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Selected Telecommunications Devices for Hearing Impaired Persons

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									Selected Telecommunications Devices for
       Hearing-Impaired Persons

            December 1982

         NTIS order #PB83-169292
   TECHNOLOGY
       AND
HANDICAPPED PEOPLE
                                    DECEMBER 1982




      BACKGROUND PAPER #2: SELECTED
     TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEVICES FOR
         HEARING-IMPAIRED PERSONS

                                 Virginia W. Stern, M.A.
                             Martha Ross Redden, M. S., Ed.D.
        Project on the Handicapped in Science, Office of Opportunities
    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.



                         -           -     -    –             -   -   -  -           ~
~                    ‘         ‘                   ‘                          -
    OTA Background Papers are documents containing information that supplements
    formal OTA assessments or is an outcome of internal exploratory planning and evalua-
    tion. The material is usually not of immediate policy interest such as is contained
    in an OTA Report or Technical Memorandum, nor does it present options for Con-
    gress to consider.
I                                                                                                                      J




                                                                      -   ““   ,),
                                                               -,,\\’ . . . . +,
                                                                                       ‘,
                                                                                              CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES
                                                              ; ,“                     ,.’.   Office   of Technology Assessment
                                                              >. “                      :     Washington, D.C. 20510
                                                                ,,4                    --
                                                                       ,.. .,F .. ..
                                                                 ~,,
                                                                     //, ,,, ,,! .
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 82-600546

      For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402
Foreword

     Technology exerts a powerful influence over the lives of everyone, making life easier,
more fulfilling, but sometimes more painful and frustrating. This statement is especial-
ly true for people with disabilities. The appropriate application of technologies to
diminishing the limitations and extending the capabilities of disabled and handicapped
persons is one of the prime social and economic goals of public policy.
     The Federal Government is deeply involved in programs that affect the develop-
ment and use of technologies for disabilities. Congress and other institutions have become
increasingly interested in questions of how well programs that directly or indirectly de-
velop technologies and support their use have been performing. The Senate Committee
on Labor and Human Resources requested the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA)
to conduct a study of technologies for handicapped individuals. That study examined
the specific factors that affect the research and development, evaluation, diffusion and
marketing, delivery, use, and financing of technologies directly related to disabled people.
The problems and processes of the development and use of technologies were analyzed
in the context of societal allocation of resources and the setting of goals for public policy.
The main report of the study Technology and Handicapped People was released in May
of 1982.
     This case study is background paper #2 of the study. There will be a number of
case studies published as part of the assessment, and each will be issued separately. The
case studies were commissioned by OTA both to provide information on the specific
technologies and to gain lessons that could be applied to the broader policy aspects of
technology and disability.
      Drafts of each case study were reviewed by OTA staff; by members of the advisory
panel to the overall assessment, chaired by Dr. Daisy Tagliacozzo; by members of the
Health Program Advisory Committee, chaired by Dr. Sidney S. Lee; and by other ex-
perts in medicine, disability policy, Government, public interest and consumer rights,
and rehabilitation engineering. We are grateful for their assistance. However, respon-
sibility for the case studies remains with the authors.


                                               &      #.       “
                                                    JOHN H. GIBBONS
                                                    Director




                                                                                                 ...
                                                                                                 ///
Advisory Panel on Technology and Handicapped People

                                          Daisy Tagliacozzo, Panel Chair
                       Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Harbor Campus
Miriam K. Bazelon                                         Robert Leopold
     Washington, D. C.                                      Department of Psychiatry
                                                            Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Tom Beauchamp
     Kennedy Institute—Center for Bioethics               LeRoy Levitt
     Georgetown University                                   Mount Sinai Hospital
Monroe Berkowitz                                          A. Malachi Mixon, III
     Bureau of Economic Research                             Invacare Corp.
     Rutgers University
                                                          Jacquelin Perry
Henrik Blum                                                  Rancho Los Amigos Hospital
     University of California, Berkeley
                                                           Barbara W. Sklar
Frank Bowe                                                   Mount Zion Hospital
     Woodmere, N. Y.
                                                           William Stason
Jim Gallagher                                                Veterans Administration and Harvard School of
     Martha Porter Graham Center                               Public Health
     University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
                                                           Gregg Vanderheiden
Melvin Glasser                                               Trace Research and Development Center
     Committee for National Health Insurance                 University of Wisconsin
Ralf Hotchkiss                                             Michael Zullo
     Oakland, Calif.                                         Corporate Partnership Program
                                                             U.S. Council for International Year of
John Kimberly                                                  Disabled Persons
     Yale School of Organization and Management
     Yale University




iv
OTA Staff for Background Paper #2

                           H. David Banta, Assistant Director, OTA
                               Health and Life Sciences Division


                           Clyde J. Behney, Health Program Manager


                               Clyde J. Behney, Project Director
                                Anne Kesselman Burns, Analyst
                                    Chester Strobel, Analyst
                                  Kerry Britten Kemp, Editor

                           Virginia Cwalina, Administrative    Assistant
                                  Mary E. Harvey, Secretary
                                  Pamela J. Simerly, Secretary




OTA Publishing Staff


                              John C. Holmes, Publishing Officer
           John Bergling       Kathie S. Boss     Debra M. Datcher         Joe Henson
                               Doreen Cullen        Donna Young
Acknowledgments

     In addition to the advisory panel to the overall project on Technology and Handicapped People, a number
of people provided helpful comments on drafts of this background paper. The case study authors and the staff
of the Office of Technology Assessment would like to give particular thanks to the following individuals:
H. Latham Breunig                                        Bryan R. Luce
Arlington, Va.                                           Office of Research and Demonstrations
                                                         Health Care Financing Administration
Diane Castle                                             Washington, D.C.
National Technical Institute for the Deaf
Rochester Institute of Technology                        James C. Marsters
Rochester, N.Y.                                          Pasadena, Calif.

Sy Dubow                                                 James Reswick
The National Center for Law and the Deaf                 National Institute of Handicapped Research
Washington, D.C.                                         Washington, D.C.
                                                         Reese Robrahn
Sarah Geer
                                                         American Coalition of Citizens With Disabilities
The National Center for Law and the Deaf
                                                         Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
                                                         Barry Strassler
Harriet Loeb                                             Telecommunications for the Deaf, Inc.
Washington, D.C,                                         Silver Spring, Md.
Darld Long                                               Don R. Warren
National Institute of Handicapped Research               Wisconsin Foundation for Applied Technology
Washington, D.C.                                         Madison, Wis.




       OTA Note

            These case studies are authored works commissioned by OTA. The authors are responsible
       for the conclusions of their specific case study. These cases are not statements of official OTA
       position, OTA does not make recommendations or endorse particular technologies. During the
       various stages of the review and revision process, therefore, OTA encouraged the authors to
       present balanced information and to recognize divergent points of view.




vi
Contents

Chapter                                                                                                                                         Page
1. Background Information on the Hearing-Impaired Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...                                                       1
2. Background Information on Technology for the Hearing-Impaired Population . . .                                                                  3
3. The Development and Diffusion of Teletypewriters for Hearing-Impaired People . . . .                                                            5
4. Issues and Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...,                  9
   Rate Reduction for Intrastate Long-Distance Calls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  9
   Telephone Customer Services for TDD Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       9
   Rate Reduction for Interstate Long-Distance Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               10
   Eligibility for Reduced Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       10
   Public TDDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         10
   Cost of TDDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          11
   Distribution of Free TDDs in California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 11
   ASCII-Baudot Standardization and the Impact of Computer Technology . . . . . . . . . .                                                        13
   New Legislation. ..., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . .          13
   Deaf Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     13
Appendix A: Personal Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              15
Appendix B: Sample Personal Communications by TDD and TDD-Related Services . . .                                                                 16
Appendix C: Sample Printout of a TDD Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..., . .                                               17
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . .    19




                                                                                                                                                       vii
                                                                                                                     1 .


