with ends cut off
   Soft drink can with a pebble inside for noise
   Rubber balls (remove if they chew on it)
   Wire ball with bells inside
   Cardboard boxes (cut holes in so they can run through them)
   Things to jump on to
   Old wash cloth to push around (remove if they chew on)


The Language of Rabbits:
   Sniffing                               May be just talking to you or annoyed
   Bunny hop (jump/dance)                 Sign of pure joy and happiness
   Begging                                Give me a treat! (Rabbits can be worse than dogs for begging.)
   Teeth Grinding                         Gentle grinding indicates contentment. Loud grinding indicates pain.
   Grunting                               Usually angry, watch out or you could be bitten
   Screaming                              Usually mortally wounded or dying
   Circling (your feet)                   He’s/She’s in love (usually sexual behavior)
   Chinning                               Claiming territory using scent glands under chin
   Stomping                               He’s frightened, mad or warning you of danger (in his opinion)
   Don’t touch my stuff!                  Rabbits are a creature of habit and are often displeased when you
                                          rearrange their cage. When they get things just right, they want it to stay
                                          that way! Watch out for Grunting!
   Playing                                Rabbits will sometimes race around like a kid on a sugar rush. They also
                                          enjoy tossing or pushing stuff around.
   Spraying                               Un-neutered males and un-spayed females use this to mark territory.
   False Pregnancy                        Usually only in un-spayed females. May build a nest by pulling hair from
                                          their chest and stomach. Spaying usually prevents this behavior.
  3015 Scioto-Darby Executive Court
        Hilliard, Ohio 43026

        Phone: 614-777-7387
         Fax: 614-777-8449

        www.cahs-pets.org




Acknowledgments

Capital Area Humane Society credits and thanks:
Geauga Humane Society’s Rescue Village and the following people and
organizations who provided training, support and/or documentation in
developing this Foster Care Manual:




    BUCKS
COUNTY S.P.C.A

								
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