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					 Chapter 7                                                                                          Influence

                                            Group Dynamics
                                  Chapter 7: Multiple Choice Questions

7.1. Asch studied influence by:
    A. measuring how much students' attitudes changed during college.
    B. asking people to judge the movement of a pinpoint of light in a dark room.
    C. watching how people in groups responded to the commands of an authority.
    D. having people make judgments about the length of lines.
    E. asking groups to simulate juries making decisions.

7.2. Social ___ is an interpersonal processes that change the thoughts, feelings, or behaviors of another
    person
    A. motivation
    B. influence
    C. comparison
    D. divulgence
    E. majority

7.3. Majority influence leads to ___ whereas minority influence leads to ___.
    A. individuality; diversity
    B. originality; similarity
    C. consensus; innovation
    D. unification; harmony
    E. variety; novelty

7.4. When people change their opinions, judgments, and actions to match the group, they are:
    A. conforming
    B. forming
    C. performing
    D. reflecting
    E. leading

7.5. The typical person conformed on about ___ of the trials in Asch's experiment.
    A. 1 in 20
    B. one-third
    C. two-thirds
    D. 65%
    E. nearly all

7.6. In the Asch experiment:
    A. subjects were seated in individual cubicles.
    B. confederates gave wrong answers on some trials.
    C. the problems the group worked on had no one "right" answer.
    D. subjects made their judgments anonymously.

7.7. Asch's findings are noteworthy in that he found that:
    A. the minority influenced the majority.
    B. people were very obedient.
    C. a substantial number of people conformed and gave the wrong answer.
    D. conformity increased at a constant rate as new members joined the group.
    E. people complied, but they did not conform.

7.8. Asch's findings suggest that conformity begins leveling off when the group size reaches ___ people.
    A. 2                                                       D. 8
    B. 4                                                       E. 10
    C. 6


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 Chapter 7                                                                                        Influence

7.9. Which statement is true?
   A. Influence is unidirectional, for it flows from the majority to the minority.
   B. A group of 6 against 2 is psychologically identical to a group of 3 against 1.
   C. Asch's subjects conformed for one of 2 reasons: they were fearful or weak-willed.
   D. A majority of 4 is no more influential than a majority of 2.
   E. None of the above are true.

7.10. Roy believes that Gone with the wind is the best movie ever made. Which scenario is most consistent
    with research findings on influence?
   A. When James disagrees with Roy, saying Citizen Kane is better, Roy changes his mind and agrees with
      James.
   B. When James disagrees with Roy, Roy remains unpersuaded. But when Dianne joins with James, Roy's
      confidence is greatly shaken, and when Dean supports James and Dianne, Roy caves in completely.
   C. When James, Dianne, and Dean disagree with Roy, he sticks by his choice and refuses to change.
   D. James, Dianne, and Dean can't change Roy's opinion, but when 5 more people argue against him
      (bringing the total of majority members to 8) Roy changes his opinion.

7.11. According to social impact theory, conformity pressures ___ at a ___ rate as more people join the
    majority.
   A. increase; decreasing
   B. decrease; increasing
   C. decrease; constant
   D. increase; constant

7.12. Which one is not one of the key variables stressed in Latané’s social impact theory?
   A. strength
   B. influence
   C. immediacy
   D. authority
   E. number

7.13. Fred decides that other group members are right, so he changes his mind and comes to believe in the
    group's position. This change is BEST described as:
   A. compliance.
   B. conversion.
   C. anticonformity.
   D. independence.
   E. conformity.

7.14. Julian listened to the group member’s arguments, but he finds them unpersuasive and he decides not
    to change his mind. He is displaying:
   A. diversity.
   B. nonconversion.
   C. anticonformity.
   D. independence.
   E. compliance.

7.15. Conformity is higher:
   A. among men rather than women.
   B. in individualistic cultures rather than collectivistic cultures.
   C. during times of social upheaval rather than stability.
   D. among individuals with a high rather than a low need for social approval.
   E. in all of the above situations.




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 Chapter 7                                                                                        Influence


7.16. Which statement is true?
    A. Women conform more than men in both public and private group situations.
    B. Even when women have high status they conform more than low status men.
    C. Eagly suggests that men refuse to conform in face-to-face settings to demonstrate their masculine
       independence.
    D. Women's conformity springs from their biological need to belong.

7.17. Asch is to Crutchfield as:
    A. conformity is to compliance.
    B. no confederates is to confederates.
    C. experimental study is to field study.
    D. low conformity is to high conformity.
    E. face-to-face is to separated.

