20070803_123358_04-Link Layer Protocol Operation_208219_1285_0

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					Operation Manual – Link Layer Protocol
Comware V3                                                                                                               Table of Contents




                                              Table of Contents

Chapter 1 PPP and MP Configuration ......................................................................................... 1-1
      1.1 Introduction to PPP and MP .............................................................................................. 1-1
            1.1.1 PPP ......................................................................................................................... 1-1
            1.1.2 Introduction to MP ................................................................................................... 1-3
      1.2 Configuring PPP ................................................................................................................ 1-3
            1.2.1 Configuring PPP Encapsulation on the Interface.................................................... 1-4
            1.2.2 Configuring the Polling Interval ............................................................................... 1-4
            1.2.3 Configuring PPP Authentication Mode and Username and User Password .......... 1-4
            1.2.4 Configuring PPP Negotiation Timeout Interval ....................................................... 1-8
            1.2.5 Negotiating IP address using PPP .......................................................................... 1-8
            1.2.6 Negotiating an DNS Address through PPP........................................................... 1-12
            1.2.7 Configuring PPP Link Quality Control ................................................................... 1-13
            1.2.8 Configuring PPP LCP to Negotiate MRU.............................................................. 1-14
            1.2.9 Configuring PPP Negotiation Waiting Time .......................................................... 1-14
      1.3 Configuring MP ................................................................................................................ 1-15
            1.3.1 Configuring MP on a Virtual Template Interface ................................................... 1-16
            1.3.2 Configuring MP on an MP-Group Interface........................................................... 1-21
            1.3.3 Configuring the Size of the MP Sort Window........................................................ 1-21
      1.4 Configuring PPP Link Efficiency Mechanism................................................................... 1-22
            1.4.1 Configuring IPHC .................................................................................................. 1-24
            1.4.2 Configuring PPP Stac LZS Compression ............................................................. 1-25
            1.4.3 Configuring VJ TCP Header Compression for PPP Packets................................ 1-26
            1.4.4 Configuring Link Fragmentation and Interleaving on PPP .................................... 1-26
            1.4.5 Configuring PPP Bottom Traffic Monitoring .......................................................... 1-27
      1.5 Displaying and Debugging PPP/MP/PPP Link Efficiency Mechanisms .......................... 1-27
      1.6 PPP and MP Configuration Examples ............................................................................. 1-29
            1.6.1 PAP Authentication ............................................................................................... 1-29
            1.6.2 Unidirectional CHAP Authentication ..................................................................... 1-29
            1.6.3 Bidirectional CHAP Authentication........................................................................ 1-31
            1.6.4 PPP Negotiation Waiting Time Configuration ....................................................... 1-32
            1.6.5 MP Configuration................................................................................................... 1-33
            1.6.6 Three Types of MP Binding Mode......................................................................... 1-35
      1.7 Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................... 1-44

Chapter 2 PPPoE Configuration .................................................................................................. 2-1
      2.1 Introduction to PPPoE ....................................................................................................... 2-1
      2.2 PPPoE Server Configuration ............................................................................................. 2-2
            2.2.1 Creating a Virtual Template .................................................................................... 2-3



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            2.2.2 Enabling/Disabling PPPoE Server .......................................................................... 2-3
            2.2.3 Configuring PPPoE Server Parameters.................................................................. 2-4
            2.2.4 Configuring PPPoE User Authentication................................................................. 2-5
      2.3 Configuring PPPoE Client.................................................................................................. 2-5
            2.3.1 Configuring a Dialer Interface ................................................................................. 2-5
            2.3.2 Configuring a PPPoE Session ................................................................................ 2-6
            2.3.3 Enabling/Disabling the PPPoE Server to Output PPP-Related Log ....................... 2-7
            2.3.4 Resetting/Deleting a PPPoE Session ..................................................................... 2-7
      2.4 Displaying and Debugging PPPoE .................................................................................... 2-8
      2.5 PPPoE Configuration Example.......................................................................................... 2-8
            2.5.1 Configuring PPPoE Server...................................................................................... 2-8
            2.5.2 Configuring PPPoE Client ..................................................................................... 2-10
            2.5.3 Connecting a LAN to the Internet via ADSL Modem............................................. 2-12
            2.5.4 Using ADSL for Line Backup................................................................................. 2-14
            2.5.5 Accessing the Internet through an ADSL Interface............................................... 2-15

Chapter 3 ISDN Configuration...................................................................................................... 3-1
      3.1 Introduction to ISDN .......................................................................................................... 3-1
      3.2 Configuring ISDN ............................................................................................................... 3-2
            3.2.1 Setting ISDN Protocol Mode ................................................................................... 3-3
            3.2.2 Setting ISDN Protocol Type .................................................................................... 3-3
            3.2.3 Enabling the Q.921 Permanent Link Function ........................................................ 3-4
            3.2.4 Configuring the Negotiation Parameters of ISDN Layer 3 Protocol........................ 3-4
            3.2.5 Configuring the SPID of the ISDN NI Protocol........................................................ 3-6
            3.2.6 Setting the Called Number or Sub-Address to Be Checked During a Digital Incoming
            Call ................................................................................................................................... 3-7
            3.2.7 Configuring to Send Calling Number During an Outgoing Call............................... 3-7
            3.2.8 Setting the Local Management ISDN B Channel.................................................... 3-8
            3.2.9 Configuring ISDN B Channel Selection Mode ........................................................ 3-8
            3.2.10 Configuring the Sliding Window Size on the PRI Interface................................... 3-9
            3.2.11 Configuring Statistics about ISDN Message Receiving/Sending.......................... 3-9
            3.2.12 Configuring to Check the Calling Number When an Incoming Call Comes........ 3-10
            3.2.13 Configuring ISDN User Local Authentication ...................................................... 3-10
            3.2.14 Configuring TEI Treatment on the BRI Interface................................................. 3-11
            3.2.15 Configuring ISDN Deactivation Method .............................................................. 3-11
            3.2.16 Using C-DCC for ISDN BRI Leased Line............................................................ 3-11
            3.2.17 Configuring ISDN BRI Leased Line..................................................................... 3-12
            3.2.18 Configuring Transparent Transmission of Q.931 Related Information Element
            Through H.323 ............................................................................................................... 3-13
            3.2.19 Testing the ISDN Data Call Link Establishment.................................................. 3-13
      3.3 Displaying and Debugging ISDN ..................................................................................... 3-13
      3.4 ISDN Configuration Example........................................................................................... 3-14
            3.4.1 Connecting Routers through ISDN PRI Lines....................................................... 3-14


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            3.4.2 Connecting Routers through ISDN BRI Lines Running NI.................................... 3-15
            3.4.3 Transmitting Voice over ISDN BRI Line and Transit Network .............................. 3-16
            3.4.4 Data Transmission over ISDN PRI Leased Line Configuration Example ............. 3-18
            3.4.5 Transmitting Voice over ISDN BSV Line and Transit Network ............................. 3-21
            3.4.6 Using ISDN BRI Leased Line to Implement MP Bundling .................................... 3-22
            3.4.7 Configuring ISDN 128K Leased Lines .................................................................. 3-23
            3.4.8 Using ISDN Leased Line without Dial-up.............................................................. 3-26
            3.4.9 Interoperating with DMS100 Switches .................................................................. 3-26
            3.4.10 Configuring Transparent Transmission for Q.931 Information Element ............. 3-28
      3.5 Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................... 3-31

Chapter 4 SLIP Configuration ...................................................................................................... 4-1
      4.1 Introduction to SLIP ........................................................................................................... 4-1
      4.2 Configuring SLIP................................................................................................................ 4-1
            4.2.1 Configuring Synchronous/Asynchronous Interface to Work in Asynchronous Mode ...... 4-1
            4.2.2 Encapsulating the Interface with the Link Layer Protocol SLIP .............................. 4-1
      4.3 Displaying and Debugging SLIP ........................................................................................ 4-2

Chapter 5 HDLC Configuration .................................................................................................... 5-1
      5.1 Introduction to HDLC ......................................................................................................... 5-1
      5.2 Configuring HDLC.............................................................................................................. 5-1
            5.2.1 Encapsulating Interface with HDLC Protocol .......................................................... 5-1
            5.2.2 Setting the Polling Interval ...................................................................................... 5-1

Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration......................................................................................... 6-1
      6.1 Introduction to the Frame Relay Protocol .......................................................................... 6-1
      6.2 Configuring Frame Relay................................................................................................... 6-2
            6.2.1 Configuring Data Link Protocol of Interface as Frame Relay.................................. 6-3
            6.2.2 Configuring Frame Relay Terminal Type ................................................................ 6-3
            6.2.3 Configuring Frame Relay LMI Type ........................................................................ 6-4
            6.2.4 Configuring Frame Relay Protocol Parameters ...................................................... 6-4
            6.2.5 Configuring Frame Relay Address Mapping ........................................................... 6-6
            6.2.6 Configuring Frame Relay Local Virtual Circuit ........................................................ 6-8
            6.2.7 Configuring Frame Relay PVC Switching ............................................................... 6-9
            6.2.8 Configuring Frame Relay Subinterface................................................................. 6-10
            6.2.9 Configuring Frame Relay over IP Network ........................................................... 6-12
            6.2.10 Carrying X.25 over Frame Relay......................................................................... 6-13
            6.2.11 Configuring Send Redirection ............................................................................. 6-14
      6.3 Displaying and Debugging Frame Relay ......................................................................... 6-15
      6.4 Frame Relay Configuration Examples ............................................................................. 6-17
            6.4.1 Interconnecting LANs via Frame Relay Network .................................................. 6-17
            6.4.2 Interconnecting LANs via Dedicated Line ............................................................. 6-19
            6.4.3 IPX over FR Configuration Example ..................................................................... 6-20
            6.4.4 X.25 over FR PVC Configuration Example ........................................................... 6-22



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           6.4.5 X.25 over Frame Relay PVC Configuration Example ........................................... 6-24
     6.5 Troubleshooting Frame Relay ......................................................................................... 6-27
     6.6 FR PVC Group Support ................................................................................................... 6-27
           6.6.1 Introduction to FR PVC Group Support ................................................................ 6-27
           6.6.2 Basic Concepts for FR PVC Group Support ......................................................... 6-28
           6.6.3 FR PVC Group Support Mechanism ..................................................................... 6-29
           6.6.4 Configuring FR PVC Group Support ..................................................................... 6-30
     6.7 FR PVC Group Support Configuration Examples............................................................ 6-33
           6.7.1 Differentiating IP Packets by Precedence on an FR Network .............................. 6-33
           6.7.2 Differentiating IP Packets by DSCP on an FR Network........................................ 6-35
           6.7.3 Differentiating MPLS Packets by EXP on an FR Network .................................... 6-37
     6.8 Multilink Frame Relay Overview ...................................................................................... 6-39
     6.9 MFR Configuration........................................................................................................... 6-40
           6.9.1 Creating an MFR Interface.................................................................................... 6-41
           6.9.2 Configuring MFR Bundle Identifier ........................................................................ 6-41
           6.9.3 Configuring MFR Fragmentation........................................................................... 6-42
           6.9.4 Configuring Size of MFR Sliding Window ............................................................. 6-42
           6.9.5 Configuring Fragment Size ................................................................................... 6-43
           6.9.6 Adding MFR Bundle Link ...................................................................................... 6-43
           6.9.7 Configuring MFR Bundle Link Identifier ................................................................ 6-44
           6.9.8 Configuring Hello Packet Parameters of MFR Bundle Link .................................. 6-44
     6.10 Displaying and Debugging MFR .................................................................................... 6-45
     6.11 MFR Configuration Example.......................................................................................... 6-45
           6.11.1 MFR Direct Connection Configuration Example ................................................. 6-45
           6.11.2 MFR Switched Connection Configuration Example ............................................ 6-46
     6.12 PPPoFR/MPoFR Configuration ..................................................................................... 6-48
           6.12.1 Configuring PPPoFR........................................................................................... 6-48
           6.12.2 Configuring MPoFR............................................................................................. 6-49
           6.12.3 PPPoFR Display and Debugging ........................................................................ 6-50
           6.12.4 Enabling/Disabling VJ Compression for TCP/IP Headers .................................. 6-50
           6.12.5 Basic PPPoFR Configuration Example............................................................... 6-51
     6.13 Frame Relay Compression ............................................................................................ 6-52
           6.13.1 Introduction to Frame Relay Compression ......................................................... 6-52
           6.13.2 Configuring FRF.9 Compression......................................................................... 6-53
           6.13.3 Configuring FRF.20 Compression....................................................................... 6-54
           6.13.4 Displaying and Debugging Frame Relay Compression ...................................... 6-54
           6.13.5 FRF.9 Compression Configuration Example ...................................................... 6-55
           6.13.6 FRF.20 Compression Configuration Example .................................................... 6-56
     6.14 FRoI Configuration......................................................................................................... 6-57
           6.14.1 Configuring FRoI with C-DCC ............................................................................. 6-58
           6.14.2 Configuring FRoI with RS-DCC........................................................................... 6-60
           6.14.3 FRoI Configuration Example (with C-DCC) ........................................................ 6-61



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            6.14.4 FRoI Configuration Example (with RS-DCC) ...................................................... 6-64
            6.14.5 FRoI Dial Backup Configuration Example........................................................... 6-66

Chapter 7 ATM Configuration ...................................................................................................... 7-1
      7.1 Introduction to ATM Technology........................................................................................ 7-1
      7.2 Overview of IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA and PPPoEoA Applications ...................................... 7-2
      7.3 Introduction to ATM Transparent Cell Transport ............................................................... 7-5
            7.3.1 Operation Mechanism for ATM Transparent Cell Transport................................... 7-5
            7.3.2 Packet Format for ATM Transparent Cell Transport............................................... 7-6
            7.3.3 Related Specifications............................................................................................. 7-9
      7.4 Configuring ATM ................................................................................................................ 7-9
            7.4.1 Configuring ATM Interface ...................................................................................... 7-9
            7.4.2 Customizing ATM Interface................................................................................... 7-10
            7.4.3 Configuring PVC.................................................................................................... 7-11
            7.4.4 Assigning a Transmit Priority to an ATM PVC ...................................................... 7-12
            7.4.5 Configuring ATM-Class ......................................................................................... 7-13
            7.4.6 Setting VP Policing................................................................................................ 7-13
            7.4.7 Configuring IPoA ................................................................................................... 7-14
            7.4.8 Configuring IPoEoA............................................................................................... 7-14
            7.4.9 Configuring Permanent Online PPPoA ................................................................. 7-15
            7.4.10 Configuring PPPoA on Demand.......................................................................... 7-15
            7.4.11 Configuring PPPoEoA......................................................................................... 7-17
            7.4.12 Checking Existence of PVCs when Determining the Protocol State of an ATM P2P
            Subinterface ................................................................................................................... 7-17
            7.4.13 Configuring Routed Bridge.................................................................................. 7-18
            7.4.14 Configuring ATM to Work in Transparent Cell Transport Mode.......................... 7-18
            7.4.15 Configuring the Number of Cells to Be Encapsulated for Transparent Cell Transport
            Mode .............................................................................................................................. 7-19
            7.4.16 Configuring the Maximum Time Between Cell Encapsulations for Transparent Cell
            Transport Mode .............................................................................................................. 7-20
            7.4.17 Creating a PVP in ATM Transparent Cell Transport Mode................................. 7-20
            7.4.18 Configuring ATM PVC Group Support ................................................................ 7-21
            7.4.19 Configuring the Function of Forwarding Broadcast Packets............................... 7-24
      7.5 Displaying and Debugging ATM ...................................................................................... 7-24
      7.6 Typical ATM Configuration Examples.............................................................................. 7-25
            7.6.1 Typical IPoA Configuration Example .................................................................... 7-25
            7.6.2 Typical IPoEoA Configuration Example ................................................................ 7-27
            7.6.3 Permanent Online PPPoA Configuration Example ............................................... 7-28
            7.6.4 PPPoA on Demand Configuration Example ......................................................... 7-30
            7.6.5 PPPoEoA Server Configuration Example ............................................................. 7-33
            7.6.6 PPPoEoA Client Configuration Example .............................................................. 7-34
            7.6.7 ATM Routed Bridge Configuration Example ......................................................... 7-37
            7.6.8 ATM PVC Transmit Priority Configuration Example ............................................. 7-38


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           7.6.9 ATM Transparent Cell Transport........................................................................... 7-39
           7.6.10 Traffic Classification Based on DSCP of IP Packets .......................................... 7-40
           7.6.11 Traffic Classification Based on EXP of MPLS Packets....................................... 7-42
     7.7 Troubleshooting ATM ...................................................................................................... 7-44

Chapter 8 X.25 and LAPB Configurations .................................................................................. 8-1
     8.1 Introduction to X.25 and LAPB Protocols .......................................................................... 8-1
     8.2 Configuring LAPB .............................................................................................................. 8-3
           8.2.1 Configuring LAPB Encapsulation on the Interface.................................................. 8-4
           8.2.2 Configuring LAPB Parameters ................................................................................ 8-4
           8.2.3 Configuring LAPB to Send SABM Requests even if the Peer Does not Respond.......... 8-6
     8.3 Configuring X.25 ................................................................................................................ 8-7
           8.3.1 Configuring X.25 Interface ...................................................................................... 8-7
           8.3.2 Configuring X.25 Interface Supplementary Parameter ......................................... 8-13
           8.3.3 Configuring X.25 Datagram Transmission ............................................................ 8-18
           8.3.4 Configuring Additional Parameters for X.25 Datagram Transmission .................. 8-20
           8.3.5 Configuring X.25 Subinterface .............................................................................. 8-25
           8.3.6 Configuring X.25 Switching ................................................................................... 8-26
           8.3.7 Configuring X.25 Load Sharing ............................................................................. 8-28
           8.3.8 Configuring X.25 Closed User Group.................................................................... 8-32
           8.3.9 Enabling/Disabling X.25 Flow Control Parameter Negotiation ............................. 8-35
     8.4 Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT) ................................................................................... 8-36
           8.4.1 Introduction to XOT Protocol................................................................................. 8-36
           8.4.2 XOT Configuration ................................................................................................ 8-37
     8.5 X2T Configuration ............................................................................................................ 8-40
           8.5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................ 8-40
           8.5.2 X2T Configuration ................................................................................................. 8-41
     8.6 Displaying and Debugging LAPB and X.25 ..................................................................... 8-43
     8.7 X.25 PAD Remote Access Service.................................................................................. 8-45
           8.7.1 Introduction to X.25 PAD....................................................................................... 8-45
           8.7.2 Configuring X.25 PAD ........................................................................................... 8-46
           8.7.3 Displaying and Debugging X.25 PAD ................................................................... 8-47
           8.7.4 Troubleshooting X.25 PAD.................................................................................... 8-47
     8.8 LAPB Configuration Example .......................................................................................... 8-48
     8.9 X.25 Configuration Example ............................................................................................ 8-49
           8.9.1 Direct Back-to-Back Connection of Two Routers via Serial Interfaces................. 8-49
           8.9.2 Connecting the Router to X.25 Public Packet Network......................................... 8-50
           8.9.3 Configuring VC Range .......................................................................................... 8-52
           8.9.4 Transmitting IP Datagrams via X.25 PVC............................................................. 8-52
           8.9.5 X.25 Subinterface Configuration Example ............................................................ 8-54
           8.9.6 SVC Application of XOT........................................................................................ 8-56
           8.9.7 DNS-Based XOT ................................................................................................... 8-57
           8.9.8 PVC Application of XOT........................................................................................ 8-60


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            8.9.9 X.25 Load Sharing Application.............................................................................. 8-62
            8.9.10 Implementing X.25 Load Sharing Function for IP Datagram Transmission........ 8-64
            8.9.11 TCP/IP Header Compression Protocol Application............................................. 8-66
            8.9.12 X.25 PAD Configuration Example I ..................................................................... 8-67
            8.9.13 X.25 PAD Configuration Example II .................................................................... 8-68
      8.10 X2T Configuration Example........................................................................................... 8-70
            8.10.1 X2T SVC Configuration Example........................................................................ 8-70
            8.10.2 X2T PVC Configuration Example........................................................................ 8-71
      8.11 LAPB Troubleshooting................................................................................................... 8-72
      8.12 X.25 Troubleshooting..................................................................................................... 8-72

Chapter 9 Bridge Configuration................................................................................................... 9-1
      9.1 Introduction to Bridge......................................................................................................... 9-1
            9.1.1 Main Functions of Bridging...................................................................................... 9-1
            9.1.2 Spanning Tree Protocol .......................................................................................... 9-7
            9.1.3 Multi-Protocol Router ............................................................................................ 9-10
            9.1.4 VLAN ID Transparent Transmission ..................................................................... 9-10
      9.2 Configuring the Bridging Functions.................................................................................. 9-10
            9.2.1 Basic Bridge Configuration.................................................................................... 9-11
            9.2.2 Configuring Bridging over Link Layer Protocols.................................................... 9-12
            9.2.3 Configuring the Bridging Address Table ............................................................... 9-15
            9.2.4 Configuring the Bridge to Support STP................................................................. 9-16
            9.2.5 Creating and Applying Bridging ACLs................................................................... 9-20
            9.2.6 Configuring the Routing Function of the Bridge .................................................... 9-22
      9.3 Displaying and Debugging Bridging Information ............................................................. 9-24
      9.4 Transparent Bridging Configuration Examples................................................................ 9-25
            9.4.1 Transparent Bridging on PPP ............................................................................... 9-25
            9.4.2 Transparent Bridging on MP ................................................................................. 9-26
            9.4.3 Transparent Bridging on Frame Relay.................................................................. 9-28
            9.4.4 Transparent Bridging on X.25 ............................................................................... 9-29
            9.4.5 Transparent Bridging on ATM ............................................................................... 9-29
            9.4.6 Implementing Integrated Routing and Bridging..................................................... 9-30
            9.4.7 Bridging on Ethernet Subinterfaces ...................................................................... 9-31
            9.4.8 Bridging on FR Subinterfaces ............................................................................... 9-33
            9.4.9 Bridging on Dial Interface and Filtering MAC Address.......................................... 9-34
            9.4.10 VLAN ID Transparent Transmission Configuration Example.............................. 9-37
      9.5 Ethernet Type-Code Values ............................................................................................ 9-38




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             Chapter 1 PPP and MP Configuration

1.1 Introduction to PPP and MP
1.1.1 PPP

             Point-to-point protocol (PPP) is a link layer protocol that carries network layer packets
             over point-to-point links. It has found wide application because it can provide user
             authentication, support synchronous/asynchronous communication, and can be
             extended easily.
             PPP defines a complete suite of control protocols:
                  Link control protocol (LCP), responsible for establishing, removing and monitoring
                  data links.
                  Network control protocol (NCP), used to negotiate the format and type of the
                  packets over data links.
                  Authentication protocol suite used for network security, including password
                  authentication protocol (PAP) and challenge handshake authentication protocol
                  (CHAP).

           I. PPP authentication

             1)   PAP authentication
             PAP is a two-way handshake authentication protocol operating as follows:
                  The requester sends its username and password to the authenticating party.
                  The authenticator will check if the username and password are correct according
                  to local user list and then return different responses (Acknowledge or Not
                  Acknowledge).
             2)   CHAP authentication
             Challenge-handshake authentication protocol (CHAP) is a three-way handshake
             authentication protocol operating as follows:
                  The authenticator actively initiates an authentication request by sending a
                  randomly generated packet (Challenge) carrying its own username to the
                  authenticatee.
                  When the authenticatee receives the authentication request, it looks for the
                  password according to the username in the packet. If the ppp chap password
                  command is configured on the receiving interface, the authenticatee uses the
                  password set by the command. If not, it looks up its local user database for a
                  match. After finding a match, the authenticatee encrypts this packet with packet ID,
                  password and the MD5 algorithm; and then sends back a Response carrying the
                  generated ciphertext and its own username.


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                  After receiving the Response, the authenticator looks up its local user database for
                  a match according to the username of the authenticatee in the Response. When a
                  match is found, it encrypts the original randomly generated packet with the
                  authenticatee password and the MD5 algorithm, compares the encryption result
                  with the received ciphertext, and returns an Acknowledge or Not Acknowledge
                  packet depending on the comparison result.

                             Authenticator
                                                                               Authenticatee
                           Router1, pass1                                     Router2, pass2



                    Initiate an
                    authentication       Randomly gene
                                                      rated packet
                     request                                                           Look for the matched password
                                                                   packet
                                                         generated                     and encrypt the packet
                                                randomly
                                     Encry pted
              Encrypt the packet                            Ack or Not Ac k
              with the password
              of Router 2

             Figure 1-1 CHAP Authentication


           II. Operating mechanism of PPP

             Following is how PPP operates:
             1)   Before setting up a PPP link, enter the Establish phase.
             2)   Carry out LCP negotiation in the Establish phase, which includes the negotiation in
                  operating mode (SP or MP), authentication mode and maximum receive unit
                  (MRU). If the negotiation is successful, LCP will enter the Opened status,
                  indicating the setup of the bottom layer link.
             3)   If the authentication (the remote verifies the local or the local verifies the remote) is
                  configured, it enters the Authenticate phase and starts the CHAP/PAP
                  authentication.
             4)   If the authentication fails, it will enter the Terminate phase to remove the link and
                  the LCP will go down. If the authentication succeeds, it will proceed to start the
                  network negotiation (NCP). In this case, the LCP state is still opened, while the
                  state of IP control protocol (IPCP) is changed from Initial to Request.
             5)   NCP negotiation supports the negotiation of IPCP, which primarily refers to the
                  negotiation of the IP addresses of the two parties. NCP negotiation is conducted
                  for the purpose of selecting and configuring a network layer protocol. Only the
                  network layer protocol that has been agreed upon by the two parties in the NCP
                  negotiation can send packets over the PPP link.
             6)   The PPP link will remain for communications until an explicit LCP or NCP frame
                  close it or some external events take place (for example, the intervention of the
                  user).




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                           UP                        OPENED
                 Dead               Establish                        Authenticate

                             FAIL                             FAIL

                                                                           SUCCESS/NONE

                         DOWN                                 CLOSING
                                    Terminate                               Network


             Figure 1-2 PPP operation flow chart


             For the details of PPP, refer to RFC 1661.

1.1.2 Introduction to MP

             Multilink PPP (MP) provides an approach to increasing bandwidth. It allows multiple
             PPP links to form an MP bundle. After receiving a packet, MP segments (in case the
             packet is large) and distributes it over multiple PPP links in a bundle on a segment by
             segment basis. The receiving MP then assembles these segments and passes the
             resulted packet to the network layer.
             MP functions to:
                  Increase bandwidth, or dynamically increase/reduce bandwidth in combination
                  with DCC
                  Load sharing
                  Backup
                  Decrease transmission delay due to the use of fragmentation
             MP can work on any physical or virtual interfaces with PPP encapsulation, such as
             serial, ISDN BRI/PRI, and PPPoX (PPPoE, PPPoA, or PPPoFR). However, a multilink
             bundle is preferred to include only one type of interface.


1.2 Configuring PPP
             Fundamental PPP configuration tasks include:
                  Configure the data link protocol encapsulated on the interface to be PPP
                  Configure the polling interval
                  Configure PPP authentication mode, user name and user password
             Advanced PPP configuration tasks include:
                  Configure PPP negotiation parameters
                  Configure PPP link quality control (LQC)
             The fundamental configuration is the parameter setting that must be performed for
             running PPP on the router, whereas the advanced configurations are the options that
             can be configured as needed.


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1.2.1 Configuring PPP Encapsulation on the Interface

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-1 Configure PPP encapsulation on the interface

                                      Operation                                   Command
               Configure PPP encapsulation on the interface.             link-protocol ppp



             The link layer protocol encapsulated on the serial, Dialer and virtual template interfaces
             defaults to PPP.

1.2.2 Configuring the Polling Interval

             Data link protocols such as PPP, MP and HDLC use a timer to monitor the status of the
             link periodically. You are recommended to set the same polling interval at the two ends
             of the link.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-2 Configure polling interval on the interface

                                Operation                                   Command
               Set the polling interval.                   timer hold seconds
               Reset polling interval                      undo timer hold



             The polling interval defaults to 10 seconds. The cyclic polling operation will be closed if
             the polling interval is set to 0.
             Elongate this time to prevent net fluctuation for long-delay and high-congestion
             network.

1.2.3 Configuring PPP Authentication Mode and Username and User
Password

             The local and the peer support both CHAP and PAP authentication approaches
             between them. The configuration procedures in both approaches will be described in
             the following subsections. This chapter only discusses local authentication. For
             information about the remote AAA authentication, refer to the part relating to security in
             this manual.




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           I. Configuring the local router to authenticate the peer using PAP

             Table 1-3 Configure the local router to authenticate the peer with the PAP approach

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure the local to authenticate the     ppp authentication-mode pap
               peer in PAP mode (in interface view).       [ [ call-in ] domain isp-name]
               Disable the configured PPP
               authentication mode, i.e. performing no     undo ppp authentication-mode
               PPP authentication (in interface view).
               Create a local user and enter the
                                                           local-user username
               corresponding view (in system view)
               Configure the password for the local
                                                           password { simple | cipher } password
               user (in local user view)
               Cancel the password of the local user (in
                                                           undo password
               local user view)
               Set the callback and caller number          service-type ppp [ callback-number
               attributes of the PPP user (in local user   callback-number | call-number
               view)                                       call-number [ :subcall-number ] ]
               Restore the default callback and caller
                                                           undo service-type ppp
               number attributes of the PPP user (in
                                                           [ callback-number | call-number ]
               local user view)
               Create an ISP domain or enter the view      domain { isp-name | default { disable |
               of a created domain (in system view)        enable isp-name } }
               Configure the user in the domain to use
               the local authentication scheme (in         scheme local
               domain view)



             By default, PPP authentication is disabled.
             If you configure the ppp authentication-mode { pap | chap } command without
             specifying a domain, the system-default domain named system applies by default,
             using local authentication and the address pool you configured for this domain for
             address allocation. If a domain is specified, you must configure an address pool in the
             specified domain.
             If a received username includes a domain name, this domain name is used for
             authentication (if the name does not exist, authentication is denied). Otherwise, the
             domain name configured for PPP authentication applies.
             If the username does not include a domain name, and the domain name configured for
             PPP authentication does not exist, authentication is denied.
             For authentication on a dial interface, you are recommended to configure
             authentication on both the physical interface and the dialer interface. When the
             physical interface receives a DCC call request, it first initiates PPP negotiation and
             authenticates the dial-in user, and then passes the call to the upper layer protocol.


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           II. Configuring the local router to authenticate the peer using CHAP

             Table 1-4 Configure the local router to authenticate the peer with the CHAP approach

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure the local to authenticate the     ppp authentication-mode chap
               peer in CHAP mode (in interface view)       [ [ call-in ] domain isp-name]
               Disable the configured PPP
               authentication, i.e. performing no PPP      undo ppp authentication-mode
               authentication (in interface view)
               Configure the local username (in
                                                           ppp chap user username
               interface view)
               Delete the configured local username (in
                                                           undo ppp chap user
               interface view)
               Create a local user and enter the
                                                           local-user username
               corresponding view (in system view)
               Configure the password for the local
                                                           password { simple | cipher } password
               user (in local user view)
               Cancel the password of the local user (in
                                                           undo password
               local user view)
               Set the callback and caller number          service-type ppp [ callback-number
               attributes of the PPP user (in local user   callback-number | call-number
               view)                                       call-number [ :subcall-number ] ]
               Restore the default callback and caller
                                                           undo service-type ppp
               number attributes of the PPP user (in
                                                           [ callback-number | call-number ]
               local user view)
               Create an ISP domain or enter the view      domain { isp-name | default { disable |
               of a created domain (in system view)        enable isp-name } }
               Configure the user in the domain to use
               the local authentication scheme (in         scheme local
               domain view)



             For CHAP authentication, the non-domain username configured by the local-user
             command must have the same length with the username configured by the ppp chap
             user command; otherwise, the authentication is denied because of failing to finding a
             corresponding user on the server.
             For CHAP authentication, if the authenticatee does not use the ppp chap user
             command to configure the username, the system uses the default name “H3C”.
             By default, PPP authentication is disabled.
             For authentication on a dial interface, you are recommended to configure
             authentication on both the physical interface and the dialer interface. When the
             physical interface receives a DCC call request, it first initiates PPP negotiation and
             authenticates the dial-in user, and then passes the call to the upper layer protocol.


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           III. Configuring the local to be authenticated by the peer using PAP

             Table 1-5 Configure the local to be authenticated by the peer with the PAP approach

                              Operation                                    Command
               Configure PAP username and password
                                                            ppp pap local-user username
               that the local will send when
                                                            password { simple | cipher } password
               authenticated by the peer in PAP mode
               Delete the PAP username and password
               that the local will send when                undo ppp pap local-user
               authenticated by the peer in PAP mode



             By default, when the local router is authenticated by the peer in PAP mode, both
             username and password sent by the local router are null.

           IV. Configuring the local to be authenticated by the peer using CHAP

             Table 1-6 Configure the local to be authenticated by the peer with the CHAP approach

                              Operation                                    Command
               In system view create a local user and
                                                            local-user username
               enter its view
               In local user view set a password for the
                                                            password { simple | cipher } password
               local user
               In local user view remove the password
                                                            undo password
               of the local user
               Configure the name of the local end          ppp chap user username
               Delete the configured name of the local      undo ppp chap user
               Configure a CHAP authentication              ppp chap password { simple | cipher }
               password.                                    password
               Delete the CHAP authentication
                                                            undo ppp chap password
               password



             In the above table, simple means to send password in plain text and cipher in
             ciphertext.
             By default, when the local router is authenticated by the peer in CHAP mode, both
             username and password sent by the local router are null.
             When configuring PPP CHAP, note the following:
                  At the authenticator end, create a local user entry for the authenticatee. Only the
                  password configured in local user view can be used for encryption.
                  At the authenticatee end, the password for CHAP authentication could be one set
                  by the ppp chap password command or one set in local user view, with the
                  former taking priority over the latter for encryption.


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                  With bidirectional authentication enabled, the authenticatee can use either the
                  password set by the ppp chap password command or the password set in local
                  user view if the same password is used for authentication; but if different
                  passwords are used, it can only use the one set by the ppp chap password
                  command.

1.2.4 Configuring PPP Negotiation Timeout Interval

             During PPP negotiation, if the response message of the peer is not received within this
             time interval, PPP will retransmit the message. The timeout interval ranges from 1 to 10
             seconds.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-7 Configure the time interval of PPP negotiation timeout

                                   Operation                                   Command
               Configure the time interval of negotiation timeout     ppp timer negotiate seconds
               Restore the default value of time interval of
                                                                      undo ppp timer negotiate
               negotiation timeout



             The timeout interval defaults to 3 seconds.

1.2.5 Negotiating IP address using PPP

           I. Configuring client

             Suppose PPP has been encapsulated on local and remote interfaces. If the local
             interface has no IP address while the remote interface has one, you may configure the
             local interface to allow it to negotiate an IP address using PPP and accept the IP
             address thus assigned by the remote interface. When accessing the Internet via an ISP,
             you may make this configuration to get an IP address from the ISP.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-8 Configure the interface to negotiate IP address using PPP

                              Operation                                    Command
               Configure the interface to negotiate IP
                                                           ip address ppp-negotiate
               address using PPP.
               Disable PPP negotiation.                    undo ip address ppp-negotiate



             By default, the IP address of interface is not negotiable.




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                    Caution:

                  You may configure an interface to obtain an IP address through negotiation only
                  when the interface is encapsulated with PPP. When PPP goes down, the IP address
                  obtained through PPP negotiation is deleted.
                  After you configure IP address negotiation on an interface that has been assigned
                  an IP address or configured with IP address negotiation, the original IP address is
                  deleted, whether it is manually assigned or obtained through PPP negotiation.
                  After you configure IP address negotiation on an interface, the interface can obtain
                  IP address automatically and you need not to assign it an IP address.
                  Once the IP address that an interface obtained through PPP negotiation is removed,
                  the interface will have no IP address.




           II. Configuring server

             When the router is functioning as the server to assign an IP address to a PPP user,
             three IP address assignment methods are available.
             1)    Method 1: Assign an IP address to the PPP user directly on the interface. This
                   method does not require the configuration of address pool.

             Table 1-9 Assign an IP address to a PPP user on the interface

                               Operation                                  Command
               Assign an IP address to the PPP user        remote address ip-address
               Disable the interface to assign IP
                                                           undo remote address
               addresses to PPP users



             By default, the interface does not assign IP address to its peer.
             2)    Method 2: Assign an IP address picked from a global address pool
             In this approach, you need to do the following:
                   Create a global address pool in system view.
                   Assign the address pool (only one is allowed) to the interface by executing the
                   remote address pool command in interface view.

             Table 1-10 Assign IP addresses picked from a global address pool

                                  Operation                                  Command
                                                                  ip pool pool-number
               Configure a global IP address pool
                                                                  low-ip-address [ high-ip-address ]
               Remove the global IP address pool                  undo ip pool pool-number



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                                  Operation                                  Command
               Assign the global address pool to an interface     remote address pool
               for address assignment to PPP users                [ pool-number ]
               Disable the interface to assign IP addresses to
                                                                   undo remote address
               PPP users



             By default, the interface does not assign IP address to the remote end. If the
             pool-number argument is not specified in the remote address pool command, the
             default global address pool, pool 0, is used.
             3)   Method 3: Assign an IP address picked from a domain address pool
             In this approach, you need to do the following:
                  Create a domain address pool in domain view.
                  Assign the domain address pool to the interface by executing the remote address
                  pool command in interface view. If this command is not configured, the system
                  looks up the address pools of the domain in turn to pick an address for the peer
                  during the authentication negotiation with the peer.

             Table 1-11 Use domain address pools for address assignment

                              Operation                                   Command
                                                             ip pool pool-number low-ip-address
               Configure a domain IP address pool
                                                             [ high-ip-address ]
               Remove the domain IP address pool             undo ip pool pool-number
               Assign the domain address pool to an
               interface for address assignment to PPP       remote address pool [ pool-number ]
               users
               Disable the interface to assign IP
                                                             undo remote address
               addresses to PPP users



             By default, the interface does not assign IP address to the remote end.




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                  Note:
             When both the remote address pool [ pool-number ] command and the remote
             address ip-address command are configured, the latter configured command will
             overwrite the first configured one.
             When you use the ip-pool command to define the global address pool or domain
             address pool, you cannot add the network and broadcast addresses into the address
             pool.



             To sum up, the system assigns an IP address to a PPP user following these rules:
             1)    For a domain user (userid or userid@isp-name)
             Address assignment depends on its authentication type, as shown in the following
             table.

             Table 1-12 Assign an address to a domain user

                   Authentication/
                                                           Address assignment
                  Authorization type
                                         1)   If the RADIUS or TACACS server issues an address,
                                              the router assigns this address to the domain user.
                                         2)   If the RADIUS or TACACS server issues a domain
                                              address pool instead of an address, the router picks
                                              an address from the pool.
                                         3)   If neither address nor domain address pool is issued,
                                              the router assigns an address to the user according to
                                              the configuration on the interface.
               RADIUS/TACACS             4)   If remote address ip-address is executed on the
                                              interface and the specified address has not been
                                              used, the router assigns this address to the user.
                                         5)   If remote address pool is executed on the interface,
                                              the router looks up the corresponding address pools
                                              of the domain for an address.
                                         6)   If no remote address is executed on the interface,
                                              the router looks up all the address pools of the domain
                                              for an address.
                                         The router looks up the address pools of the domain in
               Local
                                         turn and picks an address.



             2)    For a non-authenticated user
             The router assigns the address specified directly on the interface or an address picked
             from the global address pool assigned to the interface.
             The PPP user, however, does not necessarily accept the assigned address. Instead, it
             may choose to use a self-configured IP address.




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             To force the PPP user to accept the assigned address, perform the following command
             in interface view at the server end.

             Table 1-13 Enable/disable forced IP address assignment with PPP IPCP negotiation

                              Operation                                  Command
               Forbid the peer to use a self-configured
                                                           ppp ipcp remote-address forced
               fix IP address in PPP IPCP negotiation.
               Disable forced address assignment in
                                                           undo ppp ipcp remote-address forced
               PPP IPCP negotiation.



             By default, the PPP user can use its self-configured IP address in PPP IPCP
             negotiation. If the PPP user explicitly requests an address, this end acts as requested;
             if the peer already has a self-configured IP address, this end does not assign one to the
             peer.

1.2.6 Negotiating an DNS Address through PPP

             While negotiating PPP address, the router can negotiate DNS server address as a DNS
             server address provider or recipient, depending on the connected device.
             When a PC connects to the router using PPP, through dialup for example, the router, as
             the server, should allocate a DNS server address to the PC so that the PC can use its
             domain name to access the Internet.
             When connected using PPP to the network access server (NAS) of the service provider,
             the router, as the client, should be able to request the NAS for a DNS server address or
             accept the assigned DNS server address.
             1)   Configure the client end in DNS server address negotiation
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-14 Configure the client end in DNS server address negotiation

                              Operation                                  Command
               Enable the router to accept the
                                                           ppp ipcp dns admit-any
               unsolicited DNS server address
               Disable the router to accept the
                                                           undo ppp ipcp dns admit-any
               unsolicited DNS server address
               Enable the router to request for a DNS
                                                           ppp ipcp dns request
               server address
               Disable the router to request for a DNS
                                                           undo ppp ipcp dns request
               server address



             By default, DNS address negotiation is disabled.



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             2)   Configure the server end in DNS server address negotiation
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-15 Configure the server end in DNS server address negotiation

                              Operation                                  Command
               Enable the router to allocate a DNS        ppp ipcp dns primary-dns-address
               server address to the peer                 [ secondary-dns-address ]
               Disable the router to allocate a DNS
                                                          undo ppp ipcp dns
               server address to the peer



             By default, DNS address negotiation is disabled.
             The command is intended for the use with PPP, PPPoE, and MP and the interface view
             in which the command is configured varies with the adopted protocol.
                  At the client end, the command is configured in serial interface view for PPP, in
                  virtual template interface view for MP, and in dialer interface view for PPPoE.
                  At the server end, the command is configured in serial interface view for PPP, in
                  virtual template interface view for both MP and PPPoE.

1.2.7 Configuring PPP Link Quality Control

             You may use PPP link quality control (LQC) to monitor quality of PPP links including
             those in MP bundles. The system shuts down a link when its quality decreased below
             the forbidden-percentage and brings it up when its quality ameliorates exceeding the
             resumptive-percentage. When re-enabling the link, PPP LQC experiences a delay to
             avoid link flapping.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-16 Configure PPP link quality control

                     Operation                                  Command
               Enable PPP LQC            ppp lqc forbidden-percentage [ resumptive-percentage ]
               Disable PPP LQC           undo ppp lqc



             By default, the arguments resumptive-percentage and forbidden-percentage are equal.
             Note that before you enable LQC on the PPP interface, it sends keepalives to the peer
             regularly. After you enable LQC on the interface, it sends link quality reports (LQRs)
             instead for monitoring the link.
             When the quality of the link is normal, the system calculates link quality based on each
             LQR and shuts down the link if the results of two consecutive calculations are below the
             forbidden-percentage. After shutting down the link, the system calculates link quality
             every ten LQRs, and brings the link up again if the results of three consecutive

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             calculations are higher than the resumptive-percentage. That means a disabled link
             must experience 30 keepalive periods before it can go up again. If a large keepalive
             period is specified, it may take long time for the link to go up.

1.2.8 Configuring PPP LCP to Negotiate MRU

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-17 Enable PPP LCP to negotiate MRU

                              Operation                                     Command
               Configure PPP LCP to negotiate MRU           ppp lcp mru consistent
               Restore the default                          undo ppp lcp mru consistent



             By default, PPP LCP does not negotiate MRU; the local end modifies MTU depending
             on the remote MRU.
             After PPP LCP is enabled to negotiate MRU, the MRU value carried in the LCP
             CONREQ message received from the remote end cannot be less than the MTU value
             configured on the local interface. If a smaller MRU value is received, the local end
             sends a CONNAK message to the remote end. If the received MRU value is still smaller
             after the local end makes a specified number of CONNAK message sending attempts,
             the local end sends a CONREJ message to disable MRU negotiation. The MRU
             negotiation attempts made by the remote end after that will always fail.
             Normally, after PPP LCP negotiation succeeds, the MTU at the local end does not
             change as the remote MRU changes.

1.2.9 Configuring PPP Negotiation Waiting Time

             In the conventional implementation mechanism, the time when to perform PPP
             negotiation is not controllable. The local end sends an unsolicited LCP request to the
             remote end or responds to an LCP request from the remote end as soon as the
             corresponding interface turns to up.
             By configuring the PPP negotiation waiting time, the user can decide when to perform
             PPP negotiation, namely how long the local end should wait after the bottom layer
             reports the “up” state before sending an unsolicited LCP request or responding to a
             received LCP request. If PPP negotiation is to be reinitiated after a negotiation failure,
             the local end can immediately respond to a correct LCP CONREQ received before the
             renegotiation timer expires.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.




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             Table 1-18 Configure PPP negotiation waiting time

                              Operation                         Command                Description
                               Configure the time the   ppp lcp active-start wait
                               device waits before      { seconds [ milliseconds ]
                               sending an unsolicited   [ random max-seconds ] |       Optional
               Configure
               the PPP         LCP request              forever }                      By default,
               negotiation                                                             no waiting
                               Configure the time the                                  time is
               waiting time                             ppp lcp passive-start wait
                               device waits before                                     configured.
                                                        { seconds [ milliseconds ] |
                               responding to an LCP
                                                        forever }
                               request




1.3 Configuring MP
             You can configure MP by configuring virtual templates or MP-group interfaces. They
             are different in that:
                  Virtual templates can be used in combination with authentication. According to the
                  remote use name, the router determines the associated virtual template interface
                  and based on the configurations of the template creates a bundle equivalent to an
                  MP link.
                  From one virtual template interface can derive multiple bundles called VT
                  channels, each being an MP link. From the perspective of the network layer, these
                  links form a point to multipoint network topology. In this sense, virtual template
                  interfaces are flexible than MP-group interfaces.
                  To distinguish among multiple bundles derived from a virtual template interface,
                  the ppp mp binding-mode command is provided in virtual template interface
                  view to specify bundling mode. Three bundling modes are available:
                  authentication, both (the default), and descriptor. The authentication mode is to
                  bundle links according to remote user name, the descriptor mode is to bundle links
                  according to the remote endpoint descriptor obtained from LCP negotiation, and
                  the both mode is to bundle links according to both user name and descriptor.
                  MP-group interfaces are intended only for MP. On an MP-group interface, only one
                  bundle is allowed. Compared with virtual template interfaces, the configuration of
                  MP-group interfaces is simpler and easier.

           I. Configuring MP on a virtual template interface

             Fundamental MP configuration tasks include:
                  Create a virtual template interface
                  Associate a remote username with the virtual template interface
                  Enable the PPP interface to operate in MP mode
                  Specify the bundling mode on the virtual template interface
             Advanced MP configuration tasks include:


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                  Configure the maximum number of links allowed in an MP bundle
                  Set minimum outgoing MP packet fragment size
                  Configure negotiation for address control field compression

           II. Configuring MP on an MP-group interface

                  Create/delete an MP-group interface
                  Assign or remove interfaces to or from the MP-group
             These two configuration tasks are order independent.

1.3.1 Configuring MP on a Virtual Template Interface

           I. Creating a virtual template interface

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 1-19 Create/delete a virtual template interface

                                Operation                                 Command
               Create an MP virtual template interface
                                                          interface virtual-template number
               and enter its view
               Delete the specified MP virtual template   undo interface virtual-template
               interface                                  number



           II. Assigning physical interfaces to or associating a remote username with the
              virtual template interface

             When configuring MP on the virtual template interface, you can do one of the following:
                  Assign physical interfaces to the virtual template using the ppp mp
                  virtual-template command. In this case, the configuration of authentication is
                  optional. Without authentication, the system bundles links according to the remote
                  endpoint descriptor. With authentication, the system bundles links according to
                  both remote username and endpoint descriptor.
                  Associate a username with the virtual template. When bundling links, the system
                  searches for the associated virtual template interface according to the provided
                  valid username and bundles links according to the username and the remote
                  endpoint descriptor. To ensure a successful link negotiation, you must configure
                  the ppp mp command and two-way authentication (CHAP or PAP) on the bundled
                  interfaces.




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                  Note:
                  When the ppp mp virtual-template command is configured on an interface, the
                  system does not look for a virtual template by username. Instead, it looks for the
                  template configured by the command.
                  You must configure the to-be-bundled interfaces in the same way.
                  In practice, you may configure one-way authentication, where one end associates
                  physical interfaces to a virtual template interface and the other end searches for the
                  virtual template interface by username.
                  A virtual template interface is preferred to provide only one service, such as MP,
                  L2TP, or PPPoE.



             1)    Assign physical interfaces to the virtual template
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-20 Assign the physical interface to the specified virtual template

                               Operation                                   Command
               Assign the interface to the specified
                                                            ppp mp virtual-template number
               virtual template
               Disable MP bundling on the interface         undo ppp mp



             The configuration of PPP authentication on the physical interface is optional.
             2)    Associate a username with the virtual template interface
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 1-21 Associate a username with the specified virtual template interface

                               Operation                                   Command
               Associate an MP username with the            ppp mp user username bind
               specified virtual template interface         virtual-template number
               Remove the binding                           undo ppp mp user username



             In this approach to MP, the system searches for a virtual template interface by
             username. Therefore, to set up an MP connection, you must configure two-way PPP
             authentication on the involved physical interfaces. For more information about PPP
             authentication, refer to the section 1.2.3 “Configuring PPP Authentication Mode and
             Username and User Password”.
             In addition, perform the following configuration in interface view to have the interface
             operate in MP mode.



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             Table 1-22 Set the PPP-encapsulated interface to operate in MP mode

                                          Operation                                   Command
               Set the PPP-encapsulated interface to work in MP mode               ppp mp
               Set the interface to work in a common PPP mode                      undo ppp mp



             By default, the PPP-encapsulated interface is operating in a common PPP mode.

           III. Specifying the bundling mode on the virtual template interface

             Username discussed here refers to the remote username received during PAP or
             CHAP authentication performed when setting up a PPP connection. An endpoint
             descriptor uniquely identifies a router; here, it refers to the remote endpoint descriptor
             received during LCP negotiation. The system distinguishes among the MP bundles on
             a virtual template interface by username and endpoint descriptor.
             Perform the following configuration in VT view or Dialer view.

             Table 1-23 Specify the bundling mode on the virtual template interface

                              Operation                                   Command
               Bundle according to authenticated
                                                           ppp mp binding-mode authentication
               username
               Bundle according to endpoint descriptor     ppp mp binding-mode descriptor
               Bundle according to both username and
                                                           ppp mp binding-mode both
               endpoint descriptor
               Restore the default bundle mode             undo ppp mp binding-mode



             By default, the system performs bundle according to the authenticated username and
             terminal identifier simultaneously.
             After the configurations above, the basic MP configuration is finished. The user can
             configure other MP optional parameters as needed.




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                 Note:
                 If the ppp mp binding-mode authentication command is configured to enable the
                 router to perform MP bundling according to authenticated username, you are
                 recommended to configure PPP PAP or CHAP authentication on physical
                 subchannels.    Otherwise,   all     users   are   regarded   anonymous    and   their
                 corresponding subchannels are assigned to a default bundle. As this bundle has no
                 name, its information is not available when the display ppp mp command is
                 performed.
                 After configuring the ppp mp binding-mode command on a virtual template
                 interface, shut down all its physical subchannels and then undo the operation to
                 have the command take effect.




           IV. Configuring maximum/minimum number of mp bundled links (optional)

             Execute the ppp mp max-bind command in virtual-template view or dialer interface
             view. Execute the ppp mp min-bind command in dialer interface view.

             Table 1-24 Configure maximum/minimum number of MP bundled links

                              Operation                                     Command
               Configure maximum number of MP
                                                              ppp mp max-bind max-bind-num
               bundled links
               Restore the default configuration              undo ppp mp max-bind
               Configure minimum number of MP
                                                              ppp mp min-bind min-bind-num
               bundled links
               Restore the default configuration              undo ppp mp min-bind



             By default, the maximum number of bundled links is 16 and the minimum number is 1.
             min-bind-num must be less than max-bind-num.




