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Varna JP paper

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									                  Creativity in Higher Education
       Creative Universities and their Creative City:Regions
                                             Professor James Powell
                                           PVC Enterprise and Regional Affairs
                                                   University of Salford &
                                   Coordinator of the EUA‟s Socrates Thematic Network -
                     A Consortium known as the „European Creative City:Region Higher Enterprise Team‟


1.        Introduction & Summary
          As part of its membership activities, EUA has launched a new project – „‟Creativity in
          Higher Education‟ – with support from the European Commission in the framework of
          the Socrates Programme. In this context Salford University is leading, and
          coordinating, a programme of work with a consortium of seven European Universities.
          (Central European University – Budapest; Warsaw University of Technology;
          University of Starangar; Istanbul Technical University; Central Saint Martins College
          of Art and Design – London; Luhansk Taras Schevcehnko National Pedagogical
          University – Ukraine; and Salford form SECRET – a term which henceforth in this
          paper represents the work of the Socrates funded and EUA directed Creative
          City:Region Higher Academic Enterprise1 Team‟. This consortium has agreed to work
          to two main EUA objectives:
                   To foster the development of creativity in European HEIs through good practices
                    related to four network themes, involving all aspect of creativity in Higher Education
                   To contribute in developing and improving an institutional culture of creativity.

          And, in particular, relating to the present paper, to set up a thematic network to
          explore that creativity led by, and with, universities who seek to be creative in their
          relationships with their Creative Cities and Regions. This theme was generated by
          the EUA in the belief that, by and large, knowledge production is city based and that
          most knowledge-creative regions are anchored around a city and its environs. So the
          network under consideration here is examining best practices in two areas:

                   Engaging the local community in the higher education institutions.
                   Understand appropriate urban/regional policy initiatives that would support adequately
                    creative HEIs who wish to become involved in higher education enterprise.

          The SECRET Consortium, as we have styled ourselves, has only met once so far and
          agreed its methodology. It has already produced some most interesting institutional
          reports showing the breadth of what each partner means by creative relationship with
          their City:Regions, and their roles in them. The following short report shows the
          constructive progress to date and the development of a theory for improving the
          relationships between universities and their City:Regions. Early further discussion are
          tentatively suggesting the notion of a new form of university - a modern Renaissance
          university – one fit for purpose in the global knowledge economy and making a real
          impact in it. Appended to the paper, by way of a practical example, is Salford
          University‟s draft institutional report to the consortium which shows its best practices
          in the current context

2.        Further Context for the Study of Creative Cities and Regions: HEIs,
          NGOs and Governments
          Many, especially and including the EUA, clearly believe that knowledge production is
          city based (e.g. Florida; Gertler & Vinodrai 2004): “Creative industries tend to cluster
          in large cities and regions that offer a variety of economic opportunities, a stimulating

1
  Higher Academic Enterprise is the term in this paper used to reflect all University Outreach by the present partners to their
creative City:Regions which seeks to design, develop, implement and evaluate successful externally facing „academic
opportunities beyond means currently employed or available to the highest academic standard possible reflecting the mission of
the University‟
          environment and amenities for different lifestyles” (Wu 2005). In their development of
          the overall project the EUA concluded that „regions that are creative are also
          anchored around a city: e.g. Silicone Valley and San Francisco. So they set this
          thematic network up to examine best practices in two areas:

                   The missions of higher education which include its creation of social and
                    intellectual environments that are open to dialogue and debate about creative
                    wealth creation, and also accessible to many different social groups. What
                    are the ways in which HEIs can gain a good understanding of these
                    environments? What types of structures and processes are needed to
                    monitor the external environment? What types of activities and practices
                    foster better links with this external environment?

                   The urban and regional policy initiatives that engender and empower
                    constructive development which can be revealed by examining the role of
                    municipal government in:
                       -      Education
                       -      Developing financial support systems for innovation
                       -      Offering good government services in infrastructure (e.g.                                energy,
                              telecommunication), planning, building permits and public services‟.

          The EUA wanted to understand what kind of public policy was needed to foster
          creativity in this context and what is the role of universities in driving the necessary
          agendas to achieve success in the global knowledge economy. They have also
          initiated three other complementary thematic networks in the portfolio to get a
          rounded view of Creativity in Higher Education. These are:
                   Creative partnerhsips: HEIs and external stakeholders
                    This network is focusing on ways in which HEIs can improve their creative potential
                    and innovative output by involving stakeholder groups in the creative development
                    process of products and services. It explores the development of creative lifelong
                    learning provision, research partnership with industry and the impact of cultural
                    activities on the creativity of local communities.

                   Creative learners: Innovation in teaching and learning
                    This network is exploring the possible ways in which creativity can be fostered through
                    the teaching process. In addition, although the arts have been seen as the creative
                    field par excellence, little attention has been paid to their contribution to the overall
                    creative potential of HEIs. This network is considering how the arts could contribute
                    to scientific and technical education and will identify good practices in the field.

                   Creative HEIs: structures and leadership
                    The network is focusing upon the internal environment of HEI and the factors that can
                    boost creativity, particularly those issues that bear directly on academic enterprise,
                    such as internal structures, leadership and group dynamics. This network is also
                    discussing possibilities for structural changes in HEIs which could improve their
                    creative and innovative potential. Furthermore, it is identifying good practices in
                    sustaining a creative work environment, including ways in which HEI leaders can
                    promote creativity and develop a creative culture in their institution.

          When the collective work of the EUA is complete the present work by SECRET will be
          firmly contextualised within the totality of these complementary studies

3.        Objectives for the Project
          In order to firmly found their more theoretical considerations, SECRET has agreed to
          develop its project aims by firstly sharing the BEST PRACTICES2 in creativity of each
          partner University with respect to their City:Regions. SECRET wants to know
          precisely:

2
   The importance of the context of a particular example of BEST PRACTICE will mean that it will not necessarily be directly
transferable into another context.
             i.    How Universities promote creativity and sustainable communities?
            ii.    How the City:Region‟s Cultural and Creative Environment affects the University?
           iii.    How Universities have helped embed Creativity in Disenfranchised Groups?
           iv.     How Universities have dealt with aspects of Socially Inclusive Wealth Creation?
            v.     The factors which PROMOTE/HINDER CREATIVITY
                        Range of conditions
                        Critical Success factors
                        The Good Practices that enhance the creativity and innovative potential of
                         HEIs and their external stakeholders
                        The contribution of Quality Assurance procedures in raising (or blocking)
                         the quality and level of innovation and creativity in the universities.
                        Linked to the above, the potential conflicts between experimentation and
                         risk minimisation/adversity in developing a broad range of higher academic
                         enterprise
                        The importance of Context – Economic and Social Environments plus
                                                                   3
                         external stakeholder NEEDs/DEMANDs

     SECRET will use this case material to develop a theory upon which better
     relationships between Universities and the Creative City:Regions can be built.