7.18. Studies on groups that interact through computers have found that the pressure to conform is ___
    when compared to face to face groups.
    A. negligible
    B. lower
    C. the same or even higher
    D. reversed

7.19. Moscovici found that ___ changed when they faced a minority who is mistaken.
    A. no one
    B. about 90% of the subjects
    C. about 8% of the subjects
    D. approximately 1/3 of the subjects

7.20. In Moscovici's experiments:
    A. subjects were seated in individual cubicles.
    B. confederates gave wrong answers on some trials.
    C. the problems facing the group had no one "right" answer.
    D. subjects' judgments were made anonymously.

7.21. Moscovici's findings are noteworthy in that he found that:
    A. the minority influenced the majority.
    B. people were very obedient.
    C. nearly 35% of the subjects conformed and gave the wrong answer.
    D. conformity increased at a constant rate as new members joined the group.
    E. people complied, but they did not conform.

7.22. You must convince your five colleagues that your company should get involved in Project X. According
    to Moscovici, you should:
    A. try to form a coalition with at least one member of the majority.
    B. argue your position consistently, without wavering.
    C. point out your agreement with the group's prior decisions.
    D. increase your power base in some way.

7.23. Asch is to ___ as Moscovici is to ___.
    A. majority; minority
    B. empirical; theoretical
    C. innovation; democratic
    D. humanistic; objective
    E. European; American




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 Chapter 7                                                                                           Influence

7.24. Ron, the groups’ leader, did not pay his membership fee on time but he was allowed to pay it late.
    Other members accrue penalties for each day their fees are not turned into the club. Members let Ron to
    turn his money in late because he has more ___ than other members.
    A. diversity
    B. idiosyncrasy credits
    C. immediacy
    D. consolidation
    E. leadership recognition

7.25. When will a group NOT listen to the minority?
    A. When group members are meeting for the first time and discussing ideas.
    B. If minorities consistently argue and stand strong on their point of view.
    C. When groups members identify strongly with the group and its identity.
    D. If the minority tries to present a non-obvious solution to the problem at hand.

7.26. Minorities influence group members through ___ influence.
    A. indirect
    B. normative
    C. direct
    D. bilateral
    E. determinational

7.27. Which of the follow is true?
    A. Minority influence directly affects individuals and the influence is seen almost instantaneously.
    B. Minorities pressure group members into changing their judgments without thinking.
    C. Minorities are only influential when they consistently present their arguments, irregardless of how
         they are viewed.
    D. Minority influence produces lasting effects that generalizes across different settings and tasks.

7.28. Synthesizing the findings of Asch and Moscovici, we can conclude that group change generally results
    from:
    A. strong, determined leadership.
    B. the majority influencing the minority.
    C. mutual influence between the majority and minority.
    D. the minority influencing the majority.

7.29. Dynamic social impact theory, unlike social impact theory, strives to explain:
    A. minority influence.
    B. majority influence.
    C. change over time.
    D. geographically distributed groups.

7.30. After the group discusses a topic, the number of the members expressing a specific view increases
    while the number of members expressing the dissenting view decreases. This is an example of:
    A. consolidation
    B. correlation
    C. clustering
    D. continuing diversity
    E. merging

7.31. Which is NOT one of the basic sources of influence examined in detailed in the text?
    A. personal influence
    B. informational influence
    C. interpersonal influence
    D. normative influence




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 Chapter 7                                                                                         Influence


7.32. Social comparison, heuristics, and cognitive elaboration are aspects of ___ influence.
    A. normative
    B. personal
    C. informational
    D. compliance
    E. interpersonal

7.33. Judy conforms because she cannot withstand the constant pressure put on her by the other group
    members. Her conformity results from ___ influence.
    A. normative
    B. personal
    C. informational
    D. compliance
    E. interpersonal

7.34. Using a ___ approach, influence can be best understood as affecting individuals both directly and
    indirectly.
    A. Moscovician
    B. cognitive elaboration
    C. dual process
    D. bilaterial
    E. social impact

7.35. A general rule of thumb, or ___, is used to make judgments when we are cognitively busy,
    unmotivated, or only have a limited amount of information.
    A. assumption
    B. heuristic
    C. street smarts
    D. statistical principle
    E. idiosyncrasy guideline

7.36. Latané and Darley found that ___ of individuals, placed in groups of 3, would report smoke seeping
    into the room.
    A. 5%       B. 15%           C. 50%         D. 75%          E. 100%

7.37. Wilma is walking down a busy sidewalk when she sees a man who seems to be in pain. Which of the
    following is LEAST likely to occur?
    A. Wilma will rush to help the man because she feels responsible for helping him.
    B. Wilma will examine others’ reactions to see how are they are reacting before doing anything.
    C. Because others are present Wilma will feel less responsible for helping and will not stop.
    D. Wilma doesn’t help because the man might not be hurt she doesn’t want to embarrass herself.