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                 Note:
                 The upper limit on minimum/maximum number of bundled links is 128, a number set
                 considering only the functionality of MP.
                 The forwarding performance of MP is irrelevant to the number of bundled links.
                 When configuring minimum/maximum number of bundled links, you need to
                 consider interface type, interface bandwidth, and forwarding performance of the
                 router.
                 On dial PPP MP links, both the ppp mp max-bind command and the ppp mp
                 min-bind command are available. On non-dial PPP MP links, however, only the
                 ppp mp max-bind command is available. For the functions of these commands,
                 refer to “DCC Configuration” in the “Dial-up” part of this manual.




           V. Setting minimum outgoing mp packet fragment size (optional)

             Perform the following configuration in virtual-template view.

             Table 1-25 Set the minimum fragment size of the MP outgoing packets

                              Operation                                   Command
               Set the minimum fragment size for
                                                             ppp mp min-fragment size
               fragmenting MP outgoing packets.
               Restore the default setting.                  undo ppp mp min-fragment



             By default, the minimum size for MP packet to fragment is 128.

           VI. Configuring negotiation for address and control field compression

             The hardware of AR-46E requires the number of bytes before the IP header in the
             packet format be a multiple of 4 – otherwise the MP will give a lower performance. In
             the default MP packet format, however, 10 bytes precede the IP header. With the
             address and control filed compression feature enabled, the number of bytes preceding
             the IP header of an MP packet is reduced to 8.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-26 Configure negotiation for address and control field compression

                              Operation                                   Command
               Enable negotiation for address and
                                                             ppp lcp acfc local-request
               control field compression
               Disable negotiation for address and
                                                             undo ppp lcp acfc local-request
               control field compression




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1.3.2 Configuring MP on an MP-Group Interface

           I. Creating an MP-group interface

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 1-27 Create an MP-group interface

                              Operation                                    Command
               Create an MP-group interface                interface mp-group number
               Delete an MP-group interface                undo interface mp-group number



           II. Assigning interfaces to the MP-group

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-28 Assign the interface to the specified MP-group

                                    Operation                                   Command
               Assign the interface to the specified MP-group          ppp mp mp-group number
                                                                       undo ppp mp mp-group
               Remove the interface from the specified MP-group
                                                                       number




1.3.3 Configuring the Size of the MP Sort Window

             When MP applies, packets may be received out of order. The sort window is thus used
             to re-order packets. The size of the sort window is a trade-off between re-ordering effect
             and delay: a large sort window brings good re-ordering effect but increased delay. For
             voice packets, transmission delay should be minimized.
             Perform the following configuration in virtual template interface or MP-group interface
             view.

             Table 1-29 Configure the size of the MP sort window

                                   Operation                                   Command
               Configure the size of the MP sort window               ppp mp sort-buffer-size size
               Restore the default size of the MP sort window         ppp mp sort-buffer-size size



             The default size of the MP sort window is 1, that is, only one packet is sorted.




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1.4 Configuring PPP Link Efficiency Mechanism
             Four mechanisms are available for improving transmission efficiency on PPP links.
             They are IP header compression (IPHC), Stac Lempel-Ziv standard (Stac LZS)
             compression on PPP packets, V. Jacobson Compressing TCP/IP Headers (VJ TCP
             header compression), and link fragmentation and interleaving (LFI).

           I. IP header compression

             IPHC is a host-to-host protocol that applies to transmit multimedia services such as
             voice and video over IP networks. To decrease the bandwidth consumed by headers,
             you may enable IP header compression on PPP links to compress RTP (including IP,
             UDP, and RTP) headers or TCP headers. The following describes how compression
             operates taking RTP header compression for example.
             The real-time transport protocol (RTP) is virtually a UDP protocol using fixed port
             number and format. Since its publication as RFC 1889, there has been growing interest
             in using RTP as one step to achieve interoperability among different implementations of
             network audio/video applications. However, there is also concern that 40-byte
             IP/UDP/RTP header containing a 20-byte IP header, 8-byte UDP header and 12-byte
             RTP header, is too large an overhead for 20-byte or 160-byte payloads.
             To reduce overhead, you can use IPHC to compress headers. In many cases, all three
             headers can be compressed to 2 to 5 bytes. The effect of the header compression
             proves considerable that a payload of 40 bytes can be compressed to 5 bytes through
             the process with the compression ratio as (40+40) / (40+5), about 1.78. The process of
             IPHC is illustrated in the following figure.




             Figure 1-3 IP header compression


           II. Stac LZS compression

             Stac LZS compression is a link-layer data compression standard developed by Stac
             Electronics. Stac LZS is a Lempel-Ziv-based algorithm that compresses only packet
             payloads. It replaces a continuous data flow with binary code that can accommodate to
             the change of data. While allowing for more flexibility, this requires more CPU
             resources.


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           III. VJ TCP header compression

             VJ TCP header compression was defined in RFC 1144 for use on low-speed links.
             Each TCP/IP packet transmitted over a TCP connection contains a typical 40-byte
             TCP/IP header containing an IP header and a TCP header that are 20-byte long each.
             The information in some fields of these headers, however, is unchanged through the
             lifetime of the connection and needs sending only once, while the information in some
             other fields changes but regularly and within a definite range. Based on this idea, VJ
             TCP header compression may compress a 40-byte TCP/IP header to 3 to 5 bytes. It
             can significantly improve the transmission speed of some applications, such as FTP, on
             a low-speed serial link like PPP.

           IV. Link Fragmentation and Interleaving

             On the low speed serial link, real-time interactive communication (such as Telnet and
             VoIP) is performed, and block and delay may occur when large packets are transmitted.
             For example, if a voice packet arrives when large packets are being scheduled and
             waiting for being transmitted, it has to wait until all the large packets have been
             transmitted. As for the real-time applications, large packets can cause block and delay,
             consequently, the remote end cannot hear continuous speech. It is required by the
             interactive voice that the end-to-end delay cannot be larger than 100-150 ms.
             Dispatching a large packet of 1500 bytes through a 56-kbps line, perhaps will take 215
             ms, this will exceed the delay point that one can tolerate. LFI is a method for
             fragmenting larger packets and adding both the smaller packets and fragments of the
             large packet to the queue. The fragmented datagrams are reassembled at the
             destination. LFI can reduce delay of real-time packets on relatively slow bandwidth
             links.
             The following figure describes the process of link fragmentation and interleaving. When
             large packets and small voice packets arrives at an interface at the same time, the large
             packets are fragmented into small fragments. If the interface is configured with WFQ,
             the voice packets and these small fragments are interleaved together and put into the
             WFQ.




             Figure 1-4 Link fragmentation and interleaving


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           V. Bottom traffic monitoring

             In the case when MP bundles multiple PPPoEoA links together, you can configure QoS
             congestion management on both virtual template and individual ATM PVCs. But in fact,
             to avoid configuration confliction, your congestion management configuration on virtual
             template will not take effect – the system always equally distributes traffic onto the
             PVCs based on the number of the PVCs, and leaves the congestion management work
             to the PVCs, which will deal with congestions occurred on themselves based on your
             configurations on individual PVCs. In this case, you have to configure congestion
             management that you want on individual PVCs in ATM PVC view.
             The bottom traffic monitoring function brings convenience to you. This function regards
             all PVCs as a whole to perform congestion management. It dynamically distributes
             traffic according to the bandwidths on PVCs. With this function enabled, you can regard
             all PVCs in the bundle as one logical interface and configure congestion management
             directly on virtual template, which will now take effect.

1.4.1 Configuring IPHC

             IPHC configuration tasks are described in the following sections:
                  Enabling/disabling IPHC
                  Configuring maximum number of compression-enabled TCP connections
                  (optional)
                  Configuring maximum number of compression-enabled RTP connections
                  (optional)

           I. Enabling/disabling IPHC

             Executing the command in the following table can enable the IP header compression
             on some interface. Enabling IP header compression enables the system to compress
             the TCP packets for RTP session setup. Likewise, disabling IP header compression
             disables the system to compress the TCP packets for RTP session setup.
             You must configure IP header compression at the endpoints of a link.
             Perform the following configurations in interface view.

             Table 1-30 Enable/disable IPHC

                      Operation                                    Command
               Enable IPHC.               ppp compression iphc [ nonstandard ]
               Disable IPHC.              undo ppp compression iphc



           II. Configuring maximum number of compression-enabled TCP connections

             You can configure maximum number of compression-enabled TCP connections.



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             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-31 Configure maximum number of compression-enabled TCP connections

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure maximum number of                 ppp compression iphc
               compression-enabled TCP connections         tcp-connections number
                                                           undo ppp compression iphc
               Restore the default
                                                           tcp-connections



             The parameter number indicates the maximum number of TCP compression
             connections on the interface. It is 16 by default.

           III. Configuring maximum number of compression-enabled RTP connections

             You can configure maximum number of compression-enabled RTP connections.
             Perform the following configurations in interface view.

             Table 1-32 Configure maximum number of compression-enabled RTP connections

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure maximum number of                 ppp compression iphc
               compression-enabled RTP connections         rtp-connections number
                                                           undo ppp compression iphc
               Restore the default
                                                           rtp-connections



             The number argument specifies the maximum number of compression-enabled RTP
             connections (in the range 3 to 1000) on the interface. It defaults to 16.

1.4.2 Configuring PPP Stac LZS Compression

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.
             The current system version supports the Stac compression described in RFC 1974.

             Table 1-33 Configure PPP Stac LZS compression

                                  Operation                                   Command
               Enable Stac LZS compression on the interface.      ppp compression stac-lzs
               Disable Stac LZS compression on the interface.     undo ppp compression stac-lzs



             By default, compression is disabled.




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1.4.3 Configuring VJ TCP Header Compression for PPP Packets

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 1-34 Configure VJ TCP header compression

                                         Operation                                  Command
               Enable VJ TCP header compression on the PPP interface.        ip tcp vjcompress
                                                                             undo ip tcp
               Disable VJ TCP header compression on the PPP interface.
                                                                             vjcompress



             By default, VJ TCP header compression is disabled on the PPP interface.

1.4.4 Configuring Link Fragmentation and Interleaving on PPP

             The real-time interactive communication may be congested and delayed because of
             large packets on the low-speed serial link. For example, the voice packet arrives while
             the large packet is being dispatched and waiting for transmission, it can only be
             dispatched upon the completion of the large packet transmission; thus, delay occurs.
             For the real-time reference programs such as the interacting voice, congestion delay
             resulted from large packet is too long. Link Fragment and Interleave (LFI) divides the
             large data frame into small frames and then transmits them to the front of the
             transmission queue and inserts the small packets that are sensitive to delay between
             the fragments. In this way, the delay of small real-time packet is reduced and fragments
             can be reassembled at the destination.
             The LFI configuration tasks are described in the following subsections:
                  Enabling LFI
                  Configuring maximum time delay of LFI fragments

           I. Enabling LFI

             Perform the following configurations in virtual template interface view or MP-group
             interface view.

             Table 1-35 Enable LFI

                                     Operation                                  Command
               Enable LFI on Virtual Template interface                ppp mp lfi
               Disable LFI on Virtual Template interface               undo ppp mp lfi



             LFI is not enabled by default.

           II. Configuring maximum time delay of LFI fragments

             The following command sets the maximum time delay for transmitting an LFI fragment.

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             Perform the following configurations in virtual template interface view or mp-group
             interface view.

             Table 1-36 Configure maximum time delay of LFI fragment

                               Operation                                  Command
               Configure maximum time delay of LFI
                                                           ppp mp lfi delay-per-frag time
               fragment
               Restore the default maximum time delay
                                                           undo ppp mp lfi delay-per-frag
               of LFI fragment



             The default fragment delay is 10 milliseconds after LFI is enabled.
             The fragment size is calculated considering the specified forwarding delay as follows:
             Fragment size = Virtual bandwidth of virtual interface x LFI delay
             The minimum fragment size you can configure on the router is 40 bytes. If a smaller
             fragment size is calculated for a packet, the router chops it into 40-byte fragments.
             For assigning bandwidth to a virtual interface, refer to the qos max-bandwidth
             command.

1.4.5 Configuring PPP Bottom Traffic Monitoring

             Perform the following configuration in virtual template interface view.

             Table 1-37 Configure PPP bottom traffic monitoring

                               Operation                                  Command
               Enable PPP bottom traffic monitoring        ppp mp mbf
               Disable PPP bottom traffic monitoring       undo ppp mp mbf



             By default, this function is disabled.


1.5 Displaying and Debugging PPP/MP/PPP Link Efficiency
Mechanisms
             Execute the display command in any view and the debugging command in user view.

             Table 1-38 Display and debug PPP and MP

                               Operation                                  Command
               Display PPP configuration and running
                                                           display interface type number
               state of an interface
                                                           display ppp mp [ interface
               Display MP interface information
                                                           interface-type interface-num ]



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                              Operation                                   Command
               Display information about one or all
                                                          display virtual-access vt [ vt-number ]
               virtual template interfaces
               Display information about one or all
                                                          display virtual-access [va-number]
               virtual access interfaces
                                                          debugging ppp { chap { all | event |
                                                          error | packet | state } | pap { all | event
               Enable parts of PPP debugging
                                                          | error | packet | state } } [ interface
                                                          interface-type interface-number ]
                                                          debugging ppp { core event | ip
                                                          packet | ipcp { all | event | error |
                                                          packet | state } | lcp { all | event | error |
               Enable parts of PPP debugging
                                                          packet | state } | lqc packet | mp { all |
                                                          event | error | packet } } [ interface
                                                          interface-type interface-number ]
                                                          debugging ppp { all | cbcp packet |
                                                          ccp { all | event | error | packet | state }
               Enable parts of PPP debugging
                                                          | scp packet } [ interface interface-type
                                                          interface-number ]



             Table 1-39 Display and debug PPP link efficiency mechanisms

                              Operation                                   Command
               Display statistics about TCP header        display ppp compression iphc tcp
               compression                                [ interface-type interface-number ]
               Display statistics about RTP header        display ppp compression iphc rtp
               compression                                [ interface-type interface-number ]
               Display statistics about Stac LZS header   display ppp compression stac-lzs
               compression                                [ interface-type interface-number ]

                                                          debugging ppp compression iphc tcp
               Enable TCP header compression
                                                          { all | context_state | error |
               debugging
                                                          full_header | general_info }

                                                          debugging ppp compression iphc rtp
               Enable RTP header compression
                                                          { all | context_state | error |
               debugging
                                                          full_header | general_info }
               Clear all statistics about IP header       reset ppp compression iphc
               compression                                [ interface-type interface-number ]
               Clear all statistics about Stac LZS        reset ppp compression stac-lzs
               header compression                         [ interface-type interface-number ]




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1.6 PPP and MP Configuration Examples
1.6.1 PAP Authentication

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 1-5, routers Router 1 and Router 2 are interconnected through the
             interface Serial3/0/0, and Router 1 is required to authenticate Router 2 in PAP mode.

           II. Network diagram

                          Serial3/0/0:   Serial3/0/0:
                           200.1.1.1      200.1.1.2


               Router 1                                 Router 2


             Figure 1-5 Network diagram for PAP authentication


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure router Router 1:
             [H3C] local-user router2
             [H3C-luser-router2] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-router2] password simple h3c
             [H3C] interface serial 3/0/0
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-system] scheme local
             2)   Configure router Router2:
             [H3C] interface serial 3/0/0
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp pap local-user router2 password simple h3c
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16


1.6.2 Unidirectional CHAP Authentication

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 1-6, Router 1 is required to use CHAP to authenticate Router2.




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           II. Network diagram

                             Serial3/0/0:   Serial3/0/0:
                              200.1.1.1      200.1.1.2


                  Router 1                                 Router 2

             Figure 1-6 Network diagram for CHAP authentication


           III. Configuration procedure

             Approach I: Router 1 and Router2 have users with the same password.
             1)     Configure Router1
             [H3C] local-user router2
             [H3C-luser-router2] password simple hello
             [H3C-luser-router2] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-router2] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 3/0/0
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp chap user router1
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] quit
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-system] scheme local
             2)     Configure Router2
             [H3C] local-user router1
             [H3C-luser-router1] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-router1] password simple hello
             [H3C-luser-router1] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 3/0/0
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp chap user router2
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16

             Approach II: Router1 and Router2 have no users with the same password.
             3)     Configure Router1
             [H3C] local-user router2
             [H3C-luser-router2] password simple hello
             [H3C-luser-router2] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-router2] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 3/0/0
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ip address 200.1.1.1




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             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] quit
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-system] scheme local
             4)     Configure Router2
             [H3C] interface serial 3/0/0
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp chap user router2
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp chap password simple hello
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ip address 200.1.1.2

             If you configure the ppp authentication-mode chap command without specifying a
             domain to system for example, the default domain named system is adopted at the time
             of authentication and local authentication applies by default.

1.6.3 Bidirectional CHAP Authentication

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 1-7, Router1 and Router2 are required to use CHAP to authenticate
             each other. The password for CHAP authentication is hello-1 on Router1 and hello-2 on
             Router2.

           II. Network diagram

                             Serial3/0/0:   Serial3/0/0:
                              200.1.1.1      200.1.1.2


                  Router 1                                 Router 2

             Figure 1-7 Network diagram for CHAP authentication


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure Router1
             [H3C] local-user router2
             [H3C-luser-router2] password simple hello-2
             [H3C-luser-router2] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-router2] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 3/0/0
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp chap user router1
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp chap password simple hello-1
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 30
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] quit
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-system] scheme local
             2)     Configure Router2



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             [H3C] local-user router1
             [H3C-luser-router1] password simple hello-1
             [H3C-luser-router1] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-router1] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 3/0/0
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp chap user router2
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ppp chap password simple hello-2
             [H3C-Serial3/0/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 30

             As the password configured with the ppp chap password command takes priority over
             the one configured in local user view at the authenticatee end, CHAP authentication
             can pass even when the two parties use different passwords.

1.6.4 PPP Negotiation Waiting Time Configuration

           I. Network requirement

             As shown in Figure 1-8, Router A and Router B are back-to-back interconnected
             through Serial 1/0, with PPP as the link layer protocol. It is required that:
             Router A does not respond to any received LCP request – instead it waits a random
             amount of time ranging 10 to 265 seconds before sending an unsolicited LCP request
             to initiate PPP negotiation.
             Router B does not send any LCP request; it only responds to received LCP requests.

           II. Network diagram


                            Serial1/0                           Serial1/0


                  RouterA                                                   RouterB

             Figure 1-8 Network diagram for PPP negotiation waiting time configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure Router A
             # Disable Serial 1/0 from passively starting PPP negotiation.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0.
             [H3C-Serial1/0] ppp lcp passive-start wait forever

             # Configure Serial 1/0/0 to wait a random amount of time ranging 10 to 265 seconds
             before sending an unsolicited LCP request to start PPP negotiation.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp lcp active-start wait 10 random 255
             2)     Configure Router B


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             # Configure Serial 1/0/0 to accept PPP negotiation by responding to LCP requests only.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp lcp active-start wait forever


1.6.5 MP Configuration

           I. Network requirements

             Figure 1-9 presents a scenario, where:
                   On an E1 interface of Router A, four channels are created with interface names
                   being Serial 2/0/0:1, Serial 2/0/0:2, Serial 2/0/0:3, and Serial 2/0/0:4 respectively.
                   On Router B, two channels are created with interface names being Serial 2/0/0:1
                   and Serial 2/0/0:2 respectively. The same is done on Router C.
             Do the following:
                   Bind two channels on Router A with the two channels on Router B and another two
                   channels with the two channels on Router C.
                   Adopt binding authentication.

           II. Network diagram



                                                                        Tow er Sy stem


              Tow er Sy stem                                Router B

                                                                       Desktop System

                                               DDN


                                 Router A
                                                                       Tow er Sy stem

               Desktop System
                                                            Router C
                                                                       Desktop System

             Figure 1-9 Network diagram of MP configuration example


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router A:
             # Add the users for Router B and Router C
             [H3C] local-user router-b
             [H3C-luser-router-b] password simple router-b
             [H3C] local-user router-c
             [H3C-luser-router-c] password simple router-c



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             # Specify the virtual-templates for the two users and begin PPP negotiation by using
             the NCP information of the virtual-templates.
             [H3C] ppp mp user router-b bind virtual-template 1
             [H3C] ppp mp user router-c bind virtual-template 2

             # Configure the virtual-templates
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-virtual-template1] ip address 202.38.166.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 2
             [H3C-virtual-template2] ip address 202.38.168.1 255.255.255.0

             # Assign interfaces Serial 2/0/0:1, Serial 2/0/0:2, Serial 2/0/0:3, and Serial 2/0/0:4 to
             MP channels, taking Serial 2/0/0:1 for an example.
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0:1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ppp mp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ppp pap local-user router-a password simple router-a

             # Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme local
             2)   Configure Router B:
             # Add a user for Router A
             [H3C] local-user router-a
             [H3C-luser-router-a] password simple router-a

             # Specify the virtual-template for this user and begin PPP negotiation by using the NCP
             information of this template
             [H3C] ppp mp user router-a bind virtual-template 1

             # Configure operating parameters of the virtual-template
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 202.38.166.2 255.255.255.0

             # Assign interfaces Serial 2/0/0:1 and Serial 2/0/0:2 to the MP channel, taking Serial
             2/0/0:1 for an example.
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0:1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ppp mp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ppp pap local-user router-b password simple router-b
             3)   Configure Router C:
             # Add a user for Router A
             [H3C] local-user router-a



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             [H3C-luser-router-a] password simple router-a

             # Specify a virtual-template for this user and the NCP information of the template will be
             used for PPP negotiation.
             [H3C] ppp mp user router-a bind virtual-template 1

             # Configure operating parameters of the virtual-template
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 202.38.168.2 255.255.255.0

             # Assign interfaces Serial 2/0/0:1 and Serial 2/0/0:2 to the MP channel, taking Serial
             2/0/0:1 for an example.
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0:1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ppp mp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ppp pap local-user router-c password simple router-c

             # Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme local


1.6.6 Three Types of MP Binding Mode

           I. Network requirements

             As showed in the figure below, RouterA and RouterB are connected together through
             serial ports, Serial 1/0/0 to Serial 1/0/0 and Serial 2/0/0 to serial 2/0/0 respectively.
             Three binding modes that are demonstrated are directly Virtual-Template binding mode,
             authentication binding mode and MP-group interface binding mode.

           II. Network diagram

                              Serial 2/0/0            Serial 2/0/0

                                              MP
                              Serial 1/0/0            Serial 1/0/0
                  Router A                                            Router B

             Figure 1-10 Network diagram of MP binding


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Directly assign physical interfaces to a virtual template interface
             Configure Router A:
             # Configure the user name and password of Router B
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] local-user rtb
             [H3C-luser-rtb] password simple rtb


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             [H3C-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-rtb] quit

             # Create a virtual template interface and assign an IP address to it.
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.1 24

             # Configure Serial1/0/0.
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] undo shutdown

             # Configure Serial2/0/0.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] undo shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] quit
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme local

             Configure Router B:
             # Configure the user name and password of Router A
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] local-user rta
             [H3C-luser-rta] password simple rta
             [H3C-luser-rta] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-rta] quit

             # Create a virtual-template interface and assign an IP address to it.
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.2 24

             # Configure Serial1/0/0.
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb



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             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] undo shutdown

             # Configure Serial2/0/0.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] undo shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] quit

             # Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme local
             [H3C-isp-domain] quit

             Verify the results on Router A:
             [H3C] display ppp mp
             Template is Virtual-Template1
             max-bind: 16, min-fragment: 128
             Bundle rtb, 2 members, slot 1, Master link is Virtual-Template1:0
             Peer's endPoint descriptor: 72341c2a4093
              Bundle Up Time:            2005/04/07      16:02:32:30
             0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
             sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent


             The member channels bundled are:
                    Serial1/0/0                Up-Time:2005/04/07    16:02:32:30
                    Serial2/0/0                Up-Time:2005/04/07    16:07:38:30

             Check information about virtual access interfaces:
             [H3C] display virtual-access vt
             ----------------Slot 1----------------
             Virtual-Template1:0 current state : UP
             Line protocol current state : UP
             Description : Virtual-Template1:0 Interface
             The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
             Link layer protocol is PPP
             LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, OSICP opened, MPLSCP opened
             Physical is MP,baudrate: 128000
             Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards)             0/500/0




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             Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
             Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards)             0/75/0
             Last 300 seconds input:         0 bytes/sec 0 packets/sec
             Last 300 seconds output:         0 bytes/sec 0 packets/sec
                   6 packets input, 66 bytes, 0 drops
                   6 packets output, 66 bytes, 0 drops

             The display about Router A is similar.
             On Router B ping the IP address 8.1.1.1.
             [H3C] ping 8.1.1.1
                  PING 8.1.1.1: 56       data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=29 ms
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=31 ms
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms


                  --- 8.1.1.1 ping statistics ---
                   5 packet(s) transmitted
                   5 packet(s) received
                   0.00% packet loss
             round-trip min/avg/max = 29/30/31 ms

             Because PPP authentication is configured on the physical interface, the Bundle field in
             the output of the display ppp mp command is identified by remote user name. If
             authentication is disabled, the Bundle field should be identified by the remote endpoint
             descriptor.
             In addition, you can view the state of MP virtual channels by viewing the state of virtual
             access interfaces with the display virtual-access command.
             2)     Associate remote user name with virtual template interface
             Configure Router A:
             # Configure the user name and password of Router B
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] local-user rtb
             [H3C-luser-rtb] password simple rtb
             [H3C-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-rtb] quit

             # Assign a virtual-template to user rtb
             [H3C] ppp mp user rtb bind virtual-template 1

             # Create a virtual-template and configure the IP address
             [H3C] interface Virtual-Template 1



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             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.1 24

             # Configure Serial1/0/0.
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp mp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] undo shutdown

             # Configure Serial2/0/0.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] interface Serial2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp mp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] undo shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] quit

             # Configure the user in the domain to use the local authentication scheme
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme local
             [H3C-isp-domain] quit

             Configure Router B
             # Configure the user name and password of Router A
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] local-user rta
             [H3C-luser-rta] password simple rta
             [H3C-luser-rta] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-rta] quit

             # Assign a virtual-template to user rta
             [H3C] ppp mp user rta bind virtual-template 1

             # Create a virtual-template and configure the IP address
             [H3C] interface Virtual-Template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.2 24

             # Configure Serial1/0/0.
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] interface serial1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb


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             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp mp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] undo shutdown

             # Configure Serial2/0/0.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] interface serial2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp mp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] undo shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] quit

             # Apply user authentication to domain users.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme local
             [H3C-isp-domain] quit

             Verify the results on RouterA:
             <H3C> display ppp mp
             Template is Virtual-Template1
             max-bind: 16, min-fragment: 128
             Bundle rtb, 2 member, slot 1, Master link is Virtual-Template1:0
             Peer's endPoint descriptor: 73b03a692ec9
              Bundle Up Time:            2005/04/08    11:13:45:980
             0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
             sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
             The bundled son channels are:
                    Serial1/0/0          Up-Time:2005/04/08   11:13:45:980
                    Serial2/0/0          Up-Time:2005/04/08   11:13:45:980

             Verify the results on Router B:
             [H3C] display ppp mp
             Template is Virtual-Template1
             max-bind: 16, min-fragment: 128
             Bundle rta, 2 member, slot 1, Master link is Virtual-Template1:0
             Peer's endPoint descriptor: 73b03a692ec9
              Bundle Up Time:            2005/04/08    11:13:45:980
             0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
             sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
             The bundled son channels are:
                    Serial1/0/0                Up-Time:2005/04/08   11:13:45:980
                    Serial2/0/0                Up-Time:2005/04/08   11:13:45:980




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             Check information about virtual access interfaces:
             <H3C> display virtual-access vt
             Virtual-Template1:0 current state : UP
             Line protocol current state : UP
             Description : Virtual-Template1:0 Interface
             The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
             Link layer protocol is PPP
             LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, OSICP opened, MPLSCP opened
             Physical is MP, baudrate: 128000
             Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards)             0/500/0
             Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
             Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards)             0/75/0
                   Last 300 seconds input:       0 bytes/sec 0 packets/sec
                   Last 300 seconds output:       0 bytes/sec 0 packets/sec
                   21 packets input, 1386 bytes, 0 drops
                   21 packets output, 1386 bytes, 0 drops

             On Router B ping the remote IP address 8.1.1.1:
             [H3C] ping 8.1.1.1
                  PING 8.1.1.1: 56       data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=30 ms
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=31 ms
                   Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms


                  --- 8.1.1.1 ping statistics ---
                   5 packet(s) transmitted
                   5 packet(s) received
                   0.00% packet loss
             round-trip min/avg/max = 29/30/31 ms

             Incorrect configuration:
             The two interfaces (Serial1/0/0 and Serial2/0/0) will be bound to two different MP links if
             one of them is configured as ppp mp while the other is configured as ppp mp
             virtual-template 1. The system cannot run well as our expectation.
             3)     Configure MP bundling on an MP-group interface
             In addition to virtual template interfaces, Comware provides MP-group interfaces to
             implement MP bundling. This implementation is similar to directly assigning physical
             interfaces to a virtual template.
             Configure Router A:
             # Configure the user name and password of Router B


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             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] local-user rtb
             [H3C-luser-rtb] password simple rtb
             [H3C-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-rtb] quit

             # Create MP-group interface, configure the IP address
             [H3C] interface mp-group 1
             [H3C-Mp-group1] ip address 111.1.1.1 24

             # Configure Serial1/0/0.
             [H3C-Mp-group1] interface serial1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp mp mp-group 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] undo shutdown

             # Configure Serial2/0/0.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] interface serial2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp mp mp-group 1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] undo shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] quit

             # Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme local
             [H3C-isp-domain] quit

             Configure Router B
             # Configure user name and password for Router A
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] local-user rta
             [H3C-luser-rta] password simple rta
             [H3C-luser-rta] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-rta] quit

             # Create Mp-group interface and configure ip address
             [H3C] interface mp-group 1
             [H3C-Mp-group1] ip address 111.1.1.2 24



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             # Configure Serial1/0/0.
             [H3C-Mp-group1] interface serial1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp mp mp-group 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] undo shutdown

             # Configure Serial2/0/0.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] interface serial2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp mp mp-group 1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] undo shutdown
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] quit

             # Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme local
             [H3C-isp-domain] quit

             Verify the results on RouterA
             [H3C] display ppp mp
             Mp-group is Mp-group1
             max-bind: 16, min-fragment: 128


             Bundle Multilink, slot 1, Master link is Mp-group1
             Peer's endPoint descriptor: 73b03a692ec9
              Bundle Up Time:            2005/04/08     11:20:40:970
             0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
             sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
             Member channels: 2 active, 0 inactive
                    Serial1/0/0              Up-Time:2005/04/08   11:20:40:970
                    Serial2/0/0              Up-Time:2005/04/08   11:20:40:970

             Check the state about Mp-group1
             [H3C] display interface Mp-group 1
             Mp-group1 current state : UP
             Line protocol current state : UP
             Description : Mp-group1 Interface
             The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)



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             Internet Address is 111.1.1.1/24
             Link layer protocol is PPP
             LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, MPLSCP opened
             Physical is MP, baudrate: 128000
             Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards)            0/500/0
             Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
             Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards)            0/75/0
                  Last 300 seconds input:         0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
                  Last 300 seconds output:        0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
                  5 packets input, 58 bytes, 0 drops
                  5 packets output, 54 bytes, 0 drops

             On RouterA ping the remote IP address:
             [H3C] ping 111.1.1.2
                PING 111.1.1.2: 56       data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
                  Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
                  Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
                  Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=29 ms
                  Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=30 ms
                  Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms
                --- 111.1.1.2 ping statistics ---
                  5 packet(s) transmitted
                  5 packet(s) received
                  0.00% packet loss
             round-trip min/avg/max = 29/29/31 ms

             Note that in this approach to MP binding, all users are bound together and the concept
             of virtual access is not involved.


1.7 Troubleshooting
             Symptom 1: Link never turns into up state.
             Solution: This problem may arise because of the PPP authentication failure due to the
             incorrect configuration of PPP authentication parameters.
             Enable the debugging of PPP, and you will see the information describing that LCP
             went up upon a successful LCP negotiation but went down after the PAP or CHAP
             negotiation.
             Symptom 2: Physical link failed in going up.
             Solution: Execute the display interface serial type number command to view the
             current interface statuses, including:
             “serial number is administratively down, line protocol is down”, which indicates that the
             interface has been shut down by the administrator.



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             “serial number is down, line protocol is down”, which indicates that the interface is not
             active or the physical layer has not gone up yet.
             “Virtual-template number is down, line protocol is spoofing up”, which indicates that this
             interface is a dialer interface and the call establishment attempt has failed.
             ”serial number is up, line protocol is up”, which indicates that the link negotiation, i.e.,
             the LCP negotiation on this interface has succeeded.
             ”serial number is up, line protocol is down”, which indicates that this interface is active,
             but link negotiation has failed.




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                   Chapter 2 PPPoE Configuration

2.1 Introduction to PPPoE
           I. PPPoE

             Point-to-point protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) connects a network of hosts formed by
             Ethernet to a remote access device to gain access to the Internet. It allows you to
             perform access control and accounting on a per-host basis. Due to its attractive cost
             effectiveness, PPPoE is widely adopted, for example, in network constructions for
             residential areas.
             PPPoE adopts the client/server model. It provides point-to-point connectivity over
             Ethernet by encapsulating PPP packets in Ethernet frames.
             PPPoE is divided into two distinct phases: discovery and PPP session.
                  Discovery phase
             When a host wants to start a PPPoE process, it must first identify the MAC address of
             the Ethernet on the access end and create the SESSION ID of PPPoE. This is the very
             purpose of the discovery phase.
                  PPP session phase
             After entering the session phase of PPPoE, the system can encapsulate the PPP
             packet as the payload of PPPoE frame into an Ethernet frame and then send the
             Ethernet frame to the peer. In the frame, the SESSION ID must be the one determined
             at the discovery phase, MAC address must be the address of the peer, and the PPP
             packet section begins with the Protocol ID. In the Phase of Session, either the host or
             the server may send PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate (PADT) packets to notify the
             other to end this Session.
             For more information about PPPoE, refer to RFC 2516.

           II. PPPoE server

             The PPPoE server available on H3C AR Series Routers delivers these features:
                  Dynamic IP address allocation.
                  Multiple    authentication   methods   such    as    local   authentication   and
                  RADIUS/TACACS+. Along with ASPF and packet filter, it provides strong defense
                  for your network.
             PPPoE server is applicable to campus networks where Ethernet is used for connecting
             to the Internet. This however, requires installation of PPPoE client dialup software on
             user PCs.




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           III. PPPoE client

             PPPoE is widely used in ADSL broadband access applications. Generally, a host must
             be installed with PPPoE client dialing software in order to access the Internet via ADSL.
             On H3C AR Series Routers, the PPPoE client, or PPPoE client dialup, is available to
             enable users to access the Internet without installing client dial-up software on their
             PCs. Moreover, all PCs on the same LAN can share the same ADSL account.



                        PC                PC
                                                        Ethernet


                                         PPPoE Client



                                         ADSL Modem
                 PPPoE Session




                                         PPPoE Server



             Figure 2-1 Network diagram for PPPoE client


             As shown in the above figure, PCs on the Ethernet are connected to the router where
             PPPoE client runs. The data destined to the Internet first reaches the router and is
             encapsulated in PPPoE there. After leaving the router, it passes through the ADSL
             modem attached to the router and then the ADSL access server before reaching the
             Internet. This can be done without PPPoE client dial-up software.


2.2 PPPoE Server Configuration
             PPPoE server configurations include:
             Fundamental configuration task of PPPoE server includes:
             Create a virtual template and configure the related parameters
                  Enable/disable PPPoE server
                  Configure PPPoE user authentication
             Advanced configuration task of PPPoE includes:
                  Configure other PPPoE server parameters




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2.2.1 Creating a Virtual Template

           I. Creating a virtual template

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 2-1 Create/delete a virtual template

                                Operation                                   Command
               Create a virtual template and enter its view.   interface virtual-template number
                                                               undo interface virtual-template
               Delete the specified virtual template.
                                                               number



           II. Setting the operating parameters of a virtual template

             Compared with physical interfaces, the virtual template interface only supports PPP at
             the link layer and IP at the network layer. When configuring a virtual template, you need
             to perform the following tasks:
             Set the operating parameters of PPP
             Assign an IP address to the virtual template
             Configure the IP address or address pool for address allocation

2.2.2 Enabling/Disabling PPPoE Server

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.
             The commands in the following table are restricted to Ethernet interfaces (including
             subinterfaces). More specifically, While PPPoE is enabled on an Ethernet interface, it is
             not accordingly enabled on other Ethernet interfaces. Likewise, when PPPoE is
             disabled on an Ethernet interface, it is not necessarily disabled on other Ethernet
             interfaces.
             Note: Before beginning the configuration in Table 2-1, you have to finish the
             configuration of the virtual template interface. For detailed description of the
             virtual-template, please refer to the section of Virtual Interface Configuration.

             Table 2-2 Enable/disable PPPoE

                              Operation                                    Command
                                                            pppoe-server bind virtual-template
               Enable PPPoE on Ethernet interface
                                                            number
               Disable PPPoE on Ethernet interface          undo pppoe-server bind



             Where, number is the number of virtual-template.
             By default, PPPoE is disabled.

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2.2.3 Configuring PPPoE Server Parameters

             You may configure PPPoE server parameters as needed. Normally, you can use the
             default settings.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 2-3 Configure PPPoE server parameters

                                 Operation                               Command
               Configure the maximum number of
                                                           pppoe-server max-sessions
               PPPoE sessions allowed to be set up
                                                           remote-mac number
               with a remote MAC address.
               Restore the default maximum number of
                                                           undo pppoe-server max-sessions
               PPPoE sessions (100) allowed to be set
                                                           remote-mac
               up with a remote MAC address.
               Configure the maximum number of
                                                           pppoe-server max-sessions
               PPPoE sessions that a local MAC
                                                           local-mac number
               address is allowed to set up.
               Restore the default maximum number of
                                                           undo pppoe-server max-sessions
               PPPoE sessions (100) that a local MAC
                                                           local-mac
               address is allowed to set up.
               Configure the maximum number of
                                                           pppoe-server max-sessions total
               PPPoE sessions that the current system
                                                           number
               is allowed to set up.
               Restore the default maximum number of
                                                           undo pppoe-server max-sessions
               PPPoE sessions that the current system
                                                           total
               is allowed to set up.



             The effective ranges and default values of the number argument in the pppoe-server
             max-sessions         local-mac,    pppoe-server   max-sessions     remote-mac,     and
             pppoe-server max-sessions total commands are given in the table below

             Table 2-4 Value ranges of number for different products

                    Product series                 Effective range               Default
               AR 18 series                    1 to 512                 512
               AR 28 series                    1 to 1024                256
               AR 46 series                    1 to 4096                512
               AR 46 series (ERPU)             1 to 4096                1024




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2.2.4 Configuring PPPoE User Authentication

             Normally, PPPoE Server requires authentication and accounting on PPP users. For
             more information, refer to the “Security” part of this manual.


2.3 Configuring PPPoE Client
             Fundamental PPPoE configuration tasks include:
                  Configure a dialer interface
                  Configure a PPPoE session
             Advanced PPP configuration task includes:
                  Terminate a PPPoE session

2.3.1 Configuring a Dialer Interface

             Before configuring PPPoE session, you should first configure a dialer interface and
             configure a dialer bundle on the interface. Each PPPoE session uniquely corresponds
             to a dialer bundle and each dialer bundle uniquely corresponds to a dialer interface.
             Thus, a PPPoE session can be created via a dialer interface.
             Execute the dialer-rule and interface dialer commands in system view, and execute
             other commands below in dialer interface view.

             Table 2-5 Configure a dialer interface

                              Operation                                   Command
                                                           dialer-rule dialer-group { protocol-name
               Configure a dialer rule
                                                           { permit | deny } | acl acl-number }
               Create a dialer interface                   interface dialer number
               Enable RS-DCC and set a remote user
                                                           dialer user username
               name
                                                           ip address { address mask |
               Configure IP address of the interface.
                                                           ppp-negotiate }
               Configure the Dialer Bundle on an
                                                           dialer bundle bundle-number
               interface
               Configure the Dialer Group on an
                                                           dialer-group group-number
               interface



             PPPoE only supports RS-DCC. As needed, such parameters as PPP authentication
             may also be necessarily configured on a dialer interface. For more information on how
             to configure a dialer interface, refer to the chapter discussing DDD configurations in the
             “Dial-up” part of this manual.




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2.3.2 Configuring a PPPoE Session

             PPPoE session can be configured on a physical Ethernet interface (or Ethernet
             subinterface) or a virtual Ethernet (VE) interface created on an ADSL interface. When a
             router is to be linked to the Internet through an ADSL interface, it is necessary to
             configure PPPoE session on the virtual Ethernet interface; when a router is to be linked
             to an ADSL Modem and then the Internet via an Ethernet interface, it is necessary to
             configure the PPPoE session on the Ethernet interface.
             Configure a virtual Ethernet interface in system view and PPPoEoA mapping in ADSL
             view.

             Table 2-6 Configure a virtual Ethernet interface

                             Operation                                  Command
               Create a virtual Ethernet interface      interface virtual-ethernet number
               Delete the virtual Ethernet interface    undo interface virtual-ethernet number
                                                        map bridge virtual-ethernet
               Create a PPPoEoA map on a PVC
                                                        interface-num



             Perform the following configuration in Ethernet interface (subinterface) view or virtual
             Ethernet interface view.

             Table 2-7 Configure a PPPoE session

                              Operation                                  Command
               Configure PPPoE session (permanently       pppoe-client dial-bundle-number
               on-line mode)                              number [ no-hostuniq ]

                                                          pppoe-client dial-bundle-number
               Configure PPPoE session (packet
                                                          number idle-timeout seconds
               triggered)
                                                          [ queue-length packets ]
                                                          undo pppoe-client
               Delete PPPoE session
                                                          dial-bundle-number number



             H3C Series Routers support two kinds of PPPoE connection mode: always-on mode
             and packet triggering mode.
                  Always-on mode: When the physical line is UP, the router will quickly initiate
                  PPPoE call to create a PPPoE session. The PPPoE session will always exist
                  unless the user deletes it via the undo pppoe-client command.
                  Packet triggering mode: When the physical line is UP, the router will not
                  immediately initiate PPPoE call. Only when there is data transmission requirement
                  will the router initiate PPPoE call to create a PPPoE session. If the free time of a
                  PPPoE link exceeds the value set by user, the router will automatically terminate
                  the PPPoE session.


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2.3.3 Enabling/Disabling the PPPoE Server to Output PPP-Related Log

             To avoid decreased device performance due to excessive log output, you can disable
             the PPPoE server to output log information.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 2-8 Disable/enable the PPPoE server to output PPP-related log information

                             Operation                                 Command
               Disable the PPPoE server to output
                                                      pppoe-server log-information off
               PPP-related log information
               Enable the PPPoE server to output
                                                      undo pppoe-server log-information off
               PPP-related log information



             By default, the PPPoE server output the PPP-related information.

2.3.4 Resetting/Deleting a PPPoE Session

             Execute the reset pppoe-client command and the reset pppoe-server command in
             user view and the undo pppoe-client command in Ethernet interface view or virtual
             Ethernet interface view.

             Table 2-9 Reset/delete a PPPoE session

                              Operation                                  Command
               Terminate a PPPoE session at the client     reset pppoe-client { all |
               end and recreate the session later          dial-bundle-number number }
                                                           reset pppoe-server { all |
               Terminate a session at the PPPoE
                                                           virtual-template number | interface
               server end
                                                           interface-type interface-num }
               Terminate a PPPoE session at the client     undo pppoe-client
               end and never recreate it again             dial-bundle-number number



             The difference between the reset pppoe-client command and the undo pppoe-client
             command lies in: The former only temporarily terminates a PPPoE session, while the
             latter permanently deletes a PPPoE session.
             When a PPPoE session works in permanent on-line mode, if it is terminated by the
             reset pppoe-client command, the router will automatically recreate a PPPoE session
             in 16 seconds. When a PPPoE session works in packet triggering mode, if it is
             terminated via the reset pppoe-client command, the router will recreate a PPPoE
             session only upon data transmission.




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             No matter a PPPoE session works in permanent on-line mode or in packet triggering
             mode, it will be deleted permanently by the undo pppoe-client command. If it is
             necessary to recreate a PPPoE session, the user must reconfigure it.


2.4 Displaying and Debugging PPPoE
             After finishing the above configuration, execute the display commands in any view to
             view the running state of PPPoE for verifying the effect of the configuration.
             Execute the debugging command in user view.

             Table 2-10 Display and debug PPPoE

                              Operation                                   Command
               Display statistics and state information   display pppoe-server session { all |
               about PPPoE server sessions.               packet }

                                                          display pppoe-client session
               Display statistics and state information
                                                          { summary | packet }
               about PPPoE client sessions.
                                                          [ dial-bundle-number number ]
                                                          debugging pppoe-client option
               Enable PPPoE client debugging.
                                                          [ interface type number ]




2.5 PPPoE Configuration Example
2.5.1 Configuring PPPoE Server

           I. Network requirements

             In Figure 2-2, the hosts access the Internet through the Router by making use of
             PPPoE.

           II. Network diagram

             Router is connected to the Ethernet through the interface Ethernet 1/0/0 and the
             Internet through Serial3/0/0.




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                  Host
                                                           Internet

                                    Router



                  Host



             Figure 2-2 PPPoE network diagram


           III. Configuration procedure

             # Add a PPPoE user
             [H3C] local-user NE
             [H3C-luser-NE] password simple h3c
             [H3C-luser-NE] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-NE] quit

             # Configure PPPoE parameters on Router:
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1

             # Configure virtual-template parameters on Router:
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ppp chap user h3c
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] remote address pool 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] quit

             # Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme local

             # Add a local IP address pool containing nine IP addresses.
             [H3C-isp-domain] ip pool 1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.10

             When installed with PPPoE client software and configured with user name and
             password (herein as NE and h3c respectively), every host on the Ethernet can access
             the Internet through the router with PPPoE.
             If radius-scheme or hwtacacs-scheme is configured for authentication, the H3C
             router may also be configured with RADIUS/HWTACACS parameters, thus enabling


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             the system to charge. For detailed configuration procedures, please refer to the
             Chapter “Security”.

2.5.2 Configuring PPPoE Client

           I. Network requirements

             Router 1 and Router 2 are connected using interface Ethernet 1/0/0. Router 1
             authenticates Router 2 using PAP or CHAP.

           II. Network diagram

                         e1/0/0                        e1/0/0



               Router1                                      Router2


             Figure 2-3 Network diagram for PPPoE client


           III. Configuration procedure

             When PAP authentication applies, configure the routers as follows:
             1)   Configure Router 1
             # Add a PPPoE user.
             [H3C] local-user router2
             [H3C-luser-router2] password simple h3c
             [H3C-luser-router2] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-router2] quit

             # Configure the parameters of the virtual template.
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode pap
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] remote address 1.1.1.2
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] quit

             # Configure PPPoE Server.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1
             2)   Configure Router 2
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] interface dialer 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer user router2
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer bundle 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate



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             [H3C-Dialer1] ppp pap local-user router2 password simple h3c
             [H3C-Dialer1] quit

             # Configure a PPPoE session.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1

             When CHAP authentication applies, configure the routers as follows:
             1)   Configure Router 1
             # Add a PPPoE user.
             [H3C] local-user router2
             [H3C-luser-router2] password simple h3c
             [H3C-luser-router2] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-router2] quit

             # Configure the parameters of the virtual template.
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode chap
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ppp chap user router1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] remote address 1.1.1.2
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] quit

             # Configure PPPoE Server.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1
             2)   Configure Router 2
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] interface dialer 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer user router2
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer bundle 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate
             [H3C-Dialer1] ppp chap user router2
             [H3C-Dialer1] ppp chap password simple h3c
             [H3C-Dialer1] quit
             [H3C] local-user router1
             [H3C-luser-router1] password simple h3c
             [H3C-luser-router1] quit

             # Configure a PPPoE session.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1




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2.5.3 Connecting a LAN to the Internet via ADSL Modem

           I. Network requirements

             PCs on a LAN access the Internet through Router A, which is connected in permanent
             on-line mode to the DSLAM through an ADSL modem. The username and password of
             the ADSL account are h3c and 123456 respectively. Enable the PPPoE client function
             on the router, allowing the hosts on the LAN to access the Internet without PPPoE client
             software.
             Router B is operating as PPPoE Server. It is connected to the DSLAM through interface
             25M Atm 2/0/0, providing RADIUS authentication and accounting.

           II. Network diagram

                    PC              PC        PC




                                                     LAN
                  192.168.1.1 Eth0/0/0

                                    RouterA
                  Eth2/0/0
                                    ADSL Modem




                         Internet



             Figure 2-4 Connect a LAN to the Internet through ADSL


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure the dialer interface.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] interface dialer 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer user h3c
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer bundle 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate
             [H3C-Dialer1] ppp pap local-user h3c password cipher 123456
             [H3C-Dialer1] quit

             # Configure a PPPoE session.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 2/0/0



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             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1

             # Configure a LAN interface and the default route.
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit
             [H3C] ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0 dialer 1

             If the IP addresses of the PCs in the LAN are private addresses, it is necessary to
             configure NAT (Network Address Translation) on the router. The NAT configuration will
             not be elaborated here. For details, refer to the chapter discussing NAT configuration in
             the “Network Protocol” part of Comware V3 Operation Manual.
             2)   Configure Router B
             # Configure the ATM interface.
             [H3C] interface atm2/0/0
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] pvc 0/32
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-0/32] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-0/32] quit

             # Enable PPPoE Server on the VE interface.
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] interface virtual-ethernet 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] mac-address 0022-0022-00c1

             # Configure the parameters of the virtual template.
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1/0/0] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] remote address pool 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] quit

             # Apply RADIUS authentication to the domain users.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-domain] scheme radius-scheme cams

             # Add a local IP address pool that contains nine IP addresses.
             [H3C -isp-domain]      ip pool 1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.10
             [H3C -isp-domain] quit

             # Configure a RADIUS scheme.
             [H3C] radius scheme cams
             [H3C-radius-cams] primary authentication 10.110.91.146 1812
             [H3C-radius-cams] primary accounting 10.110.91.146 1813
             [H3C-radius-cams] key authentication expert
             [H3C-radius-cams] key accounting expert




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             [H3C-radius-cams] server-type H3C
             [H3C-radius-cams] user-name-format with-domain
             [H3C-radius-cams] quit

             For more information on the configurations of RADIUS Server, refer to the
             documentation of the RADIUS Server software.

2.5.4 Using ADSL for Line Backup

           I. Network requirements

             RouterA is connected to the network center via a DDN dedicated line and an ADSL,
             among which the ADSL is the backup of the DDN dedicated line. When the DDN
             dedicated line is in failure, RouterA can still initiate a PPPoE call and access the
             network center via the ADSL. If there is no packet transmission on ADSL for 2 minutes,
             the PPPoE session will terminate automatically. Later on, if there are new packets that
             need forwarding, the PPPoE session will be recreated.

           II. Network diagram

                            e0/0/0             ADSL


                             s1/0/0            DDN

                 Router A                                                    Network center


             Figure 2-5 Network diagram for PPPoE


           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router A:
             # Configure a dialer interface.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] interface dialer 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer user h3c
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer bundle 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate

             # Configure a PPPoE session.
             [H3C-Dialer1] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1 idle-timeout 120

             # Configure the DDN interface Serial 1/0/0.
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] standby interface dialer 1



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             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit

             # Configure the static route to the peer.
             [H3C] ip route 0.0.0.0 0 serial 0/0/0 preference 60
             [H3C] ip route 0.0.0.0 0 dialer 1 preference 70


2.5.5 Accessing the Internet through an ADSL Interface

           I. Network requirements

             Router A has an ADSL interface, through which it can access the Internet directly rather
             than via an ADSL modem.