4.   Methodology of the Project
     The SECRET approach is simply to collate as broad a range of case materials, as
     time will permit, showing best practice relationships between differently creative
     universities and their creative City:Regions. In this process the SECRET partners
     should also help each other (a key aim of all Socrates programmes), and those
     eventually reading our final report to find out why our partner university approaches
     are creative, and what leads them to help their creative City:Regions.
     Definitional Agreements for creativity and creative City:Regions are being
     continuously explored and developed – each partner has agreed to develop their own
     working definitions and share/discuss these with other partners in order that a
     consensus can be reached. Each partner will describe: their own framework, showing
     the outreach process used by each university in building creative relationships with
     the region, what and how does the institution do in terms of outreach; why, with what
     motivations are they acting in the way they are; what are the institutional policies with
     respect to outreach and range of mechanisms, which are most effective in driving
     constructive change; and what is the impact – from building regional identity, to
     helping business organisations to improve local effectiveness, etc., thus hopefully
     suggesting a new mission for modern knowledge economy universities
     The central part of the methodology is the Best Practice Case Materials developed by
     each partner to a fair degree of detail against a template agreed by all the thematic
     partnership. These cases will be edited in a collective way using the interactive
     capability of the web site to reveal the most compelling and best exemplary cases
     that show the creativity and distinctiveness of the University partners. There will be 5
     or 6 short case studies showing the nature, breadth and scale of the university‟s
     offerings at creative reach out to the City:Region and giving a broad brush summary
     of key projects portrayed, in no more than a page on each, including information on:
                          initial motivation
                          process
                          impact internally, and on partners

     These summary cases will also include all aspects of Technology/Knowledge
     Transfer, Knowledge Exchange or Virtuous Knowledge Sharing. They involve


     3
       In this work the sharing of BEST PRACTICE will be considered as a two way process between Universities to the
     City:Regions.
     relationships with both business and the community, and be mounted on the
     SECRET web site for better dissemination.

     From the 5 or 6 short case studies each partner will develop at least one full scale,
     and well-evidenced, exemplary case revealing the very best university working
     practices against a developing Thematic Questioning Framework, shown below:
          1. What is truly creative in the project (not just worthwhile and relevant but developing
             new opportunities in a unique and innovative way)?
          2. Who are the major players/ actors in the relationship between you and your external
             city/region and what are their role
          3. What are the indicators of creative success, critical success factors that enable to
             determine the quality, range and success of your projects of academic enterprises?
          4. How have you built the necessary capacities for successful outreach?
          5. What has hindered you (internal and external) in your developments and what
             actions have you taken to overcome these obstacles?
          6. Cases will include Partner or Client endorsement?

     Early explorations of the cases relating to the topic area quickly revealed the main
     attributes in creating good higher academic enterprise and further that in this respect,
     „one size did not fit all‟. It was therefore agreed that SECRET‟s ambition would be to
     portray „Excellence in the Creative Diversity of their University Reach out to
     City:Region Businesses/Communities. Therefore, case studies covering the broadest
     range of possible creativity relationships would be chosen, which would include
     projects of
                   different scales,
                   different types of knowledge frameworks (disciplines)
                   creative use of what, students, creative
                   explore examples for creative failure, prepared to expose, not to lead to poor
                    esteem

5.   Co-Creation and Virtuous Knowledge Sharing: the basis for improved
     relations between Universities and their City:Regions, its Business and
     Communities
     At present, with respect to the growing relationships between universities and
     City:Regional business and the community, there is a great deal of emphasis on the
     more conventional transfer of scientific invention and discovery into technology, and
     innovation. Such transfer is clearly aimed at improving wealth creation (spin outs,
     etc.,) and enhanced business competitiveness as part of the growth of the knowledge
     economy. These are laudable aims and are quite rightly being addressed. But the
     expertise of non-scientific and engineering and technological disciplines in
     universities – other aspects of their creativity and innovation - are also extremely
     relevant to the economy and society. The arts disciplines contribute to the cultural
     economy and to quality of life factors that themselves support a growing economy.
     The social scientists explore to understand all aspects of society and community that
     impact on, for example economic inclusion, productivity and regeneration from
     community as well as physical and environmental aspects. Educationalists research
     all factors relevant to teaching and learning. The growth of the economy cannot be
     disengaged from societal factors - crime, housing, a vibrant cultural life and the
     quality and accessibility of education provision at all stages, are factors that affect
     businesses, because it Is people who make things work.
     A strong economy and a strong society are interrelated. They are not separate from
     each other. Yet probably more than half of the research and teaching expertise of
     HEIs has not recently paid specific attention to such broader European Reach-Out
     policies. Some of this may be because of the strength of involvement of the
     Governments Trade and Industry involvement in setting University agendas. The
     present work could act as a counterbalance to this by revealing other, better and a
      more enlightened ways of creating improved involvement between creative
      Universities and their creative City:Regions.
      The present consortia, are tentatively putting forward a new paradigm for the
      contribution of HE to the economy and society on the basis of a two-fold argument
      which reflects the best practices of the present university consortium‟s own
      relationships with their creative City:Regions. The first is that the potential contribution
      by universities is much more wide ranging and far reaching than is currently
      acknowledged in existing European reach-out policies and practices. The second and
      more important point is that knowledge production is a sharing process. The insights
      of academe combined with insights of practice will generate a knowledge sharing and
      a knowledge interchange that brings mutual benefits to both sides. Such concepts
      recognise HE‟s obligation to broader society and acknowledges that knowledge is
      created in the many social and economic practices outside of HEIs. This suggests a
      new paradigm of understanding and action that Governments could champion and
      their policies reflect. „Engagement with society‟ in general should be the paradigm,
      not knowledge transfer. The former implies a genuine interchange, a genuine
      engagement, the latter implies a one way movement of knowledge from academe to
      business and the professional worlds external to the HEIs. It is through genuine and
      sustained „engagement‟ with all its external partners that universities make their own
      contribution to knowledge production. It follows that the production and transfer of
      knowledge are seen as iterative rather than linear processes and that practical and
      theoretical knowledge are subsets of „knowledge as a whole‟, and can be best
      understood through what Powell refers to as the „virtuous knowledge sharing cycle‟
      (Powell, 2003), shown below in diagrammatic form:

                     1. Universities work together with External partners to define a Worthy Development,
                                     reflecting a real Demand or a true Problem to be solved

                                        New ways of working leading products and                  2. Imaginative, Interdisciplinary,
4. Formative Evaluation and the         services to continuously evolve and develop                 Problem and Practice based
  Sharing of Best Practices to          through a shared discourse about innovation                  Research with Real World
 drive Continuous Improvement           and enterprise for wealth creation, in the richest             Implementation in mind
                                        sense of that word, in the global Knowledge
                                        Economy

                                  3. Coaching and Support to Enable Elegant and Sustainable
                                     New Product, Improved Process or other Improvements


                                     Salford’s Virtuous Knowledge Sharing Cycle (after Powell 2003)