                                  Background Information on the
                                    Hearing-Impaired Population
   The hearing-impaired (i.e., hard-of-hearing and                     defined and possibly still the most poorly iden-
deaf) population of the United States is difficult                     tified of all the handicapped groups.
to define. A census of the people with hearing im-
                                                                          The Office of Demographic Studies, located
pairments, taken in 1970-71, is the only extensive
                                                                       at Gallaudet College, Washington, D. C., was
effort that has been made to date. Subject to errors
                                                                       formed to organize the 1970-71 census of the deaf,
resulting from nonresponse, this census still of-
                                                                       and it has continued publishing statistics, notably
fers the best available figures: 13,362,842 hearing-
                                                                       the results of its annual survey of hearing-
impaired persons (persons with any degree of
                                                                       impaired youth receiving education in special
hearing impairment) in the United States, includ-
                                                                       schools and programs. The Office of Demo-
ing 1,767,046 deaf persons (35).
                                                                       graphic Studies and the National Center for
   A 1978 survey conducted by Bell Laboratories                        Health Statistics make prevalence estimates based
as part of its planning for products and services                      on the census and on new information from the
indicated that 16,650,000 people in the United                         annual survey of schools. Current estimates show
States are hearing impaired to some degree (2).                        14.5 million persons with any type of hearing
That survey found that 4,070,000 of these peo-                         disorder and 2 million severely hearing-impaired
ple have a hearing impairment that affects tele-                       persons who could be termed “deaf” (24).
phone use: 440,000 people who have a profound
                                                                          Approximately 300,000 deaf persons were born
or total hearing loss and cannot use the telephone
                                                                       deaf or lost their hearing before the age of 3 and
without a telecommunications device such as a
                                                                       thus are considered “prelingually” deaf. Tradi-
teletypewriter (TTY); * 1,630,000 severely hearing-
                                                                       tionally, it was said that these children could not
impaired people who use a hearing aid and who
                                                                       be educated in the regular school system, because
cannot use the telephone without additional
                                                                       they lacked a language base from which they
amplification; * * and 2,000,000 less severely
                                                                       could be taught to speak and read. With the im-
hearing-impaired people who probably do not use
                                                                       plementation of the Education for All Handi-
a personal hearing aid, but who can benefit from
                                                                       capped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), more
additional amplification in the telephone handset.
                                                                       deaf and hearing-impaired youngsters are being
   The Bell Laboratories survey also indicated that                    educated within the regular public school system.
there are 8,000 people, not hearing impaired but                       Whether or not such education is effective for all
with severe speech problems, who might use a                           prelingually deaf children is an issue hotly debated
telecommunications device. This figure is unques-                      in the education community. However, the result
tionably low, because the nonvocal group of the                        of the “mainstreaming” trend is that fewer deaf
disabled population, those who hear but cannot                         children are being educated in State schools and
speak owing to neurological or motor impairment                        special classes; the fewer deaf children there are
or surgery or an accident, are the most recently                       in these school systems, the less likely they are
                                                                       to be reached by the Annual Survey of the Office
                                                                       of Demographic Studies, and the less complete is
   *TTY was formerly used as the generic term for telecommunica-       the information available.
tions devices for the deaf. The acronym currently used for all
telecommunications devices for the deaf, including teletypewriters       Approximately 600,000 deaf persons became
(TTYs), cathode ray tubes (CRTs), and light-emitting diodes (LEDs]     deaf before entering the work force and thus are
is TDD.
   q ‘Many telephones manufactured in the last 5 to 10 years are not
                                                                       considered “prevocationally” deaf. Some of these
compatible with the “telephone switch” on hearing aids, which has      persons had a progressive hearing loss that did
created a new barrier for hearing-impaired people.                     not manifest itself completely until young adult-

                                                                                                                          1
2   q   Background Paper #2: Selected Telecommunications Devices for Hearing-Impaired Persons



hood, and others were deafened from disease or ac-              ing loss due to aging. As the population of the
cident in childhood or adolescence. Although the                country over 60 increases, the incidence of hear-
rubella epidemic of 1964-65 as it affected preg-                ing impairment increases dramatically. Most in-
nant women is a main cause of deafness in deaf                  dividuals who lose their hearing in adulthood do
youth who became 18 in 1982, “cause not deter-                  not consider themselves part of the deaf communi-
mined” is still the most common cause of deafness               ty and do not take advantage of its information
in all age groups (24).                                         and services. Many technological devices can be
                                                                of considerable benefit both to the traditional deaf
  At least three-quarters of the hearing-impaired               community and to gradually deafened older
population of the country may have some hear-                   Americans.
                                                                                                      2
   Background Information on Technology
      for the Hearing-Impaired Population
   It is ironic that although the telephone was in-    and tactile and visual aids are in use in schools
vented by Alexander Graham Bell, who as a              and clinics as speech-training aids. Such aids are
teacher of deaf students was constantly searching      generally not portable devices (although miniatur-
for ways to overcome barriers to human commu-          ized versions are being developed). They are often
nication, as telephone lines were extended through-    effective in structured training settings, although
out the country, and commerce became more and          there are problems in generalizing their use to that
more dependent on them, deaf individuals were          in everyday situations.
closed out of the telephone network. Deaf peo-
                                                          Auditory loops had been used for a number of
ple, able to communicate only during face-to-face
                                                       years in special schools for the hearing impaired
encounters or by written correspondence, began
                                                       and in some regular school classes where there
to be unable to reach help in emergencies, were
                                                       were hearing-impaired students. Loops became
isolated from significant information about com-
                                                       more widespread and convenient when Desmond
munity and educational services, and were severe-
                                                       Carron, a Maryland engineer, designed and built
ly limited in seeking new employment. Bell’s in-
                                                       the first portable loop for his deaf daughter in the
vention, opening channels of communication for
                                                       late 1960’s, The portable audio loop, a wire loop
the population at large to an unprecedented
                                                       connected to an amplifier and to the speaker’s
degree, effectively isolated a substantial portion
                                                       microphone, is easily transported and set up in
of the population—those whom Bell most wanted
                                                       any meeting room. Persons with hearing aids set
to help.
                                                       their aids on the “T” or telephone switch and
   Over the past 20 years, however, the range of       receive a much clearer and more direct signal, free
technological aids available to deaf and hearing-      of background noise. With the support of William
impaired individuals has increased greatly. Signifi-   Paschell and others in the Washington, D. C.,
cant advances in the microminiaturization of elec-     Area Group for the Hard of Hearing, loops are
tronic circuits and concurrent developments in         now used in houses of worship, classrooms, thea-
digital signal processing have improved the qual-      ters, recreation centers, senior citizen centers, and
ity and diversity of sensory aids.                     some places of employment in the Washington
                                                       area and elsewhere.
   Conventional hearing aids, which are now
lightweight and unobtrusive, are the most widely          More recently, infrared amplification systems
used sensory aids. Related to personal hearing aids    have been successful in theaters (including the
are various types of auditory trainers for class-      Eisenhower Theater in the Kennedy Center in
room use, h&h-gain telephone handsets, and spe-        Washington, D. C.) and in large houses of wor-
cial extension headphones for TV and radio. The        ship. A hearing aid is not necessary to use an in-
problems with hearing aids, especially in fitting      frared amplification system; hearing-impaired
children and elderly persons, are not so much in       members of the audience borrow or rent a receiver
the technology as in determining the correct pre-      headset that brings them clear, strong sound di-
scription, assessing the aid’s performance, and        rectly from the stage. The system is particularly
educating the user. Hearing aids are still very ex-    helpful to individuals with a mild hearing loss who
pensive when compared to the cost of advanced          often miss some words from the stage.
pocket calculators and other mass-produced elec-
                                                         A variety of warning and alert systems that
tronic devices in general use.
                                                       convert noises into visual or tactile signals are
   Auditory speech-processing aids (devices that       available to deaf individuals for use at home every
raise or lower the frequency of the speech signal)     day. These systems include flashing-light doorbell