           II. Network diagram

               Router A

                                              Internet
                       ADSL Interface


             Figure 2-6 Accessing the Internet through an ADSL interface


           III. Configuration procedure

             # Configure a dialer interface
             [H3C]dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C]interface dialer 1
             [H3C-Dialer1]dialer user mypppoe
             [H3C-Dialer1]dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer1]dialer bundle 1
             [H3C-Dialer1]ip address ppp-negotiate

             # Configure a VE interface
             [H3C]interface virtual-ethernet 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] mac 0001-0002-0003
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit
             [H3C] interface atm 1/2/0.1
             [H3C-atm1/2/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/2/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1

             # Configure a PPPoE session.
             [H3C]interface virtual-ethernet 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1 idle-timeout 120

             # Configure a default route.
             [H3C] ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 dialer 1




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                     Chapter 3 ISDN Configuration

3.1 Introduction to ISDN
             Derived from integrated digital network (IDN), integrated services digital network
             (ISDN), provides end-to-end digital connectivity and supports an extensive ranges of
             services, covering both voice and non-voice services.
             ISDN furnishes a finite set of standard multi-purpose user–network interfaces (UNIs). In
             ITU-T I.412 recommendation, two types of UNIs are specified: basic rate interface (BRI)
             with bandwidth of 2B + D and primary rate interface (PRI) with Bandwidth of 30B + D or
             23B + D. Where,
                  B channel is a user channel, used to transmit such user information as voice and
                  data with a transmission rate of 64 kbps.
                  D channel is a control channel, which transmits the public channel signaling.
                  These signals are used to control the calls on the B channel of the same interface.
                  The rate of D channel is 64 kbps (PRI) or 16 kbps (BRI). The ITU-T Q.921 is a data
                  link layer protocol of D channel. It defines the rule for Layer 2 information
                  interchange via D channel from the user to a network interface and supports the
                  access of a layer 3 entity. The ITU-T Q.931 is a network layer protocol of D
                  channel. It provides a measure for creating, maintaining and terminating network
                  connection between communication application entities. Call control (CC) is a
                  further encapsulation of Q.931, which forwards the message from the network
                  side to CC for CC to perform information interchange with higher layer applications
                  such as DCC.


                                          CC
                 Layer 3
                                         Q.931
                 Layer 2               Q.921 LAPD

                 Layer 1         BRI             PRI

             Figure 3-1 ISDN D channel protocol stack


             The ISDN protocols proposed by ITU-T provides different services in different areas,
             forming the ISDN protocols that are suitable for different regions, such as NTT (Nippon
             Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) in Japan, ETSI (European Telecommunications
             Standards Institute) in Europe, NI (National ISDN), NI2, AT&T 5ESS, and ANSI
             (American National Standard Institute) in North America. Besides the default DSS1
             ISDN protocol, the AR series routers support the basic calling function of NTT, ETSI,




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             ATT, ANSI, NI, NI2, and Q.SIG protocols, but do not support the supplementary
             functions of these protocols.
             NI protocol used in North America is only applied to BRI interface. The ISDN network
             uses SPID (Service Profile Identification) as the ID of different services, and the switch
             provides the corresponding service to the terminal user according to the SPID. Each B
             channel corresponds to a SPID. Only after having employed the SPID to perform the
             SPID handshake interaction, can the user proceed with normal calling and
             disconnection process. Therefore, after the Q.921 establishes link successfully and
             before the Q.931 calling processing starts, the user needs to obtain SPID to interact
             with the switch to perform the Layer 3 (Q.931) initialization, then he can start normal
             calling and disconnect process., otherwise, the calling will fail.
             By far, there are three ways to obtain the SPID on one BRI interface over the ISDN in
             North America.
                  Manually input the SPID consisting of 9 to 20 digits.
                  14-digit SPID (Generic SPID Format). The former 10 digits are input by the user,
                  and the latter 4 digits can only be “0101”.
                  Allocate by SPCS (Stored Program Control Switching System) through Automated
                  SPID Selection Regulation.
             The former two ways to obtain SPID are regarded as static configuration methods, and
             the third one is taken as dynamic negotiation method. If the user does not specify a
             SPID in static method, the system will adopt dynamic method by default.


3.2 Configuring ISDN
             ISDN configuration includes:
                  Set ISDN protocol mode
                  Set ISDN protocol type
                  Configure the negotiation parameters of ISDN Layer 3 protocol
                  Configure the SPID parameters of ISDN NI protocol
                  Set the called number and sub-address to be checked during a digital incoming
                  call
                  Configure to send calling number during an outgoing call
                  Set the local management ISDN B channel
                  Configure ISDN B channel selection mode
                  Configure the size of an ISDN sliding window
                  Configure statistics about ISDN message receiving/sending
                  Configure to check the calling number when a incoming ISDN call comes
                  Configure ISDN BSV interface deactivation method
                  Use C-DCC for ISDN leased line
                  Configure ISDN leased line
                  Configure transparent transmission of Q.931 related information element through
                  H.323

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                  Test the ISDN data call link establishment function

3.2.1 Setting ISDN Protocol Mode

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 3-1 Set ISDN protocol mode

                              Operation                                  Command
               Set ISDN protocol mode                      isdn protocol-mode mode



             For ISDN protocol mode, two keywords are available: network and user.
             By default, both ISDN BRI and ISDN PRI interfaces are operating on the user-side of
             ISDN protocol. Among BRI interfaces, only BSV interfaces support network-side BRI.
             In addition, this command is available on ISDN BSV and PRI interfaces only;
             network-side ISDN PRI interfaces only support Q.SIG and DSS1; and network-side
             ISDN BSV interfaces only support DSS1.



                 Note:
             Before configuring this command on an ISDN interface, make sure that no call exists on
             the interface. If a call is present, your configuration is invalid. You may shut down the
             interface and then undo the operation before configuring the command, but this will
             disconnect all the calls present on the interface.




3.2.2 Setting ISDN Protocol Type

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 3-2 Setting ISDN protocol type

                              Operation                                  Command
               Set ISDN protocol type                      isdn protocol-type protocol



             The ISDN protocol can be DSS1, NTT, NI, NI2, Q.SIG, ETSI, ANSI or AT&T.
             By default, the ISDN protocol on the BRI interface and PRI interface are both DSS1
             protocol.




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                 Note:
             You are allowed to configure:
             ANSI ISDN on BRI and T1 PRI interfaces;
             AT&T ISDN on T1 PRI interfaces;
             DSS1 ISDN on BRI, E1 PRI, and T1 PRI interfaces;
             ETSI ISDN on BRI, E1 PRI, and T1 PRI interfaces;
             Q.SIG ISDN on E1 PRI and T1 PRI interfaces;
             NI (National ISDN) on BRI interfaces;
             NI2 on T1 PRI interfaces;
             NTT ISDN on BRI and T1 PRI interfaces.
             For a network-side PRI interface, its protocol must be set to DSS1 or Q.SIG; for a
             network-side BSV interface, its protocol must be set to DSS1.




3.2.3 Enabling the Q.921 Permanent Link Function

             The Q.921 permanent link function is available on BRI interfaces. It offers an operating
             mode option, increasing the flexibility of configuring and using ISDN on a BRI interface.
             When configuring the NI protocol, configure the isdn q921-permanent command as
             well. This allows the interface to start SPID negotiation and initialize layer 3
             immediately after a Q.921 link is set up, ensuing the subsequent layer 3 call process
             can go smoothly.
             Perform the following configuration in BRI interface view.

             Table 3-3 Enable the Q.921 permanent link function

                              Operation                                   Command
               Enable the Q.921 permanent link
                                                          isdn q921-permanent
               function on the BRI interface
               Disable the Q.921 permanent link
                                                          undo isdn q921-permanent
               function on the BRI interface



             By default, Q.921 permanent link function is disabled.

3.2.4 Configuring the Negotiation Parameters of ISDN Layer 3 Protocol

             Please perform the following configuration in interface view.




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             Table 3-4 Configure the negotiation parameters of ISDN Layer 3 protocol

                                   Operation                                   Command
               Set the length of the call reference adopted when    isdn crlength
               the ISDN interface initiates a call                  call-reference-length
               Restore the length of the ISDN call reference
                                                                    undo isdn crlength
               used by the interface
               When the router interoperates with the switch,
               configure the ISDN protocol of the router to
               switch to ACTIVE status after sending CONNECT
                                                                    isdn ignore connect-ack
               message and start data and voice
               communication, instead of waiting for CONNECT
               ACK message.
               When the router interoperates with the switch,
               configure the ISDN protocol of the router to wait    undo Isdn ignore
               for CONNECT ACK message after sending                connect-ack
               CONNECT message.
               Configure the SETUP message not to carry
               high-level compatibility information unit when the   isdn ignore hlc
               ISDN initiates voice call.
               Restore the SETUP message to carry high-level
               compatibility information unit when the ISDN         undo isdn ignore hlc
               initiates voice call.
               Configure the SETUP message not to carry
               low-level compatibility information unit when the    isdn ignore llc
               ISDN initiates voice call.
               Restore the SETUP message to carry low-level
               compatibility information unit when the ISDN         undo isdn ignore llc
               initiates voice call.
               Configure ISDN protocol to ignore the handling of    isdn ignore
               sending complete information unit when the           sending-complete [ incoming
               router interoperates with the switch.                | outgoing ]
               Configure ISDN protocol to handle the sending of     undo isdn ignore
               complete information unit when the router            sending-complete [ incoming
               interoperates with the switch.                       | outgoing]

                                                                    isdn L3-timer timer-name
               Configure the time-interval of ISDN Layer 3.
                                                                    time-interval
                                                                    undo isdn L3-timer
               Restore the default time-interval of ISDN Layer 3.
                                                                    { timer-name | all }

                                                                    isdn number-property
               Set the type and code scheme of calling or called
                                                                    number-property [ calling |
               numbers in incoming or outgoing ISDN calls
                                                                    called ] [ in | out ]
               Restore the default type and code scheme of
                                                                    undo isdn number-property
               calling or called numbers in incoming or outgoing
                                                                    [ calling | called ] [ in | out ]
               ISDN calls




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                                   Operation                                     Command
               Set the called number of ISDN interface to send          isdn overlap-sending
               in overlap mode.                                         [ window-size ]
               Set the called number of ISDN interface to send
                                                                        undo isdn overlap-sending
               in integrated mode.



             By default, the length of the call reference used on E1 PRI interface and T1 PRI
             interface is 2 bytes, and that used on BRI interface is 1 byte. SETUP message carries
             sends complete information unit. The ISDN coding plan and integrated sending mode
             are adopted. SETUP message carries high-level compatibility and low-level
             compatibility for voice call.
             By default, when the router interoperates with the switch, only after the ISDN protocol
             having received CONNECT ACK message after sending CONNECT message, can it
             switch to ACTIVE status and start data and voice communication.

3.2.5 Configuring the SPID of the ISDN NI Protocol

             You may configure SPID on the BRI interfaces that are running the ISDN NI protocol.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 3-5 Configure the SPID parameters of ISDN NI protocol

                                    Operation                                     Command
               On the BRI interface adopting NI protocol, set the
               processing mode of SPID to NIT, i.e., non-initializing    isdn spid nit
               terminal mode.
               Remove the NIT mode on BRI interface.                     undo isdn spid nit
               Modify the time-interval of timer TSPID on the BRI
                                                                         isdn spid timer seconds
               interface adopting NI protocol.
               Restore the default value of the time-interval of
               timer TSPID on the BRI interface adopting NI              undo isdn spid timer
               protocol.
               Set the number of times of resending message on
                                                                         isdn spid resend times
               the BRI interface adopting NI protocol.
               Restore the default number of times of resending
                                                                         undo isdn spid resend
               message on the BRI interface adopting NI protocol.
               Set the SPID value of B1 on the BRI interface
                                                                         isdn spid1 spid [ LDN ]
               adopting NI protocol.
               Delete the SPID value of B1 on the BRI interface
                                                                         undo isdn spid1
               adopting NI protocol.
               Set the SPID value of B2 on the BRI interface
                                                                         isdn spid2 spid [ LDN ]
               adopting NI protocol.



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                                    Operation                                  Command
               Delete the SPID value of B2 on the BRI interface
                                                                      undo isdn spid2
               adopting NI protocol.
               Enable the SPID negotiation on the BRI interface
                                                                      isdn spid auto-trigger
               adopting NI protocol.
                                                                      isdn spid service [ speech |
               Set the service type supported by SPID
                                                                      data | audio ]
               Delete all service types                               undo isdn spid service



             By default, there is no NIT mode, nor SPID 1 or SPID 2 value, and SPID works in AUTO
             mode. The time-interval for TSPID Timer is 30 seconds. INFORMATION can only be
             resent once. SPID supports voice and data at the same time.

3.2.6 Setting the Called Number or Sub-Address to Be Checked During a
Digital Incoming Call

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 3-6 Set the called number or sub-address to be checked during a digital
             incoming call

                              Operation                                   Command
               Set the called number or sub-address to     isdn check-called-number
               be checked during a digital incoming call   called-party-number [ :subaddress ]
               Remove the called number or
               sub-address to be checked during a          undo isdn check-called-number
               digital incoming call



             By default, no called number or sub-address is configured.
             This command is used for the setting of the checking item during a digital incoming call.
             As long as a sub-address is set, the call will be refused when the peer does not send
             the sub-address or sends a wrong one.

3.2.7 Configuring to Send Calling Number During an Outgoing Call

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.




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             Table 3-7 Configure to send calling number during an outgoing call

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure to send calling number during
                                                           isdn calling calling-number
               an outgoing call
               Disable send calling number during an
                                                           undo isdn calling
               outgoing call



             The calling-number is a digital string not more than 24. The purpose for setting this
             command is to reduce cost in some networks that charge the calling side by providing
             advantageous accounting numbers for users. By default, no calling number is sent.

3.2.8 Setting the Local Management ISDN B Channel

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 3-8 Set the local management ISDN B channel

                              Operation                                   Command
               Set the local management ISDN B
                                                           isdn bch-local-manage [ exclusive ]
               channel
               Remove the local management ISDN B
                                                           undo isdn bch-local-manage
               channel



             By default, local ISDN B channel management is not configured and the remote end is
             responsible for B channel management.
             Configured with isdn bch-local-manage command, the router operates in local
             B-channel management mode to select available B channels for calls. Despite this, the
             connected exchange has higher priority in B channel selection. If the B channel the
             router selected for a call is different from the one indicated by the exchange, the one
             indicated by the exchange is used for communication.
             Configured with the isdn bch-local-manage exclusive command, the router operates
             in exclusive local B-channel management mode. In this mode, the B channel selected
             by the router must be adopted for communication. In the Channel ID information
             element of the call Setup message sent for a call, the router indicates that the B
             channel is mandatory and unchangeable. If the connected exchange indicates a B
             channel different from the one selected by the router, call failure occurs.

3.2.9 Configuring ISDN B Channel Selection Mode

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.




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             Table 3-9 Configure ISDN B channel selection mode

                               Operation                                Command
               Configure ISDN B channel selection in
                                                          isdn bch-select-way ascending
               ascending mode
               Configure ISDN B channel selection in
                                                          isdn bch-select-way descending
               ascending mode



             If you want to configure the isdn bch-select-way ascending command, you must use
             the isdn-bch-local-manage command to configure local channel management;
             otherwise, the configured ISDN B channel selection mode does not take effect.
             By default, the ascending mode is used for ISDN B channel selection.




                    Caution:

                 When the switch manages B channel, this command does not take effect.
                 This command works only at the DSS1 side of the network.
                 This command works only for a non-Q.SIG protocol with local B channel
                 management configured.




3.2.10 Configuring the Sliding Window Size on the PRI Interface

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 3-10 Configure the size of the sliding window on the PRI interface

                             Operation                                 Command
               Configure the sliding window size on
                                                        isdn pri-slipwnd-size window-size
               the PRI interface.
               Restore the default.                     isdn pri-slipwnd-size default



             The sliding window on the PRI interface defaults to 7.

3.2.11 Configuring Statistics about ISDN Message Receiving/Sending

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.




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             Table 3-11 Configure statistics about ISDN message receiving/sending

                              Operation                                    Command
               Set ISDN to start the statistics of
                                                            isdn statistics start
               message receiving/sending
               Set ISDN to stop the statistics of
                                                            isdn statistics stop
               message receiving/sending
               Display ISDN statistics                      isdn statistics display [ flow ]
               Continue the statistics of information
                                                            isdn statistics continue
               received by ISDN
               Clear ISDN statistics                        isdn statistics clear




3.2.12 Configuring to Check the Calling Number When an Incoming Call
Comes

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 3-12 Configure to check the calling number when an incoming call comes

                              Operation                                    Command
               Configure to check the calling number
                                                            isdn caller-number caller-number
               when an incoming call comes
               Remove to check the calling number
                                                            undo isdn caller-number
               when an incoming call comes



             Execute the isdn caller-number caller-number command to configure to check the
             calling number when an incoming call comes. For example, isdn caller-number 400
             indicates that only the calling number 400 can be received.

3.2.13 Configuring ISDN User Local Authentication

             ISDN users can use local call number authentication.
             Perform the following configuration in local user view.

             Table 3-13 Configure a call number

                              Operation                                    Command
                                                            service-type ppp call-number
               Configure a call number.
                                                            call-number [ :subcall-number ] ]
               Remove the configuration.                    undo service-type ppp call-number




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3.2.14 Configuring TEI Treatment on the BRI Interface

             Perform the following configuration in BRI interface view.

             Table 3-14 Configure TEI treatment on the BRI interface

                                          Operation                                   Command
               Request the switch for a new TEI each time a B channel on the
                                                                                  isdn two-tei
               BRI interface places a call.
               Restore the default TEI treatment method on the BRI interface.     undo isdn two-tei



             By default, all B channels on the BRI interface use the same TEI.

3.2.15 Configuring ISDN Deactivation Method

             Perform the following configuration in ISDN BRI interface view.

             Table 3-15 Configure an ISDN BSV interface deactivation method

                              Operation                                    Command
               Enable the router to actively deactivate
                                                           deactivate-protect
               the ISDN BSV interface
               Disable the router to actively deactivate
                                                           undo deactivate-protect
               the ISDN BSV interface



             By default, the router is enabled to actively deactivate the BSV interface.
             If disabled from actively deactivating the BSV interface, the router deactivates the
             interface only when the interface is shut down or the BRI line is disconnected. Disabling
             active BSV interface deactivation allows the BRI line to stay in the active state, ensuring
             BSV calls to be completed rapidly. This is not preferred however, if occasional BRI line
             deactivation is desired.
             When configured on the user side, this command does not take any effect.

3.2.16 Using C-DCC for ISDN BRI Leased Line

             Before you can use this command, you must configure C-DCC. ISDN leased lines are
             implemented by establishing MP semipermanent connections. This requires that the
             PBXs of your telecommunication service provider provide leased lines and are
             connected to the remote devices.
             Perform the following configuration in dialer interface (ISDN BRI) interface view.




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             Table 3-16 Configure ISDN leased line using C-DCC

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure the B channel for ISDN leased
                                                           dialer isdn-leased { 128k | number }
               line connection.
               Delete the B channel used in ISDN           undo dialer isdn-leased { 128k |
               leased line connection.                     number }



             By default, no B channel is configured for ISDN leased line connection.

3.2.17 Configuring ISDN BRI Leased Line

             You may use the channel-set timeslot command to configure a B channel on an ISDN
             BRI interface for leased line service. After you do that, a serial interface is created
             automatically and named as follows:
                  For B channel 0, the serial interface is named serial + BRI interface number : 1, for
                  example, serial 1/0/0:1.
                  For B channel 1, the serial interface is named serial + BRI interface number : 2, for
                  example, serial 1/0/0:2.
                  For 128 kbps channel, the serial interface is named serial + BRI interface number :
                  0, for example, serial 1/0/0:0.
             All leased line configurations must be made on this serial interface.
             Alternatively, you may set a B channel for leased line service using the dialer
             isdn-leased command but in conjunction with the C-DCC. In addition, all leased line
             configurations must be made based on the configuration of C-DCC. This is different
             from the channel-set timeslot command, where PPP and FR are supported and the B
             channel can be configured separately.
             On an ISDN BRI interface configured with the channel-set timeslot command, you
             cannot configure leased line service with the dialer isdn-leased command.
             Perform the following configuration in ISDN BRI interface view.

             Table 3-17 Configure a B channel for ISDN BRI leased line service

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure a B channel for ISDN leased
                                                           channel-set timeslot number
               line service
               Remove the leased line configuration of
                                                           undo channel-set timeslot number
               a B channel



             By default, no B channel on the ISDN BRI interface is configured for leased line service.




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3.2.18 Configuring Transparent Transmission of Q.931 Related Information
Element Through H.323

             To not to lose the original ISDN services features, voice gateway is required to
             transparently transmit the ISDN protocol related information and information element
             on the local PBX to the peer PBX through VoIP network, that is, to implement ISDN
             end-to-end transparent transmission.
             Perform the following configuration in ISDN interface view.

             Table 3-18 Configure transparent transmission for Q.931 information element

                              Operation                                    Command
                                                           isdn ie passthrough
               Enable transparent transmission for the
                                                           { information-element | all } { incoming |
               corresponding information element
                                                           outgoing | both }
               Disable transparent transmission for the    undo isdn ie passthrough
               corresponding information element           { information-element | all }
               Configure Date/Time information
                                                           datetime local
               element to use local time



             By default, transparent transmission for the corresponding information element is
             disabled and no local time is used.



3.2.19 Testing the ISDN Data Call Link Establishment

             With this function, you can test whether a physical ISDN link is available. Note that this
             function tests only the data call link establishment, but not the ISDN voice call link
             establishment.
             Perform the following configuration in any view.

             Table 3-19 Test the ISDN data call link establishment

                              Operation                                    Command
               Test the ISDN data call link                isdn test call interface interface-type
               establishment                               interface-number call-number




3.3 Displaying and Debugging ISDN
             After finishing the above configuration, execute the display commands in any view to
             view the running state information of ISDN for verifying the effect of the configuration.
             Execute the debugging command in user view for the debugging of ISDN.



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             Table 3-20 Display and debug ISDN

                               Operation                                   Command
               Display the active calling information on an   display isdn active-channel
               ISDN interface                                 [ interface type number ]
               Display the current status of an ISDN          display isdn call-info [ interface type
               interface                                      number ]
                                                              display isdn call-record [ interface
               Display the history record of an ISDN call
                                                              type number]
               Display the system parameters of ISDN
                                                              display isdn parameters { protocol |
               protocol Layer 2 and Layer 3 running on
                                                              interface type number }
               the interface.
               Display the information of SPID on the BRI     display isdn spid interface type
               interface adopting NI protocol                 number
                                                              debugging isdn cc [ interface type
               Enable ISDN CC debugging
                                                              number ]
                                                              undo debugging isdn cc [ interface
               Disable ISDN CC debugging
                                                              type number]
                                                              debugging isdn q921 [ interface
               Enable ISDN Q.921 debugging
                                                              type number ]

                                                              undo debugging isdn q921
               Disable ISDN Q.921 debugging
                                                              [ interface type number ]
                                                              debugging isdn q931 [ interface
               Enable ISDN Q.931 debugging
                                                              type number ]

                                                              undo debugging isdn q931
               Disable ISDN Q.931 debugging
                                                              [ interface type number ]
                                                              debugging isdn qsig [ interface type
               Enable ISDN Q.SIG debugging
                                                              number ]

                                                              undo debugging isdn qsig
               Disable ISDN Q.SIG debugging
                                                              [ interface type number ]
                                                              debugging isdn spid [ interface type
               Enable ISDN SPID debugging
                                                              number ]

                                                              undo debugging isdn spid
               Disable ISDN SPID debugging
                                                              [ interface type number ]




3.4 ISDN Configuration Example
3.4.1 Connecting Routers through ISDN PRI Lines

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the figure below, Router A is connected with Router B through the WAN.



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           II. Network diagram

                       202.38.154.1
                         8810152
                         Ce1/PRI

               RouterA

                                          ISDN
                                         Network




                                                     Ce1/PRI
                                                     8810154
                                                   202.38.154.1 RouterB

             Figure 3-2 Network diagram for ISDN configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Create an ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] controller e1 3/0/0
             [H3C-E1 3/0/0] pri-set timeslots 1-31
             [H3C-E1 3/0/0] quit

             # Configure an ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0:15
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0:15] ip address 202.38.154.1 255.255.0.0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0:15] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0:15] dialer route ip 202.38.154.2 8810154
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0:15] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0:15] quit
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             2)   Configure Router B
             Follow the same procedures to configure Router B.

3.4.2 Connecting Routers through ISDN BRI Lines Running NI

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, Router A is connected to Router B through a WAN.




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           II. Network diagram

                            8810152
                               202.38.154.1
              Router A    BRI
                                              ISDN
                                              switching
                                              network
                                                                    8810154
                                                            BRI               202.38.154.2


                                                                  Router B

             Figure 3-3 Network diagram for ISDN NI protocol configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure the dialing parameters on ISDN BRI interface.
             [H3C] interface bri 0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] ip address 202.38.153.1 255.255.0.0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer route ip 202.38.153.2 8810153
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] quit
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Configure ISDN NI protocol parameter to make the B channel of BRI interface support
             static SPID value, and set the negotiation message to be resent twice when there is no
             reply.
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] isdn protocol-type ni
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] isdn spid1 12345
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] isdn spid2 23456
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] isdn spid resend 2
             2)   Configure Router B
             Follow the same procedures to configure Router B.

3.4.3 Transmitting Voice over ISDN BRI Line and Transit Network

           I. Network requirements

             Figure 3-4 presents a scenario where:
                  Router B and Router C are connected across an IP network.
                  PBX A is connected to Router B through an ISDN PRI line, so is PBX D to Router
                  C.

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                    PBX A and Router C are working at the network side of the ISDN Q.SIG protocol
                    while PBX D and Router B are working at the user side of the ISDN Q.SIG
                    protocol.
                    An analog telephone with the number 100 is attached to PBX A and an analog
                    telephone with the number 400 is attached to PBX D.

           II. Network diagram

               PBX A
                                                 RouterB
                                CE1/PRI

                                                           218.199.0.2
                        Network           User                                                  400


                                                             IP


                  100
                                                                  RouterC
                                                                               CE1/PRI    400
                                                 218.199.0.3
                                                                                         User
                                                                         Network                PBX D


             Figure 3-4 Network diagram for ISDN PRI voice configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure Router B
             # Create an ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] controller e1 1/0/0
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] pri-set timeslot-list 1-31
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] quit

             # Configure the ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0:15
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] isdn protocol-type qsig
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] quit

             # Configure voice parameters
             [H3C] voice-setup
             [H3C-voice] dial-program
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 100 pots
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] match-template 100
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] line 1/0/0:15
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] send-number all
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 400 voip
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] match-template 400



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             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] address ip 218.199.0.3
             2)   Configure Router C
             # Create an ISDN PRI interface
             [H3C] controller e1 1/0/0
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] pri-set timeslot-list 1-31
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] quit

             # Configure the ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0:15
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] isdn protocol-type qsig
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] isdn protocol-mode network
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] quit

             # Configure voice parameters.
             [H3C] voice-setup
             [H3C-voice] dial-program
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 100 voip
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] match-template 100
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] address ip 218.199.0.2
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 400 pots
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] match-template 400
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] line 1/0/0:15
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] send-number all


3.4.4 Data Transmission over ISDN PRI Leased Line Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Figure 3-5 presents a scenario, where
                  Router A and Router B are connected through an ISDN PRI line, so are Router C
                  and Router D.
                  Router B and Router C are connected across an IP network.
                  Router A and Router C are working at the network side of ISDN protocol, while
                  Router B and Router D are working at the user side of ISDN protocol.




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           II. Network diagram

               Network                            User
                         100     CE1 PRI   200
                                                          218.199.0.2
                         110.1.2.1   110.1.2.2
              RouterA E1 1/0/0             E2 1/0/0 RouterB



                                                              IP



                                                                   Network                             User
                                                                          300        CE1 PRI    400
                                                  218.199.0.3
                                                                              110.1.1.3    110.1.1.4
                                                         RouterC   E1 1/0/0                    E1 4/0/0 RouterD


             Figure 3-5 Network diagram for ISDN protocol configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router A
             # Create an ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] controller e1 1/0/0
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] pri-set timeslot-list 1-31
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] quit

             # Configure the ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0:15
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] ip address 110.1.2.1 24
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] isdn protocol-type qsig
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] dialer route ip 110.1.2.2 400
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] isdn protocol-mode network
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] quit
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] ip route-static 110.1.1.0 24 110.1.2.2
             2)    Configure Router B
             # Create an ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] controller e1 2/0/0
             [H3C-E1 2/0/0] pri-set timeslot-list 1-31
             [H3C-E1 2/0/0] quit

             # Configure the ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0:15
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:15] ip address 110.1.2.2 24
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:15] isdn protocol-type qsig



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             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:15] dialer route ip 110.1.2.1 100
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:15] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:15] dialer-group 1
             [H3CSerial2/0/0:15] quit
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] ip route-static 110.1.1.0 24 218.199.0.3
             3)   Configure Router C
             # Create an ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] controller e1 1/0/0
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] pri-set timeslot-list 1-31
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] quit

             # Configure the ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0:15
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] ip address 110.1.1.3 24
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] isdn protocol-type qsig
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] dialer route ip 110.1.1.4 400
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] isdn protocol-mode network
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] quit
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] ip route-static 110.1.2.0 24 218.199.0.2
             4)   Configure Router D
             # Create an ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] controller e1 4/0/0
             [H3C-E1 4/0/0] pri-set timeslot-list 1-31
             [H3C-E1 4/0/0] quit

             # Configure the ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 4/0/0:15
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0:15] ip address 110.1.1.4 24
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0:15] isdn protocol-type qsig
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0:15] dialer route ip 110.1.1.3 100
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0:15] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0:15] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0:15] quit
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] ip route-static 110.1.2.0 24 110.1.1.3




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3.4.5 Transmitting Voice over ISDN BSV Line and Transit Network

           I. Network requirements

             Figure 3-6 presents a scenario where:
                  Router B and Router C are connected across an IP network.
                  PBX A is connected to Router B through a BSV/BRI line, so is PBX D to Router C.
                  PBX A and Router C are working at the user side of the ISDN DSS1 protocol while
                  PBX D and Router B are working at the network side of the ISDN DSS1 protocol.
                  An analog telephone with the number 100 is attached to PBX A and an analog
                  telephone with the number 400 is attached to PBX D.

           II. Network diagram

                  PBX A              RouterB                        RouterC                 PBX D
                            DSS1                                                   DSS1
                           BSV/BRI                                                BSV/BRI
                           channel
                                                        IP                        channel

                       user     Network                                    user      Network
                                          218.199.0.2        218.199.0.3



             Telephone 100
                                                                                        Telephone 400

             Figure 3-6 Network diagram for ISDN PRI voice configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router B
             # Configure the ISDN BSV interface.
             [H3C] interface bsv 1/0/0
             [H3C-BSV1/0/0] isdn protocol-mode network
             [H3C-BSV1/0/0] quit

             # Configure voice parameters.
             [H3C] voice
             [H3C-voice] dial-program
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 100 voip
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] match-template 100
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] address ip 218.199.0.2
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 400 pots
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] match-template 400
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] line 1/0/0:2
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] send-number all
             2)   Configure Router C
             The user-side BSV interface needs no configuration.


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             # Configure voice parameters.
             [H3C] voice
             [H3C-voice] dial-program
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 100 pots
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] match-template 100
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] line 2/0/0:2
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity100] send-number all
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 400 voip
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] match-template 400
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity400] address ip 218.199.0.3


3.4.6 Using ISDN BRI Leased Line to Implement MP Bundling

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, Router A is connected to Router B through two BRI
             leased lines, which are used for MP bundling.

           II. Network diagram


                               202.38.154.1
              Router A   BRI

                                         ISDN switching
                                         network



                                                          BRI              202.38.154.2


                                                                Router B

             Figure 3-7 Using ISDN BRI leased lines to implement MP bundling


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router A
             [H3C] interface bri8/0/0
             [H3C-bri8/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-bri8/0/0] ppp mp Virtual-Template 5
             [H3C-bri8/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-bri8/0/0] dialer isdn-leased 0
             [H3C-bri8/0/0] dialer isdn-leased 1
             [H3C] interface virtual-template5
             [H3C-Virtual-Template5] ip address 202.38.154.1 255.0.0.0
             2)    Configure Router B
             [H3C] interface bri8/0/0




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             [H3C-bri8/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-bri8/0/0] ppp mp virtual-template 5
             [H3C-bri8/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-bri8/0/0] dialer isdn-leased 0
             [H3C-bri8/0/0] dialer isdn-leased 1
             [H3C] interface Virtual-Template5
             [H3C-Virtual-Template5] ip address 202.38.154.2 255.0.0.0




                   Note:
             At present, only Virtual-Template is used as the template for MP binding using ISDN
             leased line.
             As leased lines do not require dialing, you do not need to configure dial numbers.
             The system accepts MP bundles formed by multiple ISDN leased lines, which can be
             64K, 128K, or both. You can configure MP bundles in a way similar to configuring serial
             interfaces. Refer back to the section 1.6.5 “Three Types of MP Binding Mode”.




3.4.7 Configuring ISDN 128K Leased Lines

           I. Network requirements

             Connect two routers by connecting their ISDN BRI interfaces through a 128K leased
             line.

           II. Network diagram

                            BRI0/0/0             BRI0/0/0
                                        ISDN
                                       Network
                  RouterA                                   RouterB

             Figure 3-8 Network diagram for ISDN 128K leased line connection


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)      Configure Router A
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] interface bri 0/0/0
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] dialer isdn-leased 128k




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             2)   Configure Router B
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] interface bri 0/0/0
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] dialer isdn-leased 128k




                  Note:
             You do not need to configure a dial number because setup of leased line connection
             does not involve dial process.



             After you configure a lease line successfully, you can dial through. To view state about
             the interfaces, execute the following commands:
             <H3C> display interface bri 0/0/0
             Bri0/0/0 current state :UP
             Line protocol current state :UP (spoofing)
             Description : Bri0/0/0 Interface
             The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)
             baudrate is 128000 bps,      Timeslot(s) Used: 1, 2
             Internet Address is 100.1.1.1/24
             Encapsulation is ISDN


             Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards)           0/50/0
             Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
             Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards)           0/75/0
                  Last 300 seconds input rate 0.00 bytes/sec, 0.00 packets/sec
                  Last 300 seconds output rate 0.00 bytes/sec, 0.00 packets/sec
                  Input: 0 packets, 0 bytes
                           0 broadcasts, 0 multicasts
                           2 errors, 0 runts, 0 giants,
                           2 CRC, 0 align errors, 0 overruns,
                           0 dribbles, 0 aborts, 0 no buffers
                           0 frame errors
                  Output:0 packets, 0 bytes
                           0 errors, 0 underruns, 0 collisions
                           0 deferred


             <H3C> display interface bri 0/0/0:1



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             Bri0/0/0:1 current state :UP
             Line protocol current state :UP (spoofing)
             Description : Bri0/0/0:1 Interface
             The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
             baudrate is 128000 bps,     Timeslot(s) Used: 1, 2
             Link layer protocol is PPP
             LCP opened, IPCP opened, OSICP opened
             Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards)    0/50/0
             Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
             Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards)    0/75/0
                  Last 300 seconds input rate 2.44 bytes/sec, 0.20 packets/sec
                  Last 300 seconds output rate 2.54 bytes/sec, 0.20 packets/sec
                  Input: 17782 packets, 220973 bytes
                           0 broadcasts, 0 multicasts
                           2 errors, 0 runts, 0 giants,
                           2 CRC, 0 align errors, 0 overruns,
                           0 dribbles, 0 aborts, 0 no buffers
                           0 frame errors
                  Output:17085 packets, 208615 bytes
                           0 errors, 0 underruns, 0 collisions
                           0 deferred


             <H3C> display interface bri 0/0/0:2
             Bri0/0/0:2 current state :DOWN
             Line protocol current state :UP (spoofing)
             Description : Bri0/0/0:2 Interface
             The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
             baudrate is 64000 bps,      Timeslot(s) Used: NULL
             Link layer protocol is PPP
             LCP initial
             Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards)    0/50/0
             Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
             Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards)    0/75/0
                  Last 300 seconds input rate 0.16 bytes/sec, 0.01 packets/sec
                  Last 300 seconds output rate 0.16 bytes/sec, 0.01 packets/sec
                  Input: 17494 packets, 216768 bytes
                           0 broadcasts, 0 multicasts
                           2 errors, 0 runts, 0 giants,
                           2 CRC, 0 align errors, 0 overruns,
                           0 dribbles, 0 aborts, 0 no buffers
                           0 frame errors
                  Output:16634 packets, 201465 bytes
                           0 errors, 0 underruns, 0 collisions


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                               0 deferred

             As you can see, the state of interface Bri0/0/0:1 is UP, its speed is 128 kbps, and
             channels (timeslots used) B1 and B2 are in use; the state of Bri0/0/0:2 is DOWN, and
             the field of timeslots used is null.

3.4.8 Using ISDN Leased Line without Dial-up

           I. Network requirements

             Two routers are connected through ISDN BRI interfaces to set up a 64 kbps leased line
             connection.

           II. Network diagram

                  1.1.1.1/24
                               BRI1/0/0                  BRI2/0/0
                                            ISDN

                                            Network
                                                             1.1.1.2/24
                  RouterA                                                 RouterB


             Figure 3-9 Network diagram for an ISDN 64 kbps leased line


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             [H3C] interface bri 1/0/0
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] channel-set timeslot-list 0
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0:1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:1] ip address 1.1.1.1 24
             2)   Configure Router B
             [H3C] interface bri 2/0/0
             [H3C-Bri2/0/0] channel-set timeslot-list 0
             [H3C-Bri2/0/0] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0:1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0:1] ip address 1.1.1.2 24


3.4.9 Interoperating with DMS100 Switches

           I. Network requirements

             Router D is connected to a DMS100 switch of the carrier, using the access number of
             8810148. The ISDN lines on interface BRI 0/0/0 are allocated two SPIDs and LDNs;
             they are:
             spid1 = 31427583620101, LDN1 = 1234567
             spid2 = 31427583870101, LDN2 = 7654321


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             In addition, the username and password for dialing are user and hello respectively.
             Router D needs to place an MP call on interface BRI 0/0/0 to obtain an address from the
             carrier for accessing the Internet.

           II. Network diagram




             Figure 3-10 Interoperate with the DMS 100


           III. Configuration procedure

             # Enable IP packet-triggered dial.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Encapsulate interface BRI 0/0/0 with MP.
             [H3C] interface Bri0/0/0
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] ppp mp

             # Enable C-DCC.
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] dialer circular-group 1

             # Configure ISDN parameters.
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] isdn protocol-type ni
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] isdn two-tei
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] isdn number-property 0
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] isdn spid1 31427583620101 1234567
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] isdn spid2 31427583870101 7654321
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] isdn spid service data
             [H3C-Bri0/0/0] isdn spid service speech

             # Configure a dialer interface.
             [H3C] interface Dialer1
             [H3C-Dialer1] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Dialer1] ppp pap local-user user password simple hello
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer threshold 0 in-out
             [H3C-Dialer1] ppp mp



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             [H3C-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer1] dialer number 8810148

             # Configure the static route to the segment 65.0.0.0 where the network access server is
             located.
             [H3C] ip route-static 65.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Dialer 1 preference 60

             To interoperate with the DMS 100, you must configure two commands: isdn two-tei
             and isdn number-property 0. The isdn two-tei command allows each call on the BRI
             interface to use a unique TEI. The isdn number-property 0 command sets the
             numbering plan and numbering type in the called-party information element in ISDN
             Q.931 SETUP messages to unknown.
             In addition, if the carrier allocates an LDN, you must configure it.
             The dialer threshold 0 in-out command configured on interface dialer 1 allows the
             system to bring up another B channel automatically after bringing up a BRI link. This
             can be done without presence of a flow control mechanism and the links that have been
             brought up will not disconnect automatically.

3.4.10 Configuring Transparent Transmission for Q.931 Information Element

           I. Network requirements

             There is a PBX local telephone network both in City A and City B. These two networks
             can interoperate with each other through the two routers with voice function, thus
             implementing remote PBX users’ communication. To ensure the various voice services
             available on PBX, it is required that in the two PBX networks the information element in
             Q.931 protocol can be transparently transmitted by using H.323 protocol.
             Router A is connected to IP network through interface Ethernet0/0/0 with the IP address
             of 10.0.0.1. Router B is connected to IP network through interface Ethernet0/0/0 with
             the IP address of 12.0.0.1.
             Router A and Router B in City A and City B are connected to PBX through E11/0/0. The
             number of City A is 12345, and the number of City B is 67890.




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           II. Network diagram

                  City A
                                                                         City B
                 RouterA                                                 RouterB
                             10.0.0.1                        12.0.0.1
                                               IP
                             Ethernet 0/0/0             Ethernet 0/0/0
                  E1 1/0/0                    H.323                      E1 1/0/0




                           PBX                                                     PBX




                           Telephone                                              Telephone

                  12345                                                  67890


             Figure 3-11 Diagram for transparent transmission for Q.931 related information
             element


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure Router A
             # Enter system view.
             <H3C> system-view

             # Create ISDN PRI interface
             [H3C] controller e1 1/0/0
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] pri-set
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] quit

             # Configure ISDN to transparently transmit all related information elements in both
             direction.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0:15
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] isdn ie passthrough all both

             # Display configuration information using the display this command.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] display this
             #
             interface Serial1/0/0:15
             isdn ie passthrough connectnum both
              isdn ie passthrough connectsub both
              isdn ie passthrough datetime both
             isdn ie passthrough display both
              isdn ie passthrough facility both



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Comware V3                                                           Chapter 3 ISDN Configuration

              isdn ie passthrough hlc both
              isdn ie passthrough keypad both
              isdn ie passthrough llc both
              isdn ie passthrough notification both
              isdn ie passthrough progress both
             #
             return

             # Configure voice
             [H3C] voice-setup
             [H3C-voice] dial-program
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 21 voip
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity21] match-template 021..
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity21] address ip 12.0.0.1
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity21] quit
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 10 pots
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity10] match-template 010..
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity10] line 1/0/0:15
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity10] send-number all
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity10] quit
             [H3C-voice-dial] quit
             [H3C-voice] quit
             2)   Configure Router B
             # Enter system view.
             <H3C> system-view

             # Create ISDN PRI interface.
             [H3C] controller e1 1/0/0
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] pri-set
             [H3C-E1 1/0/0] quit

             # Configure ISDN to transparently transmit all related information elements in both
             direction.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0:15
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0:15] isdn ie passthrough all both

             # Configure voice.
             [H3C] voice-setup
             [H3C-voice] dial-program
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 10 voip
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity21] match-template 010..
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity21] address ip 10.0.0.1
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity21] quit
             [H3C-voice-dial] entity 21 pots



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             [H3C-voice-dial-entity10] match-template 021..
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity10] line 1/0/0:15
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity10] send-number all
             [H3C-voice-dial-entity10] quit
             [H3C-voice-dial] quit
             [H3C-voice] quit


3.5 Troubleshooting
             Symptom: Two routers are interconnected via ISDN PRI line and they cannot ping
             through each other.
             Solution:
                  Execute the display isdn call-info command. If there is no prompt in the system,
                  it indicates there is no ISDN PRI interface. Thus it is necessary to configure
                  corresponding interfaces. For specified configuration method, refer to the contents
                  about configuration of CE1/PRI interface and CT1/PRI interface in Interface
                  module in Comware V3 Operation Manual. If the ISDN is not in multi-frame
                  operation status on a PRI interface, or if ISDN is not in TEI configured status on a
                  BRI interface, it may not physically connected well.
                  If the Q.921 debugging has been enabled, and the ISDN on PRI is in multi-frame
                  creation mode and that on BRI is in TEI configured mode, check whether dial-up
                  configuration is wrong. If the debugging information “Q921 send data fail(L1 return
                  failure).” is output, it indicates that physical layer has no been activated. In this
                  case, execute the shutdown or undo shutdown command to disable or
                  re-enable corresponding interfaces.
                  Check whether the dial-up configuration is correct.
             If dial-up is correctly configured and the debugging information “Q921 send data fail(L1
             return failure).” is not output, ISDN line may be not connected well.




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Comware V3                                                               Chapter 4 SLIP Configuration




                     Chapter 4 SLIP Configuration

4.1 Introduction to SLIP
             Serial line Internet protocol (SLIP) defines a method of forwarding packets via standard
             RS-232 asynchronous serial lines.
             SLIP is cheap and easy to implement. In addition, the lack of addressing, error
             detection and correction, and compression algorithms simplifies its implementation.



                 Note:
             Because of its lack of packet type differentiation, SLIP supports only one network
             protocol at a time.



             For more detailed introduction about SLIP, refer to RFC 1055.


4.2 Configuring SLIP
4.2.1 Configuring Synchronous/Asynchronous Interface to Work in
Asynchronous Mode

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 4-1 Configure synchronous/asynchronous interface to work in asynchronous
             mode

                              Operation                                  Command
               Configure synchronous/asynchronous
                                                          physical-mode async
               interface to work in asynchronous mode



             By default, synchronous/asynchronous interface works in synchronous mode.

4.2.2 Encapsulating the Interface with the Link Layer Protocol SLIP

             Perform the following configuration in asynchronous serial interface view (this
             command does not support an ATM interface).




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Comware V3                                                                   Chapter 4 SLIP Configuration

             Table 4-2 Configure the link layer protocol of the interface as SLIP

                              Operation                                      Command
               Specify SLIP as the link layer protocol of
                                                            link-protocol slip
               the interface as SLIP



             By default, the link layer protocol of the interface is PPP.
             Note that:
             You can specify to use SLIP as the link layer protocol for an interface only if the
             interface works in asynchronous mode.
             When the link layer protocol of the interface is LAPB, X.25, HDLC or Frame Relay, the
             interface can not work in asynchronous mode. To enable the interface to work in
             asynchronous mode, the link layer protocol of the interface must be modified to PPP.


4.3 Displaying and Debugging SLIP
             After finishing the above configurations, enable debugging or view the state parameters
             for SLIP maintenance and monitoring by executing the debugging commands in user
             view.

             Table 4-3 Display and debug SLIP

                            Operation                                       Command
               Enable SLIP datagram debugging           debugging slip { all | error | event | packet }




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Operation Manual – Link Layer Protocol
Comware V3                                                              Chapter 5 HDLC Configuration




                    Chapter 5 HDLC Configuration

5.1 Introduction to HDLC
             High-level data link control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented link layer protocol. Its most
             prominent feature is that it can transparently transmit any type of bit stream without
             limiting data to character sets.
             All protocols in the standard HDLC protocol suite run on synchronous serial lines such
             as DDN. The address field of a HDLC frame is 8 bytes and the control field is 8 bits. The
             control field is used to implement all kinds of control information of HDLC and to mark
             whether a packet is a data packet.
             The HDLC encapsulation supported by the system is compatible with HDLC protocols
             of mainstream devices in the industry.


5.2 Configuring HDLC
             HDLC protocol configuration is very simple, and you can implement its configuration via
             two commands below.
                  Encapsulate Interface with HDLC Protocol
                  Set the polling interval

5.2.1 Encapsulating Interface with HDLC Protocol

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 5-1 Encapsulate an interface with HDLC protocol

                                     Operation                                  Command
               Encapsulate interface with HDLC protocol                 link-protocol hdlc



             By default, the interface is encapsulated with PPP protocol.

5.2.2 Setting the Polling Interval

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.
             The parameter seconds in this command is used to set the polling interval of status
             polling timer. seconds of the equipment at both ends should be set to the same value.
             Perform the following task to set the parameter seconds.




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Comware V3                                                               Chapter 5 HDLC Configuration

             Table 5-2 Set the polling interval

                                      Operation                                 Command
               Set the polling interval, which ranges from 0 to 32767
                                                                        timer hold seconds
               in seconds. Its default value is 10s.
               Set the polling interval to 0, i.e. disable the link
                                                                        undo timer hold
               detection.



             By default, the value of seconds is 10s.




                                                    5-2
Operation Manual – Link Layer Protocol
Comware V3                                                        Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration




             Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

6.1 Introduction to the Frame Relay Protocol
             Frame relay is a simplified X.25 WAN protocol. A frame relay network provides the
             capacity of data communications between end devices, also known as data terminal
             equipment (DTE), which could be routers or hosts. Devices providing access to DTE
             are called data communications equipment (DCE). A frame relay network can be a
             public network, a private enterprise network, or a network formed by direct connections
             between data devices.
             Frame relay is a statistical multiplexing protocol which can provide multiple virtual
             circuits (VCs) on a single physical transmission line, each identified by a data link
             connection identifier (DLCI).
             A DLCI identifies a particular VC endpoint within a user's access channel in a frame
             relay network and has local significance only to that port. Thus, you may use the same
             DLCI on different physical interfaces to indicate different VCs.
             A frame relay network user interface can support as many as 1024 VCs, to which you
             can assign DLCIs in the range of 16 to 1007. As frame relay VC is connection oriented,
             different local DLCIs are connected to different remote devices. Therefore, a local DLCI
             can be considered a frame relay address of remote device.
             Frame relay address mapping associates the protocol address, IP or IPX, of a remote
             device with its frame relay address (local DLCI). By consulting the frame relay address
             map by protocol address, the upper layer protocol can locate a remote device. The idea
             is that when sending an IP/IPX packet, the frame relay-enabled router can obtain its
             next hop address after consulting the routing table, which is inadequate for sending the
             packet to the correct destination across a frame relay network. To identify the DLCI
             corresponding to the next hop address, the router must consult a frame relay address
             map retaining the associations between remote IP/IPX addresses and next hop DLCIs.
             A frame relay address map can be manually configured or maintained by inverse ARP
             (InARP).
             The following figure presents how LANs are interconnected across a frame relay
             network.




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Comware V3                                                              Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

                                                                           Router B
                Router A



                                                              IP:202.38.163.252
                     IP:202.38.163.251


                      DLCI=50                              DLCI=70

                 DLCI=60
                                         FR                                  Router C




                                                                IP:202.38.163.253

                                                 DLCI=80


             Figure 6-1 Interconnect LANs across a frame relay network


             Virtual circuits fall into two types, permanent virtual circuit (PVC) and switching virtual
             circuit (SVC), depending on how they are set up. Virtual circuits configured manually
             are called permanent virtual circuits (PVCs), and those created by protocol negotiation
             are called switching virtual circuits, which are automatically created and deleted by
             virtual circuit protocol. At present, the most frequently used in frame relay is the
             permanent virtual circuit mode, i.e., manually configured virtual circuit.
             In the permanent virtual circuit mode, the availability of the virtual circuit should be
             checked. Local management interface (LMI) protocol can implement this function. The
             system supports three LMI protocols: ITU-T Q.933 Appendix A, ANSI T1.617 Appendix
             D and nonstandard compatible protocol. Their basic operating mode is: DTE sends one
             Status Enquiry message to query the virtual circuit status at certain interval, after the
             DCE receives the message, it will immediately use the Status message to inform DTE
             the status of all the virtual circuits on current interface.
             The status of permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) on DTE is completely determined by
             DCE. And the network determines the status of Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) of
             DCE. In case that the two network devices are directly connected, the equipment
             administrator sets the virtual circuit status of DCE. In the system, the quantity and
             status of the virtual circuits are set at the same time when address mapping is set. They
             can also be configured with the fr dlci command.