      SECRET‟s early findings, together with those of a complementary study by the
      UPBEAT consortia, show that successful higher academic enterprise mainly occurs
      through co-creation, where new products or services are both successfully supplied
      to satisfy a real client/user NEED, and then properly applied to meet real business
      DEMAND. This usually means the University providing a wider range of support and
      coaching than conventional, with similar reverse coaching by the eventual end client,
      sponsor, user or customer. As the Council for Industry and Higher Education (2004)
      so rightly say “this is what creates and sustains economic and social growth”. In
      particular, UPBEAT has found it necessary to work closely and deeply with their
      external partners, understanding their needs and demands, and through mutual
      coaching, reaching success together. It is not sufficient to supply or transfer
      knowledge to any business or community enterprise. Success results from a
      continuous, cyclical, developing and involving process. The above diagram, showing
      the cycle of “virtuous knowledge sharing”, indicates the processes of co-creation
      invariably enables a university‟s real world partners to develop integrated new skills,
      facilities, technologies, products and processes that lead to wealth creating success
      in the global economy. Other extremely persuasive evidence also supports this view
      that sustained and „virtuous knowledge sharing‟ collaborations do yield substantial
      results in higher academic enterprise (particularly Lambert evidence to the UK
     Treasury and in the two current studies on the impact of universities in their regions –
     one by the OECD and the other by ESRC).
     Key to success in this respect is the concept of „engagement‟ which operates at both
     the level of social relationships and of epistemology. The paradigm proposed here is
     to make „engagement‟ a core value of all higher academic enterprise and in terms of
     implementation of enterprise, academics should strive to increase the quality and
     density of their meaningful external enterprise engagements. The term „engagement‟
     was first coined by Patrick Coldstream and reported in an ACU publication, following
     a think tank in 2000. The “Idea of Engagement” is also the subject of a new book by
     ACU, where the concept is developed further by various contributors from around the
     world. Currently the Knowledge Capital developments in Greater Manchester
     exemplify its manifestation in an increasingly „real‟ strategic way to make a difference
     to the „city‟s‟ global competitive positioning through making engagement a core value
     in the HEI‟s and city; this is a major reason why Salford believes Greater Manchester
     (which includes 13 area authorities including Manchester and Salford) is truly striving
     continuously to be a creative city.
     There are powerful arguments advanced by many in academic life that universities
     should be „disengaged‟. We are not here entering into this debate which is beyond
     the scope of the present EUA study. Our concern is with the higher academic
     enterprise agenda and what approach is most useful to drive improved, creative,
     socially inclusive and wealth creating relationships between universities and their
     creative City:Regions. We further recognise that European Governments are the
     ultimate arbiter and often today they simply want economic value from any public
     investment. Our early analysis interestingly shows the dearth of systematic study and
     evidence gathering of the impact on the economy from investing in society and the
     equalisation of society, so we hope this overall EUA Socrates study, and our own
     focus, will provide a constructive alternative view for improving the role of universities
     in their City:Regions and particularly in improving constructive with their business and
     community developments. Anecdotal evidence is strong, whether that is in terms of
     the importance of culture, housing or schools to employees, or the inward investor
     who is interested in low crime rates or high quality schooling, or the continuous
     supply of skilled people, or of the impact of sport or community initiatives, we clearly
     need to raise aspirations and the achievement of Business and the Community to
     provide a sound skill base to underpin economic development.
     The current SECRET partners believe it is likely that those institutions embracing the
     above approach, as they have done, will have no difficulty accepting the values and
     knowledge found in vocational and professional education programmes. Sharing
     should also be a key process with respect to validation with professional bodies,
     sector bodies or employers etc. The same could be said about research. The
     distinction, therefore, is not between research-rich institutions and teaching
     institutions, but between „engaged‟ institutions and non-„engaged‟ institutions. This
     statement is an over simplification, but Institutions could be placed on a continuum.
     The following early model for an enterprising and creative university builds on this
     notion

6.   Early Thoughts on a New model of an “Enterprising University”
     The SECRET Partners felt their early discussion led them to believe there should be
     a new model of enterprising universities wishing to fully embrace their creative
     City:Regions – possibly styled as „Modern Renaissance Universities‟. In this context,
     the following issues were felt to be important in helping make these thoughts more
     coherent and “concrete” and are the ones that are concentrating the early
     explorations and discussions within SECRET, namely:
           How best can universities fully understand in order to realise the idea of “third stream
            income” or creative reach out to business and community, in addition to money for
            teaching and research in their City:Regions?
           Should some universities also focus in a complementary way on higher academic
            enterprise, rather than, or as well as, simply being classical or pedagogical
            universities;
           Should universities get away from limiting themselves to the traditional role of
            pursuing basic research, long term blue sky research, teaching and learning and seek
            relevance to business and society,
           Moreover, should such universities show there is complementarity of business
            relevance and basic research rather than the former necessarily undermining the
            space for the latter (SECRET is particularly looking for cases that show such
            complementarity);
           Should universities get away from seeing the world in opposition: regional
            engagement vs. international research excellence, or long term orientation of
            university vs. more immediate “here and now” relevance;
           a new model and role of the university is required, more than opening up universities
            to the idea of innovation, not just contributing to knowledge production and creation of
            IP, reaching out to wider set of actors, with public interest for mutual development of
            the global knowledge economy for the mutual benefit of all.

     SECRET believes that ideally “enterprising universities” properly engaging in the
     global knowledge economy should help create modern renaissance for our
     City:Regions. Such a renaissance should best start within creative cities, but can
     only be initiated by the universities. Other university landscapes (Africa, Arab
     countries) already speak of a need for a renaissance, but the European use of the
     term would imply something different: European social model, social solidarity,
     European model of university combining productivity and social cohesion, talking also
     European construction. Therefore a major focus of SECRET‟s work will be to see if
     the guiding principles behind a Modern Renaissance University can be defined and
     justified – universities that want to have as a key part of their mission the creative
     engagement with their creative City:Regions to enable socially inclusive wealth co-
     creation

7.   An Working Key Definitions – A Salford Perspective
     No formal agreement has yet been reached by SECRET about the key definitions of
     Creative Universities and Creative City:Regions, however, in order to aid
     comprehension of the current paper, those definitions being proposed by Salford
     University are presented below:
        Creative University:
        A „Enterprising University‟ which has the daring to be innovative in the way it engages with
        its external stakeholder partners and uses its imagination and reason to propose and
        empower its business and community partners to create socially inclusive wealth creation
        in the richest sense of the word wealth: releasing economic benefits to business and
        quality of life for all. For Salford such a university will::
             o harness the skills, imagination and enthusiasm of its staff and students to work in
               close alliance with other external partners;
             o be innovative and effective in the application of new knowledge to individuals, social
               and economic development, working across traditional disciplinary and professional
               boundaries;
             o seek continuous improvement in all aspects of its activities and in its
               responsiveness to the changing needs of its students, staff and external partners
             o adopt a friendly, customer-focused and co-creative ethos, delivering to students an
               excellent experience of higher education; to staff, a rewarding and developing
               career relevant to society‟s needs and to the highest academic standards; and to
               the external partners, an effective and timely response to their changing needs to
               keep them at the forefront of developments in the global knowledge economy.
        Perhaps, as we say above, such a university is better known as a Modern Renaissance
        University
        Creative City:Region:
        Those City:Regions which continuously strive to re-make themselves „fit for purpose‟ in
        the global knowledge economy in order to sustain a wealth creating future for all its
        people. Such progressive City:Regions provide appropriate creative leadership by
        developing appropriate policies, governance structures and implementation
        procedures/processes which empower its citizens and the organisation to act as creative
        tams; providing a harmonious place in which to work, rest and play, enabling everyone to
        act creatively for the benefit of all. Typically such City:Regions have recognised the need
        to involve Universities, not only as a supplier/ provider, but also to help set a foresight
        enabling agenda to keep it at the leading edge of knowledge, thereby enabling the
        City:Region to flourish.