7.38. Which of the following does not belong?
    A. bystander effect
    B. diffusion of responsibility
    C. depraved indifference
    D. informational influence
    E. evaluation apprehension

7.39. Compared to normative influence, informational influence:
    A. is vastly more effective.
    B. is more specific to the situation it is applied.
    C. gradually becomes more powerful over time.
    D. causes individuals to act more in accordance to group norms.
    E. generalizes across tasks and settings


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 Chapter 7                                                                                               Influence

7.40. Sociometric rankings taken in the Schachter study indicated that the ___ was the least liked group
    member.
    A. slider         B. deviant           C. mode           D. independent

7.41. Schachter found evidence of a curvilinear relationship between time and communication:
    A. whenever a deviant was in the group.
    B. whenever the deviant refused to conform.
    C. in some groups in the relevant, cohesive condition.
    D. in the time pressures, cohesive condition only.

7.42. The ___ effect states that group members view a disliked group member more negatively than an
    outgroup member who performs the same behavior.
    A. black sheep
    B. scapegoat
    C. Meidung
    D. target individual
    E. loafing

7.43. Statistics show that, in actual jury trials, the minority talks the majority into changing its verdict in ___
    % of all cases.
    A. about 25
    B. 10 to 15
    C. 30 to 40
    D. about 45
    E. more than 50

7.44. Studies of jury deliberation indicate:
    A. the minority rarely succeeds in influencing the majority.
    B. low status jurors have as much influence as high status jurors.
    C. about one-third of all juries end in a deadlock.
    D. female members tend to talk more than males.

7.45. Studies on jury size show that:
    A. 6 person juries are just as representative of the community as 12 person juries.
    B. a 5 to 1 vote is the same as a 10 to 2 vote.
    C. small juries reach the same type of verdicts as large juries
    D. large juries participate at equal rates and are more cohesive

7.46. Asch found that subjects conformed ___ trials in which they faced an incorrect unanimous majority.
    A. very rarely on
    B. on 10% of the
    C. on about 1/3 of the
    D. but did not comply on
    E. about 90 percent of the time on

7.47. Suzy hates cigarettes, but smokes because her parents forbid her to. Her behavior is BEST described
    as:
    A. acting out.
    B. nonconversion.
    C. anticonformity.
    D. independence.
    E. nonconformity.




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 Chapter 7                                                                                               Influence


7.48. Moscovici studied influence:
    A. in field settings rather than in the laboratory.
    B. by asking people to judge the movement of a pinpoint of light in a dark room.
    C. by planting a confederate (or two) who opposed the majority in groups.
    D. in the U.S. rather than in Europe.
    E. by asking groups to simulate juries making decisions.

7.49. Hollander's concept of idiosyncrasy credits explains why:
    A. followers conform less than leaders.
    B. high status members conform more than low status members.
    C. high status members are permitted to deviate more than low status members.
    D. deviance in just-formed groups is permissible.

7.50. Which one does NOT fit with the others?
    A. Moscovici
    B. minority influence
    C. conversion
    D. direct influence
    E. innovation

7.51. Which one is NOT one of the four tendencies identified by Latané and his colleagues in their studies of
    dynamic social impact?
    A. cognitive digression
    B. consolidation
    C. continuing diversity
    D. clustering
    E. correlation

7.52. When theorists explain conformity by emphasizing the fact that others' actions contain important data
    about the social world they are talking about ___ influence.
    A. normative
    B. personal
    C. informational
    D. compliance
    E. interpersonal

7.53. Milgram (1992) instructed his research assistants to ask people on a busy New York City subway to
    give up their seats. Milgram found that:
    A. most people would turn over their seats when asked.
    B. the research assistants were verbally criticized for making the request.
    C. response of the subway riders was the most interesting part of the study
    D. his research assistants frequently could not carry out the request.

7.54. When the first ballot is taken, the vote is 9 to 3 in favor of guilty. According to the text, the group's
    final verdict:
    A. will probably be innocent.
    B. will probably be no decision.
    C. will probably be guilty.
    D. cannot be predicted.