                                                                                                          3
4   q   Background Paper #2: Selected Telecommunications Devices for Hearing-Impaired Persons



signals, vibrating alarm clocks, baby cry signals,              Education, and Welfare. * These systems have
smoke detectors, and burglar alarms.                            been actively used by a small group of deaf peo-
                                                                ple but have not reached the general deaf popu-
   The most recent technological development for                lation.
deaf individuals is captioned television. Although                 Research on machine recognition of speech has
captioned films for use by schools and social                   gone on for many years, although still with only
groups for the deaf and open captioning on late                 limited success. It may be possible to develop a
evening TV news from WGBH in Boston had been                    system that will automatically recognize all essen-
available for some time, closed captions on tele-               tial features of running speech and display them
vision (which appear on the screen when the view-               in an easily understandable form.** An ideal sys-
er uses a special adapter, but do not appear to                 tem would generate a typewritten message directly
other viewers) were first offered in early 1980.                from the acoustic wave form, Limited speech rec-
Research and development of the closed-caption-                 ognition devices for single-word spoken com-
ing concept was financed by the Bureau of Educa-                mands have been developed and may prove useful
tion for the Handicapped, with the support of the               to telephone users. It is highly unlikely that an
Public Broadcasting System and two national net-                accurate system operating on running speech from
works. In addition to early evening news, 20 to                 any speaker will be developed in the near future,
36 hours per week of prime-time television pro-                 but systems with limited message sets are being
grams are currently captioned. Deaf viewers who                 developed now (27).
can afford to can buy either a captioning adapter                  The development and diffusion of TDDs that
to attach to a television set or a set that has the             allow deaf persons to use the telephone have been
adapter built into it, both sold by Sears.                      different from all the other technological advances
                                                                mentioned above. The new network was devel-
   Video telephones have been tried on a limited                oped on the basis of existing technology, includ-
scale. They would be of value to the hearing-im-                ing the phone system, teletypewriters, and mo-
paired as a communication aid for lip reading,                  dems. *** It has allowed deaf persons to use the
signing, or reading the printed word, but the costs             telephone, which has become a necessity of Amer-
of a videotelephone network are prohibitively                   ican life. The imagination and persistence of a few
high. Computerization of typed information into                 individuals got the movement started; the “enthu-
nearly instantaneous yet remote readout is now                  siasm on the part of the deaf participants was the
beginning to appear and is in use by a deaf mem-                propelling force behind the concept of telecommu-
ber of the British Parliament. It has also been used            nications for the deaf” (45).
in the U.S. Supreme Court (April 1982).                          q Now the Department of Health and Human Services.
                                                                  q ‘Real-time graphic display, a system of video captioning based
                                                               on stenography, is a recent development. A real-time graphic display
  Research continues on cochlear prostheses,                   device, consisting of a stenotype machine and video display screen,
which electrically stimulate the ear by means of               was used Mar. 25, 1982, at the U.S. Supreme Court to allow a deaf
                                                               attorney to read the questions raised by the justices. The device,
an implant. A few initial efforts have been made,              developed by Translation Systems, Inc., of Rockville, Md., costs
but practical results are not widespread.                      a p p r o x i m a t e l y $73,000. It requires the services of a skilled
                                                               stenographer, who enters phonetic symbols into a computer that
                                                               translates them into conventional English and displays the results
   Electric mail systems have been adopted for use             in print on a television screen. A similar translating system is cur-
by deaf users of telecommunications devices for                rently being used by the National Captioning Institute to provide
                                                               live, closed captions for the ABC Evening News.
the deaf (TDDs) through two demonstration proj-                    * **A modem (modulator/demodulator) converts TDD electrical
ects funded by the U.S. Department of Health,                  impulses into telephone transmittable form.
                                                                                                                        3
                                 The Development and Diffusion;
                                          of Teletypewriters for
                                       Hearing-Impaired People
   In 1963, Robert Weitbrecht, a physicist with a                     the entire deaf population, it would have to be
profound hearing loss, hiked up Mount Lassen in                       based on the telephone. Although relatively few
California. As Weitbrecht exclaimed about the                         deaf people could make direct use of the tele-
beauty of his surroundings to his hiking compan-                      phone, many of them owned telephones so that
ion, his voice was overheard by another hiker on                      their children, other relatives, or neighbors, could
the trail, Ed McKeown, whose wife is deaf. The                        make calls for them in times of emergency. A
speech of deaf individuals varies, but it usually                     commercial TTY network already existed, but its
has a distinctive quality that is easily recognized                   costs were prohibitive for private individuals.
by a person with a deaf family member. McKeown
introduced himself and the two exchanged names.                         As the TTY communications went back and
Weitbrecht mentioned that he had technical inter-                     forth between Weitbrecht’s home in Redwood
ests and education and that he was a radio ham                        City and Marsters’ in Pasadena, tests and modifi-
and operated a radio teletypewriter (TTY).                            cations were made to overcome telephone line
                                                                      echo problems. Finally, an echo-suppressing tone
   Some months later, Weitbrecht received a let-                      burst was achieved. This meant that the modem
ter from James Marsters. Marsters, a deaf ortho-                      reliably converted TTY signals into tones that
dontist from Pasadena, had heard about Weit-                          could be carried by the voice band of the tele-
brecht via the McKeowns and the social network                        phone line. All this time, in the tradition of home-
of deaf persons in northern California. Marsters,                     workshop inventors, Marsters and Weitbrecht
who had developed a whole set of strategies to                        were donating their time and the money for parts.
run his office efficiently, was deeply frustrated at                  Neither private industry, the Federal Government,
being unable to use the telephone. Marsters was                       nor academia was interested in deaf people’s need
using his expertise in electronics to explore ways                    for telephone communications.
that deaf individuals might communicate with
each other by radio or telephone, and his friends                        On June 23, 1964, the new equipment was dem-
in the Bay Area network had suggested to him                          onstrated in Salt Lake City, Utah, at the biennial
that Weitbrecht might be a good coinventor.                           convention of the Alexander Graham Bell Associ-
   After more correspondence, Marsters pur-                           ation for the Deaf, an international organization
chased a Western Union 32ASR TTY. He con-                             of parents, teachers, and deaf adults who advo-
tinued to encourage Weitbrecht, and in November                       cate use of lipreading, speech, and residual hear-
1963, Weitbrecht invented an acoustic coupler                         ing. Latham Breunig, a deaf statistician present
modem* that permitted him to communicate with                         at the convention, wrote (5):
Marsters over the voice-grade telephone lines by
                                                                           It was . . . an exciting and thrilling experience.
typing from his TTY to a similar unit in Marsters’
                                                                        There, between two rooms in the Hotel Utah,
home. The two men used the telephone because
                                                                        these deaf people were, for the first time, able to
a radio system would have required a Federal                            make unassisted telephone calls over the regular
Communications Commission license, which                                voice grade telephone network by means of a
Marsters lacked. Also, both men reasoned that                           teletypewriter in each room. This feat was made
if a communications system were to be useful to                         possible by the development of an appropriate
   ‘Couplers existed before Weitbrecht invented his model. His pat-     coupler or modem, interfaced between the TTY
ent hinged on eliminating echo on the line.                             and the telephone.

                                                                                                                                5
        {-–.1        -   ~   –   ,[   I
6 . Background Paper #2: Selected Telecommunications Devices for Hearing-impaired      persons