6.2 Configuring Frame Relay
             Frame Relay configuration includes:
                  Configure interface encapsulation as frame relay
                  Configure Frame Relay Terminal Type
                  Configure frame relay LMI protocol type
                  Configure frame relay protocol parameters


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Comware V3                                                         Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

                  Configure Frame Relay Address Mapping
                  Configure frame relay local virtual circuit
                  Configure frame relay PVC switching
                  Configure Frame Relay Subinterface
                  Configure Frame Relay over IP Network
                  Configure to Carry X.25 over Frame Relay
                  Configure Send Redirection

6.2.1 Configuring Data Link Protocol of Interface as Frame Relay

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-1 Configure interface to frame relay encapsulated

                              Operation                                    Command
               Configure interface encapsulation as
                                                            link-protocol fr [ nonstandard | ietf ]
               frame relay



             By default, the interface is encapsulated with the link layer protocol PPP, and the Frame
             Relay protocol is encapsulated in IETF standard format.



                 Note:
             In the system, the IETF standard can be selected to encapsulate the frame relay
             protocol in the format stipulated in RFC 1490. The nonstandard compatible
             encapsulation format can also be selected.
             The default encapsulation format is ietf encapsulation.
             The frame relay interface can send the message in either of the encapsulation formats,
             while it can recognize and receive messages in both formats. That is, even if the
             encapsulation format of frame relay of opposite equipment is different from that of the
             local, the equipment at the two ends can communicate with each other so long as the
             opposite equipment can recognize the two formats automatically. But when the
             opposite equipment can not recognize the two formats automatically, the frame relays
             of equipment at the two ends must be set to the same format.




6.2.2 Configuring Frame Relay Terminal Type

             In frame relay, the two sides in communication are classified into user side and network
             side. The user side is called DTE, and the network side is called DCE. In frame relay
             networks, Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) is used between the frame relay
             switches. If the device is used for frame relay switch, the type of the frame relay



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Comware V3                                                        Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

             interface should be configured as NNI or DCE format. The system supports these 3
             formats.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view. Frame Relay interface type can be
             configured as DTE, DCE or NNI.

             Table 6-2 Configure frame relay interface type

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure frame relay interface type        fr interface-type { dce | dte | nni }
               Restore the frame relay interface type to
                                                           undo fr interface-type
               the default value



             The default type of frame relay interface is DTE.

6.2.3 Configuring Frame Relay LMI Type

             The LMI protocol is used to maintain the PVC lists of frame relay protocol, including
             adding PVC records, deleting the records about disconnected PVCs, monitoring the
             change of PVC status, and verifying the link integrity. The system supports three
             standard LMI protocols: ITU-T Q.933 Appendix A, ANSI T1.617 Appendix D and
             nonstandard compatible protocol.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-3 Configure frame relay LMI protocol type

                              Operation                                   Command
                                                           fr lmi type { ansi | nonstandard |
               Configure frame relay LMI protocol type
                                                           q933a }
               Restore the frame relay LMI protocol
                                                           undo fr lmi type
               type to the default value



             The default type of LMI protocol of interface is Q933a.

6.2.4 Configuring Frame Relay Protocol Parameters

             Frame relay protocol parameters and their configuration are shown in Table 6-4 and
             Table 6-5:




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Comware V3                                                           Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

             Table 6-4 Meanings of frame relay protocol parameters

                Operating
                                     Meaning of parameter                Value range          Default
                 mode
                               Request PVC status counter (N391)        1 to 255         6
                               Error threshold (N392)                   1 to 10          3

               DTE             Event counter (N393)                     1 to 10          4
                               User side polling timer (T391), the      0 to 32767       10
                               value 0 indicates that LMI protocol is
                               disabled                                 (in seconds)     (in seconds)

                               Error threshold (N392)                   1 to 10          3
                               Event counter (N393)                     1 to 10          4
               DCE
                                                                        5 to 30          15
                               Network side polling timer (T392)
                                                                        (in seconds)     (in seconds)



             These parameters are stipulated by Q.933 Appendix A, with the meanings as follows:
             Meanings of parameters related to DTE operating mode:
                  DTE sends a Status-Enquiry message at certain interval (determined by T391).
                  There are two types of Status-Enquiry messages: link integrity verification
                  message and link status enquiry message. Parameter N391 defines the ratio of
                  the two types of messages sent, i.e. number of link integrity verification messages :
                  number of link status enquiry messages = N391-1: 1
                  N392: it indicates the threshold for errors among the observed events.
                  N393: it indicates the total of observed events.
             DTE sends a Status-Enquiry message at certain interval (determined by T391) to query
             the link status. DCE immediately sends a Status response after receiving the message.
             If the DTE does not receive any response within a specified time, it will record this error.
             If the error number exceeds the threshold, DTE will regard the physical channel and all
             virtual circuits as unavailable. N392 and N393 together define "error threshold". In other
             words, if errors reach N392 among the N393 Status Enquiry messages sent by DTE,
             DTE will consider that error number has reached the threshold and the physical
             channel and all virtual circuits are unavailable.
                  T391: the time variable that defines the time interval for DTE to send
                  status-enquiry message.
             Meanings of parameters related to DCE operating mode: N392 and N393:
                  These two parameters have similar meanings to those related to DTE operating
                  mode. However, DCE requires that the fixed time interval for DTE sending a
                  status-enquiry message should be determined by T392, while DTE requires that
                  this interval should be determined by T391. If DCE does not receive the
                  status-enquiry message from DTE within T392, an error recorder is created.


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Comware V3                                                        Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

                  T392: Time variable, which defines the maximum time that DCE waits for a status
                  enquiry packet, and the time shall be longer than the value of T391.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-5 Configure frame relay protocol parameters

                                    Operation                                  Command
               Configure user side N391                               fr lmi n391dte n391-value
               Restore user side N391 to the default value            undo fr lmi n391dte
               Configure user side N392                               fr lmi n392dte n392-value
               Restore user side N392 to the default value            undo fr lmi n392dte
               Configure user side N393                               fr lmi n393dte n393-value
               Restore user side N393 to the default value            undo fr lmi n393dte
               Configure user side T391                               timer hold seconds
               Restore the default CPE-side T.391 value               undo timer hold
               Configure network side N392                            fr lmi n392dce n392-value
               Restore network side N392 to the default value         undo fr lmi n392dce
               Configure network side N393                            fr lmi n393dce n393-value
               Restore network side N393 to the default value         undo fr lmi n393dce
               Configure network side T392                            fr lmi t392dce t392-value
               Restore network side T392 to the default value         undo fr lmi t392dce



             By default, n391-value is 6, n392-value is 3, n393-value is 4, t391-value is 10 and
             t392-value is 15.

6.2.5 Configuring Frame Relay Address Mapping

             Frame-Relay address mapping can be configured statically or dynamically. Static
             configuration means the manual setup of the mapping relation between the peer
             protocol address and local DLCI, and is usually applied when there are few peer hosts
             or there is a default route. Dynamic setup means the dynamic setup of mapping relation
             between peer protocol address and local DLCI after running the inverse address
             resolution protocol (Inverse ARP). Dynamic setup is applied when the peer router also
             supports the "inverse address resolution protocol" and network is complex.

           I. Configuring frame relay static address mapping

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.




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Comware V3                                                         Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

             Table 6-6 Configure frame relay static address mapping

                              Operation                                     Command
                                                          fr map ip { protocol-address [ ip-mask ] |
                                                          default } dlci [ broadcast ]
                                                          [ nonstandard [ compression
               Add a static address map entry
                                                          [ vjcompress | iphc connections
                                                          number ] ] | ietf [ compression [ frf9 |
                                                          iphc connections number] ] ]
                                                          undo fr map ip { protocol-address |
               Delete a static address map entry
                                                          default } dlci

                                                          fr map ipx protocol-address dlci
               Add a static IPX address map entry         [ broadcast ] [ nonstandard | ietf ]
                                                          [ compression frf9 ]
               Delete a static IPX address map entry      undo fr map ipx protocol-address dlci



             By default, the system has no static address map entries and allows inverse address
             resolution.



                 Note:
             In the fr map ip command, if nonstandard encapsulation is adopted, IPHC
             compression and VJ compression are available; if IETF encapsulation is adopted,
             IPHC compression and FRF.9 compression are available.




           II. Configuring frame relay dynamic address mapping

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-7 Configure frame relay dynamic address mapping

                              Operation                                     Command
               Enable dynamic address mapping             fr inarp [ ip [ dlci ] | ipx [ dlci ] ]
               Disable dynamic address mapping            undo fr inarp [ ip [ dlci ] | ipx [ dlci ] ]



             By default, the system permits the inverse address resolution of IP/IPX.




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Comware V3                                                           Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration


                 Note:
                 To enable inverse ARP on all the PVCs on the interface, use this command without
                 any parameters. If inverse ARP on all PVCs of interface is to be disabled, use the
                 undo form of this command without any parameters.
                 To enable/disable inverse ARP on a specified PVC on the interface, use this
                 command with the parameter dlci.
                 By default, the address resolution on an interface (including subinterface) is enabled.
                 In this case, this function is also enabled on all PVCs on the interface. However, you
                 can disable address resolution on a certain PVC using the undo fr inarp ip dlci
                 command and enable it again using the fr inarp command.
                 Enabling dynamic address mapping on a main interface also applies to the
                 subinterfaces on it.




6.2.6 Configuring Frame Relay Local Virtual Circuit

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-8 Configure frame relay local virtual circuit

                                        Operation                                  Command
               Assign virtual circuit to interface                       fr dlci dlci
               Cancel virtual circuit assigned to interface              undo fr dlci dlci



             By default, there is no available virtual circuit in the system.



                 Note:
                 The command fr dlci can be used to specify virtual circuits for main interface and
                 subinterface.
                 The number of virtual circuit specified using any of the above commands should be
                 unique, with the value range between 16 and 1007, i.e. the virtual circuit number is
                 unique on a physical interface.
                 When the frame relay interface type is DCE or NNI, the interface (either main
                 interface or subinterface) should be configured manually with virtual circuits. When
                 the frame relay interface type is DTE, for the main interface, the system will
                 determine the virtual circuit automatically according to the opposite equipment; the
                 subinterface must be configured with virtual circuits manually.




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Comware V3                                                           Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

6.2.7 Configuring Frame Relay PVC Switching

           I. Enabling frame relay switching

             Perform the following task to configure frame relay PVC switching. “Enable/disable
             frame relay PVC switching” is executed in system view, while all the other command is
             executed in interface view.

             Table 6-9 Configure frame relay PVC switching

                              Operation                                      Command
               Enable frame relay PVC switching               fr switching
               Disable frame relay PVC switching              undo fr switching
               Set the interface type of frame relay
               performing frame relay switching to NNI
                                                              fr interface-type { dce | dte | nni }
               or DCE. If set to DTE, the frame relay
               switching will be disabled



             By default, the Frame Relay switching will not occur, and its interface type is DTE.



                 Note:
                 PVC switching will be effective only when the type of frame relay interface
                 configured with PVC switching is NNI or DCE.
                 PVC switching will be effective only when two or more interfaces of the equipment
                 for the frame relay switching are configured.




           II. Configuring static routing used for frame relay switching on an interface

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-10 Configure static routing used for frame relay switching

                            Operation                                     Command
               Configure static routing used for         fr dlci-switch in-dlci interface interface-type
               frame relay switching                     interface-number dlci out-dlci
               Delete static routing used for frame
                                                         undo fr dlci-switch in-dlci
               relay switching



             The fr dlci-switch command must be used on both interfaces of frame relay switching
             to make PVC switching work.




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Comware V3                                                         Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

           III. Configuring a PVC used for frame relay switching globally

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 6-11 Configure a PVC used for frame relay switching

                            Operation                                   Command
                                                       fr switch name interface interface-type
               Configure a PVC used for frame
                                                       interface-number dlci dlci1 interface
               relay switching
                                                       interface-type interface-number dlci dlci2
               Delete a PVC used for frame relay
                                                       undo fr switch name
               switching



             By default, no PVC is created.
             After configuring frame relay switching PVC, you can enter frame relay switching view.
             In this view, you can perform the shutdown/undo shutdown operation on switching
             PVC to affect routing table by the change of the PVC state.

             Table 6-12 Enter FR switching view

                              Operation                                    Command
               Enter FR switching view                    fr switch name



             The commands fr switch and fr dlci-switch yield the same result.

6.2.8 Configuring Frame Relay Subinterface

             The frame relay module has two types of interfaces: main interface and subinterface.
             The subinterface is of logical structure and can be used to configure protocol address
             and virtual circuit PVC. One physical interface can include multiple subinterfaces,
             which do not exist physically. However, for the network layer, the subinterface and main
             interface have no difference and both can be used to configure the PVC to connect to
             remote equipments.
             The subinterface of frame relay falls into two types: point-to-point subinterface, and
             point-to-multipoint subinterface. Point-to-point subinterface is used to connect a single
             remote object and point-to-multipoint subinterface is used to connect multiple remote
             objects. Multiple PVCs can be configured on one point-to-multipoint subinterface, and a
             MAP (address mapping) is set up between each PVC and the connected remote
             protocol address. In this way, different PVCs can reach different remotes without
             confusion. MAP can be set up with manual configuration or set up dynamically using
             inverse address resolution protocol (INARP). Different from point-to-multipoint
             subinterfaces, point-to-point subinterfaces are applied in a simple environment where
             one subinterface is connected to one opposite equipment only, and the opposite



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Comware V3                                                            Chapter 6 Frame Relay Configuration

             equipment can be determined uniquely by configuring a PVC on the subinterface
             without MAP.
             Following is the subinterface configuration task list:
                  Create a subinterface
                  Configure PVC of subinterface and establishing address mapping
             1)   Create a subinterface
             Perform the following configuration beginning in system view.

             Table 6-13 Create frame relay subinterface

                               Operation                                     Command
               Enter interface view in system view.        interface serial interface-number
               Configure interface encapsulation as
                                                           link-protocol fr
               frame relay in interface view.

                                                           interface serial
               Create a subinterface in system view.       interface-number.subinterface-number
                                                           [ p2p | p2mp ]



             By default, the interface is encapsulated with the link layer protocol PPP.
             2)   Configure PVC of subinterface and establishing address mapping
                  P2P subinterface
             Since there is only one peer address for a P2P subinterface, the peer address is
             determined when a PVC is configured for the subinterface. You therefore do not need
             to configure a dynamic or static address map.
             Perform the following configuration in subinterface view respectively on the DTE and
             DCE devices.

             Table 6-14 Configure a P2P subinterface virtual circuit

                               Operation                                     Command
               Configure a virtual circuit                 fr dlci dlci
               Cancel the virtual circuit                  undo fr dlci



                  P2MP subinterface
             For a P2MP subinterface, a peer address can be mapped to the local DLCI through
             static address mapping or INARP (it only needs to be configured on the main interface).
             To setup static address mapping, the following commands should be used on each
             PVC.




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             Table 6-15 Establish static address mapping

                           Operation                                        Command
                                                       fr map ip { protocol-address [ ip-mask ] | default }
               Establish an address map.
                                                       dlci dlci [ broadcast ] [ nonstandard | ietf ]
               Delete an address map.                  undo fr map ip { protocol-address | default }



             By default, the system has no static address maps and allows inverse address
             resolution.

6.2.9 Configuring Frame Relay over IP Network

             With the increasingly wide application of IP network, interworking of frame relay
             network needs to be realized via Frame Relay over IP, which creates GRE tunnel
             between frame relay networks at two ends and transmits frame relay packets via the
             GRE tunnel, as illustrated below:


                 Frame Relay                                       Frame relay
                                         IP Network
                   Network                                           network




             Figure 6-2 Typical application diagram of Frame Relay over IP


             The frame relay packets transmitted on the GRE tunnel fall into three groups: FR
             datagram packet Inverse ARP packet, both of which have a IP header encapsulated in
             it, and LMI packet used to negotiate PVC status on GRE tunnel.

           I. Creating a tunnel interface

             Create a tunnel interface in system view and configure it in tunnel interface view. For
             detailed configuration of tunnel interface, refer to the chapter about GRE in VPN part of
             this manual.

           II. Configuring to perform frame relay switching via tunnel interface

             After the tunnel interface has been created, the frame relay switching can be configured
             to use the tunnel interface. Transferring frame relay packets over IP network is so
             realized.
             Configure static routing of frame relay switching in interface view and configure PVC of
             frame relay switching in system view. These two commands provide the same function;
             you only need to configure either of them.




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             Table 6-16 Configure to perform frame relay switching via tunnel interface

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure the route of frame relay          fr dlci-switch in-dlci interface tunnel
               switching                                   interface-number dlci out-dlci
               Delete the route of frame relay switching   undo fr dlci-switch in-dlci
                                                           fr switch name [ interface type number
               Configure the PVC of frame relay
                                                           dlci dlci1 interface tunnel number dlci
               switching
                                                           dlci2 ]
               Delete the PVC of frame relay switching     undo fr switch name



             The tunnel interface must first be created and configured when frame relay switching is
             configured via tunnel interface.
             After frame relay routes have been configured via the fr dlci-switch interface tunnel
             command, two routes will be added into the frame relay routing table of the router: The
             inbound interface of one is “tunnel” with outbound interface being “serial”, while the
             inbound interface of the other is “serial” with outbound interface being “tunnel”. A PVC
             whose DLCI number is out-dlci will be generated on the tunnel interface. The state of
             this PVC determines the state of route.
             The fr dlci-switch command must be configured on the tunnel interfaces of both ends
             of GRE and the DLCI number (out-dlci) must be the same.

6.2.10 Carrying X.25 over Frame Relay

           I. Configuring T1.617 Annex G on the frame relay interface

             Suppose two routers, Router A and Router B, are connected across a frame relay
             network, with the interface on Router A functioning as the DCE and the interface on
             Router B as the DTE. In addition, these two routers are each connected to an X.25
             network through an interface functioning as the DCE. To allow the X.25 networks
             communicate across the Frame relay network, you must do the following:
                  Configure the annexg dce command and the annexg dte command in DLCI view
                  on the frame relay interfaces on Router A and Router B respectively.
                  Enable both X.25 and frame relay on the two routers.
             Perform the following configuration in DLCI view.




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             Table 6-17 Configure T1.617 Annex G on the frame relay interface

                                    Operation                                  Command
               Configure T1.617 Annex G on the frame relay
                                                                     annexg { dte | dce }
               interface for data transmission
               Disable T1.617 Annex G on the frame relay
                                                                     undo annexg { dte | dce }
               interface



             By default, T1.617 Annex G is disabled on the frame relay interface.

           II. Creating and referencing an X,25 template

             When Annex G is enabled on a frame relay interface for transmitting X.25 packets
             across a frame relay network, you must create an X.25 template in system view and
             reference it in DLCI view.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 6-18 Create an X.25 template

                              Operation                                   Command
               Create an X.25 template                   x25 template name
               Delete an X.25 template                   undo x25 template name



             Perform the following configuration in DLCI view.

             Table 6-19 Reference the X.25 template

                              Operation                                   Command
               Reference the X.25 template               x25 template name
               Remove the referenced X.25 template
                                                         undo x25 template name
               from the DLCI



                 Note:
             After modifying an X.25 template referenced to an interface, you need to perform the
             shutdown command and then the undo shutdown command on the interface to have
             the new setting take effect.




6.2.11 Configuring Send Redirection

             In a satellite network, as satellite base stations use various different modulation and
             encryption methods, a base station generally needs multiple different line cards to


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             receive and demodulate wireless signals, in order that it can communicate with multiple
             other base stations (contrarily, the base station generally uses only one line card in the
             sending direction, so as to improve bandwidth utilization).
             When a router connects as a digital device to a satellite base station, it needs to use
             multiple serial interfaces to receive data from the station, but at the same time it uses
             only one serial interface to send data to the base station (this interface can also receive
             data). Because the serial interfaces on a receiving-only card work in simplex mode, the
             traffic that originally should be sent from them to the base station needs to be redirected
             to the sending interface.
             The send redirection function is designed to meet the above requirement.
             Two terms in send redirection:
                  Redirecting interface: an interface to which the outgoing traffic on another
                  interface is redirected. A redirecting interface can send and receive data.
                  Redirected interface: an interface where the outgoing traffic is redirected to
                  another interface. A redirected interface can only receive data.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-20 Configure send redirection

                      Operation                                    Command
               Enable send redirection      interface-redirection send interface serial number
               Disable send redirection     undo interface-redirection



             By default, this function is disabled.



                 Note:
                 Both redirected and redirecting interfaces must be primary interfaces.
                 The link layer protocol must be FR on both redirected and redirecting interfaces.
                 A redirecting interface cannot be redirected. That is, an interface cannot be both
                 redirecting and redirected interface.
                 Multiple interfaces to be redirected to a same interface cannot have identical PVC
                 numbers.




6.3 Displaying and Debugging Frame Relay
             After the above configuration, execute the display command in any view to display the
             running of the Frame Relay configuration, and to verify the effect of the configuration.
             Execute the reset command in user views to clear the running.


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             Table 6-21 Display and debug Frame relay

                                 Operation                                    Command
               Shows frame relay protocol status of each
               interface.
               Either all the information or the information of   display fr interface interface-type
               specified interfaces can be shown. Both the        interface-num
               main interface and subinterface can be
               specified.
               Show mapping table of protocol address and
               frame relay address.
               Either all the information or the information of   display fr map-info [ interface
               specified interfaces can be shown. Both the        interface-type interface-num ]
               main interface and subinterface can be
               specified.
               Show receiving/sending statistics information
               of frame relay LMI type messages.
                                                                  display fr lmi-info [ interface
               Either all the information or the information of   interface-type interface-num ]
               specified interface can be shown. Only the
               main interface can be specified.
               Show frame relay data receiving/sending
               statistics information.
                                                                  display fr statistics [ interface
               Either all the information or the information of   interface-type interface-num ]
               specified interface can be shown. Only the
               main interface can be specified.
               Show frame relay permanent virtual circuit
               table.
               Either all the information or the information of   display fr pvc-info [ interface
               specified interfaces can be shown. Both the        interface-type interface-num ]
               main interface and subinterface can be
               specified.
               Show statistics information of frame relay
               ARP messages.
                                                                  display fr inarp-info [ interface
               Either all the information or the information of   interface-type interface-num ]
               specified interface can be shown. Only the
               main interface can be specified.
               Clear all the automatically established frame
                                                                  reset fr inarp
               relay address mappings
               Display the information of the configured          display fr dlci-switch [ interface
               frame relay switching.                             interface-type interface-num ]
                                                                  debugging fr all [ interface
               Enable all frame relay debugging
                                                                  interface-type interface-number ]
                                                                  undo debugging fr all [ interface
               Disable all frame relay debugging
                                                                  interface-type interface-number ]
                                                                  debugging fr inarp [ interface
               Enable frame relay ARP debugging                   interface-type interface-number
                                                                  [ dlci dlci-number ] ]


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                                    Operation                                          Command
                                                                        undo debugging fr inarp
                                                                        [ interface interface-type
               Disable frame relay ARP debugging
                                                                        interface-number [ dlci
                                                                        dlci-number ] ]
               Enable frame relay event debugging                       debugging fr event
               Disable frame relay event debugging                      undo debugging fr event
                                                                        debugging fr lmi [ interface
               Enable frame relay LMI protocol debugging
                                                                        interface-type interface-number ]
                                                                        undo debugging fr lmi [ interface
               Disable frame relay LMI protocol debugging
                                                                        interface-type interface-number ]
                                                                        debugging fr packet [ interface
               Enable frame relay packet debugging                      interface-type interface-number
                                                                        [ dlci dlci-number ] ]

                                                                        undo debugging fr packet
                                                                        [ interface interface-type
               Disable frame relay packet debugging
                                                                        interface-number [ dlci
                                                                        dlci-number ] ]




6.4 Frame Relay Configuration Examples
6.4.1 Interconnecting LANs via Frame Relay Network

           I. Network requirements

             Interconnect LANs via the public frame relay network. In this view, the router can only
             work as user equipment in the frame relay DTE mode.

           II. Network diagram

                                                                          Router B
                Router A



                                                             IP:202.38.163.252
                     IP:202.38.163.251


                      DLCI=50                             DLCI=70

                 DLCI=60
                                         FR                                 Router C




                                                               IP:202.38.163.253

                                                DLCI=80


             Figure 6-3 Interconnecting LANs via frame relay network



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           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router A:
             # Configure interface IP address.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0

             # Configure interface encapsulation as frame relay
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dte

             # If the opposite router supports inverse address resolution, configure dynamic address
             mapping.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr inarp

             # Otherwise configure static address mapping.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.252 50
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.253 60

             Configure Router B:
             # Configure interface IP address.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0

             # Configure interface encapsulation as frame relay
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dte

             # If the opposite router supports inverse address resolution, configure dynamic address
             mapping.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr inarp

             # Otherwise configure static address mapping.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.251 70

             Configure Router C:
             # Configure interface IP address.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 202.38.163.253 255.255.255.0

             # Configure interface encapsulation as frame relay
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dte

             # If the opposite router supports inverse address resolution, configure dynamic address
             mapping.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr inarp



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             # Otherwise configure static address mapping.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.251 80


6.4.2 Interconnecting LANs via Dedicated Line

           I. Network requirements

             Two H3C routers are directly connected via a serial interface. Router A works in the
             frame relay DCE mode, and Router B works in the frame relay DTE mode.

           II. Network diagram



                            Router A                   Router B


                     IP:202.38.163.251                 IP:202.38.163.252


                                         DLCI=100



             Figure 6-4 Interconnecting LANs via dedicated line


           III. Configuration procedure

             Approach I: On main interfaces
             1)   Configure Router A:
             # Configure interface IP address.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0

             # Set the link layer protocol on the interface to Frame Relay.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dce

             # Configure a local virtual circuit.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr dlci 100
             2)   Configure Router B:
             # Configure interface IP address.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0

             # Set the link layer protocol on the interface to Frame Relay.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dte




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             Approach II: On subinterfaces
             3)   Configure Router A
             # Set the link layer protocol on the interface to Frame Relay and interface type to DCE.
             [H3C]interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0]link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0]fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0]quit

             # Configure IP address of the subinterface and a local virtual circuit.
             [H3C] interface serial1/0/0.1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1]ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1]fr dlci 100
             4)   Configure Router B
             # Set the link layer protocol on the interface to Frame Relay and interface type to DTE.
             [H3C]interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0]link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit

             # Configure IP address of the subinterface and a local virtual circuit.
             [H3C] interface serial1/0/0.1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1]ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1]fr dlci 100


6.4.3 IPX over FR Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Two H3C Routers, Router A and Router B, are connected using serial interfaces
             encapsulated with FR.
             Router A is operating as the DCE and Router is operating as the DTE. They
             communicate across an IPX network.

           II. Network diagram



                          Router A               Router B

                    IPX:100.00e0-fc3a-3896   IPX: 100.00e0-5f12-2345


                                      DLCI=100


             Figure 6-5 IPX over FR network diagram




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           III. Configuration procedure

             Approach 1
             When the connected interfaces are main interfaces, do the following:
             1)   Configure Router A
             # Assign an IPX address to the serial interface connected to Router B.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ipx network 100

             # Encapsulate the interface with FR and set it to operate as DCE.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dce

             # Configure the local DLCI.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr dlci 100

             # Add a static IPX address map entry.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map ipx 100.00e0-5f12-2345 100
             2)   Configure Router B
             # Assign an IPX address to the serial interface connected to Router A.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ipx network 100

             # Encapsulate the interface with FR and set it to operate as DTE.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dte

             # Add a static IPX address map entry.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map ipx 100.00e0-fc3a-3896 100

             Approach 2
             When the connected interfaces are subinterfaces, do the following:
             1)   Configure Router A
             # Encapsulate the serial interface connected to Router B with FR and set it to operate
             as DCE.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit

             # Assign an IPX address to the subinterface to be used and configure the local DLCI.
             [H3C] interface serial1/0/0.1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1] ipx network 100
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1] fr dlci 100



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             # Add a static IPX address map entry.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1] fr map ipx 100.00e0-5f12-2345 100
             2)   Configure Router B
             # Encapsulate the serial interface connected to Router B with FR and set its operating
             mode to the default, that is, DTE.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit

             # Assign an IPX address to the subinterface to be used and configure the local DLCI.
             [H3C] interface serial1/0/0.1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1] ipx network 100
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1] fr dlci 100

             # Add a static IPX address map entry.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0.1] fr map ipx 100.00e0-fc3a-3896 100


6.4.4 X.25 over FR PVC Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 6-6, Router B and Router C are connected across a frame relay
             network and they are connected to Router A and Router D respectively across an X.25
             network.
             Configure frame relay Annex G DLCI 100 on Router B and Router C to allow the two
             X.25 networks to communicate.

           II. Network diagram

                                  RouterB                              RouterC
                                            S 0/0/1          S 0/0/1

                                                Frame Relay
                            S 0/0/0                                          S 0/0/0

               RouterA           X.25                                      X.25                  RouterD
                         S 0/0/0 192.168.80.10/24            192.168.80.40/24     S 0/0/0




                   PC                                                                       PC


             Figure 6-6 Network diagram for X.25 over frame relay SVC




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           III. Configuration example

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure basic X.25 settings.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 192.168.80.10 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 192.168.80.40 24 x121-address 2
             2)   Configure Router D
             # Configure basic X.25 settings.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 2
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 192.168.80.40 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 192.168.80.10 24 x121-address 1
             3)   Configure Router B
             # Enable X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Enable frame relay switching.
             [H3C] fr switching

             # Configure X.25 interface Serial 0/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf

             # Configure frame relay interface Serial 0/0/1.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] fr interface-type dce

             # Configure frame relay Annex G DLCI.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial0/0/1-100] annexg dce

             # Configure local X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 1 interface serial 0/0/0

             # Configure X.25 over frame relay switching.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 2 interface serial 0/0/1 dlci 100
             4)   Configure Router C
             # Enable X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching



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             # Enable frame relay switching.
             [H3C] fr switching

             # Configure X.25 interface Serial 0/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf

             # Configure frame relay interface Serial 0/0/1.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] fr interface-type dte

             # Configure frame relay Annex G DLCI.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial0/0/1-100] annexg dte

             # Configure local X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 2 interface serial 0/0/0

             # Configure X.25 over frame relay switching.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 1 interface serial 0/0/1 dlci 100


6.4.5 X.25 over Frame Relay PVC Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 6-7, Router B and Router C are connected across a frame relay
             network and they are connected to Router A and Router D respectively across an X.25
             network.
             Configure frame relay Annex G DLCI 100 on Router B and Router C to allow the two
             X.25 networks to communicate.




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           II. Network diagram

                                  RouterB                              RouterC
                                            S 0/0/1          S 0/0/1

                                                Frame Relay
                            S 0/0/0                                          S 0/0/0

               RouterA           X.25                                      X.25                  RouterD
                         S 0/0/0 192.168.80.10/24            192.168.80.40/24     S 0/0/0




                   PC                                                                       PC


             Figure 6-7 Network diagram for X.25 over frame relay PVC


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure basic X.25 settings.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 192.168.80.10 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range bi-channel 10 20
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 pvc 1 ip 192.168.80.40 x121-address 2
             2)   Configure Router D
             # Configure basic X.25 settings.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 2
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 192.168.80.40 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range bi-channel 10 20
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 pvc 1 ip 192.168.80.10 x121-address 1
             3)   Configure Router B
             # Enable X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Enable frame relay switching.
             [H3C] fr switching

             # Configure X.25 interface Serial 0/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0


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             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range bi-channel 10 20

             # Configure a PVC switched route on the X.25 interface.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 switch pvc 1 interface serial 0/0/1 dlci 100 pvc 1

             # Configure an X.25 template
             [H3C] x25 template switch001
             [H3C-x25-switch001] x25 vc-range bi-channel 10 20

             # Configure a switched route for the X.25 template.
             [H3C-x25-switch001] x25 switch pvc 1 interface serial 0/0/0 pvc 1

             # Configure frame relay interface Serial 0/0/1.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] fr interface-type dce

             # Configure frame relay Annex G DLCI.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial0/0/1-100] annexg dce

             # Reference the X.25 template to the frame relay Annex G DLCI.
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial0/0/1-100] x25-template switch001
             4)   Configure Router C
             # Enable X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Enable frame relay switching.
             [H3C] fr switching

             # Configure X.25 interface Serial 0/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range bi-channel 10 20

             # Configure a PVC switched route on the X.25 interface.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 switch pvc 1 interface serial 0/0/1 dlci 100 pvc 1

             # Configure an X.25 template
             [H3C] x25 template switch002
             [H3C-x25-switch002] x25 vc-range bi-channel 10 20

             # Configure a switched route for the X.25 template.
             [H3C-x25-switch002] x25 switch pvc 1 interface serial 0/0/0 pvc 1

             # Configure frame relay interface Serial 0/0/1.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/1



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             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] fr interface-type dce

             # Configure frame relay Annex G DLCI.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial0/0/1-100] annexg dce

             # Reference the X.25 template to the frame relay Annex G DLCI.
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial0/0/1-100] x25-template switch002


6.5 Troubleshooting Frame Relay
             Symptom 1: the physical layer in DOWN status.
             Solution:
             Check whether the physical line is normal.
             Check whether the opposite equipment runs normally.
             Symptom 2: the physical layer is already UP, but the link layer protocol is DOWN.
             Solution:
             Check whether both local equipment and opposite equipment have been encapsulated
             with frame relay protocol.
             If two equipments are directly connected, check the local equipment and opposite
             equipment to see whether one end is configured as frame relay DTE interface and the
             other end as frame relay DCE interface.
             Please check if the LMI protocol type configuration in the two ends is the same.
             If everything is OK, turn on the monitoring switch for the frame relay LMI message to
             see whether one Status Request message correspond to one Status Response
             message. If not, it indicates the physical layer data is not received/sent correctly. Check
             the physical layer. The command debugging fr lmi is used to turn on the monitoring
             switch for frame relay LMI information.
             Symptom 3: The link layer protocol is UP, but the remote party cannot be pinged.
             Solution:
             Check whether the equipment at both ends have configured (or created) correct
             address mapping for the peer.
             Check the route table to see whether there is a route to the peer.


6.6 FR PVC Group Support
6.6.1 Introduction to FR PVC Group Support

             On a traditional frame relay (FR) network, even with multiple PVCs to the same
             destination IP address configured, only one PVC performs packet forwarding, while the


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             others do not forward packets at all. Only when the PVC forwarding packets becomes
             unavailable, does another PVC take over the packet forwarding responsibility. The
             result of this design is that the network bandwidth cannot be used efficiently and the
             packets with higher priorities are not always serviced first.
             By configuring a PVC group, you can not only enable multiple PVCs destined for the
             same destination address to function simultaneously, shunning the previously
             mentioned flaw of the traditional FR network, but also differentiate flows of different
             priorities. For an IP packet transmitted over an FR link, the differentiation can be based
             on the TOS field in the packet; while for an MPLS packet transmitted over an FR link, it
             can be based on the EXP field in the packet. Moreover, flows of different priorities can
             be assigned to different PVCs. Since each PVC in a PVC group can be configured with
             a separate QoS policy, flexible QoS control can be implemented for different services.
             In addition, FR PVC group support offers backup and protection of PVC group
             members, providing higher-priority flows with higher reliability and real time monitoring.

6.6.2 Basic Concepts for FR PVC Group Support

           I. Default PVC

             For each packet, whether it is an IP packet using the Precedence/DSCP identifier in the
             TOS field or an MPLS packet using the identifier in the EXP field, you can specify a
             PVC to carry it. For those packets for which you do not specify PVCs, you can specify a
             default PVC to carry them. The default PVC can also take over for an unavailable PVC
             in the same PVC group.

           II. PVC group

             PVC group refers to a group of PVCs destined for the same destination IP address.
             Different PVCs in a PVC group can carry packets of different priorities. You can also
             configure PVC backup and protection on a PVC group.

           III. Differentiation of flows

             The TOS field of an IP packet can use the Precedence or DSCP identifier to indicate the
             priority of the packet. The Precedence identifier occupies three bits, while the DSCP
             identifier occupies six bits. Therefore, the Precedence identifier supports eight priority
             levels: 0 to 7, while the DSCP identifier supports 64 priority levels: 0 to 63. The greater
             the priority level number, the higher the priority.
             Inherited from the Precedence identifier of the TOS field for an IP packet, the EXP field
             of an MPLS packet, which is used to indicate the priority of the MPLS packet, also
             occupies three bits. Therefore, eight levels of priority are supported for MPLS packets:
             0 to 7.




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             You can use the fr ip-dscp/fr ip-precedence or fr mpls-exp command to configure
             the PVCs for carrying packets (IP packets or MPLS packets) of different priorities,
             implementing differentiation of flows.

           IV. PVC backup

             When a PVC in a PVC group goes down, the system searches for the standby PVC
             specified in the PVC group. If the standby PVC is unavailable either, the system
             searches for the standby PVC of the failed standby PVC, and so on. If the system finds
             no standby PVC that can take over for the failed PVC, the default PVC will take over the
             packet forwarding responsibility. Once becoming available again, the original PVC
             resumes its responsibility.

           V. Protection of PVC group member

             The FR PVC group support feature also provides a group member protection
             mechanism to protect important flows carried by a PVC group. Using the mechanism,
             you can specify a PVC as the protected object, or place some of the PVCs in the PVC
             group into a protected group and protect them.
                  With a PVC configured as the protected object (individual protection), when the
                  PVC goes down, the whole PVC group becomes unavailable. Even if the PVC is
                  configured with a standby PVC, the standby PVC does not take over.
                  With several PVCs in a PVC group configured as the protected group (group
                  protection), when a protected PVC goes down, if its standby PVC is also a
                  member of the protected object, the standby PVC takes over. Otherwise, the
                  standby PVC cannot take over and the whole PVC group becomes unavailable.
             The PVC group member protection mechanism makes the status change of a protected
             object affect directly the status of the whole PVC group, that is, an unavailable
             protected object can cause the whole PVC group to go down.

6.6.3 FR PVC Group Support Mechanism

             The FR PVC group support feature works on these principles:
             1)   The system looks for the matched FR map entry according to the destination of a
                  packet.
             2)   If the matched map entry corresponds to a PVC group and the packet to be
                  transmitted is an IP or MPLS packet, the system looks for the matched PVC
                  according to the priority of the packet, and the matched PVC will carry the packet.
             3)   For packets that have no PVCs configured to carry them, the system performs
                  differentiation based on these principles:
                  If you specify to differentiate flows by the Precedence or DSCP identifier of IP
                  packet and the packets to be transmitted are non-IP packets (for example, MPLS
                  or INARP packets), the PVC specified to carry packets of priority level 6 (for the
                  case with the Precedence identifier) or 63 (for the case with the DSCP identifier)


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                    will carry the packets. As for IP packets for which no specified PVCs are
                    configured, the default PVC will carries them.
                    If you specify to differentiate flows according to the EXP field of MPLS packet and
                    the packets to be transmitted are non-MPLS packets (for example, IP or INARP
                    packets), the PVC specified to carry MPLS packets of priority level 6 will carry the
                    packets. The default PVC will carry the MPLS packets for which no specified PVCs
                    are configured.
             4)     If no default PVC is configured and packets of certain priority levels have no
                    matched PVCs to carry them, the whole PVC group becomes unavailable.



                   Note:
             Any packet on an FR link must have a PVC to carry it. You can specify a PVC for each
             flow or configure a default PVC. If a packet of a certain priority level has no PVC to carry
             it, the whole PVC group becomes unavailable.




6.6.4 Configuring FR PVC Group Support

           I. Configuration Prerequisites

             Before configuring the parameters for FR PVC group support, perform these
             configurations:
                    Configure basic FR parameters
                    Enable MPLS and configure basic MPLS parameters (if you want the links to
                    transmit MPLS packets)
                    Configure routing parameters

           II. Configuring an FR PVC group to differentiate IP/MPLS packets

             Perform the following configuration on the FR DTE equipment. The DCE equipment
             does not require the configuration.

             Table 6-22 Configure an FR PVC group to differentiate IP/MPLS packets

                  No.           Operation                  Command                  Description
               1        Enter system view             system-view              —
                                                      interface
               2        Enter interface view          interface-type           —
                                                      interface-number




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               No.             Operation                    Command                   Description
                                                       fr map ip
                                                                                 Required. By default,
                                                       { protocol-address
                                                                                 the system has no
                                                       [ ip-mask ] | default }
                      Configure an FR map entry                                  static address map
               3                                       pvc-group
                      and specify a PVC group                                    entries and allows
                                                       pvc-group-name
                                                                                 inverse address
                                                       [ nonstandard| | ietf
                                                                                 resolution.
                                                       | broadcast ]*
                                                                                 Required. By default,
                      Create a PVC group and           fr pvc-group
               4                                                                 no PVC group is
                      enter pvc-group view             pvc-group-name
                                                                                 configured.
                                                                                 Required. By default,
                                                                                 no PVC is configured
                      Assign a PVC for the                                       for an FR group.
               5      interface and enter PVC          fr dlci dlci              You can configure this
                      view                                                       command for a PVC
                                                                                 group multiple times to
                                                                                 assign multiple PVCs.
                                  Configure a
                                  PVC group to
                                  differentiate IP
                                  packets by the       fr match dscp
               6                  DSCP identifier      fr ip-dscp dlci { min
                                  and specify the      [ max ] | default }       You must configure
                                  PVC to carry IP                                either of the two
                      Configu
                                  packets of                                     groups of commands if
                      re a
                                  certain priorities                             you want the device to
                      PVC
                                                                                 differentiate IP
                      group to    Configure a                                    packets. By default, a
                      different   PVC group to                                   PVC group uses the
                      iate IP     differentiate IP     fr match                  Precedence identifier
                      packets     packets by the       precedence                to differentiate IP
                                  Precedence                                     packets.
               7                                       fr ip-precedence
                                  identifier and
                                  specify the PVC      dlci { min [ max ] |
                                  to carry IP          default }
                                  packets of
                                  certain priorities
                      Configure a PVC group to
                                                                                 Required when you
                      differentiate MPLS packets       fr mpls-exp dlci
                                                                                 want the device to
               8      and specify the PVCs to          { min [ max ] |
                                                                                 differentiate MPLS
                      carry MPLS packets of            default }
                                                                                 packets.
                      certain priorities
                                                       display fr
                                                       pvc-group
                      Display the status of PVC        [ interface
               9                                                                 Available in any view
                      groups                           interface-type
                                                       interface-number |
                                                       pvc-group-name ]




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                   Note:
                   Only after you enable MPLS on an interface and configure basic MPLS parameters,
                   can you configure the fr mpls-exp command.
                   On an FR network, you can configure to differentiate IP packets or MPLS packets,
                   but not both.




           III. Configuring backup and protection for an FR PVC group (optional)

             Table 6-23 Configure backup and protection for an FR PVC group

               No.             Operation                Command                  Description
                                                 Refer to the previous
                                                 subsection II.
                        Configure an FR PVC
                                                 “Configuring an FR
               1        group to differentiate                             Required
                                                 PVC group to
                        IP/MPLS packets
                                                 differentiate IP/MPLS
                                                 packets”
                                                                           Required. By default, a
                        Configure a standby
               2                                 fr bump dlci grade        PVC has no standby
                        PVC for a PVC
                                                                           PVC configured.

                                                                           Required. By default,
                        Configure the
                                                 fr pvc-protect dlci       the system does not
               3        protection mode of a
                                                 { group | individual }    protect any PVC in a
                        PVC
                                                                           PVC group.

                                                 display fr pvc-group
                                                 [ interface
                        Display the status of
               4                                 interface-type            Available in any view
                        PVC groups
                                                 interface-number |
                                                 pvc-group-name ]




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                 Note:
                 For a PVC configured with both PVC backup and individual protection, the PVC
                 backup function does not take effect, and the PVC group becomes unavailable once
                 the PVC goes down.
                 For a PVC configured with both PVC backup and group protection, the standby PVC
                 in the protected group resumes the backup responsibility, and the standby PVCs
                 outside the PVC group do not take over. As long as one PVC in the PVC protected
                 group is available, the PVC group is available.




6.7 FR PVC Group Support Configuration Examples
6.7.1 Differentiating IP Packets by Precedence on an FR Network

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 6-8, RouterA and RouterB are connected over an FR network, and
             four PVCs are created between them. Configure a PVC group for RouterA and RouterB
             respectively to differentiate the transmitted IP packets by the Precedence identifier in
             the TOS field.
                  On RouterA and RouterB, configure PVC 100 to carry packets of priority levels
                  from 0 to 3, PVC 200 to carry packets of priority levels 4 and 5, PVC 300 to carry
                  packets of priority levels 6 and 7, and PVC 400 to be the default PVC, respectively.
                  Configure the PVC backup mechanism on RouterA and RouterB respectively,
                  making the PVC carrying IP packets of priority level 4 (that is, PVC 200) serve as
                  the standby PVC of PVC 100, the PVC carrying IP packets of priority level 6 (that is,
                  PVC 300) serve as the standby PVC of PVC 200.
                  Configure the PVC protection mechanism on RouterA and RouterB respectively to
                  protect PVC 100 in individual mode and PVCs 200 and 300 in group mode.




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           II. Network diagram

                  RouterA                                                  RouterB



                                                FR
                                Serial1/0/0 :               Serial1/0/0:
                                 10.1.1.1/24                 10.1.1.2/24




                            PVC100                                  PVC100


                        PVC200        PVC                 PVC      PVC200
                                     group 1             group 1
                        PVC300                                     PVC300



                       PVC400                                      PVC400




             Figure 6-8 Differentiate IP packets by the Precedence identifier on an FR network


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure RouterA
             # Configure basic FR parameters and the mapping to the peer.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map ip 10.1.1.2 pvc-group 1

             # Configure the PVC group.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr pvc-group 1
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-100] quit
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 200
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-200] quit
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 300
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-300] quit
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 400
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-400] quit

             # Configure the PVCs to carry IP packets of the intended priority levels respectively.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr ip-precedence 100 0 3
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr ip-precedence 200 4 5
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr ip-precedence 300 6 7
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr ip-precedence 400 default


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             # Configure PVC backup.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr bump 100 4
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr bump 200 6

             # Configure PVC protection.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr pvc-protect 100 individual
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr pvc-protect 200 group
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr pvc-protect 300 group

             # Configure a static route to RouterB.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] quit
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit
             [H3C] ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.1.1.2

             According to the above configuration, since PVC 100 is configured with individual
             protection, when it goes down, its standby PVC (that is, PVC 200) does not take over.
             On the contrary, since PVC 200 is configured with group protection and its standby
             PVC (that is, PVC 300) is in the same protected group, when it goes down, its standby
             PVC will take over.
             2)   Configure Router B
             The configuration required for RouterB is similar to that for RouterA. Therefore, the
             detailed configuration procedure for RouterB is omitted.

6.7.2 Differentiating IP Packets by DSCP on an FR Network

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 6-9, RouterA and RouterB are connected over an FR network, and
             four PVCs are created between them. Configure a PVC group for RouterA and RouterB
             respectively to differentiate the transmitted IP packets by the DSCP identifier in the
             TOS field.
                  On RouterA and RouterB, configure PVC 100 to carry packets of priority levels
                  from 0 to 20, PVC 200 to carry packets of priority levels from 21 to 40, PVC 300 to
                  carry packets of priority levels from 41 to 63, and PVC 400 to be the default PVC,
                  respectively.
                  Configure the PVC backup mechanism on RouterA and RouterB respectively,
                  making the PVC carrying IP packets of priority level 30 (that is, PVC 200) serve as
                  the standby PVC of PVC 100, the PVC carrying IP packets of priority level 60 (that
                  is, PVC 300) serve as the standby PVC of PVC 200.
                  Configure the PVC protection mechanism on RouterA and RouterB respectively to
                  protect PVC 100 in individual mode and PVCs 200 and 300 in group mode.




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           II. Network diagram

                  RouterA                                                     RouterB



                                                FR
                                Serial1/0/0 :                 Serial1/0/0 :
                                 10.1.1.1/24                   10.1.1.2/24




                            PVC100                                    PVC100


                        PVC200        PVC                    PVC      PVC200
                                     group 1                group 1
                        PVC300                                        PVC300



                        PVC400                                        PVC400




             Figure 6-9 Differentiate IP packets by the DSCP identifier on an FR network


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure RouterA
             # Configure basic FR parameters and the mapping to the peer.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map ip 10.1.1.2 pvc-group 1

             # Configure the PVC group.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr pvc-group 1
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-100] quit
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 200
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-200] quit
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 300
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-300] quit
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 400
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-400] quit

             # Configure the PVCs to carry IP packets of the intended priority levels respectively.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr match dscp
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr ip-dscp 100 0 20
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr ip-dscp 200 21 40
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr ip-dscp 300 41 63
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr ip-dscp 400 default


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             # Configure PVC backup.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr bump 100 30
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr bump 200 60

             # Configure PVC protection.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr pvc-protect 100 individual
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr pvc-protect 200 group
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr pvc-protect 300 group

             # Configure a static route to RouterB.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] quit
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit
             [H3C] ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.1.1.2

             According to the above configuration, since PVC 100 is configured with individual
             protection, when it goes down, its standby PVC (that is, PVC 200) does not take over.
             On the contrary, since PVC 200 is configured with group protection and its standby
             PVC (that is, PVC 300) is in the same protected group, when it goes down, its standby
             PVC will take over.
             2)   Configure Router B
             The configuration required for RouterB is similar to that for RouterA. Therefore, the
             detailed configuration procedure for RouterB is omitted.

6.7.3 Differentiating MPLS Packets by EXP on an FR Network

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 6-10, RouterA and RouterB are connected over an FR network, and
             four PVCs are created between them. Configure a PVC group for Router A and Router
             B respectively to differentiate the transmitted MPLS packets by the EXP field.
                  On Router A and Router B, configure the PVC with DLCI 100 to carry packets of
                  priority levels from 0 to 3, the PVC with DLCI 200 to carry packets of priority levels
                  4 and 5, the PVC with DLCI 300 to carry packets of priority levels 6 and 7, and the
                  PVC with DLCI 400 to be the default PVC, respectively.
                  Configure the PVC backup mechanism on Router A and Router B respectively,
                  making the PVC carrying MPLS packets of priority level 4 (that is, PVC with DLCI
                  200) serve as the standby PVC of the PVC with DLCI 100, the PVC carrying MPLS
                  packets of priority level 6 (that is, PVC with DLCI 300) serve as the standby PVC of
                  the PVC with DLCI 200.
                  Configure the PVC protection mechanism on RouterA and RouterB respectively to
                  protect the PVC with DLCI 100 in individual mode and PVCs with DLCI 200 and
                  DLCI 300 in group mode.




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           II. Network diagram

                  RouterA                                                 RouterB



                                                FR
                                Serial1/0/0 :             Serial1/0/0 :
                                 10.1.1.1/24               10.1.1.2/24




                            PVC100                                PVC100


                        PVC200       PVC                PVC       PVC200
                                     group 1            group 1
                        PVC300                                    PVC300



                        PVC400                                    PVC400




             Figure 6-10 Differentiate MPLS packets by the EXP identifier on an FR network


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure Router A
             # Enable MPLS in system view.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface loopback 0
             [H3C-LoopBack0] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-LoopBack0] quit
             [H3C] mpls lsr-id 1.1.1.1
             [H3C] mpls
             [H3C-mpls] quit
             [H3C] mpls ldp

             # Configure basic FR parameters and the mapping to the peer, and enable MPLS on
             the interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map ip 10.1.1.2 pvc-group 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] mpls
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] mpls ldp enable

             # Configure the PVC group.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr pvc-group 1
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-100] quit


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             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 200
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-200] quit
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 300
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-300] quit
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr dlci 400
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1-400] quit

             # Configure the PVCs to carry MPLS packets of the intended priorities respectively.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr mpls-exp 100 0 3
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr mpls-exp 200 4 5
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr mpls-exp 300 6 7
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr mpls-exp 400 default

             # Configure PVC backup.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr bump 100 30
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr bump 200 40

             # Configure PVC protection.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr pvc-protect 100 individual
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr pvc-protect 200 group
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] fr pvc-protect 300 group

             # Configure a static route to RouterB.
             [H3C-fr-pvc-group-Serial1/0/0-1] quit
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit
             [H3C] ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.1.1.2

             According to the above configuration, since PVC 100 is configured with individual
             protection, when it goes down, its standby PVC (that is, PVC 200) does not take over.
             On the contrary, since PVC 200 is configured with group protection and its standby
             PVC (that is, PVC 300) is in the same protected group, when it goes down, its standby
             PVC will take over.
             2)   Configure Router B
             The configuration required for RouterB is similar to that for RouterA. Therefore, the
             detailed configuration procedure for RouterB is omitted.