8.   An Early Exemplar – The Salford Institutional Perspective
     The SECRET project has only begun to collate its materials and the author of the
     present paper has no authority to reveal further interesting collective findings from the
     partners, however, these will be out by the end of the year. For those interested in
     these further findings, when they become available, please e-mail:
     j.a.powell@salford.ac.uk Shown in the remainder of this paper is the first collation of
     materials by Salford University to give the reader a sense of what one university
     believes to be the essence of its creative relationships with its own creative
     City:Region and its attempts to become a modern Renaissance Unviersity..
     To put the following material in context, it is based on many of the aforementioned
     principles and assumes that when Salford academics have an idea and want to
     „stage manage‟ that idea into a successful, sustainable, real world project, product or
     service, they will be carefully prompted towards „virtuous knowledge sharing‟ and
     their creative teams developed to have the right balance of people, having 4 key
     human enterprise characteristics or skills; their creative leaders be educated to be
     able to direct and combine their efforts together for optimum effect; Salford believes
     the essential skills required to do this are :
                      •     Academic business acumen
                      •     Social networking intelligence
                      •     Individual performance
                      •     Foresight enabling skill
     Salford further believes it is unlikely for any one individual to have all these skills
     themselves for the complex and uncertain projects of today and the future. It is finally
     believed that creative team working is the only true way of developing projects which
     will flourish as successful enterprises in the global knowledge economy.
     For creative project leaders, Salford has developed an approach, with another
     consortium known as UPBEAT, which enables them to determine where any
     enterprise is at any moment in time, where it is doing well, and what could be
     improved. It encourages both continuous general professional skills development
     and further team leaders work hard ensure they develop the above four skills for
     themselves and in their teams in a fairly balanced and highly creative way so as to
     ensure maximum chance of project success. The approach also suggests a sensible
     approach for university governance to ensure that ultimate project success is not
     prevented by traditional university risk aversiveness.

     The UPBEAT is a proactive tool for change.                  Is it an assessment tool?
     Yes, but it’s also a Self-Assessment tool.
     The approach works quite simply by evaluating any project during its development. It
     does this by asking a series of key and important questions to prompt team leaders,
     and their teams, to do things differently and more appropriately; it also reveals how
     best to drive and reinforce effective team working. Finally, the approach presents a
     hierarchy of simple questions that focus on the 4 key areas found critical in
     supporting creative academic enterprise.
Studies of over 50 successful cases, of university reach-out to business and the
community, have shown that the UPBEAT approach is powerful, simple, useful and
cost-effective in driving better academic enterprise. So, the UPBEAT Core team are
currently working with a further 20 universities to hone the system for even more
effective and efficient use and to confirm its overall ability as a valuable development
tool for university outreach supported by the study of a further 125 cases of
successful academic enterprise. For further details of the UPBEAT work please
contact Samina Khan (s.j.khan@ Salford.ac.uk)
                                      UNIVERSITY OF SALFORD

                 Salford University’s Ethos in Reaching Out Creatively
                              to its Creative City Region

The University of Salford believes passionately in sharing its knowledge externally to drive socially
inclusive wealth creation, in the richest sense of the word „wealth‟. With this aim, a wide range of new
projects have been set up to encourage businesses and local communities to tap into the University‟s
world class facilities, potent academic research and innovative ideas and leading edge learning
provisions. From helping the smallest business exploit the possibilities of Virtual Reality, to placing
specialist graduates on support projects for local companies, the University of Salford is all about
access and virtuous knowledge sharing for the benefit of all.

The University is also heavily involved in both strategic and practical plans to improve the economic,
social and physical conditions of its own city:region and other cities, from providing innovative new
spaces in which enterprise can flourish, to re-thinking neighbourhood architecture and influencing
regeneration policies. The University actually exists at the epicentre of some of the biggest
regeneration projects in the world, and by rooting itself in the community is adding a different
dimension to both the physical and economic renewal of Salford, Greater Manchester and other pan
European cities. Recognising the importance of the regional agenda, Salford is also developing
leading edge projects in the North West of England and to a larger regional entity known as the
“Northern Way”. It believes what it has learned with panache locally, has global significance. Thus,
working with a wide range of partners, the University is supporting and assisting many community
groups and new social enterprises, using its resources to aid positive urban reincarnation.

The University thus initiates and develops an array of projects rooted in the community. These range
from radical banking schemes for the financially excluded, to innovative health and education
programmes for children, to new consultation methods that give ordinary people a real voice. With
academics and real business experts on board, the University is nurturing and supporting new
approaches to traditional practice everywhere from the food industry to the construction world.

The University of Salford has also pioneered a change in attitude towards the creative industries,
proved they‟re of vital value to the post-industrial local economy, and is now improving chances for
people to get a smart start in creative careers. It is also generally encouraging businesses to innovate
by promoting new methods of training to SMEs which aim to get managers to look at current practice
in a new light. It‟s not how „hype your technology is‟, it‟s how you use it that counts. At the University
of Salford the technological thrust is used to connect people virtually, to help develop new skills and
solve problems, and to enhance collaboration across continents.

Governments and industrial gurus have also recognised innovation as a key economic driver and the
University of Salford is taking a lead in spreading best innovative practices into industry. By assisting
business innovation, by introducing new products and processes, and by applying creativity in the real
world, the University is helping enterprising companies meet the needs of the modern global economy
and gain a competitive advantage in the market place. By sharing technical expertise, ingenuity and
knowledge we can go places that we might never have dreamed.
            SHORT BEST PRACTICE CASES OF SALFORD UNIVERSITY’S
           CREATIVE RELATIONSHIPS WITH ITS CREATIVE CITY:REGION
CASE 1: Radical Banking for Poor Communities – “A hand up, not a hand out!”
1.    Context
      One of the main problems for people in deprived communities is lack of credit, driving the poor
      into the hands of unscrupulous loan sharks who contrive, through absurdly high interest rates,
      to make them even poorer. It has been a major concern for many British governments and
      community regenerators for years. Now this economic suffering is starting to be addressed by
      a unique and radical project initiated by the University of Salford.

2.    Primary Motivators
      Salford University is an “enterprising university” with a major focus on developing useful
      external developments leading to “socially inclusive wealth creation”. Based upon an
      innovative legal and financial model, it decided to develop a portfolio of “community Banks” –
      owned and run by local people – to provide personal and small business loans to individuals
      who find themselves excluded from the high street banking facilities which so many of us take
      for granted. Unable to meet the rigid risk assessment requirements of banks and building
      societies, individuals are too often sucked into a spiral of debt driven by exorbitant interest
      rates. Licensed money lenders, credit brokers and cheque cashing agencies are free to
      charge interest rates ranging from 60% - 600%, whilst the temptation to deal with unlicensed
      predatory lenders can have a devastating effect on people and their communities.