  Marsters encouraged Weitbrecht to apply for              ment vendor, Marsters recommended that it set
a patent. The R. H. Weitbrecht Co. was founded             up a separate organization involving the National
in 1965. Marsters enlisted the additional capital          Association of the Deaf and any other organiza-
and business expertise of a third deaf man, An-            tions for the deaf, to pick up, distribute, and serv-
drew Saks. In 1967, Weitbrecht, Marsters, and              ice the surplus TTY equipment. In 1968, the non-
Saks formed the Applied Communications Corp.,              profit corporation called Teletypewriters for the
which replaced the Weitbrecht Co.                          Deaf, Inc. (TDI), was created by Latham and
                                                           Nancy Breunig of the Alexander Graham Bell As-
   Until 1967, the TTY communications system
                                                           sociation, along with Jess Smith of the National
grew slowly. The acoustic coupler, known as the
                                                           Association of the Deaf. TDI appointed deaf per-
Phonetype @, had to be debugged under various
                                                           sons all over the country to be its authorized
conditions. The first working TTY units were in-
                                                           agents, picking up surplus machines from AT&T
stalled in Los Angeles, New York City, Indianap-
                                                           outlets, reconditioning them, and placing them
olis, and San Francisco, followed soon after by
                                                           in the homes of deaf people. The system grew to
installations in St. Louis and Washington, D.C.
                                                           approximately 12,000 TTYs by 1975. Keeping ac-
Used TTYs were not readily available, and newly
                                                           curate records to fulfill its agreement with AT&T,
manufactured ones were too expensive for indi-
                                                           TDI was able to publish a list of stations, which
viduals and families to buy. Surplus TTYs could
                                                           continues to serve as a telephone directory for the
not be released by the American Telephone &
                                                           deaf community and for those businesses that
Telegraph Co. (AT&T) until it settled a Carter-
                                                           make a special effort to serve deaf individuals.
fone lawsuit, which it did not do until 1967.
                                                              In 1973, the agreement between AT&T and the
   To make a TTY call, a person making a call              Alexander Graham Bell Association for providing
places an ordinary telephone handset on the                TTYs to deaf people was replaced by a similar
acoustic coupler modem and dials the telephone.            agreement between AT&T and TDI. Western
When the call is answered, the caller types the            Union also released a substantial number of ma-
message, stopping to type “GA” (“go ahead”)                chines at that time. Maintaining itself through
when a response is expected. The acoustic coupler          membership dues and contributions, TDI was also
modem transforms the electrical signals into two           able to establish, through a grant from the Lilly
sounds of different frequencies, which are then            Endowment, a revolving fund to make loans to
transmitted over the telephone line. At the other          local groups for equipment acquisition, enabling
end of the line, the signal is received by another         the surplus equipment to be distributed through-
modem.                                                     out the country as needed.
                                                              The philosophy underlying all these activities
   In the 1960’s, the surplus TTYs looked as if they
                                                           was “by and for the deaf. ” Although a few non-
belonged in a turn-of-the-century Western Union
                                                           deaf groups with an interest in service (e.g., Tele-
office: they were made of sheet metal and stood
                                                           phone Pioneers, an organization of retired Bell
about 4 ft high; they were noisy and shaky in use;
                                                           System employees) volunteered in some locations
and they took up a lot of space. But they worked.
                                                           to help with reconditioning TTY units, informa-
As the surplus machines became available, scat-
                                                           tion about availability of equipment and advan-
tered people created a network of deaf people who
                                                           tages of different models was disseminated com-
could communicate with each other, and that net-
                                                           pletely within the deaf community, through
work grew.
                                                           booths at conventions of deaf organizations and
   In 1967, surplus TTYs were made available to            small advertisements in journals about deafness.
deaf persons through an agreement between                     New models of acoustic couplers, developed in
AT&T and the Alexander Graham Bell Associa-                New Jersey and Texas in 1969, were competitive
tion for the Deaf. By the end of 1968, there were          in price with the original Phonetype@ that had
174 TTY stations for deaf people operating around          been patented by Applied Communications
the country; by 1970, there were 870.                      Corp. l All these couplers interfaced a telephone
                                                               IRobert H. Weitbrecht. U.S. Reissue Patent Re 27,595, Mar. 6,
   Because the Alexander Graham Bell Associa-              1973 (based on Robert H. Weitbrecht original U.S. Patent 3,507,997
tion for the Deaf was not set up to be an equip-           filed Aug. 22, 1966, and issued Apr. 21, 1970).
                                   Ch. 3—The Development and Diffusion of Teletypewriters for Hearing-Impaired People   q   7



and a TTY that typed out hard copy on a roll of                      their offices; every time this occurred, the installa-
paper. Some deaf persons and their families                          tion was well publicized in the newsletters of deaf
bought modern terminals that were quieter and                        organizations. TDDs were placed in police and
less bulky than the surplus models. Still, these new                 emergency facilities, vocational rehabilitation of-
terminals were not portable, and they were too                       fices, telephone companies, and in some public
expensive for most deaf people.                                      transportation systems. The theme “by and for
                                                                     the deaf” fit in well with the recognition of the
   In 1972-73, telecommunications terminals were
                                                                     need of handicapped individuals for independent
introduced that utilized soft copy, or transitory
                                                                     living.
readout, on a television screen or on a marquee
display with a light-emitting diode showing above                       In 1977, surplus TTYs became scarce again, and
the keyboard. New brands at that time included                       the cost of new equipment, including the coupler,
TVPhone@ by Phonics Corp., MCM by Micon                              rose. The TTYs generally used the 5-level Baudot
Industries, and Magsat by Magsat Corp. * These                       code Weitbrecht had employed in his original de-
devices offered certain advantages over the stand-                   vice. The 8-level code, called the American Stand-
ard TTY models: they were much smaller and                           ard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII),
lighter, portable, and quiet. TDD (telecommuni-                      had been in existence for some years in computer
cations device for the deaf) was the new term                        systems, and Weitbrecht knew of this code when
coined to include the old and the new models.                        he developed the Weitbrecht device in 1964. In
Portable TDDs are small enough to store in a                         1964, computers were new, and personal comput-
drawer or carry in a briefcase. Many deaf users                      ers had not been envisioned as a common house-
still prefer a paper printout, but portable machines                 hold item. Weitbrecht and Marsters were look-
offer flexibility for family and business communi-                   ing for a simple-to-operate, low-cost device for
cation. Several portable devices are now available                   ordinary communication between two deaf peo-
with built-in or optional miniature printers.                        ple, or between a deaf and a hearing person, over
                                                                     a telephone line. In 1981, Weitbrecht recalled his
  Even though a variety of TDDs were available                       thinking about the Baudot code in 1964 (45):
on the market by the early 1970’s, the devices all
had to be able to interface with one another. In                         There were thousands of Baudot TTYs avail-
1973, TDI issued recommended standards for cou-                        able . . . a great surplus waiting to be used.
pler manufacturers in an attempt to ensure com-                        There was also compatible equipment: Klein-
patibility among the various types of equipment.                       schmidt, Creed, Olivetti, and others, all compati-
                                                                       ble with Baudot code. [It was] an opportunity to
   TDI agents organized to develop training pro-                       get equipment and train the deaf without great
grams, operating standards, service manuals, and                       expense. TTY machines had been surplused for
user handbooks. The TDI biennial convention,                           many years to radio amateurs, I knew there were
begun in 1974, became an important technical and                       surplus machines ready to be put to use.
social exchange for the deaf individuals who                         Thus, Weitbrecht built the device using the Bau-
served as agents. By 1975, the number of TDD                         dot code. As other couplers appeared on the mar-
stations nationwide had grown to about 12,000.                       ket, the Weitbrecht/Baudot 5-level code device
  In 1977, the implementation of sections 503 and                    was accepted in practice as the standard to pre-
504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 began to af-                   serve compatibility among all such couplers and
fect the public perception of the telecommunica-                     modems; however, users of Baudot-code TDDs
tions needs of deaf people. Paralleling the in-                      could not converse with ASCII-based computers.
creased civil rights activity of all disabled individ-                  By 1977, the cost of computers had come down,
uals, representatives of the deaf community met                      and the development of the microcomputer began
with Federal and State legislators and staff from                    to make some technically minded members of the
AT&T to review the needs of handicapped per-                         deaf community wonder if the push for compati-
sons. A number of legislators installed TDDs in                      bility of all equipment in the TDI system was not
                                                                     a mixed blessing. Approximately 27,000 stations
  q Phonics, Micon, and Magsat were no longer in business by 1982.   existed at that time; the system was flourishing.
                                                                            -. ._—    . . .. . . ..


