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CONSUMER CULTURE WHAT IS CULTURE GLOBAL

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CONSUMER CULTURE WHAT IS CULTURE GLOBAL Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                                                                          9/24/2008




                           Global Marketing – Schrage 3                                                                                                Global Marketing – Schrage 3




                                                                                              CONSUMER CULTURE
                                                                                               Cultural differences are the most significant
                                                                                               and troublesome variables encountered
                                                                                                 Product names
                                                                                                 Company names
                                                                                                 Marketing strategies
Global Marketing
Chapter 4                                                                                        Translation of slogans
                                                                                                 Market research
SOCIAL & CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS

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                                                               Global Marketing – Schrage 3                                                            Global Marketing – Schrage 3




  WHAT IS CULTURE?                                                                            GLOBAL CONSUMER CULTURE
                                                                                                                      Attitudes, Beliefs,
                                                                                                                            Values

                                                   A system of values
                                                   and norms shared                             Diet                                                      Aesthetics
                                                   among a group of
                                                   people and, when                                                     Culture
                                                   taken together,
                                                   constitute a design
                                                   for living.

                                                                                                   Language                                 Religion


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                                                               Global Marketing – Schrage 3                                                            Global Marketing – Schrage 3




RELIGION                                                                                      IMPLICATIONS ON BUSINESS
                                                                                                Christianity
                                Christianity              Muslims                                  “Protestant Work Ethic” and “The Spirit of Capitalism”.
                                Hindus                    Buddhists
                                                                                                Islam
                                Sikhs                     Jews
                                                                                                   Favors market-based systems.
                                Bahais                    Atheists
                                                                                                   No payment or receipt of interest.
                                other religions           non-religious
                                                                                                Hinduism
                                           12%                                                     Caste system plays a role.
                                12%                            33%                              Buddhism
                   2%
                   0%0%
                      1%                                                                           Little emphasis on entrepreneurial behavior.
                           6%
                                                                                                Confucianism
                                 13%
                                                            21%                                    Loyalty, reciprocal obligations, and honesty in dealings.



                                                      2007 est. CIA fact book
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                                                        Global Marketing – Schrage 3                                                             Global Marketing – Schrage 3




AESTHETICS                                                                             DIETARY PREFERENCES
                                                                                        Availability
                                                                                        Spices
 Tasteful vs. tasteless
                                                                                        Way of life
 Beautiful vs. unattractive
                                                                                        Habit
 Color perceptions
 Music
 Apparel



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                                                        Global Marketing – Schrage 3                                                             Global Marketing – Schrage 3


LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION
                                                                                       SYMBOLISM
                          1st spoken language                                           Of all aspects of culture
       Chinese       Spanish    English     Arabic     Portuguese
       Bengali       Russian    Japanese    German     All others                           Communication most critical
                                                                                            Where most blunders occur
                                      13%        5%
                                                      5%                                Verbal
                                                       3%
                                                       3%
                                                                                        Nonverbal
                   63%
                                                       3%                               Symbols
                                                       2% 2%
                                                     1%                                 Greetings

2007 est. CIA fact book
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                                                        Global Marketing – Schrage 3                                                             Global Marketing – Schrage 3




                                                                                       HOFSTEDE

                                                                                                            Four dimensions:
                                                                                                                      Power distance.
                                   CULTURAL TYPOLOGY                                                                Individualism versus
                                                                                                                          collectivism.
                                                                                                                   Uncertainty avoidance.
                                                                                                                 Masculinity versus femininity.
                                                                                                               Later research added the dimensions
                                                                                                               of time orientation
                                                                                        " Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural
                                                                                              differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster."
                                                                               11          Dr. Geert Hofstede, Emeritus Professor, Maastricht University.               12




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                                                Global Marketing – Schrage 3                                                        Global Marketing – Schrage 3




TROMPENAAR                                                                     KLUCKHOHN & STRODTBECK
                                                                                                                               Fred Strodtbeck
                                                                                               Relation to Nature
                                                                                      Subjugation     Harmony Mastery
          Universalism vs. Particularism                                                        Time Orientation
          Individualism vs. Collectivism                                                   Past    Present Future
                                                                                             Basic Human Nature
          Neutral versus Affective
          relationships                                                                  Evil Neutral/Mixed Good
                                                                                              Activity Orientation
          Specific versus diffuse relationships                                    Being Containing/controlling Doing
          Achievement versus ascription                                                  Relationships among people
          Relationship to time                                                      Individualistic Group Hierarchical
          Relationship to nature                                                               Space orientation
                                                                                           Private Mixed Public
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                                                Global Marketing – Schrage 3                                                        Global Marketing – Schrage 3




SALAD BOWL CONCEPT                                                             GANNON’S METAPHORS
                                                                                 U.S. – Football
The salad bowl is the idea that the U.S. is                                        Most popular sport
not a melting pot but a salad bowl.                                                Super Bowl – most popular holiday for
It is known as cultural mosaic in Canada.                                          gatherings
                                                                                   Huddling to make decisions
All the different cultures are combined (like                                      Based on statistics-reaching a goal
a salad) but they do not merge together as                                       Japan- Garden
a homogenous culture.                                                              Wa (group harmony)
 Each culture keeps its own distinct                                               Shikata (rules governing behavior)
qualities, just as a onion does not take on                                        Seishin (training the mind to control the
traits of a tomato merely by being placed                                          body)
                                                                                   Aesthetics
adjacent to it.

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                                                Global Marketing – Schrage 3                                                        Global Marketing – Schrage 3




                                                                               ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY
                                                                                Product adaptation
                                                                                Environmental sensitivity
                                                                                The connection suggests:
     MARKETING IMPLICATIONS ON SOCIAL AND
                                                                                  Which countries are likely to be the most viable
                  CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS
                                                                                  competitors.
                                                                                  Which countries in which to locate production
                                                                                  facilities and do business.



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                                       Global Marketing – Schrage 3                              Global Marketing – Schrage 3




CULTURE AND ETHICS                                                    CULTURE IS DYNAMIC

Do the “right” thing.

Thomas Donaldson’s Three Principles:
    Respect for core human values (human rights),
  which determine the absolute moral threshold
  for all business activities.
    Respect for local tradition.
    The belief that context matters when deciding
  what is right and what is wrong.                                             Cultural Change

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