6.8 Multilink Frame Relay Overview
             Multilink frame relay (MFR) is a cost effective bandwidth solution for frame relay users.
             Based on the FRF.16 protocol of the frame relay forum, it implements MFR function on
             UNI/NNI interfaces.
             MFR feature provides a kind of logic interface, namely MFR interface, which is
             compound of multiple frame relay physical links bound together, so as to provide
             high-speed and broadband links on frame relay networks.



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             In order to maximize the bandwidth of bundled interface, it is suggested to bundle
             physical interfaces of the same rate for the same MFR interface upon configuring the
             MFR interface so as to reduce management labor.

           I. Bundle and Bundle link

             Bundle and bundle link are two basic concepts related to MFR.
             One MFR interface corresponds to one bundle, which may contain multiple bundle links.
             One bundle link corresponds to one physical interface. Bundle manages its bundle links.
             The interrelationship between bundle and bundle link is illustrated as follows:


               Bundle Link
               Bundle Link
               Bundle Link

                                     Bundle

             Figure 6-11 Illustration of bundle and bundle links


             For the actual physical layer, bundle link is visible; while for the actual data link layer,
             bundle is visible.

           II. MFR interface and physical interface

             An MFR interface is a kind of logic interface. Multiple physical interfaces can be
             bundled into one MFR interface. One MFR interface corresponds to one bundle and
             one physical interface corresponds to one bundle link. The configuration on a bundle
             and bundle links is actually configuration on an MFR interface and physical interfaces.



                  Note:
             The function and configuration of the MFR interface is the same with that on the FR
             interface in common sense. Like the FR interface, the MFR interface supports DTE and
             DCE interface types as well as QoS queue mechanism. After physical interfaces are
             bundled into an MFR interface, their original network layer and frame relay link layer
             parameters become ineffective and they use the parameter settings of the MFR
             interface instead.




6.9 MFR Configuration
             MFR configuration includes the following contents:
                   Create an MFR interface
                   Configure MFR bundle identifier
                   Configure MFR fragmentation

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                  Configure size of MFR sliding window
                  Configure fragment size
                  Add MFR bundle link
                  Configure MFR bundle link identifier
                  Configure hello packet parameters of MFR bundle link

6.9.1 Creating an MFR Interface

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 6-24 Create an MFR interface

                       Operation                                   Command
               Create an MFR interface      interface mfr interface-number [ .subnumber ]

               Delete an MFR interface      undo interface mfr interface-number [ .subnumber ]



             By default, no MFR interface or sub-interface is created.
             Before creating the MFR sub-interface, MFR main interface must have existed already;
             otherwise, the creation will not succeed.
             When deleting an MFR interface, first delete all real physical interfaces bundled on the
             interface.
             For an MFR interface, the physical status of MFR can turn to up only when one of the
             physical interfaces assigned to it is up in terms of physical and protocol states. When
             the protocol status of all the bundled physical interfaces is down, the physical status of
             MFR turns to down. The link protocol status of MFR interface depends on LMI packet
             negotiation.



                 Note:
             For description sake, the interface that uses frame relay or MFR as link layer protocol
             will be called as frame relay interface uniformly, and MFR bundle interface will be called
             as MFR interface instead.




6.9.2 Configuring MFR Bundle Identifier

             Perform the following configuration in MFR interface view.




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             Table 6-25 Configure MFR bundle identifier

                              Operation                                   Command
               Set bundle identifier                      mfr bundle-name [ name ]
               Restore the default bundle identifier      undo mfr bundle-name [ name ]



             By default, bundle identifier is mfr + frame relay bundle number, for example, mfr4. This
             identifier only has local significance.

6.9.3 Configuring MFR Fragmentation

             MFR interfaces can receive and send FRF.16 fragments.
             Perform the following configuration in MFR interface view.

             Table 6-26 Configure MFR fragmentation

                                         Operation                                 Command
               Enable FRF.16 fragmentation on the MFR interface               mfr fragment
               Disable FRF.16 fragmentation on the MFR interface              undo mfr fragment



             By default, FRF.16 fragmentation is disabled on MFR bundles.



                 Note:
             When your router works with a device that does not support FRF.16 fragmentation, you
             must disable fragmentation on the current MFR interface to avoid packet loss.




6.9.4 Configuring Size of MFR Sliding Window

             The size of MFR sliding window refers to the number of fragments that can be held by
             the window with sliding window algorithm when MFR reassembles received fragments.
             Perform the following configuration in MFR interface view.

             Table 6-27 Configure size of MFR sliding window

                              Operation                                   Command
               Set size of MFR sliding window             mfr window-size number
               Restore the default setting                undo mfr window-size




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             By default, the size of MFR sliding window is equal to the number of physical interfaces
             bundled by MFR.

6.9.5 Configuring Fragment Size

             Perform the following configuration in MFR interface view or frame relay interface view.

             Table 6-28 Configure fragment size of MFR bundle link

                                     Operation                                   Command
               Set the maximum fragment permitted by bundle link       mfr fragment-size bytes
               Restore the default setting                             undo mfr fragment-size



             By default, the maximum fragment is of 300 bytes.
             After the fragment function is enabled on MFR interface, the bundle link first uses the
             fragment size configured in frame relay interface view. If there is no configuration in
             frame relay interface view, use fragment size configured in MFR interface view.

6.9.6 Adding MFR Bundle Link

             Configure the interface to use MFR as the link layer protocol and the interface can be
             bundled on the specified MFR interface to form a bundle link.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-29 Add MFR bundle link

                              Operation                                  Command
               Bundle the current interface onto the
                                                          link-protocol fr mfr interface-number
               specified MFR interface



             By default, the interface does not bundle with any MFR interface.
             To cancel the bundle between a physical interface and an MFR interface, the
             link-protocol command must be used to change the link layer protocol type of the
             interface into the type other than MFR.
             After a physical interface is encapsulated into MFR format, the interface will become a
             part of MFR and cannot be configured with other FR commands besides MFR any
             more.
             After a physical interface is encapsulated into MFR format, the queue type on the
             interface can only be configured as FIFO. If other queue types are used before the
             interface encapsulation, they will be compulsively transformed into FIFO queues.




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6.9.7 Configuring MFR Bundle Link Identifier

             Perform the following configuration in frame relay interface view.

             Table 6-30 Configure MFR bundle link identifier

                                  Operation                                    Command
               Set the name of bundle link identifier               mfr link-name [ name ]
               Restore the default name of bundle link identifier   undo mfr link-name [ name ]



             By default, the bundle link identifier is the name of current physical interface.
             As a prerequisite to perform this command, the current physical interface must be
             configured as a MFR bundle link, using the link-protocol fr mfr command.

6.9.8 Configuring Hello Packet Parameters of MFR Bundle Link

             Bundle link stays in link state by periodically sending hello packets. If the hello packet
             sent by bundle link receives no response from the peer end, the hello packet will be
             resent after a while. When the resending times reaches to the maximum and there is
             still no response received, the link will be regarded as malfunctioning.
             Perform the following configuration in frame relay interface view.

             Table 6-31 Configure hello packet parameters of MFR bundle link

                                     Operation                                    Command
               Set hello packet sending period of MFR bundle link        mfr timer hello seconds
               Restore the default sending period                        undo mfr timer hello
               Set waiting time before MFR bundle link resends hello
                                                                         mfr timer ack seconds
               packets
               Restore the default setting                               undo mfr timer ack
               Set the maximum times that MFR bundle link can
                                                                         mfr retry number
               resend hello packet
               Restore the default setting                               undo mfr retry



             By default, the hello packet sending period of bundle link is 10 seconds. Before a hello
             packet is resent, hello response message will be waited for 4 seconds. At most, the
             hello packet can be resent 2 times.
             As a prerequisite to perform this command, the current physical interface must be
             configured as a MFR bundle link, using the link-protocol fr mfr command.




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6.10 Displaying and Debugging MFR
             After the above configuration, execute the display command in any view to display the
             running of the MFR configuration, and to verify the effect of the configuration.
             Execute the debugging command in user view for the debugging of MFR.

             Table 6-32 Display and debug MFR

                                    Operation                                     Command
               Display configuration and status of MFR       display interface mfr
               interface                                     [ interface-number ]
               Display MFR bundle and configuration
                                                             display mfr [ interface interface-type
               and statistics information of the bundle
                                                             interface-number | verbose ]
               links
               Enable the debugging of MFR bundle            debugging fr mfr control [ interface
               and bundle links                              interface-type interface-number ]
                                                             undo debugging fr mfr control
               Enable the debugging of MFR bundle
                                                             [ interface interface-type
               and bundle links
                                                             interface-number ]




6.11 MFR Configuration Example
6.11.1 MFR Direct Connection Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Router A and Router B are directly connected via Serial4/0/0 and Serial4/0/1. The
             frame relay protocol is used to bundle the two serial ports for broader bandwidth.

           II. Network diagram

               Router A                                                          Router B
                          Serial4/0/0                              Serial4/0/0
                          Serial4/0/1                              Serial4/0/1

                                    MFR 4             MFR 4
                                10.140.10.1/24    10.140.10.2/24

             Figure 6-12 Network diagram of MFR direct connection


           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router A:
             # Create and configure the MFR interface 4.
             [H3C] interface mfr 4
             [H3C-MFR4] ip address 10.140.10.1 255.255.255.0



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             [H3C-MFR4] fr interface-type dte
             [H3C-MFR4] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-dlci-MFR4-100] quit
             [H3C-MFR4] fr map ip 10.140.10.2 100
             [H3C-MFR4] quit

             # Bundle the interfaces Serial4/0/0 and Serial4/0/1 into mfr4.
             [H3C] interface serial 4/0/0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] link-protocol fr mfr 4
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] interface serial 4/0/1
             [H3C-Serial4/0/1] link-protocol fr mfr 4
             Configure Router B:

             # Create and configure interface mfr 4.
             [H3C] interface mfr 4
             [H3C-MFR4] ip address 10.140.10.2 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-MFR4] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-MFR4] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-dlci-MFR4-100] quit
             [H3C-MFR4] fr map ip 10.140.10.1 100
             [H3C-MFR4] quit

             # Bundle the interfaces Serial4/0/0 and Serial4/0/1 into mfr4.
             [H3C] interface serial 4/0/0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] link-protocol fr mfr 4
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] interface serial 4/0/1
             [H3C-Serial4/0/1] link-protocol fr mfr 4


6.11.2 MFR Switched Connection Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Router A and Router C are connected through MFR to Router B where MFR switching
             is enabled.

           II. Network diagram

                        MFR1               MFR1            MFR2              MFR2
                      Serial0/0/0        Serial0/0/0      Serial7/0/0      Serial7/0/0




                      Serial0/0/1        Serial0/0/1      Serial7/0/1      Serial7/0/1
               Router A                         Router B                            Router C

             Figure 6-13 Network diagram for MFR switching




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           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure interface MFR1.
             [H3C] interface MFR1
             [H3C-MFR1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-MFR1] quit

             # Add the physical interfaces Serial0/0/0 and Serial0/0/1 to MFR1.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol fr MFR1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] link-protocol fr MFR1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] quit
             2)   Configure Router B
             # Enable Frame Relay switching.
             [H3C] fr switching

             # Configure interface MFR1.
             [H3C] interface MFR1
             [H3C-MFR1] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-MFR1] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-MFR1] quit

             # Configure interface MFR2.
             [H3C] interface MFR2
             [H3C-MFR2] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-MFR2] fr dlci 200
             [H3C-MFR2] quit

             # Add the physical interfaces Serial0/0/0 and Serial0/0/1 to MFR1.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol fr MFR1
             [H3C] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/1] link-protocol fr MFR1
             [H3C] quit

             # Add the physical interfaces Serial 7/0/0 and Serial 7/0/1 to MFR2.
             [H3C] interface serial 7/0/0
             [H3C-Serial7/0/0] link-protocol fr MFR2
             [H3C] quit
             [H3C] interface serial 7/0/1




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             [H3C-Serial7/0/1] link-protocol fr MFR2
             [H3C] quit

             # Configure Frame Relay switched static routing.
             [H3C] fr switch pvc1 interface MFR1 dlci 100 interface MFR2 dlci 200
             3)   Configure Router C
             # Configure interface MFR2.
             [H3C]interface MFR2
             [H3C-MFR2] ip address 1.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
             [H3C] quit

             # Add the physical interfaces Serial7/0/0 and Serial7/0/1 to MFR2.
             [H3C]interface serial 7/0/0
             [H3C-Serial7/0/0] link-protocol fr MFR2
             [H3C] quit
             [H3C]interface serial 7/0/1
             [H3C-Serial7/0/1] link-protocol fr MFR2


6.12 PPPoFR/MPoFR Configuration
6.12.1 Configuring PPPoFR

             PPP over frame relay (PPPoFR) enables routers to establish end-to-end PPP sessions
             on a frame relay network, allowing frame relay stations to use PPP features such as
             LCP, NCP, authentication, and MP fragmentation.
             PPPoFR configuration steps:
                  Create a virtual template interface
                  Configure the IP address for virtual template interface
                  Configure frame relay interface
                  Configure a frame relay DLCI
                  Map frame relay DLCI to PPP

             Table 6-33 Configure PPPoFR

                              Operation                                     Command
               Create virtual template interface in       interface virtual-template
               system view                                interface-number
               Assign an IP address to the interface in
                                                          ip address address mask
               virtual template interface view
               Assign available bandwidth to a virtual
                                                          qos max-bandwidth bandwidth
               template interface
               Configure frame relay interface in
                                                          link-protocol fr
               interface view




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                               Operation                                   Command
               Configure a frame relay DLCI in
                                                             fr dlci dlci-number
               interface view
               Map frame relay DLCI to PPP in                fr map ppp dlci-number interface
               interface view                                virtual-template interface-number



                 Note:
             The qos max-bandwidth command is mandatory. The bandwidth set by it is used for
             calculating bandwidth for MP main-channels.
             Even though you may configure bandwidth with the command depending on the
             physical link bandwidth of frame relay and DLCI multiplexing, you are recommended to
             use a bandwidth setting smaller than the real available bandwidth of the physical
             interface or logical link.




6.12.2 Configuring MPoFR

             Multilink PPP over frame relay (MPoFR) is essentially a case of PPPoFR making use of
             MP fragments to transmit MP fragments over frame relay stations.
             In MPoFR configuration, first configure PPPoFR follow the above table: configure
             PPPoFR on two or more virtual templates; note that cancel the commands to configure
             IP address on virtual template, and then perform the following configurations on these
             virtual templates, and bind them to another virtual template.
             Perform the following configurations in virtual template interface view.

             Table 6-34 Configure MPoFR

                               Operation                                   Command
               Configure MP on virtual template              ppp mp virtual-template
               interface                                     interface-number-mp



             Perform the following configurations on the virtual template interface band above:
                  Enable LFI on virtual template interface
                  Configure the maximum delay of LFI fragment
                  Configure the bandwidth of this interface
                  Configure IP address
             Perform the following configurations in virtual template interface view.




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             Table 6-35 Configure MPoFR

                              Operation                                    Command
               Enable LFI on virtual template interface      ppp mp lfi
               Configure the maximum delay of LFI
                                                             ppp mp lfi delay-per-frag time
               fragment
               Configure the bandwidth of this interface     qos max-bandwidth kilobits
               Configure the IP address of this interface    ip address address mask



             The above configuration limits the maximum length of MP fragments, that is, packets
             with their length longer than this one are to be fragmented. The maximum length of MP
             fragment is (kilobits*time) /8, where time defaults to 10, kilobits defaults to 0 (in this
             situation, the system calculates the maximum length of MP fragments according to the
             actual bandwidth).



                 Note:
             Configure PPP authentication on sub-channels, that is, sub-VT interfaces; when
             configured on MP main-channels, that is, main VT interfaces, PPP authentication is
             invalid.




6.12.3 PPPoFR Display and Debugging

             Perform the following operations in user view.

             Table 6-36 Display and debug PPPoFR

                              Operation                                    Command
               Display PPPoFR MAP and its status            display fr map pppofr
               Display information about one or all VT
                                                            display virtual-access vt [ vt-number ]
               interfaces
               Display information about one or all VA
                                                            display virtual-access va-number
               interfaces
                                                            debugging pppofr { all | packet | event }
               Enable PPPoFR debugging switch
                                                            [ interface virtual-template number ]




6.12.4 Enabling/Disabling VJ Compression for TCP/IP Headers

             The frame relay protocol supports VJ compression for TCP/IP headers only when
             nonstandard encapsulation is adopted for frame relay packets. VJ compression for


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             TCP/IP headers can be enabled on an interface or be enabled during static address
             mapping configuration.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view:

             Table 6-37 Enable/disable VJ compression for TCP/IP headers

                         Operation                                         Command
               Enable VJ compression for
                                                   fr ip tcp vjcompression [ passive ]
               TCP/IP headers
               Disable VJ compression for
                                                   undo fr ip tcp vjcompression
               TCP/IP headers



             By default, VJ compression for TCP/IP headers is disabled.

6.12.5 Basic PPPoFR Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Router A and B connects through frame relay network, enable PPPoFR between them.

           II. Network diagram



                              Router A               Router B

                     s0/0/0                                     s0/0/0


                                         DLCI=16


             Figure 6-14 Network diagram for PPPoFR


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A:
             # Create and configure the virtual template interface Virtual-Template 1
             [H3C] interface Virtual-Template1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 10.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] quit

             # Configure interface Serial 0/0/0
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol fr

             # Create DLCI 16
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] fr dlci 16



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             # Create PPP map on interface Serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial0/0/0-16] fr map ppp 16 interface Virtual-Template 1
             2)   Configure H3C B:
             # Create and configure the virtual template interface Virtual-Template 1
             [H3C] interface Virtual-Template 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template1] quit

             # Configure interface Serial 0/0/0
             [H3C] interface serial0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] fr interface-type dce

             # Create DLCI 16
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] fr dlci 16

             # Create PPP map on interface Serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial0/0/0-16] fr map ppp 16 interface Virtual-Template 1


6.13 Frame Relay Compression
6.13.1 Introduction to Frame Relay Compression

             Frame relay compression technique can be used to compress frame relay packets to
             save network bandwidth, reduce network load and improve the data transfer efficiency
             on frame relay network.
             The router supports FRF.9 stac compression (referred to as FRF.9) and FRF.20 IPHC
             (referred to as FRF.20).

           I. FRF.9

             FRF.9 classifies packets into two types: control and data. Control packets are used for
             status negotiation between the two ends of DLCI where compression protocol has
             been configured. Only after the negotiation succeeds can FRF.9 data packets be
             switched. If the negotiation fails after a specified number of FRF.9 control packet
             sending attempts are made, the negotiating parties stop negotiation and the
             compression configuration does not take effect.
             FRF.9 compresses only data packets and InARP packets; it does not compress LMI
             packets.

           II. FRF.20

             FRF.20 compresses the IP header of packets transmitted over frame relay. For
             example, you may use it to compress voice packets to save bandwidth, decrease load,
             and improve transmission efficiency on a frame relay network.


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             FRF.20 classifies packets into control packets and data packets. Control packets are
             sent between FRF.20-enabled interfaces to negotiate status information. Only after the
             negotiation succeeds can the interfaces exchange FRF.20 data packets. If the
             negotiation fails after a specified number of attempts are made, the interfaces stop
             negotiation and their compression settings do not take effect.
             FRF.20 compresses only RTP packets and TCP ACK packets.

6.13.2 Configuring FRF.9 Compression

             Frame relay main interface is a point-to-multipoint interface, while frame relay
             sub-interface includes two types: point-to-point (P2P) and point-to-multipoint (P2MP).
             Therefore, the configuration of frame relay compression includes:
                  Configuration of point-to-point frame relay compression
                  Configuration of point-to-multipoint frame relay compression

           I. Configuring frame relay compression on a P2P interface

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-38 Configure frame relay compression on a P2P interface

                              Operation                                  Command
               Enable frame relay compression             fr compression frf9
               Disable frame relay compression            undo fr compression



             By default, frame relay compression function is disabled.

           II. Configuring frame relay compression on a P2MP interface

             For a point-to-multipoint frame relay interface, the frame relay compression is
             configured when creating static address mapping.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-39 Configure frame relay compression on a P2MP interface

                              Operation                                  Command
               Create frame relay mapping and enable      fr map ip { protocol-address [ ip-mask ] |
               frame relay compression on DLCI            default } dlci compression frf9
               Delete frame relay mapping and remove      undo fr map ip { protocol-address |
               frame relay compression                    default } dlci



             By default, frame relay compression function is disabled.




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6.13.3 Configuring FRF.20 Compression

             Comware frame relay functionality provides IP header compression including RTP/TCP
             header compression.
             RTP/IP header compression could be enabled on interfaces or when configuring static
             address mappings.
             TCP/IP header compression however, could be enabled only on interfaces. Once
             enabled on an interface, it takes effect on all PVCs of the interface.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 6-40 Configure IP header compression for frame relay

                           Operation                                  Command
               Enable IP header compression
                                                    fr compression iphc
               on the interface
               Disable IP header compression
                                                    undo fr compression iphc
               on the interface
                                                    fr iphc { nonstandard | rtp-connections
               Configure the IP header
                                                    number1 | tcp-connections number2 |
               compression function
                                                    tcp-include }
                                                    undo fr iphc { nonstandard | rtp-connections
               Disable IP header compression        number1 | tcp-connections number2 |
                                                    tcp-include }



                 Note:
             IPHC takes effect only when fast forwarding is disabled.
             IPHC TCP/IP is not available when your router works with a Cisco router. IPHC RTP/IP
             is available on a frame relay interface only when the type of the interface is set to
             nonstandard and a static map is created on the interface.
             After you configure IP header compression on a frame relay interface, you must
             perform the shutdown command and then the undo shutdown command on the
             interface to have the settings take effect.




6.13.4 Displaying and Debugging Frame Relay Compression

             After the above configuration, execute the display command in any view to display the
             running of the frame relay compression after configuration and to verify the effect of the
             configuration.
             Execute the debugging command in user view for the debugging of frame relay
             compression.



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             Table 6-41 Display and debug frame relay compression

                                    Operation                                        Command
                                                                   display fr iphc [ interface
               Display statistics about FRF.20 IPHC
                                                                   interface-type interface-number ]
               Display statistics about frame relay                display fr compress [ interface
               compression                                         interface-type interface-number ]
               Enable debugging of frame relay                     debugging fr compress [ interface
               compression                                         interface-type interface-number ]

                                                                   undo debugging fr compress
               Disable debugging of frame relay
                                                                   [ interface interface-type
               compression
                                                                   interface-number ]
                                                                   debugging fr compression iphc { rtp |
               Enable FRF20 IPHC debugging                         tcp } { all | context_state | error |
                                                                   full_header | general_info }
                                                                   undo debugging fr compression iphc
               Disable FRF20 IPHC debugging                        { rtp | tcp } { all | context_state | error |
                                                                   full_header | general_info }




6.13.5 FRF.9 Compression Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Router A and Router B are connected via the frame relay network and frame relay
             compression function (FRF.9) is enabled between them.

           II. Network diagram


                          Serial4/0/0    Frame Relay      Serial4/0/0
                                           Network
               Router A                                                 Router B


             Figure 6-15 Typical configuration diagram of frame relay compression


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router A
             [H3C] interface serial 4/0/0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] ip address 10.110.40.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr interface-type dte
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial4/0/0-100] quit
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr map ip 10.110.40.2 100 compression frf9




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             2)   Configure Router B
             [H3C] interface serial 4/0/0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] ip address 10.110.40.2 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr interface-type dte
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial4/0/0-100] quit
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr map ip 10.110.40.1 100 compression frf9


6.13.6 FRF.20 Compression Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Router A and Router B are connected across a frame relay network with FRF.20
             compression enabled.

           II. Network diagram


                         Serial4/0/0   Frame Relay     Serial4/0/0
                                         Network
              Router A                                               Router B


             Figure 6-16 Network diagram for frame relay IPHC


           III. Configuration example

             1)   Configure Router A
             [H3C] interface serial 4/0/0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] ip address 172.31.0.55 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-fr-dlci-Serial4/0/0-100] quit
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr compression iphc
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr iphc tcp-include
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr iphc tcp-connections 3
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr iphc rtp-connections 3
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] undo ip fast-forwarding
             2)   Configure Router B
             [H3C] interface serial 4/0/0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0]link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] ip address 172.31.0.56 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr interface-type dte
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr compression iphc
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr iphc tcp-include


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             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr iphc tcp-connections 3
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] fr iphc rtp-connections 3
             [H3C-Serial4/0/0] undo ip fast-forwarding


6.14 FRoI Configuration
             Frame relay over ISDN (FRoI), which can encapsulate FR packets over ISDN links, is
             used primarily to access remote FR users into the FR network through ISDN BRI/PRI
             dialup links. It can save the cost originally for leased lines.

                                                                          Pri line          RTB
                                     RTA


                    FR                                NT1      ISDN
                                           Bri line
                                                                          NT1

                                                                           Bri line         RTC



             Figure 6-17 Connect multiple remote branches to the FR network using FRoI


             FRoI supports these dialup features:
                  Resource-shared dial control center (RS-DCC)
                  Circular DCC (C-DCC)
                  Backup center
                  Dialer watch
                  Auto-dial
             FRoI supports these FR features:
                  Standard IP forwarding
                  FR switching
                  Local management interface (LMI)
                  Inverse ARP
             The current FRoI implementation does not support:
                  Network addresses in FR mapping
                  FR subinterfaces
                  FR switches to serve as callers
                  FR features such as fragmentation and compression
                  DCC transmit-buffer
                  QoS
                  ISDN leased line
                  Multilink frame relay (MFR)
                  PPPoFR
                  More than one ISDN B channel to be brought up in a call




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6.14.1 Configuring FRoI with C-DCC



                 Note:
             When configuring C-DCC, you can set the configurations about dialup, IP address and
             FR on dialer interfaces or directly on physical interfaces.
             You cannot however directly configure C-DCC on an ISDN PRI interface. To do that,
             you must use the serial interface formed by the slot bundle on the ISDN PRI interface.
             Many types of interfaces support ISDN PRI, including CE1/PRI, CT1/PRI, E3, T3 and
             CPOS. For high-speed interfaces such as E3, T3 and CPOS, you need first to
             channelize them down to E1/T1 and then set E1/T1 to operate in PRI mode. You can
             then have the system bundle the timeslots into a PRI set to form a serial interface serial
             number:15. You make on this serial interface all the configurations for the data link and
             network layers. For the CE1/PRI and CT1/PRI interfaces, just configure them in PRI
             mode and the following configurations are the same as those on the high-speed
             interfaces.
             For detailed configuration on CE1/PRI, CT1/PRI, E3, T3 and CPOS interfaces, see the
             “Interface” part of this manual.




           I. Configuring DCC

             To configure DCC directly on a physical interface, perform the following configuration
             beginning in system view:

             Table 6-42 Configure DCC on the physical interface

                              Operation                                    Command
                                                           dialer-rule dialer-number
               Configure the filtering rule for the
                                                           { protocol-name { permit | deny } | acl
               specified dialer interface in system view
                                                           acl-number }
               Configure a dialer group in physical
                                                           dialer-group group-number
               interface view
               Enable C-DCC in physical interface view     dialer enable-circular
               Configure a dial number in physical
                                                           dialer number dial-number
               interface view



             To configure DCC on a dialer interface, perform the following configuration.




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             Table 6-43 Configure DCC on a dialer interface

                                    Operation                                       Command
               Assign a physical interface to the specified dialer
               circular group in the view of the physical interface.      dialer circular-group
               To assign multiple physical interfaces to the group,       number
               repeat this step.
               Create a dialer interface in system view                   interface dialer number




                    Caution:

             You can assign a physical interface to a dialer interface using the dialer circular-group
             number command, where the number argument must be the same as the number
             argument in the interface dialer number command for the physical interface.




           II. Assigning IP address

             Perform the following configuration in physical or dialer interface view.

             Table 6-44 Assign an IP address to an interface

                               Operation                                      Command
               Assign an IP address to the interface          ip address ip-address mask



           III. Configuring FR parameters

             Use the fr switching command in system view and other commands in physical or
             dialer interface view if not otherwise stated.

             Table 6-45 Configure FR parameters

                               Operation                                      Command
               Encapsulate the interface with FR              link-protocol fr
               Configure an FR DLCI (data link
                                                              fr dlci dlci-number
               connection identifier)
               Configure FR interface type                    fr interface-type { dce | dte | nni }

                                                              fr inarp
               Configure FR address mapping or                fr map ip { protocol-address [ ip-mask ] |
               dynamic ARP                                    default } dlci [ broadcast ]
                                                              [ nonstandard | ietf ]
               Enable FR switching (in system view)           fr switching


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                               Operation                                      Command
                                                                fr dlci-switch in-dlci interface
               Configure FR static routing                      interface-type interface-number dlci
                                                                out-dlci



             By default, FR INARP is enabled.




                    Caution:

             To configure FR static routing, use the fr dlci-switch command in physical interface
             view, instead of using the fr switch command in system view.
             The remote FRoI user adopts the DTE-type ISDN interface; the remote FRoI user is
             connected with the DCE-type ISDN interface; the FR network is connected with the
             NNI-type FR interface.




6.14.2 Configuring FRoI with RS-DCC

             Except for DCC configuration, configuring FRoI over RS-DCC is the same as
             configuring FRoI with C-DCC.
             Perform the following configuration beginning in system view.

             Table 6-46 Configure DCC

                                 Operation                                       Command
                                                                     dialer-rule dialer-number
               Configure the filtering rule for the specified
                                                                     { protocol-name { permit | deny } |
               dialer interface in system view
                                                                     acl acl-number }
               Enable RS-DCC by disabling C-DCC in
                                                                     undo dialer enable-circular
               interface view
               Assign a physical interface to the specified
                                                                     dialer bundle-member number
               dialer bundle in physical interface view
               Create a dialer interface in system view              interface dialer number
               Configure RS-DCC group number in dialer
                                                                     dialer-group group-number
               interface view
               Configure a dial number in dialer interface
                                                                     dialer number dial-number
               view
               Associate the specified dialer bundle with the
                                                                     dialer bundle number
               dialer interface in dialer interface view




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                  Note:
             RS-DCC allows you to assign a physical interface to multiple dialer interfaces. When
             receiving a call on a physical interface, the router must decide on which dialer interface
             it should send the call. If the dialer interface is encapsulated with PPP, this is achieved
             using PPP authentication where each dialer interface is configured with a unique dialer
             user or remote PPP user name. FR however does not provide authentication; the router
             therefore determines by dial number (configured using the dialer number command)
             which dialer interface is used. This requires that the ISDN network should be able to
             transmit dial numbers when implementing FRoI with RS-DCC.




6.14.3 FRoI Configuration Example (with C-DCC)

           I. Network requirements

             Router B is a remote FR user connected to Router A through an ISDN BRI link. Router
             A provides FR switching and is connected to the FR network through the S1/0/0 serial
             interface.

           II. Network diagram

                                         8810152                                           8810154
                                             BRI0/0/0: 2.2.2.1              BRI0/0/0: 2.2.2.2

                     FR                                          ISDN 交换网
                                                                    ISDN
                                S1/0/0
                                         Router A                                         Router B


             Figure 6-18 Network diagram for configuring FRoI with DCC


           III. Configuration procedure

             Scheme 1: Provide connectivity through the physical interface.
             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure a filtering rule for dialer access group 1.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Configure FR parameters.
             [H3C] interface bri 0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr inarp

             # Configure IP address.



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             [H3C-bri0/0/0] ip address 2.2.2.1 255.255.255.0

             # Configure DCC.
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer number 8810154

             # Configure FR parameters and FR static routing on interface serial 1/0/0.
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr interface-type nni
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr dlci 200
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] quit

             # Configure FR static routing.
             [H3C] fr switching
             [H3C] interface bri 0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr dlci-switch 100 interface serial 1/0/0 dlci 200
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr dlci-switch 200 interface bri 0/0/0 dlci 100
             2)   Configure Router B
             # Configure dialup access control list.
             [H3C ] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Configure FR parameters, IP address and DCC parameters on interface bri0/0/0.
             [H3C] interface bri 0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr inarp
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer number 8810152

             Scheme 2: Provide connectivity through the dialer interface.
             3)   Configure Router A
             # Configure a filtering rule for the dialer access group 1.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Configure FR parameters on interface bri 0/0/0 and assign the interface to a dialer
             interface.
             [H3C] interface bri 0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer circular-group 0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr interface-type dce




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             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] quit

             # Configure FR parameters on the dialer interface.
             [H3C] interface Dialer 0
             [H3C-Dialer0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Dialer0] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-Dialer0] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-Dialer0] fr map ip 2.2.2.2 100

             # Assign an IP address to the dialer interface.
             [H3C-Dialer0] ip address 2.2.2.1 255.255.255.0

             # Configure C-DCC on the dialer interface.
             [H3C-Dialer0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer0] dialer number 8810154

             # Configure FR parameters on interface serial 1/0/0.
             [H3C-Dialer0] interface serial1/0/0
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr interface-type nni
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr dlci 200
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] quit

             # Configure FR static routing.
             [H3C] fr switching
             [H3C] interface bri0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr dlci-switch 100 interface serial 1/0/0 dlci 200
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr dlci-switch 200 interface bri 0/0/0 dlci 100
             4)   Configure Router B
             # Configure a filtering rule for dialer access group 1.
             [H3C ] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Configure FR parameters on interface bri 0/0/0 and assign the interface to a dialer
             interface.
             [H3C] interface bri 0/0/0
             [H3Ci-bri0/0/0] dialer circular-group 0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr map ip 2.2.2.1 100

             # Configure FR parameters on the dialer interface.
             [H3C] interface dialer 0
             [H3C-Dialer0] link-protocol fr




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             [H3C-Dialer0] fr map ip 2.2.2.1 100

             # Assign an IP address to the dialer interface.
             [H3C-Dialer0] ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0

             # Configure C-DCC on the dialer interface.
             [H3C-Dialer0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer0] dialer number 8810152




                  Note:
             The configuration about FR, including FR encapsulation, FR ARP, and DLCI must be
             made on both physical and dialer interfaces.




6.14.4 FRoI Configuration Example (with RS-DCC)

           I. Network requirements

             Router B is a remote FR user and connected to Router A through an ISDN PRI link.
             Router A provides FR switching and is connected to the FR network through the S1/0/0
             serial interface.
             Assume here that dial numbers can be transmitted on the ISDN network.

           II. Network diagram

                                          8810152                                            8810154
                                              PRI0/0/0: 2.2.2.1               PRI0/0/0: 2.2.2.2

                     FR                                           ISDN 交换网
                                                                     ISDN
                                 S1/0/0
                                          Router A                                          Router B


             Figure 6-19 Network diagram for configuring FRoI with RS- DCC


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure a filtering rule for the dialer access group 1.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Configure the E1 interface in PRI mode.
             [H3C] controller e1 0/0/0
             [H3C-e1 0/0/0] pri-set
             [H3C-e1 0/0/0] quit



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             # Assign the physical interface to a dialer bundle.
             [H3C-e1 0/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0:15
             [H3C-serial0/0/0:15] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-serial0/0/0:15] dialer bundle-member 5

             # Configure FR parameters on the dialer interface.
             [H3C-serial0/0/0:15] interface dialer5
             [H3C-dialer5] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-dialer5] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-dialer5] fr dlci 100

             # Assign an IP address to the dialer interface.
             [H3C-dialer5] ip address 2.2.2.1 255.255.255.0

             # Configure RS-DCC on the dialer interface.
             [H3C-dialer5] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-dialer5] undo dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-dialer5] dialer bundle 5
             [H3C-dialer5] dialer number 8810154

             # Configure FR parameters and FR static routing on interface serial1/0/0.
             [H3C-Dialer5] interface serial1/0/0
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr interface-type nni
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr dlci 200
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] quit

             # Configure FR static routing.
             [H3C] fr switching
             [H3C] interface bri0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr dlci-switch 100 interface serial 1/0/0 dlci 200
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr dlci-switch 200 interface bri 0/0/0 dlci 100
             2)   Configure Router B
             # Configure a filtering rule for dialer access group 1.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Enable interface e1 0/0/0 to work in PRI mode.
             [H3C] controller e1 0/0/0
             [H3C-e1 0/0/0] pri-set

             # Assign the physical interface to a dialer bundle.
             [H3C-e1 0/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0:15
             [H3C-serial0/0/0:15] dialer bundle-member 5

             # Configure FR parameters on the dialer interface.


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             [H3C-serial0/0/0:15] interface Dialer5
             [H3C-dialer5] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-dialer5] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-dialer5] fr dlci 100

             # Assign an IP address to the dialer interface.
             [H3C-dialer5] ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0

             # Configure RS-DCC on the dialer interface.
             [H3C-dialer5] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-dialer5] undo dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-dialer5] dialer bundle 5
             [H3C-dialer5] dialer number 8810152




                  Note:
             Here assume the serial interface corresponding to the ISDN PRI interface is
             serial0/0/0:15.




6.14.5 FRoI Dial Backup Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Router B is a remote FR user and connected to Router A through an FR leased line and
             ISDN BRI backup link. Router A provides FR switching and is connected to the FR
             network through interface S2/0/0.

           II. Network diagram


                                     8810152                                             8810154
                                                                     ISDN
                                          bri0/0/0: 2.2.2.1                   bri0/0/0: 2.2.2.2

                   FR
                            s2/0/0              s1/0/0: 3.3.3.1              s1/0/0: 3.3.3.2
                                     Router A                                              RouterB


             Figure 6-20 Network diagram for configuring FRoI dial backup


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure a filtering rule for dialer access group 1.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Configure the primary dialup link.


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             [H3C] interface serial1/0/0
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] clock dteclk1
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] ip address 3.3.3.1 255.255.255.0

             # Configure the secondary dialup link.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] interface bri0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr dlci 100
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] ip address 2.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer number 8810154

             # Create a loopback interface.
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] interface loopback 6
             [H3C-Loopback6] ip address 6.6.6.6 32

             # Configure FR parameters on interface serial2/0/0.
             [H3C-Dialer5] interface serial2/0/0
             [H3C-serial2/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-serial2/0/0] fr interface-type nni
             [H3C-serial2/0/0] fr dlci 200
             [H3C-serial2/0/0] quit

             # Configure FR static routing.
             [H3C] fr switching
             [H3C] interface bri 0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] fr dlci-switch 100 interface serial 2/0/0 dlci 200
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-serial2/0/0] fr dlci-switch 200 interface bri 0/0/0 dlci 100
             [H3C-serial2/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] fr dlci-switch 100 interface serial 2/0/0 dlci 200
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-serial2/0/0] fr dlci-switch 200 interface serial 1/0/0 dlci 100
             2)   Configure Router B
             # Configure a filtering rule for dialer access group 1.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

             # Configure the primary dialup link.
             [H3C] interface serial1/0/0




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             [H3C-serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] standby interface bri0/0/0

             # Configure a dial link for redundancy.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] interface bri0/0/0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] dialer number 8810152
             [H3C-bri0/0/0] quit

             # Configure a route to Router A.
             [H3C] ip route-static 6.6.6.6 255.255.255.255 3.3.3.1 preference 40
             [H3C] ip route-static 6.6.6.6 255.255.255.255 2.2.2.1 preference 50




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                       Chapter 7 ATM Configuration

7.1 Introduction to ATM Technology
             Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a broadband ISDN transmission and switching
             mode specified by ITU-T in June 1992. Due to its flexibility and support to multimedia
             services, it is regarded the core technology to implement broadband communications.
             As defined by ITU-T, ATM transmits, multiplexes, and switches information in ATM cells.
             An ATM cell has a fixed length of 53 bytes, among which 5 bytes make up of the cell
             header for routing and priority information and the remaining 48 bytes are payloads.
             ATM is connection-oriented. Each VC is identified by a pair of virtual path identifier (VPI)
             and virtual channel identifier (VCI). One VPI/VCI pair has local significance only on a
             segment of the link between ATM nodes. It is translated on ATM nodes. When a
             connection is released, the relevant VPI/VCI pair is released and put back into the
             resource table for other connections to use.
             The basic ATM protocol framework consists of three planes: user plane, control plane,
             and management plane.
             The user plane and the control plane is each subdivided into four layers, namely,
             physical layer, ATM layer, ATM adaptation layer (AAL), and upper layer, each allowing
             further division.
             The management plane is subdivided into layer management and plane management.
             The former manages every layer in each plane and has a layered structure
             corresponding to other planes. The latter is responsible for system management and
             communications between different planes.
             The control plane mainly uses signaling protocols to establish and release connections.
             The following figure presents the relationships between layers and planes:


                              Management plane

                 Control plane    User plane
                                                                            Plane management
                                                                            Plane management




                Upper layer      Upper layer
                                                 Hierarchic al management
                                                 Hierarchic al management




                protocol         protocol

                   ATM adaptation layer


                        ATM layer


                       Physical layer



             Figure 7-1 ATM protocol model



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             As the interface between upper layer protocol and ATM Layer, ATM Adaptation Layer is
             responsible for forwarding the information between ATM Layer and upper layer
             protocols. At present, four types of AAL have been put forward -- AAL1, AAL2, AAL3/4
             and AAL5, each of which supports some special services. Most ATM equipment
             manufacturers’ products use AAL5 to support the data communication service.


7.2 Overview of IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA and PPPoEoA
Applications
             The ATM interface in Comware supports PVC and the applications IPoA, IPoEoA,
             PPPoA and PPPoEoA.

           I. IPoA

             IP over AAL5 (IPoA) carries IP packets over AAL5. AAL5 provides the IP hosts on the
             same network with the data link layer for communications. In addition, to allow these
             hosts to communicate on the same ATM network, IP packets must be tuned somewhat.

           II. IPoEoA

             IPoE over AAL5 (IPoEoA) adopts a three-layer architecture, with IP encapsulation at
             the uppermost layer, IP over Ethernet (IPoE) in the middle, and IPoEoA at the bottom.
             When a device is connected to a remote access server at high speed to access an
             external network, PVC over ATM is used because of the long distance. In this case, it is
             required for the ATM port of the server to carry Ethernet packets, which is known as
             IPoEoA.
             For IPoEoA, H3C Routers can implement the following basic functions:
                  In the application of IPoEoA, one VE interface can be associated with multiple
                  PVCs.
                  PVCs associated with the same VE interface are interconnected at layer 2.

           III. PPPoA

             PPP over AAL5 (PPPoA) means that AAL5 bears the PPP protocol packets: Its
             essence is that ATM cells are used to encapsulate PPP packets, while IP or other
             packets are encapsulated in PPP packets. In this way, AAL5 may be simply viewed as
             the bearer layer of PPP packets. PPPoA is important because the communication
             process of PPPoA is managed by PPP, and thus it can make use of PPP’s flexibility and
             extensive applications. Before transmitting PPP packets over AAL5, users must create
             a virtual template (VT) interface. For more information about virtual template interfaces,
             refer to the relevant parts of this manual.
             The following are two approaches of PPPoA to link establishment:
             1)   Permanent online PPPoA




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             In the permanent online approach, an ATM PVC enters the PPP negotiation phase
             immediately after PPP is configured on it with the map ppp virtual-template command.
             If the remote end has configured PPPoA on the corresponding PVC, PPP can go up
             and a PPPoA link can be established. After that, the PPPoA link is always present
             regardless of whether packets are being transmitted or not. It can be administratively
             disconnected only, for example by the shutdown command executed on its interface.
             2)   PPPoA on demand
             In the on-demand approach, link setup is packet-triggered and a timeout mechanism is
             used for disconnecting idle links.
             PPPoA on demand is implemented using the client/server model.
             The PPPoA client initiates and clears links on demand by supporting packet-triggered
             link setup and timeout disconnection.
             The PPPoA server accepts calls for link setup on demand. After configured with a
             PPPoA link, the server does not immediately requests the remote end for link setup.
             Instead, it does that only when receiving a link setup request, that is, PPP LCP
             negotiation request, from the client. After the PPP user name and password are verified,
             the PPPoA link is established and the server starts accounting for the user.
             PPPoA on demand is suitable for situations where time-based accounting is desired. A
             good example is a network that runs PPP over xDSL links to provide accesses to the
             Internet.

           IV. PPPoEoA

             PPPoE over AAL5 (PPPoEoA) carries PPPoE packets over AAL5. This is to
             encapsulate Ethernet frames in ATM cells. It allows a PVC to simulate all functions of
             Ethernet. To allow AAL5 carry Ethernet frames, the interface management module
             provides the virtual Ethernet (VE) interface. This VE interface has Ethernet
             characteristics and can be dynamically created through configuration commands. The
             following is the protocol stack for the VE interface:
                  ATM PVC at the bottom layer
                  Ethernet at the link layer
                  Protocols the same as those for the Ethernet interface at the network layer and
                  upper layers
             For more information about the VE interface, please refer to the relevant parts of this
             manual.

           V. Routed bridge

             Routed bridge interconnects Layer 2 network (bridge-set domain) and Layer 3 network.
             It is suitable for situations where network interconnectivity is provided by running the
             bridge protocol over xDSL links.
             The following are features of the routed bridge function implemented on ATM PVCs:


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                  Interconnect Layer 2 bridge forwarding domain and Layer 3 routing domain.
                  Available on the PVCs carrying EoA on point-to-point ATM subinterfaces only.
                  Support only two network protocols: IP and MPLS. IP is enabled by default upon
                  the configuration of the routed bridge encapsulation.
                  Support bidirectional fast IP and MPLS forwarding.

                              RouterA                         DSLAM              RouterB

                                        atm1/0/0.1   atm1/0/0.1   Eth0/0/0
                   Eth0/0/0
                                                                      Eth0/0/0




                    LAN
                                                                                           Internet



             Figure 7-2 Network diagram for routed bridge


             As shown in the above figure, a DSLAM is functioning as a transparent bridge uplinked
             through Ethernet to Router B at the distribution layer. This means the packets received
             from or transmitted to the ATM/ADSL interface on Router A at the edge must be
             encapsulated in Ethernet-bridged frames. On the other hand, Router A is expected to
             routing packets to and from its connected LAN for implementing QoS, firewall, and NAT.
             Router A, as a result, must support both bridge forwarding and routing to interconnect
             layer 2 bridge forwarding domain and layer 3 routing/forwarding domain.
             The following shows how Router A sends and receives packets as an ATM routed
             bridge:
             1)   In the outbound direction
             When receiving a packet from the connected LAN, Router A performs layer 3 routing
             processing on the packet, passes the packet to specific PVC on the point-to-point ATM
             subinterface configured with routed bridge, and then sends the packet encapsulated
             with EoA out the interface.



                  Note:
             On a routed-bridge enabled interface, all packets are encapsulated in Ethernet frames
             and then converted to ATM cells before transmitted to DSLAM, regardless of whether
             the routed bridge function is enabled for the protocol carried by them.



             2)   In the inbound direction
                  If routed bridge is enabled for the protocol carried by received packets, Router A
                  passes them to layer 3 instead of making a bridge forwarding.



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                  If routed bridge is not enabled for the protocol carried by received packets, Router
                  A bridges them. This requires that bridge-set be enabled on the interface. If
                  bridge-set is not enabled on the interface, Router A discards the packets.
                  If the type of received packets is not Ethernet, Router A handles them following the
                  normal receiving procedures of ATM.



                 Note:
             Routed bridge functions independent of transparent bridge; its configuration and use
             does not require bridge to be enabled. You may however, use it along with bridge. Your
             router can thus handle received packets following routed bridge procedures or
             transparent bridge procedures, depending on whether routed bridge is enabled for the
             protocol carried in received packets.




7.3 Introduction to ATM Transparent Cell Transport
             Due to wide application and mature technology, the IP network can be used as a
             transport network to transmit data from Node B base stations and radio network
             controllers (RNCs) in a 3G network. Data between Node B base stations and RNCs
             includes voice and data traffic, which is transmitted in ATM cells. The upper layer data
             carried by an ATM cell has its specific format; therefore, the carrier network must
             support ATM transparent cell transport.

7.3.1 Operation Mechanism for ATM Transparent Cell Transport

           I. Basic concepts of ATM transparent cell transport

             Generally, an ATM cell is a UNI cell encapsulated in AAL5 PDUs. To implement ATM
             transparent cell transport, the ATM driver needs to encapsulate NNI cells in AAL0 and
             transfers them to the ATM layer. The ATM layer encapsulates the cells into MPLS
             packets according to the method specified in draft-ietf-pwe3-atm-encap-10.txt and
             sends them through MPLS layer.

           II. N-to-one mode for ATM transparent cell transport

             In the N-to-one mode, packets in different PVCs on an interface are encapsulated. A
             packet encapsulated in this mode includes VPI and VCI information of each PVC.

           III. One-to-one VCC mode for ATM transparent cell transport

             In the one-to-one VCC mode, packets in one PVC on an interface are encapsulated. A
             packet encapsulated in this mode does not include VPI and VCI information of the PVC.




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           IV. One-to-one VPC mode for ATM transparent cell transport

             In the one-to-one VPC mode, packets in one VP are encapsulated. A packet
             encapsulated in this mode does not include VCI information of the PVC.

7.3.2 Packet Format for ATM Transparent Cell Transport

           I. Packet format in N-to-one mode

             In the N-to-one mode, a packet consists of a header and multiple ATM payloads. A
             packet can contain up to 28 ATM payloads.
             The following figure shows the packet format in the N-to-one mode.




             Figure 7-3 Packet format in N-to-one mode


             The fields are described as follows.
                     Control word: Control word.
                     VPI: Virtual path identifier.
                     VCI: Virtual circuit identifier.
                     ATM Payload: ATM payload.
                     PTI: Payload type, 3 bits.
             Bit 1: If set to 0, it indicates user data; if set to 1, it indicates control data.
             Bit 2: If set to 0, it indicates no congestion was encountered; if set to 1, it indicates
             congestion was encountered.
             Bit 3: If set to 0, it indicates the last cell in the frame; it is set to 1 in the case of a non-last
             cell.
                     C: Cell loss priority.




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           II. Packet format in one-to-one VCC mode

             In the one-to-one VCC mode, a packet consists of a header and multiple ATM payloads.
             A packet can contain up to 28 ATM payloads.
             The following figure shows the packet format in the one-to-one VCC mode.




             Figure 7-4 Packet format in one-to-one VCC mode


             The fields are as follows:
                     PSN Transport Header
                     Pseudo Wire Header
                     Resvd: Reserved bit, set to 0.
                     Optional Sequence Number
                     M (transport mode): Transport mode. If set to 0, it indicates an AAL0 cell; if set to 1,
                     it indicates an AAL5 cell.
                     V (VCI present): VCI present identifier. If set to 0, it indicates that the packet
                     contains no VCI information; if set to 1, it indicates that the packet contains VCI
                     information.
                     Res: Reserved bit, set to 0.
                     ATM Payload.
                     PTI: Payload type, 3 bits.
             Bit 1: If set to 0, it indicates user data; if set to 1, it indicates control data.
             Bit 2: If set to 0, it indicates no congestion was encountered; if set to 1, it indicates
             congestion was encountered.
             Bit 3: If set to 0, it indicates the last cell in the frame; it is set to 1 in the case of a non-last
             cell.
                     C: Cell loss priority.



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           III. Packet format in one-to-one VPC mode

             In the one-to-one VPC mode, a packet consists of a header and multiple ATM payloads.
             A packet can contain up to 28 ATM payloads.
             The following figure shows the packet format in the one-to-one VPC mode.




             Figure 7-5 Packet format in one-to-one vpc mode


             The fields are as follows:
                  PSN Transport Header
                  Pseudo Wire Header
                  Resvd: Reserved bit, set to 0.
                  Optional Sequence Number
                  M (transport mode): Transport mode. If set to 0, it indicates an AAL0 cell; if set to 1,
                  it indicates an AAL5 cell.
                  V (VCI present): VCI present identifier. If set to 0, it indicates that the packet
                  contains no VCI information; if set to 1, it indicates that the packet contains VCI
                  information
                  Res: Reserved bit, set to 0.
                  VCI: Virtual circuit identifier.
                  ATM Payload
                  PTI: Payload type, 3 bits.
             Bit 1: If set to 0, it indicates user data; if set to 1, it indicates control data.
             Bit 2: If set to 0, it indicates no congestion was encountered; if set to 1, it indicates
             congestion was encountered.