8   q   Background Paper   #2:   Selected Telecommunications Devices for Hearing-Impaired Persons



But some concerned people realized that as the                       It has been said that approximately 20 years
system expanded, it would become increasingly                     elapse before a technological device for disabled
obsolete with the advance of technology.                          individuals develops from an idea into a widely
                                                                  available aid.z Seventeen years after the first TTY
   Estimates varied widely, but by 1981, there
                                                                  call, from Redwood City to Pasadena, Calif.,
were between 50,000 and 100,000 stations. At
                                                                  TDDs are being distributed free by the telephone
least 10 small companies had been involved in the
                                                                  company, through a surcharge on all telephone
manufacture of TDDs. Many of these small com-
                                                                  bills, to deaf residents of California. The initial
panies were started by a deaf person or included
                                                                  distribution site, Fremont, Calif., is not far from
a deaf person in their management. To some ex-
                                                                  Weitbrecht’s home workshop. This history of this
tent, all these companies infringed or Weitbrecht’s
                                                                  development in California will be discussed in the
patent rights and paid him no royalties. Weit-
                                                                  subsequent chapter.
brecht never contested the patent infringement.
Applied Communications Corp. and Weitbrecht
                                                                     ‘Robert Mare, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Massachu-
chose not to use their funds and energies to pur-                 setts Institute of Technology, in a speech at the Helen Keller Centen-
sue a lawsuit.                                                    nial, Boston, June 1980.
                                                                                                    4.
                                                     Issues and Concerns

RATE REDUCTION FOR INTRASTATE LONG= DISTANCE CALLS
   Social pressure on deaf individuals to purchase    a rate reduction for TDD users is that charges for
a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)        long-distance calls should be based on the value
grew as the network increased. TDDs installed in      of service rather than on the cost of service. When
government agencies, retail chains, airlines, and     the value of a call made by a deaf TDD user is
a stockbroker’s office in the mid-1970’s increased    exactly the same as the value of a call made by
the demand for TDDs and made them much more           a hearing person, the cost of the call is approx-
useful. As deaf people made more long-distance        imately four times greater for the TDD user (30).
calls on their TDDs, it became evident that long-
                                                        In 1977, the Connecticut Public Utilities Con-
distance TDD calls are very expensive. Although
                                                      trol Authority issued an order (docket No.
Baudot-code TDDs can transmit a maximum of
                                                      77-0250, Dec. 16, 1977) allowing a 75 percent
60 words per minute, the average user rarely types
                                                      reduction in the telephone bills of deaf individuals
faster than 45 words per minute; thus, a TDD call
                                                      using TDDs for intrastate long-distance calls.
can easily take four times longer, and cost con-
                                                      Over the next 4 years, similar reductions were
siderably more, than its spoken equivalent. Ac-
                                                      adopted in 42 other States. States varied in their
cording to Harry Levitt, a professor of com-
                                                      certification requirements for deaf users: some re-
munications science at City University of New
                                                      quired an affidavit from a physician or an audi-
York, the average person talks 150 words per
                                                      ologist; others asked the user to take an oath that
minute, although New Yorkers often talk as fast
                                                      he or she was deaf. A few States certified both
as 200 words per minute (25).
                                                      deaf and hearing people in the same household.
   Deaf individuals and groups began to lobby at
                                                         The National Center for Law and the Deaf con-
the State and Federal levels to reduce the long-
                                                      tinues to advise deaf consumer groups throughout
distance tariffs for TDD users. The National
                                                      the country on strategies for obtaining reduced
Center for Law and the Deaf, a public law serv-       intrastate rates for TDD users.
ice with some Federal and some private funding,
has stated that the primary argument in favor of



TELEPHONE CUSTOMER SERVICES FOR TDD USERS
   In addition to rate reduction, there were other    tory; and assistance with credit card calls, collect
issues that concerned TDD users. Certain tele-        and person-to-person calls, and calls from hotel
phone services, such as business office assistance    telephones. The National Center for Law and the
and 911 emergency numbers, are included in the        Deaf has also worked with consumer groups to
monthly service charge, but deaf users could not      persuade local utility companies to install TDDs
take advantage of them. In 1981, an 800 number        in their customer information departments so con-
was established that TDD users can call to get in-    sumers can ask questions about billing services
formation and assistance from an operator: in-        and communicate during power outages.
formation on numbers not in the telephone direc-




                                                                                                         9
       —                                                                                                     — .


10 . Background Paper #2: Selected Telecommunications Devices for Hearing-Impaired Persons



RATE REDUCTION FOR INTERSTATE LONG-DISTANCE CALLS
   The 4 years of effort to obtain reduced in-             to bring into the mainstream of society through
trastate rates culminated on August 21, 1981,              improved communication, was officially invited
when, in recognition of the International Year of          by the direct descendant of Bell’s own company
Disabled Persons, the American Telephone &                 to participate fully in the Nation’s telephone
Telegraph Co. (AT&T) filed a petition with the             linkage. According to W. E. Albert, Adminis-
Federal Communications Commission to reduce                trator of Rates and Tariffs, AT&T filed the tariff
interstate rates for hearing-impaired TDD users.           for calls “placed by residence customers who have
The tariff, which became effective October 30,             been certified as requiring a visual means of com-
1981, reduced rates 35 percent for daytime long-           munication to use Long Distance Message Tele-
distance interstate calls and 60 percent for even-         communications Service , . . to help to promote
ing long-distance interstate calls; late-night and         a fuller and more active participation in our tele-
weekend rates remained the same.                           communications-oriented society” (1). Barry
                                                           Strassler, Executive Director of Teletypewriters
   One hundred five years after Bell invented the          for the Deaf, Inc., the association of TDD users,
telephone, the deaf population, those Bell wanted          said, “This is the Milestone!” (38).



ELIGIBILITY FOR REDUCED RATES
   The certification process for interstate rate           with deaf clients throughout the State over a
reductions for TDD users has not yet been de-              TDD). The AT&T tariff applies only to hearing-
cided, AT&T has suggested “friendly certification”         and speech-impaired TDD users, but benefits
for hearing- or speech-impaired TDD users who              hearing people in the same household. For States
are already certified for intrastate reductions.           that do not have intrastate reductions, the deaf
However, some States have extended reduced                 community will have to work with the telephone
rates to hearing persons who communicate with              company to advertise the interstate reductions and
hearing-impaired TDD users (e.g., the hearing              certification process, because the telephone com-
child of a deaf parent in another city, or the hear-       panies cannot identify deaf people from their
ing staff of an agency that regularly communicates         records.



PUBLIC TDDs
   Deaf consumer groups advocate placing TDDs              or a change of plans, the deaf TDD user has no
in public places—shopping centers, libraries,              access to a communication device. Although a few
transportation terminals—for use like conven-              public TDDs have been put in places where there
tional pay phones. The converted teletypewriter            is a large deaf population (e.g., on the campuses
(TTY) machines are impossible to carry about,              of schools and colleges for the deaf), the access
Many of the newer TDDs are portable, but they              of deaf people to public telecommunications serv-
are not light enough to be carried comfortably all         ice remains extremely limited.
the time. In case of an emergency on the road,
                                                                              Ch. 4—Issues and Concerns   q   11




COST OF TDDS
   TDDs are still very expensive. The recondi-              Recognizing that deaf TDD users would have
tioned TTYs cost about $300 installed, with ad-          to purchase an expensive device before they had
ditional fees for paper supplies and servicing, plus     access to the telephone lines, some States
the cost of the coupler ($250). For the past several     (Michigan, Illinois, Florida, Georgia, and a few
years, reconditioned TTYs have been almost im-           others) lease TDDs for a monthly fee ($15 to $36
possible to obtain and can usually be purchased          per month). Some States rent with an option to
only from someone who is acquiring more mod-             buy. Hearing-impaired persons who use an ampli-
ern equipment.                                           fying handset on their telephone pay $0.75 per
                                                         month for this service in some communities, and
   A 1981 catalog of rehabilitative devices de-
                                                         $1.50 per month in others; there seems to be no
scribes 10 portable TDDs made by different com-
                                                         standard charge. Some telephone companies will
panies, with prices ranging from $300 to $700, ac-
                                                         sell the amplifier to the customer for a $40 charge,
cessories not included. One ultraportable model,
                                                         but it is difficult for the customers to find out
with somewhat limited use, sells for $200 (43). A
                                                         about this. As other adaptive devices, it is not
new Baudot model, the Minicom”, introduced by
                                                         always easy for TDD users to know what is avail-
Ultratec in 1982, is lightweight and sells for $259.
                                                         able and what is the most economical way to ob-
All these devices are beyond the budget of many
                                                         tain it.
deaf families.