3.    The Process
      Community Finance Solutions was born after a team of researchers from the University
      explored case studies in three deprived communities and developed a radical model for
      providing affordable credit, using Community Reinvestment Trusts as local banking
      organisations. The basic principles were tested in communities, evaluated and improved,
      leading to a portfolio of different solutions all tailored to local circumstances but based on
      strong local evidence of need, demand and social contexts. The „banks‟ also produce
      business advice of relevance to the communities which, in turn, is leading to sustainable
      economic regeneration. The attention of CFS has now turned to another innovative provision
      of “Community Land Trust” where whole communities can ensure ownership of land and thus
      free them from the tyranny of property speculators. (see also UPBEAT matrix in the Appendix)

4.    The Reality: a mini –sub-case
      All David needed was a loan of £500 to pay for a forklift driving training course. He‟d lost his
      job and would receive a £2,700 redundancy payment in four weeks‟ time. The banks said no.
      He tried Salford Money Line who said yes, and lent him the money at an interest rate of
      12.7%. David completed the course and paid the money back four weeks later. He started
      work the following day. David is one of over 200 individuals helped back into work through a
      loan from Salford Money Line – not-for-profit Community Reinvestment Trust (CRT) created
      by University of Salford researchers. This has led to:
                            over £360,000 personal and business loans made
                            24 jobs created, 60 safeguarded
                            19 businesses started
                            11 people moved into employment

5.    Impact
      There are now „community banks‟, not just in Salford but spread around the UK in both urban
      and rural areas, with a further two in development. After the initial £7 million in loans, another
      £20 million is now available for on-lending, with innovative new financial products and services
      constantly in development. The project has been seen to be of real value to the nation by the
      Bank of England and the Treasury‟s Financial Inclusion strategy, while assessments by EFQM
      reveal it is at a European standard of over 700/1000.The most important innovation in the
      project lies in the researchers using a simple “template for action” to enable local communities
      to own, run and improve their financial situations. This has been recognised in a number of
      ways. Most importantly most of the “community banks” are self sustaining and independently
      run. CFS has won two „Business in the Community‟ awards; was voted the most innovative
      project in the North West of England, won the prestigious Times Higher Education Award as
      an „Outstanding contribution to Community Enterprise‟, and is seen as a global pioneer in its
      field. It now works actively with UK‟s Treasury, its Department of Wages and Pensions, and
      its DTI to role out even more innovative and financially/socially including projects.
CASE 2: NetworkNorthWest

1.   Context

     The project ran from 2003 to 2005. It started at a time when there was a growing concern
     about the failure of agencies across Europe to engage successfully with Small to Medium
     Sized Enterprises (SMEs) to encourage their development and innovation leading to growth
     and wealth creation.

2.   Primary Motivators
     There was growing concern within the UK‟s NorthWest Development Agency that while
     innovation in big business was being supported, little was being done to develop innovation in
     SMEs in the region. Meanwhile, traditional business support was being seen to be
     inappropriate and failing to meet the needs of the majority of the regions SMEs with
     engagement with businesses with less than 50 employees around 14% while for those with
     less than 10 employees it was likely to be below 5%.

     At the same time research work done at the University of Salford had indicated that while
     action learning was regularly used globally at corporate level for leadership and organisational
     development there was evidence to suggest that it would be equally valid for groups of
     managers from similar positions in different SMEs.

     The intention of the project was to provide a new and creative way of offering business
     support for SMEs which would allowed the SME rather than the provider to set the agenda. By
     bringing SME managers together it would encourage them to learn with and from one another
     and through enabling them to challenge one another encourage them to be innovative about
     how they did business and their offerings to market.

     Approximately 1.3m Euros of grant was provided by the North West Development` Agency
     (NWDA).

3.   Processes

     The project was managed at the University of Salford and delivered by 6 universities across
     the NorthWest of England working in partnership with local traditional support agencies... It
     was guided by a Steering Group made up of representatives of key stakeholders in the region,
     including the NWDA, to enable rapid dissemination of project findings and to ensure
     engagement from traditional providers of business support.

     133 SME businesses were supported through 19 action learning groups (SETs) established
     across the region. Each delivery partner agreed to deliver a number of action learning SETs
     but the precise methodology to be used was not proscribed in order to allow collection of data
     on best practice from across the region. These data were then combined with national and
     international benchmarking to enable the production of a set of resources and guidelines on
     true global best practice in this type of intervention with SMEs as part of a wider development
     of resources to support this type of learning.

4.   Major Impacts

     118 SMEs had more than 30 hours contact time with the project while the remainder had
     between 3 and 30 hours. All participants grew in confidence and every participant had a
     different learning outcome but benefits included, new ways of working, increased turnover,
     improved management skills, new products to market, an understanding of the benefits of a
     knowledge sharing culture, increased use of ICT and links developed with universities either
     for further study or collaborations(see appended case study examples).An independent
     evaluation suggested that this type of intervention is particularly useful for women and ethnic
     minority businesses.

     Analysis of data for a sample of our SMEs demonstrated a 24.4% increase in business
     performance as measured by GVA (Gross Value Added)
Appendix to Case 2: A selection of NetworkNorthWest’s own Case Study examples


        In the time Barry Lowe of Comtech UK was a SET member his business grew
        tenfold. Whilst that growth can’t be put down entirely to action learning Barry says “It
        (the process) made me think in a totally different way about things. I got into a
        “learning to learn” mode- and there are effects it has had on other networking
        activities”



        Maria Vargacz of North Star Design’s involvement not only helped her existing
        family design business but encouraged her to set up her own e-commerce business.
        “I’d recommend action learning to anyone-they’ll be amazed how much they’ll get
        from it. Reassurance, advice, help and the exciting process of learning more about
        yourself.”



        Besides peer support, Carl Spencer of Ultima Thule Technology Ltd needed
        funding to develop a software system “Then someone in my SET suggested I get in
        touch with the University of Lancaster who are now helping us develop the software
        with help from undergraduate students” Carl can now approach potential investors
        with a solid proposition.



        Linda Rogers of Diva Designs’ action learning set helped Linda invent a virtual
        tough talking credit controller to sign letters requesting outstanding payments which
        were threatening to damage her relationship with clients. “The SET was really helpful
        in encouraging me to do the business side of things. We may be from different
        sectors, but there are lots of issues which are common to small businesses whatever
        they do.”



        During his time with his SET Hasmat Munshi of New Bank Optical was expanding
        his business from three to six opticians’ shops with 21 employees. The SET
        encouraged him to introduce IT systems, made him look at his marketing - he now
        offers evening appointments and offered guidance to prevent him becoming a victim
        of his own success. Hasmat says “Working with the SET means you are helped to
        solve your own problems rather than have them solved for you, which means you
        learn much more.”
CASE 3: Contraception Education Ltd
1.    Context
      Contraception Education Ltd is an innovative company which started its life at the University of
      Salford. The idea came from a senior academic in the School of Nursing, Barbara Hasting-
      Asatourian, who in previous work had taught sexual health education and had started to
      develop her own supporting teaching resources at a basic level. A change in Government in
      1997 saw an increased emphasis on sexual health issues such as HIV/Aids (report &
      conference 1998) and teenage pregnancy (strategy 1999). The Teenage Pregnancy Strategy
      in particular emphasised the important of not only sex education but also of relationship
      education needing to be honest, open and engaging. These changes were in line with
      Barbara‟s work at the time so she started to liaise with the Teenage Pregnancy Unit, the
      Department of Health and the Department for Education and Skills. Later, further relevant
      changes occurred in sexual health advice from the government with the merger of the Hiv/Aids
      and Sexual Health Strategies (published 2000) and the publication of the First national
      strategy for Sexual Health and HIV services (July 2001) and Sex and Relationship Education
      (published June 2004).

2.    Primary Motivators
      Barbara‟s primary motivations came from her work teaching sexual health education targeting
      young people with challenging behaviour. Barbara found it hard work to hold the groups
      attention for long periods of time and felt that the messages were restrictive and were not
      getting across adequately. This was amplified by the lack of suitable resources/ information
      and the fact that the emphasis was on telling the young people about the forms of
      contraception available but not tackling some of the wider issues that would affect their
      decision making. Barbara‟s work in the area was given a push when the related relevant
      legislation came out supporting her work and when Salford‟s Academic Enterprise started,
      which encouraged just the sort of outreach Barbara was developing.