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             Bit 3: If set to 0, it indicates the last cell in the frame; it is set to 1 in the case of a non-last
             cell.
                     C: Cell loss priority.

7.3.3 Related Specifications

             The        specification     related    to     ATM       transparent       cell     transport      is
             draft-ietf-pwe3-atm-encap-10.txt.


7.4 Configuring ATM
             ATM configuration includes:
                     Configure ATM interface
                     Customize ATM interface
                     Configure PVC
                     Assign a transmit priority to a PVC (optional)
                     Configure PVC business mapping
                     Configure ATM-Class
                     Set VP Policing
                     Configure IPoA
                     Configure IPoEoA
                     Configure PPPoA
                     Configure PPPoEoA
                     Check existence of PVCs when determining the protocol state of an ATM P2P
                     subinterface (optional)
                     Configure routed bridge
                     Configure ATM transparent cell transport
                     Configure ATM PVC group support
                     Configure the function of forwarding broadcast packets
             For the configuration examples for the three different applications, please refer to
             “Typical Example of ATM Configuration”.
             For troubleshooting, please refer to “ATM fault diagnosis and troubleshooting”.
             For more details about ATM configuration commands, please refer to Section ATM
             Configuration Commands in Comware V3 Command Manual – Link Layer Protocol.

7.4.1 Configuring ATM Interface

             Before configuring ATM, create and/or enter the view of ATM main interface.




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             Table 7-1 Configure ATM interface

                              Operation                                   Command
               Enter system view in user view               system-view
               Enter the view of an ATM main interface
                                                            interface atm interface-num
               in system view
                                                            interface atm
               Create an ATM subinterface and enter
                                                            interface-number.subinterface-num
               its view in system view
                                                            [ p2mp | p2p ]
               Delete an ATM subinterface in system         undo interface atm
               view                                         interface-number.subinterface-num
               Set IP address of an ATM interface in
                                                            ip address ip-address ip-mask [ sub ]
               ATM interface view



             By default, subinterfaces are configured as Point to Multipoint.

7.4.2 Customizing ATM Interface

             According to the need of practical networking and system running, it is necessary for
             some parameters of ATM interfaces to be modified.

             Table 7-2 Customize ATM interface

                                         Operation                               Command
               Select the internal clock as the transmission clock of
                                                                          clock master
               ATM interface
               Select the line clock as the transmission clock of ATM
                                                                          clock slave
               interface

                                                                          pvc max-number
               Set the maximum VC number of ATM interface
                                                                          max-number
               Reset the maximum VC number of ATM interface to the
                                                                          undo pvc max-number
               default value
               Set the MTU of ATM interface                               mtu mtu-number
               Reset the MTU of ATM interface to the default value        undo mtu




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7.4.3 Configuring PVC

             Follow the procedures in the following table to configure PVC.

             Table 7-3 Configure PVC

                              Operation                                  Command
               Create a PVC, and enter PVC View (in
                                                          pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci }
               ATM Interface View)
               Delete the specified PVC                   undo pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci }
               Set the AAL5 encapsulation protocol
                                                          encapsulation aal5-encap
               type for specified PVC (in PVC View)
               Reset the AAL5 encapsulation protocol
               type for the PVC to the default one (in    undo encapsulation
               PVC View)
               Associate the PVC state with the PVC
                                                          oam manage
               OAM state
               Disassociate the PVC state from the
                                                          undo oam manage
               PVC OAM state
               Start transmission and retransmission
                                                          oam frequency frequency [ up up-count
               detection of operations, administration,
                                                          down down-count retry-frequency
               and maintenance (OAM) F5 Loopback
                                                          retry-frequency ]
               cells
               Stop transmission of OAM F5 loopback
                                                          undo oam frequency
               cells and retransmission detection.
               Modify the values of the AIS/RDI alarm     oam ais-rdi up up-count down
               cell detection parameters.                 down-count
               Restore the defaults for AIS/RDI alarm
                                                          undo oam ais-rdi
               cell detection
                                                          service cbr output-pcr [ cdvt
                                                          cdvt_value ]
                                                          service ubr output-pcr
               Set the service type and relevant rate
               parameters (in PVC View)                   service vbr-nrt output-pcr output-scr
                                                          output-mbs
                                                          service vbr-rt output-pcr output-scr
                                                          output-mbs



             An ATM PVC may carry multiple protocols at the same time, but some types of
             encapsulations may not support some applications (one or more of IPoA, IPoEoA,
             PPPoA and PPPoEoA). When such cases occur, the system gives a prompt.
             The following table gives the relationship between ATM PVC encapsulation and carried
             protocol.




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             Table 7-4 Support of ATM PVC encapsulation to carried protocols

                                                  EoA                                      Multi-
               Encapsulation        IPoA       (IPoEoA/         PPPoA        InARP        protocol
                                              PPPoEoA)                                    support

               aal5snap            Yes       Yes               Yes         Yes           Yes
               aal5mux             Yes       Yes               Yes         No            No
               aal5nlpid           Yes       No                No          No            Yes



                 Note:
             When 64 < SCR <70 and 475 ≤ MBS ≤ 512 hold in the service vbr-nrt command, chip
             limitation can result in configuration failure.




7.4.4 Assigning a Transmit Priority to an ATM PVC

             You can assign transmit priority to ATM PVCs associated with the UBR, VBR-T, or
             VBR-NRT service. At the time of bandwidth allocation, the higher priority PVC has
             priority over other PVCs.
             Perform the following configuration in ATM PVC view.

             Table 7-5 Assign a transmit priority to the ATM PVC

                                    Operation                                    Command
               Assign a transmit priority to the ATM PVC                transmit-priority value
               Restore the default transmit priority                    undo transmit-priority



             The transmit priority defaults to 0 for the UBR service, defaults to 5 for the VBR-NRT
             service, and defaults to 8 for the VBR-RT service.



                 Note:
                 SIC cards do not support the transmit-priority command.
                 Due to chip limitation, whether an MIM or FIC card supports this command is
                 determined by the device where the card is located.




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7.4.5 Configuring ATM-Class

             Configurations of PVC MAP, service category, encapsulation type and OAM can be
             implemented via ATM-Class. First create an ATM-Class and set the parameters
             needed, then invoke the ATM-Class in the PVC view or ATM interface view. The
             procedures of configuring ATM-Class parameters are as follows.

             Table 7-6 Configure ATM-Class

                              Operation                                 Command
               Establish ATM-Class                        atm class atm-class-name
               Specify ATM AAL5 encapsulation type
                                                          encapsulation aal5-encap
               for the PVC
               Start transmission of OAM F5 Loopback      oam frequency frequency [ up up-count
               cells or retransmission check of OAM F5    down down-count retry-frequency
               Loopback                                   retry-frequency ]
               Enable inverse address resolution
                                                          map ip inarp [ minutes ] [ broadcast ]
               InARP for the PVC
               Establish PPPoA mapping for the PVC        map ppp virtual-template number
               Establish PPPoEoA mapping for the          map bridge virtual-ethernet
               PVC                                        interface-num
               Set the PVC’s service type as ” Constant   service cbr output-pcr [ cdvt
               Bit Rate”                                  cdvt_value ]
               Set the PVC’s business type as ”
                                                          service ubr output-pcr
               Unspecified Bit Rate”
               Set the PVC’s business type as ”           service vbr-rt output-pcr output-scr
               Real-time Variable Bit Rate”               output-mbs
               Set the PVC’s business type as ”           service vbr-nrt output-pcr output-scr
               Non-real-time Variable Bit Rate”           output-mbs
               Enable the ATM-Class                       atm-class atm-class-name



             As for the same parameters, the parameters configured directly under the PVC have
             the highest priority. Those of the ATM-Class for the PVC and for the ATM interface rank
             second and third respectively.

7.4.6 Setting VP Policing

             In the ATM master interface view, the following commands are used to set the
             parameters of VP policing.




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             Table 7-7 Set the parameters of VP policing

                              Operation                                   Command
               Set the parameters of VP policing           pvp limit vpi peak-rate
               Remove VP policing                          undo pvp limit vpi



             By default, VP policing is not performed.

7.4.7 Configuring IPoA

             The following commands can be executed to enable the PVC to bear IP protocol, and
             also to configure an IP protocol address mapping for the PVC.
             Perform the following commands in PVC View.

             Table 7-8 Configure IPoA

                              Operation                                   Command
                                                           map ip { ip-address [ ip-mask ] | default |
               Configure IPoA mapping for the PVC
                                                           inarp [ minutes ] } [ broadcast ]



             broadcast: Pseudo-broadcast, an optional keyword parameter. If the IPoA map of the
             PVC is configured with pseudo-broadcast, the router sends on the PVC a copy of each
             broadcast packet that it sends out the interface to which the PVC belongs.
             You must configure the broadcast keyword on an ATM PVC where broadcast or
             multicast packets must be sent, for example, to allow PIM multicast to create neighbor
             relationship with the router connected using the ATM interface.

7.4.8 Configuring IPoEoA

             The following command is used to implement Ethernet packets over PVC and create
             IPoEoA map on PVC in PVC view.

             Table 7-9 Create IPoEoA map on PVC

                              Operation                                   Command
               Create a virtual Ethernet (VE) interface    interface virtual-ethernet
               (in System view)                            interface-num
                                                           map bridge virtual-ethernet
               Create IPoEoA map on PVC
                                                           interface-num -num
               Remove the IPoEoA map on the PVC            undo map bridge



             By default, no map is configured.



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7.4.9 Configuring Permanent Online PPPoA

             When two routers are connected using ATM/DSL interfaces through a leased line
             across an ATM network, they are peers; on them, you must make the following
             configurations.

           I. Creating a VT interface

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 7-10 Create a VT interface

                               Operation                                    Command
               Create a VT interface (in system view)       interface virtual-template vt-number



             Where, vt-number stands for the interface number of virtual template. For numbering
             rules, refer to the section of “Interface Configuration”.
             You must configure the PPP authentication and IP address on the VT interface (the IP
             address is invalid if configured on the ATM interface).

           II. Configuring PPPoA

             The following commands can be executed to enable the PVC to bear PPP, and also to
             configure a PPP protocol mapping for the PVC.

             Table 7-11 Configure PPPoA

                               Operation                                    Command
               Enter ATM interface (in system view)         interface atm interface-number
               Create a PVC and enter PVC view (in
                                                            pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci }
               ATM interface view)
               Configure PPPoA mapping for the PVC
                                                            map ppp virtual-template vt-number
               (in PVC View)



             For more information about address negotiation and authentication of PPP, refer to the
             sections discussing PPP and the “Security” part of this manual.

7.4.10 Configuring PPPoA on Demand

             When two routers are connected using DSL interfaces through a dial-up connection
             across an ATM network, configure them as PPPoA server and client respectively.

           I. Configuring the PPPoA server

             Perform the following configuration starting in system view.




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             Table 7-12 Configure the PPPoA server

                              Operation                                     Command
               Create a virtual template interface in
                                                           interface virtual-template vt-number
               system view
               Enter ATM interface view in system view     interface atm interface-number
               Create a PVC and enter its view in ATM
                                                           pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci }
               interface view
               Map the PVC to the virtual template in      map ppp virtual-template vt-number
               PVC view                                    server



           II. Configuring the PPPoA client

             Perform the following configuration starting in system view.

             Table 7-13 Configure the PPPoA client

                                  Operation                                    Command
                                                                    dialer-rule dialer-number
               Configure a dial rule in system view                 { protocol-name { permit | deny }
                                                                    | acl acl-number }
               Create a dialer interface in system view             interface dialer number
               Configure RS-DCC in dialer interface view            undo dialer enable-circular
               Create a dial-up user for the remote end in dialer
                                                                    dialer user username
               interface view
               Configure a dialer bundle for the dialer interface
                                                                    dialer bundle number
               in dialer interface view
               Place the dialer interface in a dialer access
                                                                    dialer-group group-number
               group in dialer interface view
               Enter ATM interface view in system view              interface atm interface-number
               Create a PVC and enter its view in ATM               pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
               interface view                                       vpi/vci }
               Map the PVC to the dialer interface in PVC view      map ppp dialer number



             When configuring the PPPoA client, note the following:
                  Like PPPoE, the PPPoA client can only support RS-DCC.
                  To bind with a dialer interface, the PPPoA client uses the map ppp dialer number
                  command in ATM PVC view rather than the dialer bundle-member command as
                  with the PPPoE client.
                  For the PPPoA client, a PVC is like a leased line. You do not need to configure the
                  dialer number command for it to dial to the remote end.



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             For more information about address negotiation and authentication of PPP, refer to the
             sections discussing PPP and the “Security” part of this manual.

7.4.11 Configuring PPPoEoA

             The following command can be executed to enable the PVC to bear PPPoE protocol,
             and also to configure a PPPoE protocol address mapping for the PVC.

             Table 7-14 Configure PPPoEoA

                                 Operation                                 Command
               Create a virtual-template (VT) interface (in    interface virtual-template
               System view)                                    vt-number
               Create a virtual Ethernet (VE) interface (in    interface virtual-ethernet
               System view)                                    interface-num
               Specify the encapsulation protocol of this VE   pppoe-server bind
               interface as PPP (in VE Interface View)         virtual-template vt-number
               Configure PPPoEoA mapping for the PVC (in       map bridge virtual-ethernet
               PVC View)                                       interface-num
               Configure MAC address of the VE interface       mac-address H-H-H



                 Note:
             If multiple virtual Ethernet interfaces are created on the same device, each
             corresponding with a client, the system will automatically create the same MAC
             address for them, which results in the link connection failures. Therefore, you need to
             use the mac-address command to manually configure the MAC address for each
             interface.




7.4.12 Checking Existence of PVCs when Determining the Protocol State of
an ATM P2P Subinterface

             Perform the following configuration in ATM P2P subinterface view.

             Table 7-15 Check existence of PVCs when determining the protocol state of the
             subinterface

                                         Operation                               Command
               Check existence of PVCs when determining the protocol
                                                                           atm-link check
               state of the ATM P2P subinterface
               Restore the default protocol state                          undo atm-link check




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             By default, the protocol of the ATM P2P subinterface goes up or comes down
             depending on whether the physical interface is up or down.
             After you configure the atm-link check command, the protocol state of the ATM P2P
             subinterface changes depending on whether the physical interface is up and whether a
             PVC is configured on the subinterface. The protocol of the subinterface, which comes
             down otherwise, goes up when the physical interface is up and a PVC is configured on
             the subinterface.
             This command applies only to ATM P2P subinterfaces.

7.4.13 Configuring Routed Bridge

             Perform the following configuration in ATM PVC view.

             Table 7-16 Configure routed bridge

                               Operation                                 Command
                                                          map routed-bridge virtual-ethernet
               Configure routed bridge encapsulation
                                                          interface-number
               Remove the routed bridge encapsulation
                                                          undo map routed-bridge
               from the PVC
               Enable the support of routed bridge
               encapsulation to a network protocol (IP    routed-bridge protocol protocol-name
               or MPLS)
               Disable the support of routed bridge
                                                          undo routed-bridge protocol
               encapsulation to a network protocol (IP
                                                          protocol-name
               or MPLS)



             By default, routed bridge encapsulation supports IP. Upon execution of the map
             routed-bridge command, the support of routed bridge encapsulation to IP is enabled
             by default.
             As IP is the basis of MPLS, you need enable the support of routed bridge encapsulation
             to IP when enabling the support of routed bridge encapsulation to MPLS.

7.4.14 Configuring ATM to Work in Transparent Cell Transport Mode

           I. Configuration prerequisites

             Before configuring ATM transparent cell transport, prepare the following:
             Interfaces supporting ATM transparent cell transport are available on the router, for
             example: IMA-E1 and IMA-T1.

           II. Configuration procedure

             Follow the procedures in the following table to configure ATM to work in transparent cell
             transport mode.


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             Table 7-17 Configure ATM work in transparent cell transport mode

                        Operation               Command                        Description
                  Enter system view      system-view                —
                                                                    —
                                         interface atm
                  Enter ATM view                                    Must be the first interface on the
                                         interface-number
                                                                    slot that atm interface is in
                  Enter transparent
                                         atm-ctt                    Required
                  transport mode
                  Create a PVC           pvc [ pvc-name ] vpi/vci   Required
                  Exit ATM view and
                                         quit                       —
                  enter interface view



                   Note:
                    Currently, this command can be carried out on IMA-E1 and IMA-T1 boards only.
                    This command can be configured only on the first port on the slot.




7.4.15 Configuring the Number of Cells to Be Encapsulated for Transparent
Cell Transport Mode

           I. Configuration prerequisites

             Before configuring ATM transparent cell transport, prepare the following:
             An interface supporting ATM transparent cell transport is available on the router, for
             example, IMA-E1 or IMA-T1. This interface is operating in transparent transport mode.

           II. Configuration procedure

                 Follow the procedure in the following table to configure the number of cells to be
                 encapsulated when ATM works in transparent transport mode.

                 Table 7-18 Configure the number of cells to be encapsulated in transparent transport
                 mode

                          Operation                    Command                     Description
                  Enter system view             system-view                  —

                                                                             —
                                                interface atm                Must be the first port on
                  Enter ATM view
                                                interface-number             the slot where the ATM
                                                                             interface is located
                  Create a PVC and enter
                                                pvc [ pvc-name ] vpi/vci     Required
                  PVC view


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                       Operation                    Command                      Description
               Configure number of cells
               to be encapsulated for the   cell-packing cell-number      Required
               PVC




7.4.16 Configuring the Maximum Time Between Cell Encapsulations for
Transparent Cell Transport Mode

           I. Configuration prerequisites

             Before configuring ATM transparent cell transport, prepare the following:
             An interface supporting ATM transparent cell transport is available on the router, for
             example, IMA-E1 or IMA-T1. This interface is operating in transparent transport mode.

           II. Configuration procedure

             Follow the procedure in the following table to configure the maximum time between cell
             encapsulations for transparent cell transport mode.

             Table 7-19 Configure the maximum time between cell encapsulations for ATM
             transparent cell transport

                       Operation                    Command                      Description
               Enter system view            system-view                   —
                                                                          —
                                            interface atm                 Must be the first interface
               Enter ATM view
                                            interface-number              on the slot that atm
                                                                          interface is in
               Create a PVC and enter
                                            pvc [ pvc-name ] vpi/vci      Required
               PVC view
               Configure the maximum
               time between cell            packing-timer time            Required
               encapsulations for a PVC




7.4.17 Creating a PVP in ATM Transparent Cell Transport Mode

           I. Configuration prerequisites

             Before configuring ATM transparent cell transport, prepare the following:
             An interface supporting ATM cell transparent transmission is available on the router, for
             example, IMA-E1 or IMA-T1. This interface is operating in transparent transport mode.




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           II. Configuration procedure

             Follow the procedures in the following table to create a PVP in ATM transparent cell
             transport mode.

             Table 7-20 Create a PVP in ATM transparent cell transport mode

                       Operation                  Command                     Description
               Enter system view             system-view          —
                                                                  —
                                             interface atm
               Enter ATM view                                     Must be the first port on the slot
                                             interface-number
                                                                  where the ATM interface is located
               Create a PVP connection       pvp create vpi       Required




7.4.18 Configuring ATM PVC Group Support

             The ATM PVC group support feature implements these functions:
                  Differentiate IP packets according to the TOS field (the DSCP or Precedence
                  identifier) and assign flows of different priorities to different PVCs.
                  Differentiate MPLS packets according to the EXP field and assign flows of different
                  priorities to different PVCs.
                  PVC backup support.
                  PVC group member protection.
             The ATM PVC group support feature is similar to the FR PVC group support feature.
             For operational principles of ATM PVC group support, refer to the relevant sections for
             FR PVC group support.
             On an ATM network, when a PVC carrying packets of certain priorities goes down, the
             default PVC will take over if no standby PVC is configured; if a standby PVC is
             configured, the standby PVC will take over.

           I. Configuration prerequisites

             Before configuring parameters for ATM PVC group support, perform these
             configurations:
                  Configure basic ATM parameters
                  Enable MPLS and configure basic MPLS capabilities (if you want the links to
                  transmit MPLS packets)
                  Configure routing parameters




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           II. Configuring an ATM PVC group to differentiate IP/MPLS packets

             Table 7-21 Configure an ATM PVC group to differentiate IP/MPLS packets

                           Operation                        Command                     Description
               Enter system view                     system-view                  —

                                                     interface atm
               Enter ATM interface view              interface-type               —
                                                     interface-number
                                                                                  Required.
               Create a fundamental PVC on           pvc { name [ vpi/vci ] |
               the interface                         vpi/vci }                    By default, no PVC is
                                                                                  created for an interface.
               Return to interface view              quit                         —

                                                     pvc-group                    Required.
               Create a PVC group and enter
                                                     { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |     By default, no PVC
               pvc-group view
                                                     vpi/vci }                    group is configured.
                                                                                  Required.
                                                                                  By default, no PVC is
                                                     pvc { name [ vpi/vci ] |     created for an interface.
               Create a PVC
                                                     vpi/vci }                    You can create multiple
                                                                                  PVCs in a PVC group
                                                                                  for an interface.
                                                                                  Required.
                                                     map ip { ip-address          By default, no IPoA map
               Create an IPoA map entry for          [ ip-mask] | default |       entry is configured.
               the PVC                               inarp [ minutes ] }          Only the main PVC can
                                                     [ broadcast ]                be configured a map
                                                                                  entry in the PVC group.
                           Configure a PVC
                           group to differentiate    match precedence
                           IP packets by the         ip-precedence
                           DSCP identifier and       { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
               Configu     specify the PVC to        vpi/vci } { min [ max ] |
               re a        carry IP packets of                                    Use either command.
                                                     default }
               PVC         certain priorities                                     By default, a PVC group
               group to                                                           uses the Precedence
               different   Configure a PVC                                        identifier to differentiate
               iate IP     group to differentiate    match { dscp |
                                                                                  IP packets.
               packets     IP packets by the         precedence }
                           Precedence identifier     ip-dscp { pvc-name
                           and specify the PVC       [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci }
                           to carry IP packets of    { min [ max ] | default }
                           certain priorities
               Configure a PVC group to                                           Required if you want
                                                     mpls-exp { pvc-name
               differentiate MPLS packets and                                     the device to
                                                     [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci }
               specify the PVCs to carry MPLS                                     differentiate MPLS
                                                     { min [ max ] | default }
               packets of certain priorities                                      packets.




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                          Operation                         Command                     Description
                                                     display atm
                                                     pvc-group [ interface
               Display the status of PVC             interface-type
                                                                                   Available in any view
               groups                                interface-num [ pvc
                                                     { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
                                                     vpi/vci } ] ]



                 Note:
                 For packets with no PVCs configured to carry them, for example IP/MPLS packets
                 or packets of other protocols that are of certain priorities, the default PVC will carry
                 them.
                 On an ATM network, you can configure to differentiate IP packets or MPLS packets,
                 but not both.




           III. Configuring backup and protection for an ATM PVC group (optional)

             Table 7-22 Configure backup and protection for an ATM PVC group

                   Operation                 Command                               Description
               Configure an ATM      Refer to section
               PVC group to          Configuring an FR PVC
                                                                       Required
               differentiate         group to differentiate
               IP/MPLS packets       IP/MPLS packets”

               Configure a                                             Required
                                     bump { pvc-name
               standby PVC for a                                       Required. By default, a PVC has
                                     [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } grade
               PVC                                                     no standby PVC configured.

               Configure the         pvc-protect { pvc-name            Required.
               protection mode       [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } { group   By default, the system does not
               of a PVC              | individual }                    protect any PVC in a PVC group.



                 Note:
                 For a PVC configured with both PVC backup and individual protection, the PVC
                 backup function does not take effect, and the PVC group becomes unavailable once
                 the PVC goes down.
                 For a PVC configured with both PVC backup and group protection, the standby PVC
                 in the protected group resumes the backup responsibility, and the standby PVCs
                 outside the PVC group do not take over. As long as one PVC in the PVC protected
                 group is available, the PVC group is available.




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7.4.19 Configuring the Function of Forwarding Broadcast Packets

             With multiple ATM PVCs bound to a VE interface, you can configure whether broadcast
             packets received from a PVC can be forwarded to the other PVCs.
             Perform the following configuration in VE interface view.

             Table 7-23 Configure the function of forwarding broadcast packets

                      Operation                     Command                       Description
               Disable broadcast
                                           atm bridge disable              Required
               packet forwarding
               Enable broadcast packet
                                           undo atm bridge disable         Required
               forwarding



             By default, the function of forwarding broadcast packets is disabled, that is, a VE
             interface does not forward broadcast packets received from a PVC to the other PVCs.


7.5 Displaying and Debugging ATM
             After the above configuration, execute the display command in any view to display the
             running of the ATM configuration, and to verify the effect of the configuration.
             Execute the debugging command in user view for the debugging of ATM interface or to
             show the status parameter of every item, thus monitoring and maintaining ATM.
             Execute the oamping interface command in ATM interface view.

             Table 7-24 Display and debug ATM

                               Operation                                   Command
               Show the relevant information of ATM          display atm interface [ interface-type
               interface                                     interface-num ]
                                                             display atm pvc-info [ interface
               Show the relevant information of the PVC      interface-type interface-num [ pvc
                                                             { pvc-name | vpi/vci } ] ]
                                                             display atm map-info [ interface
               Show the information of the PVC mapping       interface-type interface-num [ pvc
                                                             { pvc-name | vpi/vci } ] ]
               Show the relevant information of the
                                                             display atm class [ atm-class-name ]
               ATM-Class
               Display statistics of cells encapsulated on   display mpls cell-transfer interface
               transparent transport interface               [ interface-type interface-num | all ]
               Reset statistics of cells encapsulated on     reset mpls cell-transfer interface
               transparent transport interface               [ interface-type interface-num | all ]




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                                Operation                                    Command
                                                                debugging atm event [ interface
               Enable the debugging of ATM events               interface-type interface-num [ pvc
                                                                {pvc-name | vpi/vci } ] ]
                                                                debugging atm packet [ interface
               Enable the debugging of ATM packets              interface-type interface-num [ pvc
                                                                { pvc-name | vpi/vci ] ]
               Enable all the ATM debugging                     debugging atm all
               Send OAM cells on the specified PVC on
                                                                oamping interface atm interface-num
               the interface to test connectivity of the link
                                                                pvc{ pvc-name | vpi / vci } [ number ]
               depending on whether response is
                                                                timeout
               returned before the specified timeout time.




7.6 Typical ATM Configuration Examples


                 Note:
             In the following examples, the network devices/routers and their configuration
             command sequence are the H3C Routers and the corresponding command sequence
             under their configuration environment. Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
             (DSLAM) and its configuration command sequence are MA 5100 multi-business
             access device and the corresponding command sequence under its configuration
             environment. ADSL router is configured according to the actual selected devices in the
             actual networking environment. For complete details about configuration commands,
             please refer to the corresponding command manuals. With regard to practical
             networking, the network devices might be different from the assumed devices in terms
             of networking capacity and configuration command format. This situation is subject to
             exist without notice.




7.6.1 Typical IPoA Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, router A, B and C are connected to ATM network for
             intercommunication. The requirements are:
                  The IP addresses of their ATM interfaces of the three routers are 202.38.160.1,
                  202.38.160.2 and 202.38.160.3 respectively;
                  In ATM network, the VPI/VCI of router A is 0/40 and 0/41, connecting to router B
                  and router C respectively. The VPI/VCI of router B is 0/50 and 0/51, connecting to



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                   router A and C respectively. The VPI/VCI of router C is 0/60 and 0/61, connected
                   with router A and B respectively;
                   All the PVCs on ATM interfaces of the three routers work in IPoA application mode.

           II. Network diagram

                                                                          Router B



                   Router A
                                                                       IP: 202.38.160.2
                                                                            To A: 0/50
                                                                           To C: 0/51
                                              ATM Network             Interface: Atm1/0/0
               IP: 202.38.160.1                                             Router C
                    To B: 0/40
                   To C: 0/41
               Interface: Atm1/0/0

                                                                       IP: 202.38.160.3
                                                                            To A: 0/60
                                                                            To B: 0/61
                                                                      Interface: Atm1/0/0

             Figure 7-6 Network diagram for IPoA configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router A
             # Enter the ATM interface (atm1/0/0 as shown in the figure), and configure an IP
             address for it.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0

             # Establish a PVC with IP running.
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] pvc to_b 0/40
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/40-to_b] map ip 202.38.160.2
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/40-to_b] quit
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] pvc to_c 0/41
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/41-to_c] map ip 202.38.160.3
             2)    Configure Router B
             # Enter the ATM interface (also ATM 1/0/0 as shown in the figure), and configure an IP
             address for it.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0

             # Establish a PVC with IP running.
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] pvc to_a 0/50


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             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/50-to_a] map ip 202.38.160.1
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/50-to_a] quit
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] pvc to_c 0/51
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/51-to_c] map ip 202.38.160.3
             3)   Configure Router C
             # Enter the ATM interface (also ATM 1/0/0 as shown in the figure), and configure an IP
             address for it.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] ip address 202.38.160.3 255.255.255.0

             # Establish a PVC with IP running.
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] pvc to_a 0/60
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/60-to_a] map ip 202.38.160.1
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/60-to_a] quit
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] pvc to_b 0/61
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/61-to_b] map ip 202.38.160.2


7.6.2 Typical IPoEoA Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, each of the hosts in the two Ethernets is respectively
             connected to the ATM network through an ADSL Router, and they communicate with
             the router via DSLAM. The requirements are:
                  The IP address of the VE (Virtual Ethernet) interface of the router is 202.38.160.1;
                  The VPI/VCI addresses of two PVCs connecting to routers with DSLAM are 0/60
                  and 0/61, pointing to ADSL Router A and ADSL Router B respectively.
                  The DSL interfaces of the router's WAN port and ADSL Router all adopts IPoEoA.




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           II. Network diagram



                                         ADSL Router A
              Workstation


                                                                           IP: 202.38.160.1
              Workstation    Ethernet


                Server                                                           Router C
                                         ADSL Router B      DSLAM         To ADSL Router A: 0/60
                                                                          To ADSL Router B: 0/61
                                                                    Interface: Virtual-ethernet 1
                              Ethernet




               Workstation



                Server

             Figure 7-7 Network diagram for IPoEoA configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router C:
             # Create a VE interface and configure an IP address for it.
             [H3C] interface virtual-ethernet 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit

             # Create a PVC and specify it to support IPoE.
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0.1
             [H3C-atm1/0/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
             [H3C-atm1/0/0.1] pvc to_adsl_b 0/61
             [H3C-pvc-atm1/0/0.1-0/61-to_adsl_b] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1


7.6.3 Permanent Online PPPoA Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following diagram, two hosts are connected to the ATM network
             through ADSL Router A and B respectively. They communicate with Router C through
             DSLAM. In this scenario:
                   Router C is connected to DSLAM through two PVCs. The PVC with VPI/VCI pair
                   0/60 is pointing to ADSL Router A and the PVC with VPI/VCI pair 0/61 is pointing to
                   ADSL Router B.
                   PPPoA is enabled on the WAN port of Router C and the DSL interfaces of ADSL
                   Routers A and B.


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                   Router C authenticates ADSL Routers A and B through PAP and assigns IP
                   addresses to them.

           II. Network diagram



                                                                 IP: 202.38.160.1
              Workstation                                         IP: 202.38.161.1



                              ADSL Router B                             RouterC
                                                DSLAM         To ADSL Router A: 0/60
                                                              To ADSL Router B: 0/61
                                                              Interface: Atm1/0/0.1
               Workstation

             Figure 7-8 Network diagram for permanent online PPPoA configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router C
             # Establish users for the PPP authentication and establish IP local address pool at the
             same time.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] local-user user1
             [H3C-luser-user1] password simple pwd1
             [H3C-luser-user1] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-user1] quit
             [H3C] local-user user2
             [H3C-luser-user2] password simple pwd2
             [H3C-luser-user2] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-user2] quit

             # Establish the virtual-template (VT) interface, configure PAP authentication and IP
             address, and assign IP address from the IP address pool for the peer.
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 10
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] remote address pool 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] quit
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 11
             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] ip address 202.38.161.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] remote address pool 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] quit

             # Configure the users in the domain to use local authentication scheme.



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             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-system] scheme radius-scheme local
             [H3C-isp-system] ip pool 1 202.38.162.1 202.38.162.100

             # Establish a PVC that is specified to bear PPP.
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0.1
             [H3C-atm1/0/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map ppp virtual-template 10
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
             [H3C-atm1/0/0.1] pvc to_adsl_b 0/61
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0.1-0/61-to_adsl_b] map ppp virtual-template 11
             2)   Configure Router A
             # Establish the virtual-template (VT) interface, configure PAP authentication and IP
             address negotiation.
             [H3C] interface Virtual-Template0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] ppp pap local-user user1 password simple pwd1
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] ip address ppp-negotiate

             # Establish a PVC that is specified to bear PPP.
             [H3C] interface atm1/0/0
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] pvc pppoa 0/37
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/37-pppoa] map ppp Virtual-Template0

             The way to configure Router B is similar to configure Router A.
             Note that if the Client does not obtain the IP address through negotiation or it configures
             a fixed IP address, the two ends cannot interconnect to each other. Then you need to
             shutdown the ATM interface and delete the IP address pool of the Server.

7.6.4 PPPoA on Demand Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Two ADSL routers, Router A and Router B are connected to Router C through PPPoA
             dial-up links. Router A and Router B are PPPoA clients while Router C is the PPPoA
             server. Configure them as follows:
                  Configure Router C to authenticate Router A and Router B with PAP.
                  Set the idle-timeout timers on Router A and Router B to 60 seconds.
                  The buffer-queue length on the dialer interface is 5 packets.




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           II. Network diagram

                               ADSL Router A



                                                                  IP: 202.38.160.1
                  PC1                                              IP: 202.38.161.1



                              ADSL Router B                              RouterC
                                                DSLAM           To ADSL Router A: 0/60   PC3
                                                                To ADSL Router B: 0/61
                                                               Interface:    Atm1/0/0
                  PC2

             Figure 7-9 Network diagram for PPPoA on demand


           III. Configuration example

             1)    Configure Router C (the PPPoA server)
             # Configure a dialer rule and two local users: usera and userb.
             [H3C] local-user usera
             [H3C-luser-usera] password simple usera
             [H3C-luser-usera] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-usera] quit
             [H3C] local-user userb
             [H3C-luser-userb] password simple usera
             [H3C-luser-userb] service-type ppp
             [H3C-luser-userb] quit

             # Create virtual template interfaces and assign them IP addresses; assign IP
             addresses to the PPPoA clients.
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 10
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] remote address 202.38.160.2
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] quit
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 11
             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] ip address 202.38.161.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] remote address 202.38.161.2
             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] quit

             # Set the authentication scheme used by the domain user to local.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-system] scheme local

             # On interface ATM 1/0/0 create PVC 0/60 and map it to the corresponding virtual
             template.
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0



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             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] pvc 0/60
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-1/60] map ppp virtual-template 10 server

             # On interface ATM 1/0/0 create PVC 0/61 and map it to the corresponding virtual
             template.
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] pvc 0/61
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-1/60] map ppp virtual-template 11 server
             2)   Configure Router A (a PPPoA client)
             # Create a dialer interface. On this interface configure RS-DCC, and set the IP address
             obtaining method to PPP negotiation, the idle-timeout timer to 60 seconds, and the
             buffer-queue length to 5.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
             [H3C] interface dialer 10
             [H3C-Dialer10] ip address ppp-negotiate
             [H3C-Dialer10] undo dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Dialer10] dialer user usera
             [H3C-Dialer10] dialer bundle 1
             [H3C-Dialer10] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer10] dialer timer idle 60
             [H3C-Dialer10] dialer queue-length 5
             [H3C-Dialer10] quit

             # Create PVC 1/101 on the ATM interface to be used.
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] pvc 1/101

             # Map the PVC to the dialer interface.
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-1/101] map ppp dialer 10
             3)   Configure Router B (a PPPoA client)
             Refer to the steps for configuring the PPPoA client on Router B.
             On PC 1 ping PC 3 to trigger the dialer interface on Router A to place a PPPoA call to
             Router C. When the link between them goes up, stops the pinging action. 60 seconds
             later the PPPoA connection should be disconnected upon timeout of the idle-timeout
             timer.
             To check the transmitted and received packets, execute the display interface dialer
             command on Router A and the display interface virtual-template command on
             Router C.




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7.6.5 PPPoEoA Server Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, each host inside Ethernet dials into ATM network
             through an ADSL Router, and communicates with the router through DSLAM. The
             requirements are:
                   The IP address of the router’s ATM subinterface is 202.38.160.1.
                   The VPI/VCI addresses of two PVCs connecting routers with DSLAM are 0/60 and
                   0/61, pointing to ADSL Router A and ADSL Router B respectively.
                   Both the router’s WAN port and ADSL Router’s DSL interface employ PPPoEoA
                   application mode. Each host within the two Ethernets will use pre-installed PPPoE
                   Client program to make interactive PAP authentication with routers, and will obtain
                   the IP address from the remote AAA server of the other side (not included in the
                   following figure).

           II. Network diagram



                                        ADSL Router A
              Workstation

                                                                         IP: 202.38.160.1
                                                                         IP: 202.38.161.1
                             Ethernet




              Workstation


                Server                                                          Router C
                                        ADSL Router B          DSLAM   To ADSL Router A: 0/60
                                                                       To ADSL Router B: 0/61
                                                                       Interface: Atmt1/0/0.1
                             Ethernet




               Workstation



                Server

             Figure 7-10 Network diagram for PPPoEoA configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router C:
             # Create the VT interface to encapsulate PPP protocol and configure PAP
             authentication parameters.
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 10
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
             [H3C-Virtual-Template10] quit
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 11
             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] ip address 202.38.161.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] ppp authentication-mode pap


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             [H3C-Virtual-Template11] quit

             # Configure the users in the domain to use RADIUS authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-system] scheme radius-scheme radius1
             [H3C-isp-system] quit

             # Create the VE interface to encapsulate PPP protocol.
             [H3C] interface virtual-ethernet 0
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet0] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 10
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet0] quit
             [H3C] interface virtual-ethernet 1
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 11
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit

             # Establish a PVC and specify it to bear PPPoE.
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0.1
             [H3C-atm1/0/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map bridge virtual-ethernet 0
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
             [H3C-atm1/0/0.1] pvc to_adsl_b 0/61
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0.1-0/61-to_adsl_b] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1

             Details on configurations of the RADIUS scheme are not covered here.

7.6.6 PPPoEoA Client Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, the Ethernet interface IP address of RouterA serves as
             the gateway of all PCs in LAN. RouterA is directly connected to the ADSL accessing
             end of public network via the ADSL card to serve as the client of PPPoEoA (atm1/0/0 is
             the port number of the ADSL card). Server, PPPoEoA authentication server of public
             network, is used to authenticate user information via chap.




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           II. Network diagram


                                             atm 1/0/0              Ethernet 2/0/0
                               ATM network

                Server                                    ADSL
                                                         Router A                    Hub




                                                              PC               PC          PC

             Figure 7-11 Network diagram for ADSL PPPoEoA Client


           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router A:
             # Configure dialing access control list:
             [H3C] dialer-rule 10 ip permit

             # Create dialer port and configure the dial-up and PPP authentication:
             [H3C] interface Dialer0
             [H3C-Dialer0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Dialer0] ppp chap password hello
             [H3C-Dialer0] ppp chap user h3c
             [H3C-Dialer0] ip address ppp-negotiate
             [H3C-Dialer0] dialer user h3c
             [H3C-Dialer0] dialer-group 10
             [H3C-Dialer0] dialer bundle 12
             [H3C-Dialer0] quit

             # Create a VE interface:
             [H3C] interface Virtual-Ethernet2
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet2] quit

             # Configure a VE interface.
             [H3C] interface virtual-ethernet2
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet2] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 12
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet2] mac-address 0011-0022-0030
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet2] quit

             # Configure the atm port of ADSL card:
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] pvc 0/32
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32] map bridge virtual-ethernet2


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             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-0/32] quit
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0]quit

             # Configure VE port:
             [H3C] interface virtual-ethernet2
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet2] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 12
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet2] mac-address 0011-0022-0030
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet2] quit

             # Configure the default route:
             [H3C] ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 Dialer 0




                 Note:
             If PPPoEoA Server is an H3C router, PPPoEoA can be configured as follow:



             # Configure user features.
             [H3C] local-user h3c
             [H3C-luser-h3c] password simple hello
             [H3C-luser-h3c] service-type ppp

             # Create a virtual-template, set the authentication mode to CHAP, and configure the IP
             address.
             [H3C] interface Virtual-Template0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
             [H3C-Virtual-Template0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Template0] remote address pool 80

             # Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain system
             [H3C-isp-system] scheme local

             # Assign a local IP address pool to the users.
             [H3C] ip pool 80 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.100
             [H3C-isp-system] quit

             # Configure a VE interface.
             [H3C] interface virtual-ethernet1

             # Enable PPPoE Server on the VT specified on the virtual Ethernet interface.
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-server bind Virtual-Template 0
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] mac-address 0022-0022-00C1
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit

             # Configure the ATM interface.


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             [H3C] interface atm2/0/0
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] pvc 0/32
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-0/32] map bridge virtual-ethernet1


7.6.7 ATM Routed Bridge Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, two hosts are interconnected and communicating
             across the ATM link between two routers.
                    On Router A, routed bridge encapsulation is configured with support to IP on PVC
                    0/60 on subinterface ATM 2/0/0.1. The VE interface bound with routed bridge
                    encapsulation is attached to the network segment where PC 2 is located.
                    On Router B, the subinterface ATM2/0/0.1 and the interface Ethernet 1/0/0 are
                    assigned to the same bridge-set to form a layer 2 network domain.
                    Do the following on PC 1 and PC 2 to allow them to communicate at the network
                    layer:
                    On PC 1, set the address of the default gateway to 10.0.0.1, the address of
                    Ethernet 1/0/0 on Router A.
                    On PC 2, set the address of the default gateway to 20.0.0.1, the address of the VE
                    interface on Router A.

           II. Network diagram


                  PC 1                  VE0:20.0.0.1                                               PC 2
                                                       ATM 2/0/0.1
                             Eth1/0/0
                             10.0.0.1                                                  Eth1/0/0
                                          Router A            ATM 2/0/0.1
              10.0.0.2                                                      Router B              20.0.0.2


             Figure 7-12 Network diagram for routed bridge


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure Router A (configure routed bridge encapsulation on it)
             # Create a VE interface and assign it an IP address 20.0.0.1.
             [H3C] interface virtual-ethernet 0
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet0] ip address 20.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Virtual-Ethernet0] quit

             # Create a point-to-point ATM subinterface; configure routed bridge encapsulation on
             its PVC 0/60 and enable the support of routed bridge encapsulation to IP and MPLS.
             [H3C] interface atm 2/0/0.1 p2p
             [H3C-atm2/0/0.1] pvc 0/60
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm2/0/0.1-0/60] map routed-bridge virtual-ethernet 0



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             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm2/0/0.1-0/60] routed-bridge protocol ip
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm2/0/0.1-0/60] routed-bridge protocol mpls
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm2/0/0.1-0/60] quit
             [H3C-atm2/0/0.1] quit

             # Assign IP address 10.0.0.1 to interface Ethernet 1/0/0.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] quit
             2)   Configure Router B (configure bridge on it)
             # Enable bridge-set.
             [H3C] bridge enable

             # Create bridge-set 1.
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable

             # Assign subinterface ATM 2/0/0.1 to bridge-set 1.
             [H3C] interface atm 2/0/0.1
             [H3C-Atm2/0/0.1] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Atm2/0/0.1] pvc 0/60
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm2/0/0.1-0/60] map bridge-group broadcast
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm2/0/0.1-0/60] quit
             [H3C-Atm2/0/0.1] quit

             # Assign interface Ethernet 1/0/0 to bridge-set 1.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] bridge-set 1
             3)   Configure PC 1
             Set IP address to 10.0.0.2, mask to 255.255.255.0, and default gateway to 10.0.0.1.
             4)   Configure PC 2
             Set IP address to 20.0.0.2, mask to 255.255.255.0, and default gateway to 20.0.0.1.

7.6.8 ATM PVC Transmit Priority Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Create PVC1 and PVC2 on the same ATM 155 Mbps interface, each assigned 100
             Mbps of bandwidth and associated with the UBR service. Set the transmit priority of
             PVC1 to 1 and that of PVC2 to 3.
             Router A distributes the traffic to Router B equally on the two PVCs. Observe the
             resulted statistics about received/sent/dropped packets and other indices.




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           II. Network diagram

                  atm1/0/0:202.38.160.1/24    atm1/0/0:202.38.160.2/24
                                pvc1             pvc1


                        atm1/0/0                     atm1/0/0
                               pvc2              pvc2
                      Router A                          Router B

             Figure 7-13 Network diagram for ATM PVC priority configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure Router A
             # Configure the ATM interface.
             [H3C] interface atm 1/0/0
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0

             # Create two PVCs and assign them different transmission priority values.
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] pvc 1 0/33
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/33-1] map ip 202.38.160.2
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/33-1] service ubr 100000
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/33-1] transmit-priority 1
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/33-1] quit
             [H3C-atm1/0/0] pvc 2 0/32
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/32-2] map ip 202.38.160.3
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/32-2] service ubr 100000
             [H3C-atm-pvc-atm1/0/0-0/33-1] transmit-priority 3

             Use the display atm pvc-info interface atm 1/0/0 pvc command on Router B to view
             statistical results for each PVC (you can make several tests and observe the average
             statistical value). You can see that the PVC with the higher priority value receives more
             packets and that with lower priority value receives less. That is, the PVC with the
             highest priority value takes preference in getting bandwidth and other PVCs (if there
             are many and with different priority values) are treated the same regardless of their
             priority values.

7.6.9 ATM Transparent Cell Transport

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 7-14, Router A and Router B are interconnected through their ATM
             interfaces. ATM transparent cell transport is required.
                    Maximum number of encapsulated cells: 10
                    Maximum time between cell encapsulations: 100 milliseconds



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           II. Network diagram

                  PC 1                                                                        PC 2
                                                    ATM 2/0/0

                                         Router A           ATM 2/0/0
              10.0.0.2                                                  Router B             20.0.0.2

             Figure 7-14 Network diagram for ATM transparent cell transport


           III. Configuration procedure

             # Complete basic ATM configuration (omitted).
             1)     Configure Router A
             # Enable the transparent cell transport feature.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface atm 2/0/0
             [H3C-Atm2/0/0] atm-ctt
             [H3C-Atm2/0/0] cell-packing 10
             [H3C-Atm2/0/0] packing-timer 100
             2)     Configuration on Router B is the same as on Router A.

7.6.10 Traffic Classification Based on DSCP of IP Packets

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 7-15, Router A and Router B are connected over an ATM network,
             and four PVCs are created between them. Configure a PVC group for Router A and
             Router B respectively. IP packets are transported in the PVC groups and the packet
             priority is identified by DSCP in the TOS field of the IP packets.
                    On Router A and Router B, configure PVC 1/101 to carry packets of priority levels
                    from 0 to 20, PVC 1/102 to carry packets of priority levels from 21 to 40, PVC 1/103
                    to carry packets of priority levels from 41 to 63, and PVC 1/100 to be the default
                    PVC for carrying the other packets, respectively.
                    Configure the PVC backup mechanism on Router A and Router B respectively,
                    making the PVC carrying IP packets of priority level 30 (that is, PVC 1/102) serve
                    as the standby PVC of PVC 1/101, the PVC carrying IP packets of priority level 60
                    (that is, PVC 1/103) serve as the standby PVC of PVC 1/102.
                    Configure the PVC protection mechanism on Router A and Router B respectively
                    to protect PVC 1/101 in individual mode and PVCs 1/102 and 1/103 in group
                    mode.




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           II. Network diagram

                  RouterA                                               RouterB

                                          ATM
                            Atm3/0/0:                     Atm3/0/0:
                            10.1.1.1/24                   10.1.1.2/24




                      PVC1/100                                 PVC1/100

                     PVC1/101 PVC-                     PVC-    PVC1/101
                              Group                    Group
                     PVC1/102 1/100                    1/100   PVC1/102

                     PVC1/103                                  PVC1/103



             Figure 7-15 Network diagram for traffic classification based on DSCP of IP packets


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure Router A
             # Configure basic ATM parameters and the peer-to-peer mapping
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface atm 3/0/0
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] pvc 1/100
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0-1/100] map ip inarp broadcast
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0-1/100] quit

             # Use PVC 1/100 as the main PVC to configure a PVC group and add three PVCs into
             the group to implement traffic classification based on DSCP of IP packets.
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] pvc-group 1/100
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc 1/101
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/101] quit
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc 1/102
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/102] quit
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc 1/103
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/103] quit
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] match dscp

             # Configure the PVCs to carry IP packets of the intended priority levels respectively.
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] ip-dscp 1/101 0 20
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] ip-dscp 1/102 21 40
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] ip-dscp 1/103 41 60
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] ip-dscp 1/100 default




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             # Configure PVC backup.
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] bump 1/101 30
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] bump 1/102 60

             # Configure PVC protection.
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc-protect 1/101 individual
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc-protect 1/102 group
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc-protect 1/103 group

             # Configure a static route to Router B.
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] quit
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] quit
             [H3C] ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.1.1.2

             After the configuration above, since PVC 1/101 is configured with individual protection,
             when it goes down, its standby PVC (that is, PVC 1/102) does not take over. On the
             contrary, since PVC 1/102 is configured with group protection and its standby PVC (that
             is, PVC 1/103) is in the same protected group, when it goes down, its standby PVC will
             take over.
             The configuration required for Router B is similar to that for Router A. Therefore, the
             detailed configuration procedure for Router B is omitted.

7.6.11 Traffic Classification Based on EXP of MPLS Packets

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 7-16, Router A and Router B are connected over an ATM network,
             and four PVCs are created between them. Configure a PVC group for Router A and
             Router B respectively. MPLS packets are transported in the PVC groups and packet
             priority is identified by EXP of the MPLS packets.
                  On Router A and Router B, configure PVC 1/101 to carry packets of priority levels
                  from 0 to 3, PVC 1/102 to carry packets of priority levels 4 and 5, PVC 1/103 to
                  carry packets of priority levels 6 and 7, and PVC 1/100 to be the default PVC for
                  carrying the other packets.
                  Configure the PVC backup mechanism on Router A and Router B respectively,
                  making the PVC carrying MPLS packets of priority level 4 (that is, PVC 1/102)
                  serve as the standby PVC of PVC 1/101, the PVC carrying MPLS packets of
                  priority level 6 (that is, PVC 1/103) serve as the standby PVC of PVC 1/120.
                  Configure the PVC protection mechanism on Router A and Router B respectively
                  to protect PVC 1/101 in individual mode and PVCs 1/102 and 1/103 in group
                  mode.