7.55. Juries with a nonunanimous decision rule ___ than juries required to reach unanimity.
    A. are less likely to deadlock
    B. reach harsher decisions
    C. include fewer members
    D. are more lenient
    E. take longer to deliberate

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 Chapter 7                                                                                            Influence

                                           True/False Questions

7.1. The Corona Trial Jury demonstrates the impact of alcohol on group interaction and decision making.
7.2. Social influence emanates from both the majority and the minority.
7.3. Asch’s experiments in line length judgment detailed the impact of majority influence.
7.4. Majorities are less influential in large groups because people feel more anonymous in large groups.
7.5. Compliance is to conversion as tolerance is to acceptance.
7.6. Anticonformists privately agree with the group (or have no opinion), but disagree publicly.
7.7. It is generally agreed that Asch’s experiments in conformity that occurred in the 1950s, could not be
     replicated today since we live in a more liberal time.
7.8. In face-to-face settings, women conform more than men.
7.9. In order for a minority individual to be influential on the majority group, they must remain inconsistent
     to keep the majority from ignoring them.
7.10. Idiosyncrasy credits explain why leniency is extended to minority dissenters who are seen as eclectic
      and free spirited, and therefore not a threat to the group.
7.11. Correlation is the process over time where group members’ opinions converge on issues both discussed
      and not discussed.
7.12. If Bob decides to conform after seeing the group react negatively to another member diverging from
      the norm, Bob has succumbed to informational influence.
7.13. Evidence driven juries tend to make a decision on guilt or innocence only after hearing all the facts in a
      case.
7.14. Hung juries are juries that vote to sentence a defendant to death.
7.15. Decreasing jury size to reduce the chances of dissent is a way to improve the jury system and increase
      its fairness.
7.16. The Crutchfield apparatus measures the heart rate and biorhythms of individuals as they conform.
7.17. The false consensus effect occurs when perceivers assume that their personal qualities and
      characteristics generalize to the whole group.
7.18. In most cases a deviant within a group is ostracized and totally ignored.
7.19. One reason large groups tend to not be as helpful to those in need is that individuals within the group
      feel a diffusion of responsibility.
7.20. The benefit of juries is that juries do not have biases and are more impartial than judges.




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 Chapter 7                                                                                             Influence

                                               Essay Questions

7.1. Summarize the methods used and results obtained by Asch in his studies of conformity.
7.2. You know that Edgar disagrees with your decision to support plan A over plan B, and you plan to meet
     with him and several other members of the work team to discuss the plans. How will you structure the
     meeting to maximize the chances that Edgar with give in to your demands?
7.3. Define and contrast compliance and conversion. How does majority and minority influence relate to
     compliance and conversion?
7.4. Harry is meeting with his group and all the other members share an opinion that he does not agree
     with. Harry argues his position and the group tries to change his mind. Name at least 4 possible
     different ways in which Harry can react to the group’s pressure.
7.5. Drawing on studies of cultural factors, eras, gender, and personality, explain your personal tendency to
     conform or to remain independent.
7.6. Is the pressure to conform the same or different in computer groups? What do researchers believe is
     behind these similarities or differences?
7.7. Summarize the methods used and the results obtained by Moscovici in his studies of minority influence.
7.8. Using the concept of idiosyncrasy credits, explain how groups would react to a a) deviant: b) leader, c)
     older member, and d) new member.
7.9. Compare majority influence to minority influence.
7.10. Illustrate, through a hypothetical example, these four tendencies documented by Latané and his
      colleagues in their studies of social impact: consolidation, clustering, correlation, and continuing
      diversity.
7.11. Explain the dual process theory of influence. How does it relate to informational influence? Provide two
      different examples using dual process theories of influence.
7.12. How does the size of a group affect out willingness to help? Name three factors influence our decision
      to help. What advice do you suggest to remedy the situation?
7.13. Which source of group influence best explains why we don’t cut in line, interrupt other people who are
      speaking, or invade people’s personal space? In what ways does this source of influence differ from
      the others?
7.14. Draw on Schachter's study of people's reactions to deviation to explain what happens in a group when
      one of the members disagrees with the others.
7.15. In the play and movie Twelve Angry Men, one juror persuades all the others to change their verdicts.
      Draw on studies of social influence to explain how juries make decisions, and when an outcome like
      that described in Twelve Angry Men is likely to occur.
7.16. What is the relationship between the size of the majority and minority and conformity rates?
7.17. How does Moscovici’s view of minority influence differ from Hollander’s? Do they differ in terms of
      actual influence?
7.18. Describe the Crutchfield apparatus. What was the purpose behind its use? How does it relate to Asch’s
      conformity studies?
7.19. Compare and contrast information, normative, and interpersonal influence, and give an example of
      each.
7.20. How does modifying jury size affect a jury’s decision? Identify at least 3 areas in which the jury is
      changed.




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