3.    Processes
      Barbara came to work for the University of Salford and through her links into Academic
      Enterprise was encouraged to develop her ideas further. Barbara received a range of
      business support advice and training through the Business Enterprise Support Team (BEST)
      at the University. She set up Contraception Education Ltd and began to test and further
      develop her ideas. This eventually led to the production of the Contraception: the Board
      Game, which fulfils Barbara‟s original aims of getting safe sex and relationship messages
      across to young people in a fun and effective way. The keys to the development of the Board
      Game have come through a combination of factors. Barbara as an individual is very
      innovative but she recognised that her own individual performance was lacking and that she
      did not have the practical business skills needed to run a successful business. Barbara
      accessed the relevant training in areas such as management, finance and marketing through
      the BEST which also encouraged her to start networking which she was initially reluctant to
      dos. Barbara found networking beneficial as she was able to speak to other people in SMEs
      and to learn from them. Networking helped her to market the product and to access
      companies which helped to develop the product at a much reduced cost e.g. software
      developers and translation services. Barbara now networks not only on a national level but
      also internationally. Barbara also developed her foresight and further developed the product.
      Her work has since expanded into other languages, many different countries, the development
      of new yet related products all of which have enabled them to access a much wider market
      than was first envisioned. (See also UPBEAT Matrix in the Appendix)

4.    Major Impacts
      The board game has been a success primarily because it provides an effective way of
      addressing sexual health issues and does it in a way that is fun for the participants. The
      games content is very wide yet relevant and deals with issues not strictly limited to
      contraception but other issues that are very pertinent to young people. The Board game
      provides a resource that was not available, had not been thought about, but was desperately
      needed. Contraception: the Board Game has been in existence now for a few years and in its
      market is still an unrivalled and absolutely unique product which meets a very specific need.
      The game is sold all over the UK along with a range of supporting materials. It is available in
      the form of a computer game and as an interactive resource for use on white boards with large
      classrooms of students. The board game has been translated into French, Spanish and
      Portuguese and as a result is now being sold in countries such as the USA, Brazil, Canada
      and Africa.
5.       The Future
         Barbara‟s has recently been working in South Africa has developed another form of the Board
         Game called „Play It Safe‟ which has been tailored for a completely different audience with
         more of an aids/ HIV focus and significantly different content. The business has expanded to
         incorporate a training arm and they have won many awards and further funding from a range
         of sources. Contraception Education Ltd has received national and international press, radio
         and television coverage. From an academic stance the directors of Contraception Education
         are seen as specialists in their field and have had publications in journals and have presented
         their work at conferences in Thailand, Australia and Mexico.

         Shown below is the same material in a tabular for as prompted by the UPBEAT analysis
Organisation            Contraception Education
Trigger & primary       Series of strategic government initiatives to reduce local teenage pregnancy, HIV/aids
motivators               and improve sex education in an open and accessible way appropriate to the needs/
                         demands of young people.
                        HIV/AIDS strategy report 1998, the National Teenage Pregnancy Strategy 1999.
Objectives              to get across safer sex and relationship messages to young people.
                        To provide an open, accessible and enjoyable learning resource
Ownership               External national stakeholders (DFES, Department for Health)
                        Healthcare Faculty, University of Salford
                        Academic Enterprise Division, University of Salford
                        Barbara invested her own funds
Experience              Barbara had no previous experience of business or gaming development and support
                        She had a background in nursing, midwifery and teaching
                        Needed advice from government departments
                        Gained business skills, marketing, patenting, networking
Tools/techniques        external manufacturers
used                    Extensive market research
                        Regular user testing with students, peers, family
                        Regular meetings with business mentor
                        Presentations at educational and health conference provided a good dissemination
                         platform and created market opportunities
Enablers                Support from key government departments
                        Business mentor
                        Skills training in marketing and business planning
                        Own Funding
                        Multi-disciplined team – games, manufacturing, healthcare expertise
Tensions                Initial scepticism from business mentor and games manufacturers regarding long term
                         viability as the target market was small
Impact                  Board game produced and helping provide appropriate sex education to young people,
                         in the UK and overseas
                        Product diversified to include video game and
                        Provides innovative and informative training resource working with key agencies
                        Translated into Spanish, French and next will be Portuguese which will extend the
                         market to the US, Canada and Angola, Mozambique
Results                 What has been achieved and can be measured? E.g. reduced costs, etc.
Lessons                 Insight into the process
                        Useful tools and techniques
                        Commercial advantages gained
                        through her networking skills, she has created a platform to raise awareness of
                         Aids/HIV issue in Africa
Evaluation              Methods used
                        Approached by Salford Teenage Pregnancy Team to carry out a Sure Start Plus
                         Evaluation.
                        Feedback from customers/clients/stakeholders
Next Steps              Development of computer game and video
                        Board game has been adapted for the South African market with a focus on HIV/Aids
                         awareness.
Visual materials        Data
                        Relevant articles and reports.
                        Company logo and brochures
                        Digital pictures (check resolution required for print quality)
           Appendix to Case 3: UPBEAT Evaluation Matrix: Contraception Education
Critical                                          Increasing Quality and Density of Management, Governance and Leadership Engagement to Drive Successful University Reach Out/Enterprise
Human
Success        Level 1:                              Level 2:                              Level 3:                               Level 4:                             Level 5:                             Level 6:
Factors        Awareness/Recognition                 Capability Building                   Developed Professional                 Mastery (trans-disciplinary          Demonstrate Innovation &             Sustained Higher Service &
                                                                                           Capability                             capability)                          Creativity                           Global Excellence in
                                                                                           (disciplinary capability)                                                                                        Stewardship
Business          Legislation relevant to the           Barbara regularly met with her       Barbara learned about                 No external debts, re-paid         Development of One new
Acumen             work Barbara was doing                 business mentor to review the         product life cycles, developing        50% of original loan from own       product every year since 2001
                   came out (including Teenage            business plan, finances etc.          new products, acquiring new            savings                            Development of Training Arm.
                   Pregnancy Strategy, Sexual            Research into new potential           knowledge and skills to               Mastery over key                   Won business awards
                   Health Strategy, Education             sources of funding/                   repackage and market special           developments and marketing          including National Business
                   Guidance).                             commercial sponsorship.               offers and deals.                      functions other than finance.       Awards, finalist of the DTi e-
                  Salford‟s BEST programme                                                    New Director onboard to               Barbara won award: Passport         commerce awards 2005)
                   sensitised Barbara to                                                        unemotionally handle funding.          to Export Excellence.              The teenage pregnancy unit
                   Enterprise requirements.                                                    Learned to market company             Secured NWDA Value Added            and the DfES have singled
                  Barbara recognised potential                                                 personally.                            funding                             out Contraception Education
                   demand as there was a                                                                                              Developed new teaching              as an example of excellence
                   shortage of information and a                                                                                       materials.                          and invited them to present at
                   shortage of resources.                                                                                                                                  a DoH conference.