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Comware V3                                                                    Chapter 7 ATM Configuration

           II. Network diagram

                  RouterA                                               RouterB

                                          ATM
                            Atm3/0/0:                     Atm3/0/0:
                            10.1.1.1/24                   10.1.1.2/24




                      PVC1/100                                 PVC1/100

                     PVC1/101 PVC-                     PVC-    PVC1/101
                              Group                    Group
                     PVC1/102 1/100                    1/100   PVC1/102

                     PVC1/103                                  PVC1/103



             Figure 7-16 Network diagram for traffic classification based on EXP of MPLS packets


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router A
             # Enable MPLS in system view.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface loopback 0
             [H3C-LoopBack0] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-LoopBack0] quit
             [H3C] mpls lsr-id 1.1.1.1
             [H3C] mpls
             [H3C-mpls] quit
             [H3C] mpls ldp

             # Configure basic ATM parameters and the peer-to-peer ATM mapping, and enable
             MPLS on the interface.
             [H3C] interface atm3/0/0
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] mpls
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] mpls ldp enable
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] pvc 1/100
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0-1/100] map ip inarp broadcast
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0-1/100] quit

             # Use PVC 1/100 as the main PVC to configure a PVC group and add three PVCs into
             the group.
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] pvc-group 1/100
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc 1/101
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/101] quit


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             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc 1/102
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/102] quit
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc 1/103
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/103] quit
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc 1/104
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/104] quit

             # Configure the PVCs to carry MPLS packets of the intended priorities respectively.
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] mpls-exp 1/101 0 3
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] mpls-exp 1/102 4 5
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] mpls-exp 1/103 6 7
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] fr mpls-exp 400 default

             # Configure PVC backup.
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] bump 1/101 4
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] bump 1/102 6

             # Configure PVC protection.
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc-protect 1/101 individual
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc-protect 1/102 group
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] pvc-protect 1/103 group

             # Configure a static route to Router B.
             [H3C-atm-pvc-group-Atm3/0/0-1/100] quit
             [H3C-Atm3/0/0] quit
             [H3C] ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.1.1.2

             After the configuration above, since PVC 1/101 is configured with individual protection,
             when it goes down, its standby PVC (that is, PVC 1/102) does not take over. On the
             contrary, since PVC 1/102 is configured with group protection and its standby PVC (that
             is, PVC 1/103) is in the same protected group, when it goes down, its standby PVC will
             take over.
             The configuration required for Router B is similar to that for Router A.


7.7 Troubleshooting ATM
             Symptom 1:
             When IPoA is used, the link does not report ‘UP’.
             Solution:
             Possible reasons are as follows:
                  Check whether the optical fiber is plugged in correctly.
                  Check whether the local IP address has been configured.
                  Other reasons might be failure of PVC configuration or failure of communication
                  between cards.


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             Symptom 2: When PPPoA is used, the link does not report ‘UP’.
             Solution: Refer to that of Symptom 1.
             Symptom 3: Both Physical Layer and Line Protocol remain “UP”, but they are mutually
             unreachable with ping command.
             Solution:
                  When IPOA is used, check whether the IP protocol address mapping is configured
                  correctly. If the interfaces of two routers are directly connected, the local PVC
                  mapped to the peer IP must have the same (VPI, VCI) value as the peer PVC
                  mapped to the local IP. In addition, their IP addresses must also be in the same
                  network segment.
                  If two routers are directly connected, please check if interface clock of one side is
                  configured as master, make sure that at least one of them be configured as
                  internal-lock-enabled. Otherwise if a router is connected to ATM network, the
                  transmission clock should be set as line clock.
                  Please check the ATM interfaces of two sides to make sure that their types keep
                  the same, i.e. both are multimode fiber interfaces or single mode fiber interfaces.
                  When directly connected, a multimode fiber interface and a single mode fiber
                  interface may interconnect in most cases, but sometimes severe packet dropping
                  and CRC errors might occur.
                  If the two ends are PPPoA, check their IP addresses (they should be in the same
                  network segment) and their authentication configuration status.
                  If small packets can ping through, but big packets cannot, please check the mtu
                  configurations of the two router interfaces for any difference.
             Symptom 4: The interface status of ATM is DOWN
             Solution:
                  Ensure that the optical fibers are correctly plugged to ATM interface. Note: The
                  two lines are responsible for receiving and transmitting respectively, and they are
                  not exchangeable. If they are plugged inversely, the interface status of ATM will
                  not be UP.
                  If two routers are directly connected with each other (i.e. back-to-back connection),
                  please check if none of the two ATM interfaces enables internal clock. By default,
                  routers are configured as line clock. If two routers are directly connected with each
                  other, one of them should be configured as internal lock with the command of
                  clock master.
             Symptom 5: The interface status of ATM is UP, but the PVC status is DOWN.
             Solution:




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                  Please check if this fault results from enabling OAM F5. When two ATM devices
                  are connected, VPI and VCI of PVC on the two devices must be consistent. If the
                  directly-connected remote end is not configured with the same PVC as the local
                  end (i.e. VPI and VCI are consistent), the local PVC status cannot change into UP
                  after enabling OAM F5.
             Symptom 6: The PVC status is UP, but after finishing IPoA application configuration,
             the peer is unreachable with the ping command.
             Solution:
                  Check if the peer supports the configured application mode. For example, if local
                  terminal uses PPPoA application, the peer should also support PPPoA application.
                  If the peer supports the configured application mode, please check if the AAL5
                  encapsulation protocol types of the two terminals are the same. For example, they
                  will be mutually unreachable with the ping command if one terminal uses SNAP
                  while the other uses MUX. For some clues, please enable the debugging of ATM
                  packets.
             Symptom 7: Two routers are directly connected and they are reachable with the ping
             command, but sometimes severe packet dropping and CRC check errors would occur,
             or the interface status would alternate between UP and DOWN.
             Solution:
                  Check the ATM interfaces of the two terminals to see if their types keep the same,
                  i.e. both are multimode fiber interface or single mode fiber interface. If their types
                  are different, please replace one of them. When directly connected, a multimode
                  fiber interface and a single mode fiber interface may interconnect in most cases,
                  but sometimes, the above fault might occur.
             Normally, you can locate most problems after turning on all ATM debugging switches.




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Comware V3                                                        Chapter 8 X.25 and LAPB Configurations




         Chapter 8 X.25 and LAPB Configurations

8.1 Introduction to X.25 and LAPB Protocols
             X.25 recommendation specifies the interface between data terminal equipment (DTE)
             and data communications equipment (DCE). In 1974, CCITT issued the first draft of
             X.25, whose initial files were based on the experiences and recommendations of Telnet
             and Tymnet of USA and Datapac packet-switched networks of Canada. It was revised
             in 1976, 1978, 1980 and 1984, added many optional service functions and facilities.
             X.25 allows two DTE to communicate with each other over the existing telephone
             network. X.25 sessions are established when one DTE contacts another to request a
             communication session. The DTE that receives the request can either accept or refuse
             the connection. Once the connection is established, the devices at both ends can
             transmit information in full duplex mode, and either end can disconnect the connection
             at any time.
             X.25 is the protocol of point-to-point interaction between DTE and DCE. DTE usually
             refers to the host or terminal at the user side, and DCE usually refers to the
             synchronous modem. DTE is connected with DCE directly, DCE is connected to a port
             of packet switching exchange, and some connections are established between the
             packet switching exchanges, thus forming the paths between different DTE. In an X.25
             network, the relation between entities is shown in the following diagram:

                                                                                     DTE
                                                     PSE          DCE


                DTE                  DCE                    PSE


                                                     PSE          DCE
                                                                                     DTE
                                                           PSN

                DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
                DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment)
                PSE (Packet Sw itc hing Equipment)
                PSN (Packet Switching Netw ork)


             Figure 8-1 X.25 network model


             The X.25 protocol suite maps to the lowest three layers of the OSI (Open System
             Interconnection) reference model. As shown in the following figure, layer 3 (packet
             layer) provision of X.25 describes the packet format used by the packet layer and the
             procedure of packet switching between two layer-3 entities. Layer 2 (link layer)


                                                           8-1
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Comware V3                                                                                        Chapter 8 X.25 and LAPB Configurations

             provision of X.25, also known as Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB), defines the
             frame format and procedure adopted in the DTE-DCE interaction. Layer 1 (physical
             layer) of X.25 defines some physical and electrical characteristics in the connection
             between DTE and DCE.

              OSI reference model                           X.25


               7
               6
               5
               4
                               X.25                                                       X.25
                                                    Packet lay er
               3             Packet layer           interface                           Packet layer
                               X.25                                                       X.25
               2                                   Link layer
                             Link layer            interface                            Link layer
                               X.25                                                       X.25
               1                                   Physical layer
                             Physical layer         interface                           Physical layer

                                DTE                                                         DCE


             Figure 8-2 DTE/DCE interfaces


             The connection established via X.25 protocol between two DTEs is called virtual circuit
             (VC), which exists logically and is distinguished from the physical circuit in circuit
             switching in nature. VCs fit into PVC and SVC. PVC is used for transmitting traffic that is
             generated in a frequent but stable way and SVC for transmitting traffic that is generated
             in a burst way..
             Once a virtual circuit is established between a pair of DTEs, it is assigned with a unique
             virtual circuit number. When one DTE is to send a packet to the other, it numbers this
             packet (with virtual circuit number) and sends it to DCE. According to the number on the
             packet, DCE determines the method to switch this packet within the switching network,
             so that this packet can reach the correct destination. A link established between DTE
             and DCE by X.25 layer 2 (LAPB) is multiplexed by X.25 layer 3, and those finally
             presented to users are several usable virtual circuits.
             The relation between packets and frames in the X.25 layers is shown in the following
             diagram.

              X.25 layer 3
                                                                   Packet             User data
              packet                                               head er


              X.25 layer 2             Frame       Frame                                                 Frame check Frame
              fram e                               header                      data
                                       delimiter                                                         sequenc e   delimiter



              X.25 layer 1                                                         Bit stream




             Figure 8-3 X.25 packet and LAPB frame




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Comware V3                                                      Chapter 8 X.25 and LAPB Configurations

             X.25 link layer specifies the frame switching process between DTE and DCE. From the
             perspective of layering, the link layer is just like a bridge interconnecting the packet
             layer interface of DTE and that of DCE. Through this bridge, the packets can be
             transmitted continuously between the packet layer of DTE and that of DCE. The link
             layer has such main functions as follows:
                  Transmit the data effectively between DTE and DCE
                  Ensure the synchronization of information between the receiver and transmitter
                  Detect and correct errors in the transmission
                  Identify and report the procedure error to the higher layer protocol
                  Inform the packet layer of the link layer state
             As specified in international standards, the link layer protocol LAPB of X.25 adopts the
             frame structure of High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) and is a subset of HDLC. It
             requires for setting up a link by making use of the Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode
             (SABM) command. A two-way link can be established after either site sends an SABM
             command and the other replies with a UA response.
             Although defined for X.25, as a separate link layer protocol, LAPB can directly carry
             non-X.25 upper layer protocols for data transmission. You can set the link layer protocol
             of serial interface as LAPB on the H3C Series Routers and transmit data locally.
             Meanwhile, the X.25 on the H3C Series Routers has switching function. Therefore, the
             Router can be used as a small-sized X.25 packet switch, thus protecting users’
             investment in X.25. The following figure describes the relation between LAPB, X.25
             and X.25 switching.


                        IP


                                  X.25 switching


                                X.25


                         LAPB



             Figure 8-4 Relation between LAPB, X.25 and X.25 switching


             The system also provides X.25-based DNS resolution to support SVC XOT. Using the
             idea of DNS, this function maintains a DNS server, which stores all X.121-to-IP address
             mappings in the whole network. When XOT sends a packet, the function determines
             (based on X.25 routing configuration) whether or not it is needed to query the
             corresponding IP address from the DNS server. Upon receiving such a query, the DNS
             server returns a response with the destination IP address for the packet.


8.2 Configuring LAPB
             LAPB configuration includes:

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Comware V3                                                     Chapter 8 X.25 and LAPB Configurations

                  Configure LAPB encapsulation on the interface
                  Configure LAPB parameters
                  Configure to send SABM requests even if the peer does not respond

8.2.1 Configuring LAPB Encapsulation on the Interface

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-1 Configure LAPB encapsulation on the interface

                              Operation                                    Command
               Configure LAPB encapsulation on the         link-protocol lapb [ dte | dce ] [ ip |
               interface                                   multi-protocol ]



             By default, when the link layer protocol is LAPB, the interface works in DTE mode.

8.2.2 Configuring LAPB Parameters

           I. Configuring LAPB frame numbering mode (also called modulus)

             LAPB frames are numbered in two ways: modulo 8 and modulo 128. These frames (I
             frames) are numbered by sequence, with the numbers are in the range of 0 to modulo
             minus 1 and are selected in a cyclic way within this range.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-2 Configure LAPB frame numbering mode

                                         Operation                                 Command
               Configure LAPB frame numbering mode (also called
                                                                            lapb modulo { 128 | 8 }
               modulo)



             By default, LAPB frame numbering mode is modulo 8.



                 Note:
             If the link is congested and you have used the lapb modulo command to configure
             modulo 128, ensure that the length of the Qos queue is longer than or equal to that of
             the sliding window configured by the lapb window-size command; otherwise, data
             loss and link jittering may occur.




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           II. Configuring LAPB window parameter K

             LAPB window parameter K represents the maximum number of numbered frames to be
             acknowledged by DTE or DCE at any given time.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-3 Configure LAPB window parameter

                               Operation                                  Command
               Configure the LAPB window parameter K       lapb window-size k-value
               Restore the default value of LAPB
                                                           undo lapb window-size
               window parameter K.



             By default, K is 7.

           III. Configuring LAPB parameter N1, and N2

             N1 indicates the maximum number of bits in a frame traveling between DTE and DCE.
             N2 indicates maximum number of transmission attempts DCE or DTE made for
             transmitting a frame.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-4 Configure LAPB parameter N2

                                     Operation                                 Command
               Configure LAPB parameter N1                             lapb max-frame n1-value
               Restore the default value of LAPB parameter N1          undo lapb max-frame
               Configure LAPB parameter N2                             lapb retry n2-value
               Restore the default value of LAPB parameter N2          undo lapb retry



             By default, n1 is 12032 and n2 is 10.



                 Note:
             The lapb max-frame command is configurable only when X.25 applies on the link layer.
             If the LAPB applies on the link layer, you cannot configure the lapb max-frame
             command. When the MTU value on the interface changes, however, you need to use
             the undo lapb max-frame command to change the default value of parameter N1 to
             the value after MTU changes since the LAPB parameter N1 is the default value
             calculated according to the previous MTU.




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           IV. Configuring LAPB timers T1, T2, T3 and T4

             T1 is a retransmission timer. DTE (or DCE) will retransmit a frame when the T1 timer
             expires. T1 shall be greater than the maximum time that may pass to receive the
             acknowledgement frame.
             T2 is a receiving timer. When the T2 timer reaches the designated time, DTE or (DCE)
             must send a confirmation frame in order that the opposite DCE (or DTE) can receive
             the confirmation frame before T1 times out (T2<T1).
             T3 is an idle channel timer. When the T3 timer reaches the designated time, DCE
             reports the long-time idle channel state to the packet layer. T3 must be larger than T1 in
             DCE (T3>T1). This timer will not function if it is set to 0.
             T4 is a link test timer. When the T4 timer expires, the system checks whether a RR
             response frame is received from the peer within a set timeout time. In this way, the
             system maintains the link connection. This timer will not function if it is set to 0.

             Table 8-5 Configure LAPB timers T1, T2, T3 and T4

                              Operation                                     Command
                                                             lapb timer { t1 t1-value | t2 t2-value | t3
               Configure LAPB timer T1, T2, T3 or T4
                                                             t3-value | t4 t4-value }
               Restore the default value of LAPB timer
                                                             undo lapb timer{ t1 | t2 | t3 | t4 }
               T1, T2, T3 or T4



             By default, T1 is 3000 ms, T2 is 1500 ms, and both T3 and T4 are 0s.

           V. Configuring the link protocol actions after receiving false packets

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-6 Configure the link protocol actions after receiving false packets

                              Operation                                     Command
               Configure the link protocol to teardown
                                                             lapb pollremote
               after receiving false packets
               Configure the link protocol not to
                                                             undo lapb pollremote
               teardown after receiving false packets



             By default, the link protocol does not teardown after receiving false packets.

8.2.3 Configuring LAPB to Send SABM Requests even if the Peer Does not
Respond

             Normally, when an interface receives an SABM packet, it resets the link and reports link
             protocol DOWN/UP. And when a fault occurs on the link, the local VC stops transmitting



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             data and begins to send SABM request packets to the peer. If no response is received
             from the peer after sending SABM packets for five times, the protocol is DOWN and the
             local end stops sending SABM requests.
             After you configure the lapb adapt command, an interface resets the link but does not
             report protocol DOWN/UP when receiving an SABM packet. In addition, when the link
             faults, it sends SABM requests ceaselessly if the peer end does not response.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-7 Configure LAPB to send SABM requests ceaselessly if no response is
             received from the peer

                                         Operation                                 Command
               Configure LAPB to send SABM requests ceaselessly               lapb adapt
               Restore the default setting                                    undo lapb adapt



             By default, when an interface receives an SABM request, it resets the link and reports
             protocol DOWN/UP, and when a fault occurs on the link, the interface sends SABM
             requests for up to five times if no response is received from the peer end.


8.3 Configuring X.25
             X.25 configuration includes:
             Configure X.25 interface
                  Configure X.25 interface options
                  Configure X.25 datagram transmission
                  Configure additional parameters of x.25 datagram transmission
                  Configure X.25 subinterface
                  Configure X.25 switching
                  Configure X.25 load sharing
                  Configure X.25 closed user group
                  Configure X.25 flow control parameter negotiation mechanism
             Besides, appropriate modification on some LAPB parameters in certain cases can also
             optimize the performance of X.25.

8.3.1 Configuring X.25 Interface

             X.25 interface configuration tasks include:
                  Configure X.121 address
                  Set X.25 operating mode
                  Configure VC range
                  Configure packet numbering modulo



                                                 8-7
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Comware V3                                                     Chapter 8 X.25 and LAPB Configurations

                  Configure the default flow control parameter (including window size and packet
                  length)
             An interface should first be configured as an X.25 interface by performing the following
             tasks before it can transmit data with the X.25 protocol.



                 Note:
             In the following configurations, “Configuring X.25 working mode" is compulsory, and
             other configurations are optional, which depends on the accessed X.25 network.




           I. Setting the X.121 address of the interface

             If the H3C Series Routers are used for the purpose of X.25 switching, this task can be
             skipped. If they are connected to X.25 public packet network, you must set an address
             for the connected X.25 interface according to the requirements of the ISP.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-8 Set the X.121 address of the interface

                                 Operation                                  Command
               Set the X.121 address of the interface           x25 x121-address x.121-address
               Remove the X.121 address of the interface        undo x25 x121-address



           II. Setting X.25 operating mode

             Layer 3 of X.25 supported by H3C Series Routers can work in either DTE mode, or in
             DCE mode. As well as the format of the datagram is alternative, either IETF or
             nonstandard.
             Note that an X.25 public packet switching network requires routers to access the
             network as DTE and to be encapsulated with the IETF format in normal circumstances.
             Therefore, the operating mode of X.25 should be DTE and the encapsulation format
             should be IETF. When two routers are connected back to back through serial interfaces,
             you must ensure that they are using the same encapsulation format and are
             respectively working in DTE and DCE.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.




                                                 8-8
Operation Manual – Link Layer Protocol
Comware V3                                                      Chapter 8 X.25 and LAPB Configurations

             Table 8-9 Set X.25 operating mode

                              Operation                                  Command
               Set the operating mode and                 link-protocol x25 [ dte | dce ]
               encapsulation format of X.25 interface     [ nonstandard | ietf ]



             By default, the operating mode is DTE, and the datagram format is IETF.

           III. Setting X.25 virtual circuit range

             X.25 protocol can create multiple logical virtual connections over a physically existed
             link between DTE and DCE. These virtual connections are called VC or Logic-Channel
             (LC). The virtual connections established by X.25 reach 4095 at most, and their
             numbers range from 1 to 4095. The number used to differentiate each virtual circuit (or
             logic channel) is called Logic Channel Identifier (LCI) or Virtual Circuit Number (VCN).



                 Note:
             Strictly speaking, VC and LC are different. However, at user end, they are generally not
             distinguished strictly.



             An important part of X.25 operation is how to manage the total 4095 virtual circuits. This
             sequence is a range of virtual circuit channel numbers broken into four ranges (listed
             here in numerically increasing order):
                  A - Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) range
                  B - Incoming-only channel range
                  C - Two-way channel range
                  D - Outgoing-only channel range
             The numbers of the virtual circuits established by an X.25 call must be set to one of B,
             C and D. The permanent virtual circuits must be set in the A range.
             According to ITU-T Recommendation X.25, the idle channel allocation rules when
             initiating calls are as follows:
                  Only the DCE can use a call in the incoming-only channel range.
                  Only the DTE can use a call in the outgoing-only channel range.
                  Both the DCE and the DTE can use a call in the two-way channel range.
                  DCE always uses the lowest available logic channel.
                  DTE always uses the highest available logic channel.
             Thus, we can avoid the case that one side of the communication occupies all the
             channels, and minimize the possibility of call collision.




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             In X.25 protocol, six parameters are employed to define the four ranges, as shown in
             the following figure.
               1
                                         PVC range
              LIC
                                         Incoming-only channel range
              HIC
                                          unused
              LTC
                                         Two-way channel range
              HTC
                                          unused
              LOC
                                         Outgoing-only channel range
              HOC
                                          unused
             4095

             Figure 8-5 X.25 channel delimitation


             For the meanings of these six parameters, please refer to the following table.

             Table 8-10 Description of X.25 channel range delimitation parameters

                               Parameter                                         Description
               LIC                                                 Lowest Incoming-only Channel

               HIC                                                 Highest Incoming-only Channel
               LTC                                                 Lowest Two-way Channel
               HTC                                                 Highest Two-way Channel

               LOC                                                 Lowest Outgoing-only Channel
               HOC                                                 Highest Outgoing-only Channel



             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-11 Set X.25 virtual circuit range

                              Operation                                          Command
                                                                 x25 vc-range { in-channel lic hic |
               Set X.25 VC range
                                                                 bi-channel ltc htc | out-channel loc hoc }
               Restore the default value of X.25 VC
                                                                 undo x25 vc-range
               range



             Each range (except PVC ranges) is defined by two parameters respectively working as
             upper limit and lower limit. The parameters are in the range of 1 to 4095 (including 1
             and 4095), but they are regarded correct only if they satisfy the following conditions:
                    In strict ascending order, i.e. 1=lic=hic<ltc=htc<loc=hoc=4095.



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                  If the upper limit (or lower limit) of a range is 0, then the lower limit (or upper limit)
                  shall also be 0, (which indicates this range is disabled to use).
             Finally, following should be noted:
                  At the two sides (i.e. DTE and DCE) of a physical connection, these six
                  parameters of X.25 must be equal in a symmetric way, as different settings at the
                  two sides are very likely to result in an improper procedure and hence result in
                  transmission failures.
                  In configuration process, you should judge as required to implement the correct
                  settings of parameters (note the default settings of each parameter on the basis of
                  ascending order).
                  Since X.25 protocol requires that DTE and DCE have the same VC range
                  parameter, the new configuration can not take effect immediately in X.25
                  negotiation state. The commands shutdown and undo shutdown need to be
                  executed.

           IV. Setting X.25 packet numbering modulo

             The implementation of X.25 in H3C Series Routers supports both modulo 8 and modulo
             128 in packet numbering, with Modulo 8 being the default.
             Perform the following commands in interface view to implement setting/canceling of
             packet sequence numbering mode.

             Table 8-12 Set/remove X.25 packet numbering modulo

                                    Operation                                      Command
               Set the packet sequence numbering mode                   x25 modulo { 8 | 128 }
               Remove the packet numbering mode                         undo x25 modulo



             By default, X.25 interface uses the modulo 8 mode.




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                 Note:
                 Note that X.25 protocol requires DTE and DCE have the same packet sequence
                 numbering mode, so the completed configurations must be followed by the
                 execution of the commands shutdown and undo shutdown.
                 Besides, the packet sequence numbering mode of X.25 layer 3 is different from the
                 frame sequence numbering mode of LAPB (X.25 layer 2). When modulo 128
                 numbering mode is employed in the DTE/DCE interface with high throughput rate,
                 for LAPB, only the efficiency of local DTE/DCE interface is affected, that is
                 point-to-point efficiency increases. While for X.25 layer 3, the efficiency of
                 end-to-end is affected, that is, the efficiency between two sets of communicating
                 DTE increases.




           V. Setting the default traffic control parameters

             X.25 protocol is a reliable transport protocol of powerful traffic control capability due to
             the “window size” and “maximum packet size” settings available for it. But it cannot
             perform traffic control effectively and correctly unless correctly configured. Any
             inappropriate configuration will cause CLEAR and RESET events of X.25. As most
             public X.25 packet networks use the default window size and maximum packet size
             specified in ITU-T X.25 Recommendation, H3C Series Routers also adopt the same
             default values. Therefore, the tasks will not be performed to set these two parameters
             unless requested by the access service providers.
             After the default window size and the default maximum packet size are set, the SVC,
             which can be established only via calling, will use these default values if related
             parameters are not negotiated in the call process. (Parameter negotiation will be
             described in the later sections). The PVC, which can be established directly without
             calling, will also use these default values if no window size or packet size option is
             appended when it is specified. (Refer to the later sections for PVC configuration)
             X.25 sending end will fragment the oversize data packets at the upper layer based on
             the maximum packet size, and mark the final fragment packet (M bit not set). After the
             packets reach the receiving end, X.25 will reassemble the fragment packets, and
             determine whether a piece of complete upper layer packet is received based on the M
             bit flag. Therefore, too small value of the maximum packet size will consume too much
             router resources on message fragmenting and reassembling, thus lowering efficiency.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.




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             Table 8-13 Set the default traffic control parameter

                                Operation                                  Command
               Set the sizes of VC input window and output    x25 window-size input-window-size
               window                                         output-window-size
               Restore the default size of VC input-window
                                                              undo x25 window-size
               and output-window, that is, 2
               Set the default receiving and sending          x25 packet-size input-packet
               maximum packet length                          output-packet
               Restore the default size of the maximum
                                                              undo x25 packet-size
               receiving and sending packets, that is, 128.



                 Note:
             If the link is in congestion and you have used the lapb modulo command to configure
             modulo 128, make sure that the length of the Qos queue is longer than or equal to the
             length of the sliding window configured by the lapb window-size command; otherwise,
             data loss and link jittering may occur.




8.3.2 Configuring X.25 Interface Supplementary Parameter

             X.25 interface supplementary parameter configurations include:
                  Configure the time delay of X.25 layer 3 timer
                  Configure the attributes related to X.25 address
                  Configure the user facility add/remove function
             It is necessary to configure certain supplementary X.25 parameters in some special
             network environments. The session is related to these supplementary parameters.

           I. Setting X.25 the third layer delay timer

             X.25 protocol defines a series of timers to facilitate its procedure. After X.25 sends a
             control message, if it does not receive the response before the timeout of the
             corresponding timer, X.25 protocol will take corresponding measure to handle this
             abnormal event. The names and corresponding procedures of these timers are shown
             in the following table.




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             Table 8-14 X.25 Layer 3 timer

                                                                            Timer name
                           Procedure name
                                                                   DTE side               DCE side
               Reboot                                        T20                    T10
               Call                                          T21                    T11
               Reset                                         T22                    T12
               Clear                                         T23                    T13
               Register                                      T28                    ––



             T28 is “Registration request sending" timer that is only defined on DTE side for
             dynamically requesting the network for optional services or stopping these services. Its
             reference value is 300 seconds, which can not be changed.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-15 Set X.25 layer 3 timer delay

                                   Operation                                     Command
               Set the timer delay value of restart procedure          x25 timer tx0 seconds
               Restore the default delay of the timer for
               rebooting procedure, which is 180 seconds at            undo x25 timer tx0
               DTE side and 60 seconds at DCE side.
               Set the timer delay value of call procedure             x25 timer tx1 seconds
               Restore the default delay of the timer for calling
               procedure, which is 200 seconds at DTE side and         undo x25 timer tx1
               180 seconds at DCE side.
               Set the timer delay value of restore procedure          x25 timer tx2 seconds
               Restore the default delay of the timer for reset
               procedure, which is 180 seconds at DTE side and         undo x25 timer tx2
               60 seconds at DCE side.
               Set the timer delay value of clearing procedure         x25 timer tx3 seconds
               Restore the default delay of the timer for clearing
               procedure, which is 180 seconds at DTE side and         undo x25 timer tx3
               60 seconds at DCE side.
               Set the timer delay value for an X.25 not to send a
               request again to a destination to which it fails to     x25 timer hold minutes
               initiate a call
               Restore to the default delay of the timer               undo x25 timer hold




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                                      Operation                                  Command
               Set the maximum idle time of the switching virtual
                                                                       x25 timer idle minutes
               circuit of an interface
               Restore the default maximum idle time                   undo x25 timer idle



           II. Configuring the attributes related to X.25 address

             To establish a SVC with a call, X.25 address is needed, which adopts the address
             format specified in ITU-T Recommendation X.121. X.121 address is a string of 0 to 15
             digits in length. Some attributes related to X.121 address are configured as follows:
             1)       Configure the alias of interface
             When an X.25 call is forwarded across multiple networks, different networks will likely
             make some modifications on the called address as needed, such as adding or deleting
             the prefix. In such cases, the destination address of a call that reaches X.25 interface
             may be inconsistent with X.121 address of the destination interface (because the
             destination address of this call is modified within the network), still the interface should
             accept this call. For this purpose, one or more alias names must be specified for this
             interface.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-16 Configure the alias of interface

                              Operation                                   Command
               Specify an alias for the interface        x25 alias-policy match-type alias-string
               Remove the alias for the interface        undo x25 alias-policy match-type alias-string



             To meet the requirements of different networks, X.25 defines nine match types and their
             relevant alias string formats for H3C Series routers, as shown in the following table.

             Table 8-17 Alias match modes and meanings

               Matching
                                          Description                           Example
                mode
                                                                   ”1234” will match with 561234,
                               Free matching, the alias string
               free                                                1234567 and 956123478, but will
                               is in the form of 1234
                                                                   not match with 12354.

                                                                   “…1234 ..” will match with
                               Extended free matching, in
                                                                   678123459, but will not match with
               free-ext        which the alias string is in the
                                                                   68123459, 67812345 and
                               form of …1234
                                                                   6781234591.
                               Left-most matching mode, in         “$1234” will match with 1234567
               left            which the alias string is in the    and 12346790, but will not match
                               form of $1234                       with 3123478 and 123784.


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               Matching
                                         Description                            Example
                mode
                            Extended left-most matching           “$1234 …” will match with 1234679
               left-ext     mode, in which the alias string is    and 1234872, but will not match with
                            in the form of $1234                  123468 and 12346890.
                            Rightmost matching mode, in           “1234$” will match with 791234 and
               Right        which the alias string is in the      6901234, but will not match with
                            form of 1234$                         7912345 and 6212534.
                                                                  “….1234$” will match with
                            Extended rightmost matching
                                                                  79001234 and 86901234, but will
               right-ext    mode, the alias string is in the
                                                                  not match with 7912345 and
                            form of ….1234$
                                                                  506212534.
                            Strict matching mode, in which
               Strict       the alias string is in the form of    “$1234$” can only match with 1234
                            $1234$
                            Whole matching mode, in which
                                                                  “…..…” will match with all the valid
               Whole        the alias string is in the form
                                                                  X.121 addresses of 8 digits in length
                            of ........
                            Extended whole matching
                                                                  "*” will match with all the valid X.121
               whole-ext    mode, in which the alias string
                                                                  addresses
                            can only be *



             2)   Configure the attributes related to the address code block in calling or called
                  packets
             As specified in the X.25 protocol, a call packet must carry the information set of both the
             calling DTE address (source address) and the called DTE address (destination
             address). This address information set is called the address code block. While in call
             accept packet, some networks require that both (the calling DTE address and the called
             DTE address) be carried, some networks require that only one of the two be carried,
             while some others require that neither should be carried. To adapt the difference
             between various networks, if you use the X.25 in H3C Series Routers, you can make
             selections as required.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-18 Configure the attributes in call packet or call accept packet

                                Operation                                     Command
               Carry X.121 address of the called DTE in
                                                                 x25 ignore called-address
               each call packet. This is the default setting.
               Disable carrying X.121 address of the
                                                                 undo x25 ignore called-address
               called DTE in each call packet
               Carry X.121 address of the calling DTE in
                                                                 x25 ignore calling-address
               each call packet. This is the default setting.




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                                Operation                                     Command
               Disable carrying X.121 address of the
                                                               undo x25 ignore calling-address
               calling DTE in each call packet.
               Carry the address of the called DTE in each
                                                               x25 response called-address
               call-acceptance packet.
               Disable carrying the address of the called
               DTE in each call-acceptance packet. This is     undo x25 response called-address
               the default setting.
               Carry the address of the calling DTE in
                                                               x25 response calling-address
               each call-acceptance packet.
               Disable carrying the address of the calling
                                                               undo x25 response
               DTE in each call-acceptance packet. This is
                                                               calling-address
               the default setting.



             3)   Configure the default upper layer protocol that X.25 bears
             X.25 call request packet includes a CUD (Call User Data) field that indicates the upper
             layer protocol type carried over X.25 protocol. When receiving X.25 call, the router will
             check the CUD field in the packet. If receiving a call carrying an unidentifiable CUD field,
             the router will deny it. But an upper layer protocol can be specified as the default
             protocol borne on the X.25 of the H3C Series Router. When the X.25 of the H3C Series
             Router receives a call with an unrecognizable CUD, it will treat it as the default upper
             layer protocol specified by user.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-19 Set the default upper layer protocol carried over X.25

                              Operation                                      Command
               Specify the default upper layer protocol     x25 default-protocol protocol-type
               Restore the default upper layer protocol
                                                           undo x25 default-protocol
               to the default setting



             By default, the upper layer protocol carried over X.25 is IP.

           III. Configuring the user facility add/remove function

             The user facility add/remove function can only be configured on a primary interface.
                  The user facility add function only takes effect on incoming packets on an interface:
                  Upon receiving a call setup negotiation packet, the interface adds the window-size
                  and packet-size fields to the packet if the packet does not carry the two fields, or
                  leaves the packet unchanged if it carries the two fields.




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                  The user facility remove function only takes effect on outgoing packets on an
                  interface: Before sending a call setup negotiation packet, the interface removes
                  the window-size and packet-size fields from the packet if the packet carries the two
                  fields, or leaves the packet unchanged if it does not carry the two fields.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-20 Configure the user facility add/remove function

                                  Operation                                     Command
               Enable the user facility add function              x25 add-facility
               Disable the user facility add function             undo x25 add-facility
               Enable the user facility remove function           x25 remove-facility
               Disable the user facility remove function          undo x25 remove-facility



             By default, the user facility add/remove function is disabled.

8.3.3 Configuring X.25 Datagram Transmission

             X.25 datagram transmission configuration tasks include:
                  Create protocol-to-X.121 address map
                  Create PVC
             In the most frequently used X.25 service, data is transmitted remotely between two
             hosts using the X.25 protocol via X.25 public packet network. As shown in the following
             figure, LAN A and LAN B are far apart, and the large and distributed X.25 packet
             switching network can be used to realize information exchange between them.



                      LAN A
                                                                              RouterB
                                                   X.25
                                                                                        LAN B
                                RouterA




             Figure 8-6 Interconnecting LANs via X.25


             LANs A and B communicate with each other by sending the datagrams carrying
             Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. However, X.25 uses the X.121 address. Therefore, to
             solve the problem, the mapping between IP address and X.121 address needs to be
             established. In other words, to enable X.25 to transmit data remotely, correctly
             establishing the address mapping is very significant. This section will deal with how to
             establish address mapping.




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           I. Creating protocol to X.121 address map

             An X.25 interface has its own X.121 address and internetworking protocol (such as IP
             protocol) address. When X.25 initiates a call through this interface, the source address
             (calling DTE address) it carries in the call request packet is the X.121 address of this
             interface.
             Then, how can the router target the destination of the call? In other words, how can the
             router determine the X.121 address of the destination where the datagram carrying an
             explicit destination IP address? For this purpose, the router will look up the IP-to-X.121
             address maps that have been configured on the router. As a call originating source, a
             direct call destination has its own protocol address and X.121 address. In this case, a
             destination protocol-to-X.121 address map must be created on the source. Through the
             mapping, X.25 can find the destination X.121 address according to the destination
             protocol address to initiate a call successfully. This is why the address mapping shall be
             established for X.25.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view to create an address map.

             Table 8-21 Create/remove a protocol-to-X.121 address map

                              Operation                                   Command
                                                           x25 map { ip | compressedtcp }
               Map the destination protocol address to
                                                           protocol-address x121-address
               X.121 address
                                                           x.121-address [ option ]
               Remove a destination protocol-to-X.121      undo x25 map { ip | compressedtcp }
               address map                                 protocol-address



                 Note:
             The parameters protocol-address and x.121-address in the command line refer to the
             protocol address and X.121 address of the destination, not those of the source.
             Such an address map should be created for every destination.
             While creating an address map, you can specify its attributes by specifying the options.
             The details of these options will be described later.



             For the address mapping configuration example, refer to subsequent sections.

           II. Creating PVC

             A PVC can be created for the data transmission featuring large but stable traffic size
             and requiring the service quality of leased line. A PVC does not need any call process
             and will always exist once set up. Before creating a PVC, it is unnecessary to create an
             address map, because an address map is created implicitly when a PVC is created.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view to create/delete a PVC.


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             Table 8-22 Create/delete PVC

                    Operation                                  Command
                                         x25 pvc pvc-number protocol protocol-address
               Create a PVC
                                         [ compressedtcp ] x121-address x.121-address [ option ]
               Delete a PVC              undo x25 pvc pvc-number



             The format of this command shows that while a PVC is created, an address map is also
             created for it. Similarly, the protocol-address and x.121-address in the command also
             refer to the destination address. When creating a PVC, you can set some attributes of
             the PVC by specifying the options. The [option] in this command is a subset of [option]
             in the command "x25 map...... [option]".
             For configuration example of PVC, refer to subsequent sections.

8.3.4 Configuring Additional Parameters for X.25 Datagram Transmission

             The additional X.25 datagram transmission parameter configuration tasks include:
             Specify the maximum idle time of SVC
                  Specify the maximum number of SVCs that is associated with the same address
                  mapping
                  Specify packet pre-acknowledgement
                  Configure X.25 user facility
                  Set the length of virtual circuit queue
                  Broadcast via X.25
                  Restrict the use of address mapping
             So far as H3C Series Routers are concerned, X.25 allows the addition of some
             characteristics, including a series of optional user facilities provisioned in ITU-T
             Recommendation X.25, for the sake of improving performance and broadening
             application ranges.
             This section describes how to configure such additional features, including the options
             in the commands "x25 map ......" and "x25 pvc......". Please select and configure these
             additional features taking into account the actual needs, X.25 network structure, and
             the services provided by service provider.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

           I. Specifying the maximum idle time of SVC

             For the sake of cost saving, you can specify an SVC idle time period upon the
             expiration of which the SVC will be disconnected. X.25 will automatically disconnect the
             SVC where an H3C Series Router is used. Enabling this feature will not affect the data
             transmission, as a new SVC can be set up again if there are new packets waiting for
             transmission.


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             Table 8-23 Specify SVC maximum idle time

                              Operation                                  Command
               Specify maximum idle time for all the
                                                          x25 timer idle minutes
               SVCs on an interface

                                                          x25 map protocol protocol-address
               Specify maximum idle time for SVC
                                                          x121-address x.121-address idle-timer
               associated with an address mapping
                                                          minutes
               Remove the maximum idle time for all
                                                          undo x25 timer idle
               the SVCs on the interface



             By default, the maximum idle time of SVC is 0 minute.

           II. Specifying the maximum number of SVCs allowed to associate with the same
              address map

             The maximum number of SVCs allowed to set up for the same address map can be
             specified. So far as H3C Series Routers are concerned, X.25 can establish up to eight
             SVCs for one address map. In case of busy traffic and slow line speed, this parameter
             can be increased properly to reduce data loss. By default, one address mapping is
             associated with only one virtual circuit.

             Table 8-24 Specify/cancel the maximum number of SVCs allowed to associate with the
             same address map

                              Operation                                  Command
               Specify the maximum number of SVCs
               associated with all address mappings on    x25 vc-per-map count
               an X.25 interface

                                                          x25 map protocol protocol-address
               Specify the maximum number of SVCs
               associated with an address mapping         x121-address x.121-address
                                                          vc-per-map count
               Cancel the maximum number of SVCs
               associated with all address maps on an     undo x25 vc-per-map
               X.25 interface



             By default, only one SVC is allowed to associate with an address map.

           III. Configuring packet pre-acknowledgement

             According to X.25 protocol, only after the input-window becomes full (i.e. the number of
             received packets is equal to the value of window-size input-window-size) will the
             receiving end send an acknowledgement. However, in some X.25 networks, the delays
             may be long, resulting in low efficiency of sending and receiving. On H3C Series
             Routers, X.25 allows you to specify a input-window size. Each time the number of



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             received packets reach the value, the router will send an acknowledgment to the peer,
             thus to improve the receiving and sending efficiency. The value is called
             “receive-threshold”, which ranges from 0 to window-size input-window-size. If it is set
             to 1, every packet will be acknowledged. If it is set to window-size input-window-size,
             the acknowledgment will be sent only after the receiving window is full. In applications
             requiring a high response speed, this function is especially important.

             Table 8-25 Set packet pre-acknowledgement

                               Operation                                    Command
               Set packet acknowledgment value                x25 receive-threshold count
               Cancel packet acknowledgment value             undo x25 receive-threshold



             By default, the number of packet pre-acknowledgement is 0.

           IV. Configuring X.25 user facility

             X.25 stipulates various user facilities, you can select and configure them. These
             configurations can be modified in two ways:
             X.25-based configuration (by using the x25 call-facility ...... command) and
             address-map-based configuration (by using the x25 map ...... command).
             The configuration based on X.25 interface will be effective in every call originated from
             this X.25 interface, while the configuration based on address mapping will be effective
             only in the calls originated from this address mapping.

             Table 8-26 Configure X.25 user facility

                           Operation                                     Command
                                                       x25 call-facility closed-user-group number
                                                       or
               Specify CUG (closed user group)         x25 map protocol protocol-address
                                                       x121-address x.121-address
                                                       closed-user-group number
               Cancel CUG number                       undo x25 call-facility closed-user-group

                                                       x25 call-facility packet-size input-packet
                                                       output-packet
                                                       or
                                                       x25 map protocol protocol-address
                                                       x121-address x.121-address packet-size
               Perform flow control parameter
                                                       input-packet output-packet
               negotiation while initiating a call
                                                       x25 call-facility window-size
                                                       input-window-size output-window-size or
                                                       x25 map protocol protocol-address
                                                       x121-address x.121-address window-size
                                                       input-window-size output-window-size


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                           Operation                                     Command
                                                       undo x25 call-facility packet-size
               Disable flow control parameter
                                                       or
               negotiation when initiating a call
                                                       undo x25 call-facility window-size
                                                       x25 call-facility reverse-charge-request
               Request reverse charging when           x25 map protocol protocol-address
               initiating a call                       x121-address x.121-address
                                                       reverse-charge-request
               Disable requesting reverse              undo x25 call-facility
               charging when initiating a call         reverse-charge-request
                                                       x25 reverse-charge-accept
                                                       or
               Receive calls with reverse
               charging requests                       x25 map protocol protocol-address
                                                       x121-address x.121-address
                                                       reverse-charge-accept
                                                       x25 call-facility threshold in out
               Request throughput-level                or
               negotiation while initiating a call     x25 map protocol protocol-address
                                                       x121-address x.121-address threshold in out
               Disable requesting
               throughput-level negotiation            undo x25 call-facility threshold
               when initiating a call

                                                       x25 call-facility send-delay milliseconds
                                                       or
               Carry transmission delay request
               while initiating a call                 x25 map protocol protocol-address
                                                       x121-address x.121-address send-delay
                                                       milliseconds
               Disable sending transmission
               delay request when initiating a         undo x25 call-facility send-delay
               call

                                                       x25 call-facility roa-list name
               Specify ROA (recognized                 or
               operating agency)                       x25 map protocol protocol-address
                                                       x121-address x.121-address roa-list name
               Cancel ROA                              undo x25 call-facility roa-list
               Specify to carry the calling
               address extension field in the          x25 call-facility calling-address-ext
               calls originated from the current       address-extension-string
               X.25 interface
               Cancel the above configuration          undo x25 call-facility calling-address-ext




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                           Operation                                   Command
               Specify to carry the called
               address extension field in the        x25 call-facility called-address-ext
               calls originated from the current     address-extension-string
               X.25 interface
               Cancel the above configuration        undo x25 call-facility called-address-ext



             In the above table,
             window-size and packet-size options are also supported in the x25 pvc command.
             However, in the x25 pvc command, these two options specify the window size and
             maximum packet length of the PVC to be specified. If these two options are not
             included in the x25 pvc command, the specified PVC will choose the default values of
             X.25 interface.
             threshold in out specifies the throughput-level negotiation threshold when a call is
             initiated from the X.25 interface, where in/out can only be set to 75, 150, 300, 600, 1200,
             2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, or 48000.
             name: Name of ROA ID list configured via the x25 roa-list command in system view, for
             example:
             [H3C] x25 roa-list list1 12 34 567

             You can reference list1 in serial interface view.
             [H3C-Serial/0/0] x25 call-facility roa-list list1

           V. Configuring the send-queue length of VC

             On an H3C Series Router, you can specify the sending and receiving queue lengths of
             VC for X.25 to adapt to different network environments. The default queue length can
             contain 200 packets, but you can increase the number for the sake of preventing
             accidental packet loss in case of large traffic size or low X.25 network transmission
             rate.

             Table 8-27 Configure the sending queue length of VC

                               Operation                                   Command
               Set the queue length of X.25 VC              x25 queue-length queue-size
               Restore its default value                    undo x25 queue-length



           VI. Broadcasting via X.25

             Generally, internetworking protocols will need to send some broadcast datagrams for
             specific purposes. On the broadcasting physical networks (such as Ethernet), such




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             requirements are naturally supported. But for non-broadcasting networks like X.25,
             how to realize the broadcasting?
             If you are using H3C Series Routers, you can determine whether to copy and send a
             broadcasting datagram to a destination. This is very important. For instance, you must
             enable X.25 to send broadcast datagrams so that broadcast-based application layer
             routing protocols can interact route information on an X.25 network.
             You can enable a VC to send broadcasting datagrams, regardless whether it is an SVC
             or PVC.

             Table 8-28 Broadcast via X.25

                               Operation                                      Command
               Enable to send broadcasting data                 x25 map protocol protocol-address
               packets to the peer of the SVC                   x121-address x.121-address
               associated with this address mapping             broadcast
                                                                x25 pvc pvc-number protocol
               Enable to send broadcasting data
                                                                protocol-address x121-address
               packets to the peer of this PVC
                                                                x.121-address broadcast



           VII. Restricting the use of address mapping

             Before a destination is called, this destination must be found in the address mapping
             table. Before a call is received, the source of this call must also be found in the address
             mapping table. But in some cases, some address mappings are used for calling out
             only, while others are used for calling in only.

             Table 8-29 Restrict the use of address mapping

                             Operation                                       Command
               Disallow initiating calls using this          x25 map protocol protocol-address
               address map                                   x121-address X.121-address no-callout
               Disallow accepting calls using this           x25 map protocol protocol-address
               address map                                   x121-address X.121-address no-callin




8.3.5 Configuring X.25 Subinterface

             X.25 subinterface is a virtual interface that has its protocol address and VC. On a
             physical interface, you can create multiple subinterfaces, so as to implement the
             interconnections of multiple networks through a physical interface. All subinterfaces
             under master interface share an X.121 address with the master interface. X.25
             subinterfaces fit into point-to-point subinterfaces and point-to-multipoint subinterfaces.
             Point-point   subinterface is      used to        connect   a   single remote end,     while




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             point-to-multipoint subinterface is used to connect multiple ones which must be on the
             same network segment.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-30 Configure X.25 subinterface

                            Operation                                  Command
               Enter the main interface                interface serial number
               Configure X25 protocol                  link-protocol x25
                                                       interface serial
               Create an X.25 subinterface             number.subinterface-number [ multipoint |
                                                       point-to-point ]
                                                       x25 map protocol protocol-address
                                                       x121-address x.121-address [ option ] or
               Configure address mapping or PVC        x25 pvc pvc-number protocol
                                                       protocol-address x121-address
                                                       x.121-address [ option ]



                 Note:
             When the link layer protocols of the interface are LAPB, HDLC, SLIP or PPP, the
             subinterface cannot be created.




8.3.6 Configuring X.25 Switching

           I. X.25 switching function

             A packet network consists of many interconnecting nodes based on a specific topology.
             A packet is sent from source to destination via a large number of nodes, of which each
             node needs to have packet switching capability.
             Simply speaking, X.25 packet switching means that, after receiving a packet from an
             X.25 port, a switch will select a certain X.25 port to send the packet according to the
             relative destination information contained in the packet. Introducing X.25 switching into
             Comware enables Comware to implement packet switching function at packet layer. If
             you are using H3C series routers, you can use them as small-sized packet switches.
             X.25 switching functions provided by Comware include:
                  SVC switching function
                  Supporting window size and packet size negotiation function
                  PVC switching




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                        X.25 host                                          X.25 host


                   PC                                                 PC

             Figure 8-7 Network diagram for X.25 switching


           II. Enabling/disabling X.25 switching

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 8-31 Enable/disable X.25 switching

                                    Operation                                 Command
               Enable X.25 switching                        x25 switching
               Disable X.25 switching                       undo x25 switching



             Enabling/Disabling X.25 switching only affects call establishment, and not affects the
             established links.
             The switching routes can be configured after enabling x25 switching. If you disable the
             switching (using undo x25 switching command) after configuring some switching routes,
             all static SVC routes will display invisible, while PVC routes display visible. At this time,
             if you execute the save command and restart, all SVC routes will be lost, and PVC
             routes can not be restored (if you execute the x25 switching command again, PVC
             routes can still be restored, and it must be deleted manually).

           III. Adding/deleting a PVC

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-32 Add/delete a PVC route

                 Operation                                    Command
               Add a PVC             x25 switch pvc number interface serial port-number pvc number
               Delete a PVC          undo x25 switch pvc number



             The x25 switch pvc command must be configured on two X.25 interfaces for routing
             traffic received from one interface out of the other and vice versa. After configuration,
             using the display x25 switch-table pvc command, you can view the PVC table.
             Note that you cannot configure PVC routing on X.25 subinterfaces.


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           IV. Adding/deleting an SVC

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 8-33 Add/delete an SVC

                    Operation                                   Command
                                         x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Add an SVC                destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ]
                                         interface serial interface-number
                                         undo x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Delete a SVC              destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ]
                                         [ interface serial interface-number ]



             After configuration, using the display x25 switch-table svc command, you can view
             the SVC table.
             Note that you cannot configure SVC routing on X.25 subinterfaces.

8.3.7 Configuring X.25 Load Sharing

           I. Overview of X.25 load sharing

             Using the hunt group feature in X.25 protocol, network providers can provide the load
             sharing function on X.25 packet switching network. X.25 load sharing can implement
             the load sharing between different DTEs or between different links in the same DTE, so
             as to ensure that link overload will not occur when a large number of users access the
             same address.
             X.25 load sharing is provided by DCE. To implement load sharing on X.25 network, you
             need to configure a set of DTE/DCE interfaces (synchronous serial interface or XOT
             channel) as a hunt group on the remote DCE, and to assign an X.121 address to this
             hunt group. When accessing the DTE in hunt group, other devices in the network need
             to call the hunt group address. After receiving call request packet, the remote DCE will
             select a line from hunt group and send incoming call packet based on different channel
             selection policies (round-robin or vc-number). Different calls will be distributed on
             various lines in hunt group, so as to implement load sharing.
             Note that X.25 hunt group selects different transmission lines only during VC call
             establishment. Once the whole VC completes the establishment and enters data
             transfer phase, X.25 hunt group will not function any longer and data transfer will be
             processed based on the normal VC. Since PVC is in data transfer phase after
             establishment and has not experienced call establishment and call clearing processes,
             X.25 load sharing can function only on SVC, and not on PVC.
             In an X.25 hunt group, the position of all DTEs is identical, and they have the same
             X.121 address. DTEs inside hunt group can call other DTEs outside hunt group
             according to the normal mode. When accessing hunt group, the devices outside hunt


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             group can not know which device they are accessing, and the line selection is
             controlled by the DCE configured with hunt group.
             The DTE address in hunt group can either be the same as the hunt group address, or
             different from that. X.25 hunt group supports the substitution between the source
             address and the destination address. You can use the destination address substitution
             function to hide the DTE address inside hunt group, and the DTE outside hunt group
             only knows the hunt group address, so as to strengthen the network security inside
             hunt group. You can use the source address substitution function to hide the DTE
             address outside hunt group. Since the DTE inside hunt group can not know the source
             address of call connection besides that after substitution, so as to protect users’
             privacy.