DISTRIBUTION OF FREE TDDS IN CALIFORNIA
   An important step in distributing TDD units              Groups participating in the California hearings
for access to the telephone system was taken in          had different goals. The conflict was an example
California in the fall of 1981. In 1979, owing to        of the recurrent conflict between those with in-
the work of deaf consumer groups (particularly           vestments in “old” technology and advocates of
GLAD, the Greater Los Angeles Council on Deaf-           “new” technolog y whose stand would inad-
ness), the California legislature passed a bill re-      vertently make existing technology obsolescent
quiring the telephone companies to distribute free       and necessitate the retraining of users. The
TDD equipment to certified hearing-impaired cus-         telephone companies wanted to implement the law
tomers who could not use a standard telephone            in the most economical and expeditious fashion.
(California SB 597). Governor Jerry Brown signed         The manufacturers of TDDs were competing for
the bill into law, and the California Public Utilities   the potentially lucrative equipment contracts from
Commission was charged with implementing it.             the telephone companies. In general, the manufac-
                                                         turers wanted to stick with the 5-level Baudot
   In September 1980, the Public Utilities Com-
                                                         code, because changing over to the 8-level
mission began hearings to work out the practical
                                                         American Standard Code for Information Inter-
aspects of implementing this law that applies to
                                                         change (ASCII) would be expensive. They also
California’s 40,000 deaf residents. Almost all
                                                         feared competition from larger manufacturers
TDDs owned by deaf Californians employed the
                                                         who had not served the deaf market before. The
5-level Baudot code. TDDs were manufactured
                                                         deaf consumer groups were concerned about small
by a number of small companies, many of which
                                                         matters: hard or soft copy, red or green letters
were located in California and therefore had a
                                                         in the light-emitting-diode readouts.
financial interest in specifications for the devices.
The issue of the modem code for TDDs was as                 Other interested groups were also represented,
significant in the hearings as was that of the           SRI International, a California-based consulting
system by which TDDs would be distributed.               firm, had just completed a 3-year grant project,
12   q   Background Paper #2: Selected Telecommunications Devices for Hearing-Impaired Persons



totaling $375,000, that the National Institute of                 Distribution of free TDDs by the telephone
Handicapped Research, Office of Special Educa-                 company also began in October 1980, in Fremont,
tion and Rehabilitative Services, funded to devel-             Calif., where there is a substantial deaf communi-
op an ultraportable hand-held TDD terminal. (A                 ty. The distribution of free TDDs will continue
prototype was made and tested with representa-                 in other areas of the State and should be com-
tives of the deaf community; although the pro-                 pleted by 1984. Customers will receive a free TDD
totype was smaller than any other standard                     regardless of whether they already own one. Con-
typewriter-keyboard TDD, it was expensive and                  sumer organizations in different California com-
never came to production. ) The SRI team, which                munities are working with the telephone com-
included technology-minded deaf members, was                   panies to arrange to identify eligible consumers.
very concerned that deaf people, by using the                  There is also the question of possible loss or disap-
Baudot code, would become isolated from the                    pearance of equipment to consider. For example,
rapidly expanding world of computer communi-                   when a deaf person moves, does the person take
cations. One objective of the SRI project was to               the free TDD along?
develop a device that could be used with both
                                                                  Although the California decision may seem like
Baudot and ASCII systems and thus bridge the
                                                               the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow, there
gap between the two. SRI believed firmly that the
                                                               are some members of the deaf community who
Baudot system was obsolete and that communica-
                                                               do not support the free distribution of equipment.
tion systems for deaf people should be planned
                                                               They are willing to make the purchase of a TDD
with the future in mind.
                                                               a medical deduction on their income tax.** They
   After hearing all points of view, the Califor-              agree that low-income deaf people should be pro-
nia Public Utilities Commission staff recom-                   vided with TDDs at reduced cost, but they don’t
mended retaining the Baudot system, and the ad-                want gifts. They worry about other consumers’
ministrative law judge followed their recommen-                reaction to having to pay for the devices with a
dation in setting the standard. In an unusual turn             surcharge on every month’s phone bill, or about
of events, however, the commissioners reversed                 the stereotyping of all hearing-impaired people as
this decision and recommended that all free TDDs               “poor.” (The charge on the telephone bills now
had to have dual capacity, that is, to be compati-             reads “SB 597-TDD, ” which puts the responsibili-
ble with both Baudot and ASCII systems. Two                    ty on the State legislature, At one point it was
California manufacturers, Krown Research,                      suggested that the charge be titled “DEAF,” an
which makes the Portaprinter”, and Plantronics,                acronym for Deaf Equipment Acquisition Fund,
which makes the VU-Phone@, received the first                  but that idea was rejected. )
contract to produce the devices. * They agreed on
                                                                  As of July 1982, 4,000 units had been placed
standardized modems to comply with the ruling
                                                               in California —fewer than expected. Many deaf
of the California Public Utilities Commission. A
                                                               people have no telephone or perhaps do not wish
trust fund was established to pay for the distribu-
                                                               to reveal their poor language or typing skills. The
tion of TDDs. In October 1980, telephone cus-
                                                               trust fund has accumulated enough money that
tomers in California began to pay a 15¢ surcharge
                                                               the surcharge may be reduced.
on their monthly telephone bills. That surcharge
goes to the trust fund for TDDs.

                                                                  **The Internal Revenue Service began allowing a medical deduc-
 *VU-Phone is not currently being manufactured.                tion for TDDs in 1971.
                                                                                            ————



                                                                                              Ch. 4—Issues and Options   q   13



ASCII= BAUDOT STANDARDIZATION AND THE IMPACT
OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
  The issue of standardizing modems is impor-                          market that is growing among nondeaf persons.
tant. When deaf persons have dual-capacity                             The prize-winning entry in a 1981 national con-
devices, they will have access to additional less                      test on the use of personal computers to aid the
expensive communication systems, such as the                           handicapped consisted of a Radio Shack pocket
Deafnet Electronic Mail system. * Also, the cost                       computer with a coupler and a miniprinter to
of TDDs might come down as has the cost of                             make an ultraportable TDD that could also be
many pocket computers and other small electronic                       used as a computer —all with off-the-shelf items
devices. The Superphone”, made by Ultratec in                          (26).
Wisconsin, offers a dual-capacity model, and one                          An issue that will arise as more deaf persons
can also buy a converter to permit a TDD to ac-                        use TDDs that can access the 4 million ASCII-
cept calls from both Baudot and ASCII units.                           compatible stations is the possibility of tariff
Costs will go down significantly when the TDDs                         fraud. The deaf caller with reduced interstate rates
are planned to coordinate with the computer                            or the nondeaf person calling from the residence
  q Deaf net lost funding in January 1982 and is currently operating   of a deaf TDD owner would be indistinguishable
on a much smaller scale.                                               from a profitmaking data caller.