Social            Reluctantly joined Chamber            Began to enjoy networking            Developing many new useful            Fully network engaged.             Helping others on national          Global strategic alliances
Networking                                                and recognised it as a skill          networks and team building             Stratified partnering with          and local networks.                  formed.
                                                         Developing a team based               (including Chamber of                  company plus strategic             Excellence awards.                  Importance of working with
                                                          ethical company strategy.             Commerce, BNI, CAMPUS,                 networks.                                                                international charities –
                                                                                               NWBA, WIISE)                          from 2003 onwards began to                                               enlisting support of Rotary
                                                                                                                                       work with Capture One,                                                   international to help in
                                                                                                                                       Reactive audio, Information                                              Lwandle (SA township)
                                                                                                                                       Plus, Sherston Sheshani
                                                                                                                                       (South Africa)

Individual        Barbara recognised her lack           Barbara learning new                 Developing mutually                   Third director taken on and 3      Won numerous awards                 Skills transcending the norms
Performance        of business skills                     information and skills from           supportive core team with              Directors- learned new              including Finalist BFIY              of a leader. Global outreach.
                  Finance for Non-financial              BEST Team on how to                   complementary professional             collaborative skills. Using         Innovator 2003, NBA                 Township project South Africa
                   managers                              Coaching and skills course to         skills.                                skills of others.                   Entrepreneur 2003)                  Siam Care Thailand
                  Marketing                              build capacity as manager/           Julie Wray joined directors           Royalty agreements made
                                                          leader                                2003                                   with two companies
                                                         Certificate in life coaching         Collaboration and
                                                          2004                                  partnerships with video,
                                                                                                sound, printing, plastics
                                                                                                manufacture etc
Foresight         Direct personal knowledge of          Test and develop ideas based         Developing the existing game          Funding for new research and       New form of game i.e. „Play it      Considered global leader in
Enabling           people with challenging                upon used early system with           after evaluation and further           development. New products           Safe‟. Alternative use of            contraception education.
Skill              behaviour. Identified a need           teachers, students and                testing.                               and procedures.                     capability to help others           International conferences and
                   for new resources to engage            friends.                             Journal articles                      Computer game.                      based on evidence.                   presentations (Thailand
                   young people and keep their           Took the board game to                                                                                          South African localisation           (BHA), Australia (JW), and
                   attention.                             board game companies.                                                                                                                                 Mexico (JW))
CASE 4: Shaping the Future

1.    Context

      The project started in 2002 and ended in 2006. It started at a time when the National Health
      Service in the UK was undergoing a number of changes, with an important one being the
      integration of Primary Health Care and Social Care (H&SC) services. This reorganisation
      meant that new ways of working would need to be introduced with the consequent need for
      staff training. At the time there was little interaction between the Health, Social Care and
      Education sectors, so that planning for future training needs was less effective than it could
      have been. The project aimed to create an evidence-based data set to enable the H&SC
      sectors to be able to strategically plan, with the Education sector, for the training needs of
      Primary Care hospitals. It also aimed to ensure their ability to continuously evaluate the
      implementation of their Education and Training Strategies in relation to integrated H&SC
      services.


2.    Primary Motivators

      The North West Development Agency recognised the importance of the H&SC sector was
      concerned about the impact of the changes in the H&SC sector and was prepared to fund this
      project for the benefit of the Region. Approximately 800k Euros of grant was provided. The
      universities involved in the project recognised the need to understand what new
      education/training provisions would be required in order to respond to the changes in the way
      H&SC operated.

3.    Processes

      The project was developed as a partnership between 6 universities in the North West of
      England, with the University of Salford leading. It was guided by a Steering Group which had
      representation from all the major H&SC organisations in the Region. This was important to
      ensure dissemination, engagement from the sectors and provide active advice/support when
      required. A Director was appointed from the University of Salford with responsibility for the
      leadership and monitoring of the project. The use of a transformational leadership approach
      by the Director created a highly motivated, mutually supportive team which has been
      sustained beyond the project.

      The project was organised as a series of discrete pieces of work (Work Packages), with each
      partner having responsibility for leading the delivery of one or more Work Packages. These
      Work Packages had some elements of interdependence, so the project team met regularly to
      review progress and address issues affecting delivery.

4.    Major Impacts

      The key were:
            A systematic literature review which also highlighted generic key factors in creating
             sustainable partnerships;
            Best practice case studies for use in training strategy development;
            A database mapping HE /FE provision in this area (unique in both the Region and the
             UK) enabling the H&SC sector to identify relevant courses as well as highlighting gaps
             in provision across the Region where new courses needed to be developed;
            An analysis of both professional and user perspectives of the current situation and
             future needs highlighting key issues that needed to be addressed; and
            The development/testing of a distinctive education/training needs analysis tool to
             support delivery of best practice.

      The skills developed by the delivery team were then used to support Primary Care hospitals in
      the Region who were struggling to develop their strategic plans to incorporate these changes.
      Additional benefits were the development of new contacts, networks and opportunities, which
      broadened out into a European context with the submission of a Leonardo bid.


                                                                                                 17
CASE 5: Design Management Networks

1.   Context

     Design Management (DM) is a relatively recent discipline in Europe. In Asia it has yet to be
     generally recognised. The project was designed to bring together some leading European
     institutions from very different city:regions and transfer their DM expertise to universities in
     China and Thailand. The project involved exchange of staff, development of modules at
     Masters level and a successful international conference at the end of the project.

2.   Primary Motivators and Triggers

     Salford has one of the leading DM units in the UK and the Faculty is keen to develop this
     niche area and increase its reputation outside Europe. The project was developed as a
     means of creating new relationships and developing the University‟s profile in DM in Asia,
     using funding from the EU‟s Asia Link Fund. A secondary motivation was to develop new, and
     strengthen existing, relationships within Europe.

3.   Processes

     The project was delivered in two ways. Work Packages were used for some areas of activity,
     but in other areas „clusters‟ were used. These clusters involved the partners selecting themes
     relevant to the project‟s aims, with partners then selecting which clusters they wished to
     engage with based on their specific areas of interest.

     Because this was an international project involving 4 European and 2 Asian countries the
     partnership meetings were very important in order to both develop common understandings
     and deliver the project‟s outputs. As a result a novel social networking partnership at a
     strategic level was enabled and the „excellence in diversity‟ of the partners in it was used to
     enable all to flourish in a complementary way.

     The use of Chinese postgraduate students as interpreters was invaluable to cross cultural
     understanding, with the students also benefiting in terms of experience and case study
     material for their research.

4.   Major Impacts

     The project, which is scheduled to finish in quarter 2 of 2006, has delivered a range of new
     Masters modules and a large conference in Shanghai, which, based on an evaluation
     evidence, was considered a success by all participants. The conference was designed to
     bring education and business from both Europe and Asia together with a secondary objective
     being the creation of new networks and partnerships.

     The partnership has remained strong and there will be a new Asia Link bid submitted as well
     as a bid into Erasmus Mundus. Other sub partnerships have developed and will lead to new
     activity, not necessarily in DM.




                                                                                                  18
CASE 6: Food Safety Alert
Designing food safety management: responding to regional, national and international
legislative changes

1.      Context
In January 2006, the European Union introduced a food safety management regulation that requires
all food businesses in all 25 Member States to have an operational Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Point system (HACCP) in place. HACCP is the internationally accepted system for food safety
management and it has been used by larger and more sophisticated food businesses (almost all
within the manufacturing industry) for a number of years. In preparation for the introduction of HACCP
throughout the supply chain for all food businesses of any size, the Food Standards Agency
inaugurated a major research study to design, develop and test alternative methodologies for HACCP
in catering businesses. This work was led by Professor Eunice Taylor at the University of Salford, who
was seconded to the Food Standards Agency for the two-year time scale of the project.
2.      Primary Motivators and Triggers
HACCP has been utilised by the food industry for many years, but has not, however, been
implemented in any significant way within micro, small or medium sized businesses in Europe or
elsewhere. Given that there are over 600,000 food businesses in the UK alone, many of which are
small caterers, restaurants and cafes, with less than 5 workers, this regulatory change has the
possibility of creating a significant negative impact on many smaller food businesses. Previous
attempts to introduce classic or traditional HACCP methodologies into catering and retail businesses
have ended in failure and if this experience was not to be repeated then a new methodology for
HACCP was needed.

3.      Processes
The project was designed within a tight scope and timescale. Only two years were available from the
start of the project to the end point, which was dictated by the predicted introduction of the legislation
in January 2006. The product was to be a model of HACCP methodology that overcame some
significant hurdles:
     1. It had to be scientifically valid in terms of achieving food safety;
     2. It had to fit within the legislative wording of the regulation;
     3. It must be accepted by the national and international institutions (such as the Codex
        Alimentarius Commission) that regulate food safety;
     4. It must be acceptable to regulators, enforcement officials, local authorities and food
        businesses as being capable of effective and cost efficient operation

The achievement of these goals demanded the assembly of a large, multidisciplinary team of
legislators, enforcement officials, food safety experts, microbiologists and food scientists, as well as
psychologists and management specialists. The outputs of this team were subject to constant review
by specialist committees in the Food Standards Agency, food safety enforcement bodies and by
groups within the European Union and Codex Alimentarius expert working parties.

The final version of this HACCP methodology was extensively tested in 50 randomly selected
businesses and adaptations made in response to data collected and responses from industry. Further
trials in 2000 businesses ensured that the product was acceptable to industry and regulatory bodies
and was possibly the most extensively tested food safety system anywhere in the world.

4.      Major Impacts
The HACCP system designed in Salford has been entitled “Safer Food Better Business” and is now
the Government recommended system of food safety management for small food businesses in
England. The national rollout to 400,000 premises began in January 2006 with a budget of £10 million
allocated to local authorities to pump prime its delivery. The system has been accepted by the
European Union and by the United Nations Codex Alimentarius Committee on Food Hygiene. It is now
being adopted in countries within the EU and overseas.




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CASE 7: Salford Film Festival in the Context of the Salford Innovation Park

                                        Salford Film Festival
1.      Context
The Salford Film Festival (SFF), a three day festival which showcases film talents linked to Salford,
was created in 2003 with the help of the University of Salford through the team working on the Salford
Innovation Park (SIP).

Phase 1 of the SIP initiative has seen the development of a new state-of-the-art £10 million building,
the Salford Innovation Forum, which is being spearheaded by the University, Salford City Council and
Northwest Development Agency. When completed in December 2006, the building will house over 50
knowledge based businesses and will be the focus for community initiatives, education and training.

The SFF has been established as a film festival with a difference as it involves the whole community
and the whole cinematic heritage of Salford. The SFF provides audiences with quality premieres, and
offers a range of creative opportunities such as training events and workshops and the events are kept
free for absolute access.

2.        Primary Motivators and Triggers
The SIP initiative played a significant role in establishing the SFF. Part of the SIPs remit was to
develop business, education and community projects and through this work the SIP team met with a
local film producer who wanted to showcase his film alongside other Salford films to celebrate local
achievements in film-making. The SIP project manager, Jo Heeley, felt that the idea could be
developed into a Film Festival with a Salford focus as at that time there were no other government
supported film festivals in the North West. Jo felt that the SFF had the potential to innovatively
engage the local community/ young people and act as a tourism driver with fantastic regeneration
potential for Salford.

3.       Processes
Partnership working was key to the establishment of this social enterprise. At the outset, SIP took on
the design and organisation of the programme and employed the film‟s producer to provide creative
direction for the Festival. The film festival idea was developed further in partnership the Salford based
„Northern Film Network‟ and other local community enterprises and support/ regeneration agencies
from Salford. At a later stage a Steering group was set up which comprised representatives from a
whole range of organisations. With the help of a lot of „blue sky‟ thinking a programme was put
together for a 3 day film festival which was designed to have wide appeal, bringing in everyone from
the business, community and education sectors.
                                                                                    nd
The first festival took place in October 2003 with over 2,500 visitors. The 2 Film festival was
attended by nearly 4,000 people who attended the three day cinematic celebration which included
premieres, screenings, conferences, master classes and the first Salford Film Festival Awards. A new
Film Festival Board was set up in 2004 with the intention of making the Salford Film Festival an annual
event and the third Film Festival has just taken place in April 2006.

4.       Major Impacts
The SFF has achieved its original aims- to engage the local community/ young people, to act as a
tourism driver and to contribute to the regeneration of Salford. The community have taken the reins
and the SFF is now a social enterprise run by the community for the community and a sustainable
model of community regeneration has been achieved. Many of the young people involved in the film
projects have moved into employment and further training and some of the films showcased have
been nominated for and have won a host of national/ international awards. The SFF has also received
national media coverage. The SFF was an innovative idea which, through effective multi-partnership
working involving the university, businesses and the community, has widely contributed to regional
skills improvement, economic development, social inclusion, regeneration and city pride.




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                                Even Shorter Possible Cases


CASE 8: KIDSCAN

Set up by the University of Salford in 2002 as a link between the laboratory and the bedside, the
KIDSCAN Children‟s Cancer Research Centre exists to analyse the development of treatments for
children with cancer, as well as providing accessible information for carers. The work focuses on a
better understanding of how existing drugs affect young patients, aiming to reduce harmful side effects
while improving anti-cancer activity. The research is solely funded by individuals and businesses from
within the community. The charity has new drugs currently to be evaluated, and patented, to help
treat children‟s cancer; and new courses developed to help those interested in cancer treatment.


CASE 9: Design Against Crime

Ground-breaking joint research by the University of Salford and Sheffield Hallam University has shown
that good design can positively affect crime reduction. The resultant project, Design Against Crime,
aiming to transform urban areas through socially responsible design, drew participants as diverse as
design professionals, police officers, architectural liaison officers, community groups, construction
companies, property developers, housing associations, local authorities, product suppliers, probation
services and academics.


CASE 10: The Business Creation Unit

This exceptional Unit is shaping a new approach to learning technology and business by combining
the two.

The Master of Enterprise (Technology) degree sees students spending at least half the course time
actually setting up their own viable businesses, which have ranged from 3-D visualisation software for
estate agents to a green gadget e-emporium.

The BCU teaches entrepreneurial skills to science undergrads and offers hundreds of existing
entrepreneurs access to science and technology expertise, including Virtual Reality tools and a unique
3-D printer.

Linked to this Unit of the University, Academic Enterprise has recently successfully piloted a
programme designed to inspire groups within organisations to become more innovative. It set up
Innovation Cells which are groups of like-minded creative people who work on projects in a way that is
outside the usual rules. The small team assumes responsibility for identifying and then creating and
developing a new product or service – pooling skills, working co-operatively and operating across
scientific, commercial and technological disciplines to bring the idea into reality.

Participants in the cells learn creative problem-solving techniques, and unlike other training schemes,
the potential outcome is real products that are ready for market. The Cells have been primarily drawn
from the University and from University spin-out companies but the aim is to expand the programme to
local businesses to given them a cutting edge in the marketplace.




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