NEW LEGISLATION
   The California TDD distribution plan may be                         are distributing free TDD equipment. The Califor-
affected by decisions based on the Federal Com-                        nia distribution system may be only a transitional
munications Commission Computer Inquiry II.                            one; distribution of TDD terminals financed by
The provisions that are expected to take effect on                     a customer-subsidized trust fund could be con-
January 1, 1983, would cause AT&T to separate                          sidered a cross-subsidy. The full impact on the
its role as operator of the telephone network from                     deaf of Computer Inquiry II and legislation be-
its role as a supplier of end-use or terminal equip-                   ing drafted in the U.S. House and Senate cannot
ment. When that occurs, there could be a con-                          be determined at this time.
flict in the California subsidiaries of AT&T that



DEAF POLITICS
   Because the TDD system was so much a grass-                         The Oral Deaf Adults Section was begun in 1964
roots movement, one “by and for the deaf, ” it has                     when the first TTY was demonstrated, and its
not been immune to divisions within the deaf                           growth paralleled that of the TTY system. The
community. The original impetus for the develop-                       desire of these deaf individuals to communicate
ment of the device and its diffusion was depend-                       with each other from different parts of the coun-
ent on at least four deaf men—Weitbrecht, Mar-                         try reinforced their work on the TTY system. In
sters, Saks, and Breunig—who were educated                             order that the whole deaf population of the United
orally (i. e., to lipread and speak and to function                    States be eventually included in the system, they
with speech in their professional and personal                         included from the first representatives from the
lives). Marsters and Breunig were among the                            National Association of the Deaf, a much larger
founders of the Oral Deaf Adults Section of the                        consumer organization of deaf persons who ad-
Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf.                        vocate the civil rights and vocational oppor-
                                                           —             ——


14 . Background Paper #2: Selected Telecommunications Devices for Hearing-Impaired Persons



tunities of deaf people. The National Association             TDI disseminates information about TDDs and
of the Deaf recommends the use of sign language            has become increasingly social and political. Some
in education and employment.                               deaf persons have suggested that it is now ap-
                                                           propriate for AT&T to assume this organization’s
   Federal agencies did not encourage the original
                                                           distribution and directory services. In at least one
developers of the system. However, Telecom-
                                                           State, AT&T distributes equipment to deaf peo-
munications for the Deaf, Inc. (TDI), established
                                                           ple through its subsidiaries. TDD users are listed
good rapport with AT&T and was able to use the
                                                           in some regular telephone directories with a TDD
connection to support the system’s growth. Much
                                                           symbol by their names. This method of listing
later (1977’), the National Institute of Handicapped
                                                           may become more inclusive than the directory
Research gave SRI International the grant to
                                                           published by TDI, which does not contain the
develop an ultraportable TDD; although the deaf
                                                           names of all TDD owners but only of those who
community was consulted by SRI International
                                                           pay dues to the organization.
in evaluating the prototype, deaf persons were ap-
parently not consulted by the Federal agency                 Despite the tensions of deaf politics, almost
when the grant was awarded. Considering that               everyone involved in the development of TDDs
a group of deaf persons had developed the whole            agrees that the growth of the TDD system has pro-
TDD system from two devices to a nationwide                gressed smoothly in contrast to other develop-
network, some people might say that deaf/deaf              ments in the deaf community, particularly those
and deaf/hearing politics played a role in the deci-       regarding the education of deaf children.
sions about Federal support.
                                                   ——-—. .




                              Appendix A.— Personal Communications

   The authors of this background paper engaged in            University of New York, New York, N. Y., Winner
personal conversations, either face to face, by               of the Johns Hopkins University First National
telephone, or by a telecommunications device for the          Search on Personal Computing To Aid the Handi-
deaf (TDD), with a great many of the individuals in-          capped, October 1981.
volved in the development of the deaf telecommunica-        *Marsters, J., D. D. S., Pasadena, Calif., Cofounder of
tions network. Research interviews conducted on a             Applied Communications Corp., with Andrew Saks
TDD including a hard-copy printout are especially suc-        and Robert Weitbrecht, Nov. 12, 1981.
cessful because they include a complete record of the       *Miller, W. F., Jr., President, Oral Deaf Adults Sec-
conversation, which is then available for reference. In       tion, Alexander Graham Bell Association for the
the following list of persons interviewed, the names          Deaf, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Oct. 23, 1981.
of those who are hearing impaired are marked with           Peacock, F., General Manager, Network Operations,
an asterisk (*). The date of the conversation is included     C&P Telephone Co., Washington, D. C., Oct. 24,
in each entry.                                                1981.
                                                            Proscia, V., Innovative Rehabilitation Technology,
Bliss, J., President, Telesensory Systems, Inc., Palo
                                                               Inc., Los Altos, Calif., Oct. 21, 1981.
  Alto, Calif., Oct. 21, 1981.
                                                            *Ross, M., Department of Communication Sciences,
*Breunig, L., Founder and first President, Telecom-
                                                               University of Connecticut, Storrs, Corm., October
  munications for the Deaf, Inc., currently a consult-
                                                               1981.
  ant in Arlington, Va., October 1981.
                                                            *Stone, H., Self Help for Hard of Hearing Persons,
Castle, D., Telephone Communications Lab, National
                                                               Inc., Washington, D. C., Oct. 21, 1981.
  Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester, N. Y.,
                                                            ‘Strassler, B., Executive Director, Telecommunica-
  Aug. 19, 1981.
                                                              tions for the Deaf, Inc., Silver Spring, Md., Oct.
Chamberlain, W., Public Relations & Media, C&P
                                                              20, 1981.
  Telephone Co., Washington, D.C, Nov. 3, 1981.
                                                            Traub, J., Acting Director of Technology, National
*DePietro, L., National Academy of Gallaudet Col-
                                                              Institute of Handicapped Research, Washington,
  lege, Washington, D. C., October 1981.
                                                              D. C., Oct. 21, 1982.
D U B O W, S., National Center for Law and the Deaf,
                                                            Vanderheiden, G., Director, Trace Research and De-
  Gallaudet College, Washington, D. C., Oct. 22,
                                                              velopment Center, Madison, Wis., Oct. 20, 1981.
  1981.
                                                            Warren, D. R., President, Clinical Convenience Prod-
Engelke, R., President, Ultratec, Inc., Madison, Wis.
                                                              ucts, Inc., Madison, Wis., Sept. 15, 1981.
  (manufactures Superphone? VIP, and Minicom @
                                                            *Weitbrecht, R., Inventor of echo-suppressing acoustic
  TDDs), October 1982.
                                                              coupler which made the TTY system for the deaf
Fylstra, D., Software Engineer, SRI International,
                                                              possible, Redwood City, Calif., Oct. 28, 1981.
  Menlo Park, Calif., Director of project funded by
                                                            Withrow, F., Director of Division of EducationalTech-
  the Rehabilitative Services Administration to
                                                              nology, U.S. IXpartrnent of Education, Washing-
  develop an ultraportable TDD, Oct. 20, 1981.
                                                              ton, D. C., formerly Director of the Division of
Karchmer, M., Director, Office of Demographic Stud-
                                                              Educational Services of the Bureau of Education of
  ies, Gallaudet College, Washington, D. C., October
                                                              the Handicapped, Oct. 21, 1982.
  1981.
Levitt, H., Graduate School of Communications, City




                                                                                                                15
            Appendix B. —Sample Personal Communications
                         by TDD and TDD-Related Services

  The following are samples of telecommunications             and how many folding chairs she should bring to
device for the deaf (TDD) conversations that actually         the potluck supper on Saturday night.
took place during 1 week in December 1981, All of          q A Pennsylvania State college student was issued a

these interactions are unremarkable, except for the fact      TDD by the college for use in her dormitory room
that the persons who initiated the telephone calls, and       and was allowed to bring the TDD home on Christ-
in some cases the persons who received them, were             mas vacation. The first thing she did when she got
deaf.                                                         home was to call her boyfriend to arrange plans for
  A recent college graduate, seeking employment ad-           New Year’s Eve.
  vice, called the author’s office to request an              TDD communication opportunities are expanded by
  interview.                                               volunteer, private, or State-supported answering serv-
  A woman telephoned METRO Information to verify           ices that handle simultaneous two-way calls between
  changes in the bus schedule after new subway stops       TDD users and non-TDD users. Such service allows
  had opened.                                              a TDD user to make any of the types of calls listed
  A high school senior from Washington, D. C., tele-       above even if the person being called does not have
  phoned an adult friend in California to discuss col-     a TDD. There is some loss of privacy and spontane-
  Iege choices and ask for a letter of recommendation.     ity, and if the call is long distance, the caller loses the
  An employee of the Department of Commerce called         cost advantage of direct dialing.
  his office early on a snowy morning to ask whether          The Micro-Dan service of the Greater Los Angeles
  or not “liberal leave policy” was in effect.                Council on Deafness (GLAD) offers 24-hr informa-
  A young couple, expecting their first child, tele-          tion on job opportunities, local emergency numbers,
  phoned an interpreter, who, in turn, called the             news, and other listings to deaf TDD users.
  obstetrician to confirm an appointment. When the            Telecommunication Exchange for the Deaf, Inc., of
  child is due, the couple plans to telephone the             Great Falls, Va., offers 24-hr service and stresses
  hospital (which also has a TDD) to announce that            that, up to 11 p.m., social calls are as important as
  they are on their way.                                      emergency calls. This service is completely staffed
  A guest called her hostess to discuss how much food         by volunteers.




16
                                      Appendix Cm —Sample Printout of a
                                                   TDD Communication
                                                                                                 (October 1981)

LATHAM ON.i.        GA
HI ,   ITS JINNY S T E R N . D o Y O U H A V E T I M E N O W I F I A S K S O M E Q U E S T I O N S A B O U T
TTY HISTORYXX             HISTORY        Q          GA

YES, FIRE AWAY. BUT DO YOU HAVE OLD COPIES OF THE TDI DIRECTORY
THERE USED To BE THUMBNAIL HISTORIES BUT THESE WERE DROPPED ABOUT TWO
YEARS AGO. GA

YSXX YES, LUCKILY I FOUND A 1977 DIRECTORY WHICH HAS A GOOD DEATXX
D E T A I L E D H I S T O R Y AND I HAVE JUST STUDIED IT. I REALLY WANTED TO ASK
QUESTIONS ABOUT PERSONALITIES NOW THAT I HAVE THE ACCURATE DATES.

FOR INSTANCE,   DID YOU MEET BOB WEITBRECHT AT THE UTAH ODS XX ODAS
MEETING IN 1964 OR HAD YOU KNOWN E A C H O T H E R B E F O R E Q HOW DID THE
NETWORK GET STARTED IN TERMS OF FINDING ONE ANOTHER Q

GA
JIM MARSTERS WAS WITH HIS FAMILY AT A RESORT IN CALIFORNIA WHEN SOMEONE
HEARD A CHARACTERISTIC DEAF VOICE. THIS MUST HAVE BEEN ABOUT 1962 .
SO JIM INTRODUCE                HIMELF TO BOB AND THEY GOT TOGETHER
                                                                                          BOB WAS A
RADIO AMATEUR-- HE HAD HAD ENOUGH HEARING EARLIER TO PASS THE FCC
LICENSE FOR TRANSMITTING. JIM WS FASCINATED. BUT DEAF PEOPLE CANNOT
ORDINARILY PASS THE FCC LICENSE TO JIM CONCEIVED THE IDE XX                                         IDEA
OF USING THE REGULAR TELEPHONE.                          THE STANDARD TTY NETWORK AT THAT TIME
WAS BUSINESS ORIENTED AND DIRECT WIRE AND P R O H I B I T I V E L Y E X P E N S I V E
INSOFAR AS DEAF PEOPLE WOULD BE CONCERNED
                                                                    SO OUT OF THAT MEETING CAME
THE CONCEPT OF COUPLERS FOR DEAF PEOPLE ALTHOUGH COUPLERS OR MODEMS
WERE AT THAT TIME KNOWN.
unfortunate)’ BCB CHOSE TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING FREQEUNCIES T H A T
WOULD LOCK US INTO A UNIQUE NETWORK.
T H E F I R S T P U B L I C D E M O N S T R A T I O N W A S A T T H E A G B E L L C O N V E N TI O N I N U T A H
IN 1964. GA
OK FINE.      WASN’T THAT THE YEAR ODAS WAS FouNDED ALSO Q                                  GA

YES IT WAS A BUSY AND            MOMENTOUS     CONVENTION            GA
WAIT A MINUTE.. . .  SORRY FOR THE INTERRUPTION.  DO YOU FEEL THAT YOU
ORGANIZED  INTO A CONSUMER GROUP HELPED THE DEVELOPMENT AT THAT POINT
IN   TIME  Q    GA

ACTUALLY        THE      GROWTH       OF ODAS AND OF TTYS FOR THE DEAF           MORE OR LESS          PARALLED
EACH OTHER. FOR THE NEXT YEARS 1964-68 THE TTY SYSTEM WAS BEING
D E B U G G E D AND ANYWAY TTY MACHINES WERE NOT READILY AVAILABLE SINCE
                                                                    AT & T
WAS LOCKED INTO THE CARTERPHONE CASE LAWSU IT        SO COULD NOT HELP.
                                                                    ODAS
MORE OR LESS GREW INDEPENDENTLY OF THE TTY EFFORT.   IT WAS INTERESTING
THAT THE FOUNDERS OF THE TTY MOVEMENT WERE ALSO ALL ODAS MEMBERS--
CHARTER MEMBERS.    GA

WHAT    WAS     THAT     SUIT’    Q      I MISSED THAT. G A

AT&T WAS INVOLVED IN A LAWSUIT CALLED THE CAREXX CARTERPHONE CASE
RELATIVE TO INFORMATION BEING PICKED UP OFF A RADIO AND TRANSMITTED
OVER THE TELEPHONE LINES AND VICE VRSA.     AT&5 XX AT&T LOST THE
SUIT SO IN 1967 SURPLUS TTY BECAME AVAILABLE.


                                                                                                                   17
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 1. Albert, W. E., Administrator of Rates and Tariffs,             Gallaudet College, Washington, D. C., personal
      AT&T Long Lines, Transmittal No. 13822 to the                communication, Oct. 22, 1981.
      Secretary of the Federal Communications Com-           18,   Engelke, R., President, Ultratec, Inc., Madison,
      mission, Aug. 21, 1981.                                      Wis., personal communication, October 1982.
 2.   Bell Laboratories, “Survey of Sensory and Mobil-       19.   Fellendorf, G., Bibliograph y on Dafness (a listing
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    1975,                                                          of Handicapped Research, U.S. Department of Ed-
 6. Breunig, L., Founder and first President, Telecom-             ucation, by SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif.,
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17%   D UB OW, S., National Center for Law and the Deaf,     32. Peacock, F., General Manager, Network Opera-




                                                                                                                    19
20   q   Background Paper #2: Selected Telecommunications Devices for Hearing-Impaired Persons



         tions, C&P Telephone Co., Washington, D. C.,            40. Traub, J., Acting Director of Technology, Na-
         personal communication, Oct. 24, 1981.                        tional Institute of Handicapped Research, Wash-
33.      Proscia, V., Innovative Rehabilitation Tech-                  ington, D. C., personal communication, Oct. 21,
         nology, Inc., Los Altos, Calif., personal com-                1982.
         munication, Oct. 21, 1981.                              41.   Unger, B., “Bringing the Disabled User Into the
34.      Ross, M., Department of Communication Sci-                    Design Process: Improving New Technology for
         ences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Corm.,              the Disabled, ” in Science, Technology, and the
         personal communication, October 1981.                         Handicapped (Washington, D. C,: American As-
35.      Schein, J. D., and Delk, M. T., Deafness Research             sociation for the Advancement of Science, 1976).
         and Training Center, New York University, The           42.   Vanderheiden, G., Director, Trace Research and
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         Spring, Md.: National Association of the Deaf,                communication, Oct. 20, 1981.
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36. Schein, J. D., and Hamilton, R. N., Deafness                       Rehabilitation Aids Resource Book, vol. I
         Research and Training Center, New York Univer-                (Madison, Wis.: Trace Research and Development
         sity, Impact 1980: Telecommunications and                     Center, University of Wisconsin/Madison, 1981).
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         tion of the Deaf, 1980).                                      Products, Inc., Madison, Wis., personal commu-
37.      Stone, H., Self Help for Hard of Hearing Persons,             nication, Sept. 15, 1981.
         Inc., Washington, D. C., personal communication,        45.   Weitbrecht, R., Redwood City, Calif., personal
         Oct. 21, 1981.                                                communication, Oct. 28, 1981.
38.      Strassler, B., Executive Director, Telecommunic-        46.   Weitbrecht, R. H., “Teletypewriting Over Tele-
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         sonal communication, Oct. 20, 1981.                         1965.
39.      Telecommunications for the Deaf, Inc., Interna-         47. Withrow, F., Director of Division of Educational
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         telecommunications for the deaf; interestingly,               ucation of the Handicapped, personal communi-
         later editions do not include these details. ]                cation, Oct. 21, 1982.

								
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