                                                          Hunting group HG1
                                                               888
                                                                8

                User
              terminal                      Remote DCE
                                                              Server A
                                  X.25                                9999
                User
              terminal
                                               Router A
                                 Packet
                                switching                    Server B 9999
                User             network
              terminal


             Figure 8-8 X.25 network load sharing


             As shown in the above figure, server A and server B, which be configured with a hunt
             group hg1, provide users with the same service. Server A and server B addresses are
             9999, and the hunt group address is 8888. Enable the destination address substitution
             function on RouterA router means that the address 8888 is replaced by the address
             9999. When a user transacts a service, the user terminal will send a call to the
             destination address 8888. Such calls from any terminal are directed towards the
             address 9999, which is transmitted to server A or server B, on RouterA router. So the
             load sharing between server A and server B is implemented to lower the pressure on a
             single server.
             X.25 hunt group supports two call channel selection policies: round-robin mode and
             vc-number mode. However, a hunt group only uses one policy.
                  The round-robin mode uses a cyclic selection method to select next interface or
                  XOT channel inside hunt group for each call. For example, in the above figure, if
                  the hunt group hg1 uses the round-robin mode, the call will be sent in turn to
                  server A or server B.




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                  The vc-number mode selects the interface with the maximum idle logic channels
                  inside hunt group for each call. For example, in the above figure, if the hunt group
                  hg1 uses the vc-number mode, the remaining logic channels of the lines between
                  server A and DCE are 500, while those of the lines between server B and DCE are
                  300. Thus the first 200 calls will be sent to server A, and the subsequent calls will
                  be sent in turn to server A or server B.
             X.25 hunt group supports synchronous serial interface and XOT channel, and can
             select the available lines between them indistinctively. However, since XOT channel
             can not calculate the number of logic channels, it will not be added to the hunt group
             that uses the vc-number selection policy.
             X.25 network load sharing is configured on DCE device. In most cases, H3C router is
             used as DTE device in X.25 network. The network providers provide the load sharing
             function on packet switch. In this way, no special configuration is required on the router.
             For the specific configuration procedure, refer to the previous chapters. When it is used
             as X.25 switch, H3C router, as DCE device in X.25 network, provides load sharing
             function for DTE device. At this time, X.25 load sharing needs to be configured on the
             router.
             X.25 load sharing configurations include:
                  Enable X.25 switching
                  Create X.25 hunt group
                  Add interface and XOT channel to hunt group
                  Configure an X.25 switching route destined to a hunt group
                  Configure other X.25 switching routes



                 Note:
             You need not configure the hunt group address by yourself, and only need to set the
             destination address as the hunt group address on the source DTE.




           II. Enabling X.25 switching

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 8-34 Enable/disable X.25 switching function

                              Operation                                    Command
               Enable X.25 switching                         x25 switching
               Disable X.25 switching                        undo x25 switching




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           III. Creating X.25 hunt group

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 8-35 Create/delete X.25 hunt group

                                 Operation                              Command
                                                          x25 hunt-group hunt-group-name
               Create X.25 hunt group
                                                          { round-robin | vc-number }
               Delete X.25 hunt group                     undo x25 hunt-group hunt-group-name



           IV. Adding interface and XOT channel to hunt group

             Perform the following configuration in X.25 hunt group view.

             Table 8-36 Add/delete interface and XOT channel in hunt group

                                 Operation                              Command
                                                          channel interface interface-type
               Add interface to hunt group
                                                          interface-number
               Delete the specified interface from hunt   undo channel interface interface-type
               group                                      interface-number
               Add XOT channel to hunt group              channel xot ip-address
               Delete the specified XOT channel from
                                                          undo channel xot ip-address
               hunt group



             Note that a hunt group can have 10 synchronous serial interfaces or XOT channels at
             most. XOT channel can not be added to the hunt group that uses vc-number channel
             selection policy.

           V. Configuring the X.25 switching route destined to hunt group

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 8-37 Add/delete the X.25 switching route forwarded towards hunt group

                           Operation                                 Command
                                                    x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Add. an X.25 switching route         destination-address ] [ sub-source
               forwarded towards hunt group         source-address ] hunt-group
                                                    hunt-group-name
                                                    undo x25 switch svc x.121-address
               Delete an X.25 switching route       [ sub-dest destination-address ] [ sub-source
               forwarded towards hunt group         source-address ] [ hunt-group
                                                    hunt-group-name ]




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           VI. Configuring other X.25 switching routes

             Table 8-38 Add/delete other X.25 switching routes

                               Operation                                          Command
               Add an X.25 switching                          x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               route destined to the                          destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ]
               interface                                      interface serial interface-number
               Delete an X.25 switching                       undo x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               route destined to the                          destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ]
               interface                                      [ interface serial interface-number ]
                                                              x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Add an X.25 switching
                                                              destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ]
               route destined to the XOT
                                                              xot [ dns ] [ ip-address1 [ ip-address2 ] …
               channel
                                                              [ ip-address6 ] ] [ xot-option ]
                                                              undo x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Delete an X.25 switching
                                                              destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ]
               route destined to the XOT
                                                              [ xot [ dns ] [ ip-address1 [ ip-address2 ] …
               channel
                                                              [ ip-address6 ] ] ]




8.3.8 Configuring X.25 Closed User Group

             Closed user group (CUG) is a call restriction service provided by X.25 among all its
             optional services. It governs call receiving and initiating capabilities of users (DTEs),
             allowing users in the same CUG to call each other while forbidding users in different
             CUGs to do so. This allows a private data communication subnet to form over public
             X.25 data communications networks for an organization.
             One user may belong to multiple CUGs. When the user calls another user in a CUG, the
             CUG number is included in its capability negotiation message. The user may also be
             set not to belong to any CUG, in which case the capability message does not carry CUG
             information.
             When used as data communication equipment (DCE), H3C routers provide CUG
             function. See the following figure.
                              Call 1
                                              Bar outgoing
                           Release call

               DTE
                     S D




                                                      X.25 Network


                                                         Call 2
                               Bar incoming
                                                      Release call


             Figure 8-9 CUG function implementation on H3C routers




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                  Note:
             Call 1: DTE originates a call, DCE receives the call. CUG function is enabled on DCE
             and the outgoing capability is barred, so the call is released by DCE.
             Call 2: DCE receives a call request and requests a connection with DTE. CUG function
             is enabled on DCE and the incoming capability is barred, so the call is released by
             DCE.



             CUG configuration includes:
                  Enabling CUG function and configuring suppression policy
                  Configuring CUG mapping and suppression rule

           I. Enable CUG function and configure suppression policy

             You must enable CUG function first before configuring it, which by default is not
             enabled.
             After CUG function is enabled, all calls, including those with or without CUG facilities
             are suppressed. You can also define some suppression policies for CUG to process
             calls in different ways.
             Two types of CUG suppression policies are available. One it to suppress all incoming
             calls, where the system removes the CUG facilities of all incoming calls with CUG
             facilities. The other is to suppress the incoming calls matching the mapping specified
             as preference rule, where the system removes the CUG facilities only of those
             incoming calls matching the mapping specified as preference rule, but lets other
             incoming calls with CUG facilities pass through. The details are:
             1)   Incoming suppression policy (X25 cug-service incoming-access), in which the
                  system lets the coming calls without CUG facilities pass through, but suppresses
                  the incoming calls with CUG facilities but without access configuration configured
                  by the CUG mapping rule.
             2)   Outgoing suppression policy (X25 cug-service outgoing-access), in which the
                  system lets the outgoing calls without CUG facilities pass through, but suppresses
                  the outgoing calls with CUG facilities but without access configuration configured
                  by the CUG mapping rule.
             3)   All suppression policy (X25 cug-service suppress all), in which the systems
                  removes CUG facilities and make call processing for all incoming calls. This policy
                  is ineffective to outgoing calls.
             4)   Preference     mapping     suppressing   policy   (X25   cug-service    suppress
                  preferential), in which the system removes CUG facilities and make call
                  processing for the incoming calls with CUG facilities and with preference mapping
                  rule, but lets the incoming calls without preference mapping rule pass through.
             Perform the following configuration in X.25 interface view.



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             Table 8-39 Enable CUG function and configure suppression policy

                              Operation                                       Command
                                                             x25 cug-service [ incoming-access ]
               Enable CUG function and configure
                                                             [ outgoing-access ] [ suppress { all |
               suppression policy
                                                             preferential } ]
               Disable CUG function                          undo x25 cug-service



                 Note:
             You must configure CUG function on X.25 DCE interface, that is, you must specify it as
             DCE end in encapsulating X.25 protocol on serial interface.




           II. Configure CUG mapping and suppression rule

             CUG mapping refers to CUG number conversation from local end (DTE) to network
             end (X.25) during CUG call processing. For example, when processing the call from the
             DTE with CUG 10 to DTE with CUG 20, the system first searches the mapping table for
             this mapping entry: if the table has this entry, it forwards the packets, if not, it denies the
             forwarding.
             You can define suppression rules in configuring CUG mapping, including three types:
             Outgoing call restriction
             Incoming call restriction
             Specifying as preference rule
             Specifying as preference rule depends on CUG suppression policy. That is, if the
             suppression policy is configured as only suppressing the CUG of preference mapping,
             then the system removes the CUG facilities in the incoming call packet of this mapping
             and makes call processing.
             Perform the following configuration in X.25 interface view.

             Table 8-40 Configure CUG mapping and suppression rule

                           Operation                                      Command
                                                     x25 local-cug cug-number network-cug
               Configure CUG mapping and
                                                     cug-number [ no-incoming ] [ no-outgoing ]
               suppression rule
                                                     [ preferential ]
               Delete CUG mapping                    undo x25 local-cug cug-number




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                 Note:
             You must configure CUG function on X.25 DCE interface, that is, you must specify it as
             DCE end in encapsulating X.25 protocol on serial interface.




           III. Display CUG configuration

             You can view the CUG configuration on each interface.
             Perform the following configuration in X.25 interface view.

             Table 8-41 Display CUG configuration

                              Operation                                    Command
               Display CUG configuration                   display x25 cug




8.3.9 Enabling/Disabling X.25 Flow Control Parameter Negotiation

           I. Introduction to X.25 flow control parameter negotiation




             Figure 8-10 Network diagram for X.25 switching


             As shown in the above figure, Router A and Router C communicate with each other
             through Router B. You can choose whether to perform flow control parameter
             negotiation at both sides through configuration.
                  Performing flow control parameter negotiation at both sides
             By default, if the flow control parameters at the links of the two ends of Router B are
             inconsistent, the smaller parameter will be adopted by both Router A and Router C after
             negotiation. In this case, when receiving the packets with M bit being 1 (indicating there
             are subsequent fragmented packets), Router B forwards the packets directly.
                  Not performing flow control parameter negotiation at both sides
             You can configure Router A and Router C not to perform flow control parameter
             negotiation. In this case, the flow control parameters at the links of both sides of Router
             B can be different. On receiving packets with the M bit being 1, Router B forwards the
             fragmented packets after reassembling these fragments. Note that when Router B
             forwards packets to Router C, it may refragment the packets, depending on the flow
             control parameters on the link between Router B and Router C.

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           II. Enabling/Disabling X.25 flow control parameter negotiation

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 8-42 Enable/Disable X.25 flow control parameter negotiation

                                    Operation                                     Command
               Enable X.25 flow control parameter negotiation           x25 flowcontrol
               Disable X.25 flow control parameter negotiation          undo x25 flowcontrol



             By default, X.25 flow control parameter negotiation is enabled.


8.4 Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
8.4.1 Introduction to XOT Protocol

             X.25 over TCP (XOT) carries X.25 packets over TCP to interconnect two X.25 networks
             across an IP network. The following figure presents an XOT application environment.


                           X.25                    IP                      X.25

               Router A              Router B                Router C               Router D


             Figure 8-11 Typical XOT application


             At present, since IP network is used widely, it is necessary, in practice, to carry X.25
             data and implement the interconnection between X.25 networks via IP network. The
             traditional X.25 protocol belongs to layer 3 (network layer) of OSI 7-layer model, and it
             can obtain the reliable data transmission link via LAPB protocol. Since TCP has such
             mechanisms as error retransmission and window flow control to ensure the reliability of
             the link, it can be used by X.25 protocol. XOT establishes a TCP tunnel connection
             between X.25 networks at both ends, and X.25 packet, as the data of application layer,
             is carried over TCP, i.e. TCP serves as “link layer" of X25. RouterB, RouterC and IP
             network in the middle can be looked upon as a big “X.25 switch”, and the data sent by
             RouterA is directly switched to RouterD via this “switch”.
             XOT in Comware conforms to the RFC 1613 standard, which features as follows:
                  Supporting SVC application. The routers at both ends can dynamically establish
                  an SVC by sending call packet, and this SVC will be automatically cleared when
                  no data is transmitted.
                  Supporting PVC application. After being configured with a PVC, the routers at both
                  ends need not to establish call and directly enter data transmission status.
                  Moreover, this PVC will not be dynamically deleted when no data is transmitted.




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                  Supporting Keepalive attribute of TCP. If Keepalive is not configured, TCP
                  connection will still not be cleared or cleared after a long time even if the
                  connection is interrupted. However, after Keepalive is configured, TCP will timely
                  detect the availability of the link. If TCP does not receive the response from the
                  peer for many times, it will initiatively clear its connection.
             XOT implementation principle (taking SVC as an example):
             As shown in the above figure, when transmitting data, RouterA first sends a call request
             packet to establish VC. After receiving this call packet and judging it as XOT application,
             RouterB will establish a TCP connection with RouterC, then add XOT header to X.25
             call packet and encapsulate it into TCP, finally transmit it to RouterC. After deleting TCP
             and XOT header, RouterC transfers the call request packet to RouterD via X.25 local
             switching. After receiving it, RouterD will give out call acknowledgement till the link is
             completely established and enters the data transmission status. The whole process for
             establishment and application of TCP connection is transparent for RouterA and
             RouterD that do not care whether data is forwarded via IP network or X.25 network.
             Comware also implements DNS-based X.25 switching to support XOT of SVC
             applications. Like DNS implementations, Comware maintains the X.121-to-IP address
             mappings of the entire network on a DNS server to manage them in a centralized way.
             When packets are transmitted over XOT, the routers send address resolution requests
             to the DNS server based on the current X.25 routing configuration. Upon receiving the
             requests, the DNS server returns address resolution results to the routers. Thus, the
             routers obtain the destination addresses of the X.25 packets to be forwarded.
             Managing the X.121-to-IP address mappings in a centralized way reduces the
             maintenance complexity, improves maintenance efficiency, and makes XOT switching
             configuration easier.

8.4.2 XOT Configuration

             XOT configuration includes:
                  Enabling X.25 switch
                  Configuring IP interface
                  Configuring local switching (SVC)
                  Configuring XOT route
                  Configuring Keepalive and xot-source attributes (optional)
             1)   Enable X.25 switching
             Since XOT application is a extension of X.25 switching, X.25 switching must be
             enabled first.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.




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             Table 8-43 Enable X.25 switching

                              Operation                                 Command
               Enable X.25 switching                      x25 switching



             By default, X.25 switching is disabled.
             2)   Configure IP interface
             To enable XOT application to implement the interconnection between X.25 networks at
             both ends via IP network, IP network must operate well.
             For the specific configuration, refer to Network Protocol module in Comware V3
             Operation Manual
             3)   Configure local switching (SVC)
             After receiving the peer packet, SVC must send it via the local switching interface.
             Therefore, the local switching must be configured.
             The following commands determine which switching interface will be selected by the
             SVC to send the packets reaching the local router.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 8-44 Configure local switching

                      Operation                                    Command
                                           x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Configure X.25 local
                                           destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ]
               switching
                                           interface serial interface-number
                                           undo x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Delete X.25 local
                                           destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ]
               switching
                                           [ interface serial interface-number ]



             4)   Configure XOT route
             The following configuration determines how the received X.25 packet is forwarded via
             IP work. SVC and PVC have different configuration modes.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.




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             Table 8-45 Configure SVC XOT switching

                      Operation                                   Command
                                          x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Configure SVC XOT
                                          destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ] xot
               route
                                          ip-address1 [ ip-address2 ] … [ ip-address6 ] [ xot-option ]
                                          undo x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Delete SVC XOT route       destination-address ] [ sub-source source-address ]
                                          [ xot ip-address1 [ ip-address2 ] … [ ip-address6 ] ]



                  Note:
             In SVC mode, local X.25 route must be configured.



             Perform the following configuration in interface view for PVC.

             Table 8-46 Configure PVC XOT switching

                          Operation                                  Command
                                               x25 xot pvc pvc-number1 ip-address interface type
               Configure PVC XOT route
                                               number pvc pvc-number2
               Delete PVC XOT route            undo x25 pvc pvc-number



             5)   Configure optional attributes of XOT (optional)
             After TCP link is established, TCP will also not be cleared easily even if the link is
             interrupted. However, after the Keepalive attribute is configured, the router will
             periodically send the detection packet to check the availability of the link. If it has not
             received the acknowledgement after sending packets for many times, the router will
             deem the link fault and will initiatively clear TCP connection.

             Table 8-47 Configure the Keepalive and source attributes

                            Operation                                   Command
                                                     x25 switch svc x.121-address [ sub-dest
               Configure the SVC Keepalive and       destination-address ] [ sub-source
               source attributes.                    source-address ] xot ip-address1
                                                     [ ip-address2 ] … [ ip-address6 ] [ xot-option ]

                                                     x25 xot pvc pvc-number1 ip-address
               Configure the PVC Keepalive and
                                                     interface type number pvc pvc-number2
               source attributes
                                                     [ xot-option ]




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             Table 8-48 Options for the xot-option field

                          Option                                                 Indicates
                                               Keepalive timer for the XOT connection, in the range 1 to
               timer seconds                   3600 seconds. Upon its timeout the router begins to send
                                               keepalive packets to test availability of the connection.
                                               The maximum number of Keepalive packet sending
                                               attempts in the range 3 to 3600. When the number of
               retry times
                                               keepalive packet sending attempts exceeds the limit, the
                                               XOT connection is disconnected.
               source interface-type
                                               Interface where the XOT connection is initiated.
               interface-num




8.5 X2T Configuration
8.5.1 Introduction

             X.25 to TCP (X2T) connects X.25 and IP networks, allowing the access between X.25
             and IP hosts.

                                   X.25
                                                                        TCP/IP Network
                                  Network

              X.25 Terminal                           Router                                        IP Host



                                                               TCP
                                                                                                  TCP
                                                               X2T
                   X.25                        X.25             IP                                 IP
                   LAPB                        LAPB       Data Link Layer                    Data Link Layer
                              Physical Layer                                Physical Layer



             Figure 8-12 Network diagram for X2T


             IP host has an X.121 address to correspond to X.25 terminal. Whenever the router
             receives an X.25 call request packet, it checks the destination address of X.121 in the
             packet and looks up in the X2T routing table for a match. If there is a matching route,
             the router will set up a TCP connection with the host at the destination IP address of the
             X2T route. After that, the router will extract the pure data from the X.25 packet and send
             them to the IP host through the TCP connection.
             An IP host can go through the IP address on the interface of the IP network to access
             the X.25 host. Whenever the router receives a TCP connection request, it checks the
             destination IP address and TCP port number of the TCP connection and looks up in the
             X2T routing table for a match. If there is a match, the router will set up an X.25 VC
             destined to the host at the associated destination X.121 address of the X2T route. After


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             that, the router will extract the pure data from the TCP packet and send them to the
             X.25 host through the X.25 VC. If the router sets up a PVC connection with X.25 host, it
             transmits the data directly to X.25 host through X.25 PVC.

8.5.2 X2T Configuration

             Configuring X2T includes :
                  Enabling X.25 switching
                  Configuring interface in X.25 network
                  Configuring interface in IP network
                  Configuring X.25 route
                  Adding X2TCA header to packets
                  Configuring X2T route

           I. Enabling X.25 switching

             You need to enable X.25 switching before configuring X2T.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 8-49 Configure X.25 switching

                              Operation                                   Command
               Enable X.25 switching                        x25 switching
               Disable X.25 switching                       undo x25 switching



           II. Configuring interface in X.25 network

             For details about the configuration of the interface in X.25 network, refer to the section
             “Configuring X.25 interface” in this manual.
             You need not to configure an X.121 address when configuring interface in the X.25
             network.

           III. Configuring interface in IP network

             For the information about the interface configuration in the IP network, refer to the
             section “configuring IP address” of the Chapter “Network Protocol” in Comware V3
             Operation Manual.

           IV. Configuring X.25 route

             Perform the following configuration in system view.




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             Table 8-50 Configure X.25 route

                      Operation                                    Command
               Configure X.25 route        x25 switch svc x.121-address interface serial number
                                           undo x25 switch svc x.121-address [ interface serial
               Delete X.25 route
                                           number ]



           V. Adding X2TCA header to packets

             In a normal X2T transmission, packets can only be forwarded once because the
             information (such as X.121 address) carried in a packet is dropped before the packet is
             forwarded by a router. With this function enabled, an X2TCA header is added to a
             packet before the packet is transmitted, and the routers receiving the packet forward
             the packet according to the X2TCA header. In this case, the packet can be forwarded
             for multiple times.

             Table 8-51 Add X2TCA header to packets

                                   Operation                               Command
               Specify to add X2TCA header to packets          x2t carry-x121-address
               Specify not to add X2TCA header to packets      undo x2t carry-x121-address



             By default, X2TCA headers are not added to packets.




                    Caution:

             Currently, this function is only available in networks with specific communication
             platform software and X.25 terminals.




           VI. Configuring X2T route

             There are two types of X2T forwarding routes, one from X.25 network to IP network and
             the other from IP network to X.25 network.
             1)   Configuring an X.25-to-IP X2T forwarding route
             Perform the following configuration in system view.




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             Table 8-52 Configure an X.25-to-IP X2T forwarding route

                                 Operation                                  Command
               Configure an X.25-to-IP X2T forwarding          translate x25 x.121-address ip
               route                                           ip-address port port-number
               Delete an X.25-to-IP X2T forwarding route       undo translate x25 x.121-address



             2)   Configuring an IP-to-X.25 X2T forwarding route
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 8-53 Configure an IP-to-X.25 X2T forwarding route

                            Operation                                   Command
                                                        translate ip ip-address port port-number
               Configure an IP-to-X.25 X2T              { pvc interface-type interface-number
               forwarding route                         pvc-number | x25 x.121-address | x2tca
                                                        interface-type interface-number }
               Delete an IP-to-X.25 X2T forwarding      undo translate ip ip-address port
               route                                    port-number




                    Caution:

             Before executing the translate ip command with the x2tca keyword specified, make
             sure the x2t carry-x121-address command is executed. The destination address
             carried in a packet can be resolved and the system can thus call the X.25 terminal only
             when the packet carries the X.121 address of the callee.




8.6 Displaying and Debugging LAPB and X.25
             After finishing the above configurations, execute the display commands in any view to
             display the running states of the LAPB and X.25 configurations for verifying the effect of
             the configuration. Monitor the current status of LAPB and X.25 in real time, and
             effectively maintain them.
             Execute the debugging commands in user view to enable debugging or viewing the
             state parameters for the purpose of LAPB and X.25 monitoring and maintenance.
             Execute the reset commands except for reset lapb in user view




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             Table 8-54 Display and debug LAPB and X.25

                              Operation                               Command
               Show interface information               display interface [ type number ]
                                                        display x25 alias-policy [ interface
               Show X.25 alias table
                                                        interface-type slot-number ]
               Show X.25 address mapping table          display x25 map
               View X.25 PAD (Packet
               Assembler/Disassembler) connection       display x25 pad [ pad-id ]
               information
                                                        display x25 switch-table svc
               View X.25 switching routing table
                                                        { dynamic | static }
               View X.25 switching VC table             display x25 switch-table pvc
               Show X.25 virtual circuit                display x25 vc [ lci-number ]
               Show X.25 XOT VCs                        display x25 xot
               Display the dynamic switching routing
                                                        display x25 x2t switch-table
               table of X2T.
                                                        debugging lapb { all | error [ interface
                                                        type number ] | event [ interface type
               Enable LAPB debugging.
                                                        number ] | packet { i-frame | us-frame }
                                                        [ interface type number ] }
                                                        debugging pad { all | error | event |
               Enable PAD debug switch
                                                        packet }
                                                        debugging x25 all [ interface type
               Enable all X25 packet debug switches
                                                        number ]
                                                        debugging x25 event [ interface type
               Enable X25 debug switch
                                                        number ]
                                                        debugging x25 packet [ interface type
               Enable the debugging of X.25 packets
                                                        number ]
                                                        debugging x25 xot { all | packet |
               Enable XOT debug switch
                                                        event }
                                                        debugging x25 x2t { all | event |
               Enable the debugging for X2T
                                                        packet }
               Clear the statistics about LAPB on the
                                                        reset lapb statistics
               interface.

                                                        reset xot local local-ip-address
               For an SVC, clear an XOT link; for a
                                                        local-port remote remote-ip-address
               PVC, reset an XOT link.
                                                        remote-port




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8.7 X.25 PAD Remote Access Service
8.7.1 Introduction to X.25 PAD

             Packet assembly/disassembly facilities (PAD) are commonly found on X.25 networks.
             Traditionally, only X.25 terminals could connect to an X.25 network. These terminals
             must be packet terminals that support X.25 procedures in terms of hardware and
             software. However, many terminals in common use are non-X.25 terminals. They either
             have no intelligence available with packet terminals or have intelligence but do not
             support X.25 procedures. Examples of such terminals are keyboards, monitors, and
             printers. To allow these devices to communicate on X.25 networks, X.25 PAD was
             developed.
             X.25 PAD provides a mechanism to connect non-X.25 terminals to an X.25 network. As
             shown in Figure 8-13, a PAD facility is placed between non-X.25 terminals and an X.25
             network, allowing them to communicate with other terminals across the X.25 network.



                                                                                 Non-X.25 terminal
                                                             P
                      X.25 Network          X.25             A    Non-X.25
                                         Procedures               Procedures
                                                             D




             Figure 8-13 Interfacing function of PAD


             X.25 PAD functions to provide:
                  X.25 procedures support for connectivity and communication with X.25 networks
                  Non-X.25 procedures support for connectivity with non-X.25 terminals.
                  Capabilities allowing non-X.25 terminals to set up calls, transmit data, and clear
                  calls.
                  Capabilities allowing non-X.25 terminals to observe and modify interface
                  parameters to accommodate to different terminals.
             X.25 PAD facilities are thus regarded procedures translators or network servers,
             helping different terminals access X.25 networks.
             Comware implements X.29 and X.3 protocols in the X.25 PAD protocol suite. In
             addition, it implements X.29-based Telnet. This allows you to telnet to a remote router
             through X.25 PAD when IP-based Telnet is not preferred for security sake, as shown in
             Figure 8-14.




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                        Serial 0/0/0                  Serial 0/0/0

                                       X.25 network

                Router A                                             Router B

             Figure 8-14 Log onto a remote router through X.25 PAD


8.7.2 Configuring X.25 PAD

             X.25 PAD configuration tasks are described in the following sections:
                  Place the X.25 PAD call and access the remote terminal
                  Set the response time for the Invite Clear message (optional)

           I. Placing an X.25 PAD call to log onto a remote device

             If two routers on an X.25 network support X.25 PAD, you can place an X.25 PAD call on
             one router (the client) to log onto the other router (the server). If authentication is
             configured, the server will authenticate the client before allowing it to log in.
             Execute the following command in user view at client side.

             Table 8-55 Place an X.25 PAD call

                                          Operation                                         Command
               Place an X.25 PAD call to the specified X.121 address                 pad x.121-address
               Quit X.25 PAD login                                                   quit



             After logging onto the server, you can access the configuration interface on the server.
             You can nest a pad command within another pad command or a telnet command. By
             nesting commands, you can do the following on your router:
                  Place an X.25 PAD call to log onto another router; and from that router, place
                  another X.25 PAD call to log onto a third router, and so on.
                  Telnet to another router; and from that router, place an X.25 call to log onto a third
                  router, and so on.
                  Place an X.25 PAD call to log onto another router; and from that router, telnet to a
                  third router, and so on.
             To ensure transmission, limit nesting operations within three.
             If multiple X.25 links are present at the client end, you must enable X.25 switching with
             the x25 switching command and configure a route to the server with the x25 switch
             svc command.
             Logout operations are done in the reverse direction. You can execute the quit
             command multiple times to log out the currently logged-in router and all the in-between
             routers one by one.



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           II. Setting the delay waiting for the response to an Invite Clear message

             The server end of X.25 PAD may send an Invite Clear message to the client, for
             example, after receiving an exit request from client or in order to release the link. At the
             same time, a timer is started. If no response is received upon expiration of the timer, the
             server will clear the link.
             Perform the following configuration in system view at server side.

             Table 8-56 Set the delay waiting for the response to an Invite Clear message

                               Operation                                    Command
               Set the delay waiting for the response to
                                                             x29 timer inviteclear-time seconds
               an Invite Clear message
               Restore the default                           undo x29 timer inviteclear-time



             The default delay is 5 seconds.

8.7.3 Displaying and Debugging X.25 PAD

             Execute the following commands in any view.

             Table 8-57 Display and debug X.25 PAD

                               Operation                                    Command
               Display information about X.25 PAD            display x25 pad [ pad-id ]
                                                             debugging pad { event | packet | error
               Enable X.25 PAD debugging
                                                             | all }




8.7.4 Troubleshooting X.25 PAD

             Symptom: Failed to log onto a remote device after placing an X.25 PAD call to the
             remote device. The system prompted the destination address was unreachable.
             Solution:
             Check that:
                  The two ends of the X.25 PAD call are connected through an X.25 network and the
                  physical connection is normal. The serial interfaces used for connection are
                  encapsulated with X.25 and both of them support X.25 PAD.
                  The destination X.121 address is correct. It must be the one assigned to the
                  intended serial interface at server end.
                  Check that X.25 switching is disabled, or a route is available to the server end
                  when X.25 switching is enabled. In the former case, the default route is used to




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                    route the call. In the second case, at least one route must be configured for routing
                    the call.


8.8 LAPB Configuration Example
           I. Network requirements

             Two routers are directly connected back to back via serial interfaces encapsulated with
             LAPB that can transmit IP datagrams directly.

           II. Network diagram

                                        V.35 cable
                                Serial0/0/0    Serial1/0/0
                  RouterA                                    RouterB
             Figure 8-15 Direct connection of two routers via serial interfaces (LAPB)


           III. Configuration procedure

             As shown in the diagram above, perform the following configuration tasks to connect
             two routers via serial interfaces encapsulated with LAPB that can transmit IP
             datagrams directly:
             1)     Configure RouterA:
             # Select an interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0

             # Specify the IP address for this interface.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0

             # Configure the link layer protocol of the interface as LAPB, and specify it to work in
             DTE mode.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol lapb dte

             # Configure other LAPB parameters (If the link is sound enough and a higher rate is
             desired, you can increase the traffic control parameters modulo to 128, k to 127. But the
             connected parties must always keep the configured parameters in consistency.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] lapb module 128
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] lapb window-size 127
             2)     Configure RouterB:
             # Select interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0

             # Specify the IP address for this interface.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0




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             # Configure the link layer protocol of the interface as LAPB, and specify it to work in
             DCE mode.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol lapb dce

             # Configure other LAPB parameters (If the link is sound enough and a higher rate is
             desired, you can increase the traffic control parameters modulo to 128, k to 127. But the
             connected parties must always keep the configured parameters in consistency.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] lapb modulo 128
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] lapb window-size 127


8.9 X.25 Configuration Example
8.9.1 Direct Back-to-Back Connection of Two Routers via Serial Interfaces

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, two routers are connected directly, data can be
             transmitted between serial interfaces via X.25 link layer protocol with IP datagram.

           II. Network diagram


                                  V.24/V.35 Cable
                            Serial0/0/0     Serial1/0/0
                  RouterA                                    RouterB

             Figure 8-16 Direct connection of two routers via serial interfaces (X.25)


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure RouterA:
             # Select an interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0

             # Specify the IP address for this interface.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0

             # Configure the link layer protocol of the interface as X.25, and specify it to work in DTE
             mode.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte

             # Specify X.121 address of this interface.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 20112451

             # Specify address mapping to the peer.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 202.38.160.2 x121-address 20112452

             # As this is a direct connection, the traffic control parameters can be increased slightly.


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             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 packet-size 1024 1024
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 window-size 5 5
             2)   Configure RouterB:
             # Select interface.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0

             # Specify the IP address for this interface.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0

             # Configure the link layer protocol of the interface as X.25, and specify it to work in DCE
             mode.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce

             # Specify X.121 address of this interface.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 20112452

             # Specify address mapping to the peer.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 202.38.160.1 x121-address 20112451

             # As this is a direct connection, the traffic control parameters can be increased slightly.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 packet-size 1024 1024
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 window-size 5 5


8.9.2 Connecting the Router to X.25 Public Packet Network

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following diagram, Routers A, B, and C are connected to the same
             X.25 network for the purpose of communications. The requirements are:
                  IP addresses of the interfaces Serial0/0/0 of the three routers are 168.173.24.1,
                  168.173.24.2 and 168.173.24.3 respectively.
                  X.121 addresses assigned to the three routers by the network are 30561001,
                  30561002 and 30561003 respectively.
                  Standard window size supported by the packet network: both receiving window
                  and sending window are 5.
                  Standard maximum packet length: both maximum receiving packet length and
                  maximum sending packet length are 512.
                  Channel range: permanent virtual circuit section, incoming-only channel range
                  and outgoing-only channel range are disabled, and two-way channel range is [1,
                  32].




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           II. Network diagram


                                                                            Serial0/0/0

                                                                                           RouterB
                                                                                          IP: 168.173.24.2
                                                                                          X.121: 30561002
                                Serial0/0/0             X.25
                                                 windowsize: 5 5
                                              packetsiz e: 512 512
                  RouterA

                  IP: 168.173.24.1
                  X.121: 30561001
                                                                            Serial0/0/0
                                                                                          RouterC

             Figure 8-17 Connecting the router to X.25 public packet network


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)      Configure RouterA:
             # Configure interface IP address.
             [H3C] interface Serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 168.173.24.1 255.255.255.0

             # Access the public packet network, and enable the router as DTE side
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 30561001
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 window-size 5 5
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 packet-size 512 512
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range bi-channel 1 32
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 168.173.24.2 x121-address 30561002
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 168.173.24.3 x121-address 30561003
             2)      Configure RouterB:
             # Configure interface IP address.
             [H3C] interface Serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 168.173.24.2 255.255.255.0

             # Access public packet network, and enable the router as DTE side
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 30561002
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 window-size 5 5
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 packet-size 512 512
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range bi-channel 1 32
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 168.173.24.1 x121-address 30561001
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 168.173.24.3 x121-address 30561003




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             3)   Configure RouterC:
             # Configure interface IP address.
             [H3C] interface Serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 168.173.24.3 255.255.255.0

             # Access public packet network, and enable the router as DTE side
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 30561003
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 window-size 5 5
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 packet-size 512 512
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range bi-channel 1 32
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 168.173.24.1 x121-address 30561001
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 168.173.24.2 x121-address 30561002


8.9.3 Configuring VC Range

           I. Network requirements

             The link layer protocol of the router interface Serial0/0/0 is X.25, and VC ranges as
             follows: PVC range [1, 8], incoming-only channel range [9, 16], two-way channel range
             [17, 1024], and outgoing-only channel range is disabled.

           II. Configuration procedure

             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range in-channel 9 16 bi-channel 17 1024


8.9.4 Transmitting IP Datagrams via X.25 PVC

           I. Network requirements

             In the following diagram, the PVC range that the packet network allows is [1, 8]. The
             PVC numbers assigned to RouterA and RouterB are 3 and 4. The IP network
             addresses of Ethernets A and B are 202.38.165.0 and 196.25.231.0. It is required to
             exchange route information between Ethernets A and B with RIP routing protocol, so
             that PC A and PC B can exchange information without adding any static route.




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           II. Network diagram




                            PC A                                                                               PC B

                                                PVC 3                                   PVC 4
                                                                       X.25
                                                                windowsize: 5 5
                                                              packetsize: 512 512
                                              Serial 0/ 0/0
               EtherNet A          Rout erA                                         Serial 0/ 0/0                     EtherNet B
                                                                                                    Rout erB
                               IP: 192.14 9.13.1                                        IP: 192.149.1 3.2
                               X.121: 10 04358901                                       X.121: 10 043 58902


             Figure 8-18 Carry IP datagrams over X.25 PVC


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure RouterA:
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 202.38.165.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 192.149.13.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 1004358901
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range bi-channel 9 1024
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 pvc 3 ip 192.149.13.2 x121-address 1004358902 broadcast
             packet-size 512 512 window-size 5 5
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] quit
             [H3C] rip
             2)     Configure RouterB:
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 196.25.231.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 192.149.13.2 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 1004358902
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 vc-range bi-channel 8 1024
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 pvc 4 ip 192.149.13.1 x121-address 1004358901 broadcast
             packet-size 512 512 window-size 5 5
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] quit
             [H3C] rip

             As you go through the above configuration procedure, you can be probably puzzled by
             the undertaking of assigning different PVC numbers (that is, 3 and 4 in this scenario) on
             Router A and Router B. In order to understand the idea behind such undertaking, you
             must rigorously distinguish between “VC” and “logic-channel”. Virtual circuit refers to
             the end-to-end logic link between the calling DTE and the called DTE, while logic


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             channel refers to the logic link between two directly connected devices (either between
             DTE and DCE, or between the ports of two packet switching exchanges). A virtual
             circuit consists of several logic channels, and each logic channel has a separate
             number. Hence, a VC between Router A and Router B can be the one shown in the
             following figure (suppose this VC passes by four packet switches in the network).


                          LC 3


               RouterA                                            PBX
                                        PBX
                                                           LC 3                           LC 4
                           LC 243


                                                                       PBX                       RouterB
                                     PBX
                                                       LC 24




             Figure 8-19 One VC consisting of several logic-channels


             Therefore, the PVC 3 and PVC 4 mentioned in the example actually refer to the
             numbers of the logic-channels between the routers and the PBXs directly connected to
             it. The two sides of the PVC can identify the same PVC by using their logic-channel
             numbers, however, without the likelihood of causing any mistake. This is why no strict
             distinction is made between "virtual circuit" and "logic channel".

8.9.5 X.25 Subinterface Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             Configure multiple subinterfaces to connect with multiple peers on different network
             segments on a physical interface. In the following figure, RouterA is configured with two
             subinterfaces, which are connected with RouterB and RouterC.

           II. Network diagram


                                                                   S2/0/0
                                    S0/0/0
                                               S1/0/0 RouterD

                 S0/0/0
                                                                                  S0/0/0

                                             S0/0/0
                RouterA
                                                                                RouterC
                                                      RouterB


             Figure 8-20 X.25 subinterface configuration




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           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure RouterA:
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 100

             # Create subinterface serial 0/0/0.1.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0.1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0.1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.0.0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] x25 map ip 10.1.1.1 x121-address 200

             # Create subinterface serial 0/0/0.2
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] interface serial 0/0/0.2
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.2] ip address 20.1.1.2 255.255.0.0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.2] x25 map ip 20.1.1.1 x121-address 300
             2)   Configure RouterB:
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 200
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 10.1.1.2 x121-address 100
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
             3)   Configure RouterC:
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 300
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 map ip 20.1.1.2 x121-address 100
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] ip address 20.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
             4)   Configure RouterD:
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] quit
             [H3C] x25 switching
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 100 interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 200 interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 300 interface serial 2/0/0




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8.9.6 SVC Application of XOT

           I. Network requirements

             Router A and Router D are X.25 endpoints connected to X.25 switching devices, Router
             B and Router C, respectively.
             Router B and Router C are connected through Ethernet. Do the following on the two
             routers:
                   Set up a TCP connection between them.
                   Configure SVCs and XOT on them to allow X.25 packets to be sent over TCP
                   connection, enabling the two X.25 networks to communicate across an IP
                   network.

           II. Network diagram

                           E0/0/0:                     TCP connection               E0/0/0:
                         10.1.1.1                                                   10.1.1.2
                     Router B                                                               Router C
                            S1/0/0                                                 S1/0/0
                           X.25           S1/0/0:                                         X.25
                                         IP:1.1.1.1                                S1/0/0:
                                          x.121: 1                                 IP:1.1.1.2
                                                                                    x.121: 2
                     Router A
                                                                                           Router D
                                E0/0/0
                                                                          E0/0/0


                  PC 1
                                                                                                       PC 2


             Figure 8-21 Network diagram for XOT SVC


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router A
             # Configure basic X.25.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 1.1.1.2 x121-address 2
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             2)    Configure Router D
             # Configure basic X.25.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 2
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 1.1.1.1 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 1.1.1.2 255.0.0.0



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             3)   Configure Router B
             # Enable X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Configure local X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 1 interface serial 1/0/0

             # Configure XOT switching.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 2 xot 10.1.1.2

             # Configure Ethernet 0/0/0.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit

             # Configure Serial 1/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf
             4)   Configure Router C
             # Enable X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Configure local X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 2 interface serial 1/0/0

             # Configure XOT switching.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 1 xot 10.1.1.1

             # Configure Ethernet 0/0/0.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit

             # Configure Serial 1/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf


8.9.7 DNS-Based XOT

           I. Network requirements

             Router B is connected to Router C through Ethernet interfaces, and a TCP connection
             is established between the Router B and Router C. Router B, Router C, and the DNS
             server are connected to the switch through their Ethernet interfaces. X.25 packets
             between Serial 2/0/0 of Router A and Serial 2/0/0 of Router D are transmitted through
             the TCP connection, and DNS-based XOT is implemented.



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           II. Network diagram




                                             DNS
                                            Server




                    Ethernet 1/1/0                        Ethernet 1/1/0


                          Ethernet 1/0/0              Ethernet 1/0/0

                      Serial 2/0/0                           Serial 2/0/0




                      Serial 2/0/0                           Serial 2/0/0




             Figure 8-22 Network diagram for DNS-based XOT configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure the basic X.25 function.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] x25 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] x25 map ip 1.1.1.2 x121-address 2
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             2)   Configure Router D
             # Configure the basic X.25 function.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] x25 x121-address 2



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             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] x25 map ip 1.1.1.1 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ip address 1.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
             3)   Configure Router B
             # Enable X.25 switching.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Configure local X.25 switching to specify packets destined to X.121 address 1 to be
             forwarded through Serial 2/0/0.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 1 interface serial 2/0/0

             # Configure DNS-based XOT switching and add a route with the forwarding address as
             a XOT channel.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc ^.* xot dns

             # Configure Serial 2/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] quit

             # Configure Ethernet 1/0/0.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0

             # Configure Ethernet 1/1/0.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/1/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/1] ip address 20.1.1.1 255.0.0.0

             # Configure the DNS client.
             [H3C] dns resolve
             [H3C] dns server 20.1.1.2
             4)   Configure Router C
             # Enable X.25 switching.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Configure local X.25 switching to specify packets destined to X.121 address 2 to be
             forwarded through Serial 2/0/0.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 2 interface serial 2/0/0

             # Configure DNS-based XOT switching and add a route with the forwarding address as
             a XOT channel.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc ^.* xot dns

             # Configure Serial 2/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 2/0/0



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             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] quit

             # Configure Ethernet 1/0/0.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.2 255.0.0.0

             # Configure Ethernet 1/1/0.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/1/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/1/0] ip address 20.1.1.3 255.0.0.0

             # Configure the DNS client.
             [H3C] dns resolve
             [H3C] dns server 20.1.1.2
             5)   Configure the DNS server
             Configure the X.121-to-IP address mapping relationship on the DNS server. The IP
             address of the Ethernet interface connected to the switch is 20.1.1.2/8.

8.9.8 PVC Application of XOT

           I. Network requirements

             Router A and Router D are X.25 endpoints connected to X.25 switching devices, Router
             B and Router C, respectively.
             Router B and Router C are connected through Ethernet. Do the following on the two
             routers:
                  Set up a TCP connection between them.
                  Configure PVCs and XOT on them to allow X.25 packets to be sent over TCP
                  connection, enabling the two X.25 networks to communicate across an IP
                  network.

           II. Network diagram

                           E0/0/0:                      TCP connection               E0/0/0:
                         10.1.1.1                                                    10.1.1.2
                     Router B                                                                Router C
                            S1/0/0                                                  S1/0/0

                           X.25           S1/0/0:                                          X.25
                                         IP:1.1.1.1                                 S1/0/0:
                                          x.121: 1                                  IP:1.1.1.2
                                                                                     x.121: 2
                     Router A
                                                                                            Router D
                                E0/0/0
                                                                           E0/0/0


                  PC 1
                                                                                                        PC 2

             Figure 8-23 Network diagram for XOT PVC application



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           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             # Configure basic X.25.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 vc-range in-channel 10 20 bi-channel 30 1024
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 pvc 1 ip 1.1.1.2 x121-address 2
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             2)   Configure Router D
             # Configure basic X.25.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 2
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 vc-range in-channel 10 20 bi-channel 30 1024
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 pvc 1 ip 1.1.1.1 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 1.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
             3)   Configure Router B
             # Enable x25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Configure Ethernet 0/0/0.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit

             # Configure Serial 1/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-if-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf
             [H3C-if-Serial1/0/0] x25 vc-range in-channel 10 20 bi-channel 30 1024
             [H3C-if-Serial1/0/0] x25 xot pvc 1 10.1.1.2 interface serial 1/0/0 pvc 1
             4)   Configure Router C
             # Enable x25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Configure Ethernet 0/0/0.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit

             # Configure Serial 1/0/0.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0



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             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 DCE IETF
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 vc-range in-channel 10 20 bi-channel 30 1024
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 xot pvc 1 10.1.1.1 interface serial 1/0/0 pvc 1


8.9.9 X.25 Load Sharing Application

           I. Network requirements

             You need to configure hunt group on RouterA router used as X.25 switch, and enable
             destination address and source address substitution function, so that the calls from
             X.25 terminal can be sent to RouterB, RouterC and RouterE via the load sharing
             function to implement the load sharing for the routers on X.25 network. As X.25 switch,
             RouterD that connects with routers RouterA and RouterE is used to implement XOT
             function. As DTEs in hunt group, routers RouterB, RouterC and RouterE provide the
             same service for X.25 terminal.

           II. Network diagram

                                                                        huntgroup
                    1111
                                                                           2222

                                                    S0/0/0               8888
              X.25 Terminal
                                                             Router B
                  1112             S3/0/0
                                                S1/0/0
                                                   S2/0/0              8888
                             S4/0/0
                  X.25 Terminal        Router A       S0/0/0 Router C
                                  S11/0/0        E0/0/0                          8888
                    1119                         10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2
                                                                      S0/0/0
                                                      E0/0/0
                                                                         S0/0/0
                                                            Router D            Router E
                  X.25 Terminal


             Figure 8-24 Network diagram for typical X.25 hunt group configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure RouterA
             # Set the link layer protocol of the interface Serial1/0/0 as X.25, and specify it to work in
             DCE mode.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit

             # Set the link layer protocols of other interfaces (S3/0/0 through S11/0/0) as X.25, and
             specify them to work in DCE mode. Their configuration modes are the same as that of
             the interface Serial 1/0/0.
             # Configure IP address on the interface Ethernet 0/0/0



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             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit

             # Enable X.25 switching in system view
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Create X.25 hunt group hg1 in system view
             [H3C] x25 hunt-group hg1 round-robin

             # Add the interfaces Serial 1/0/0, Serial 2/0/0 and XOT channel to hunt group
             [H3C-hg-hg1] channel interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-hg-hg1] channel interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-hg-hg1] channel xot 10.1.1.2
             [H3C-hg-hg1] quit

             # Configure X.25 switching route forwarded towards the hunt group hg1, and enable
             destination address and source address substitution.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 2222 sub-dest 8888 sub-source 3333 hunt-group hg1

             # Configure X.25 switching route forwarded towards X.25 terminal.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 1111 interface serial 3/0/0
             ……
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 1119 interface serial 11/0/0
             2)   Configure RouterB
             # Set the link layer protocol of the interface Serial1/0/0 as X.25, and specify it to work in
             DTE mode.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 8888
             3)   For routers RouterC and RouterE configuration methods, see RouterB
             4)   Configure RouterD
             # Set the link layer protocol of the interface Serial0/0/0 as X.25, and specify it to work in
             DCE mode.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] quit

             # Configure IP address on the interface Ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit

             # Enable X.25 switching in system view
             [H3C] x25 switching



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             # Configure X.25 switching route forwarded towards XOT channel
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 1111 xot 10.1.1.1

             # Configure X.25 switching route destined to RouterE
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 8888 interface serial 0/0/0


8.9.10 Implementing X.25 Load Sharing Function for IP Datagram
Transmission

           I. Network requirements

             IP networks in different regions are connected via X.25 packet switching network to
             carry data over X.25 network. Meanwhile, the network providers provide X.25 network
             load sharing function, and a user can perform the relative settings in conjunction with it
             on local terminal to implement the line load sharing when different clients access the
             server.

           II. Network diagram

                           E0/0/0
                          10.1.1.1              S1/0/0
                                                1.1.1.1
                                                                       S1/0/0    3333
                                     Router A                X.25      1.1.1.3                  Serv er A
                PC A                 1111                   packet                              10.3.1.2
               10.1.1.2                                   sw itching
                                     2222
                                                           netw ork    S1/0/1 RouterC E0/0/0
                                                S1/0/0                 2.1.1.3       10.3.1.1
                                               1.1.1.2
                           E0/0/0
                 PC B                  Router B                                                  Serv er B
                          10.2.1.1                                                               10.3.1.3
               10.2.1.2

             Figure 8-25 Transmit IP data over X.25 hunt group


           III. Configuration procedure

             In this example, since the network providers have configured load sharing on the
             packet switch, you only need to configure x.25 switching.
             Note that there have been two lines connected to the same peer on RouterC router, so
             you must configure a virtual IP address and two static routes on the interface Serial
             1/0/0 to “cheat” the router. In this way, RouterC router will deem that there are two
             routes towards the network segment 10.1.1.0, so as to implement the load sharing.
             1)    Configure RouterA
             # Configure the interface Ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit

             # Configure the interface Serial 1/0/0



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             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 1111
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 1.1.1.3 x121-address 3333
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 vc-per-map 2
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit

             # Configure a static route to RouterC
             [H3C] ip route-static 10.3.1.0 24 1.1.1.3
             2)   Configure RouterB
             # Configure the interface Ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit

             # Configure the interface Serial 1/0/0
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 2222
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 1.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 1.1.1.3 x121-address 3333
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 vc-per-map 2
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit

             # Configure a static route to RouterC
             [H3C] ip route-static 10.3.1.0 24 1.1.1.3
             3)   Configure RouterC
             # Configure the interface Ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.3.1.1 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] quit

             # Configure the interface Serial 0/0/0
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 3333
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ip address 1.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 1.1.1.1 x121-address 1111
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 2.1.1.1 x121-address 1111
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 1.1.1.2 x121-address 2222
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 2.1.1.2 x121-address 2222
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit




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             # Configure the interface Serial 1/0/1
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/1] link-protocol x25 dte
             [H3C-Serial1/0/1] x25 x121-address 3333
             [H3C-Serial1/0/1] ip address 2.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/1] x25 map ip 1.1.1.1 x121-address 1111
             [H3C-Serial1/0/1] x25 map ip 2.1.1.1 x121-address 1111
             [H3C-Serial1/0/1] x25 map ip 1.1.1.2 x121-address 2222
             [H3C-Serial1/0/1] x25 map ip 2.1.1.2 x121-address 2222
             [H3C-Serial1/0/1] quit

             # Configure static routes to RouterA and RouterB
             [H3C] ip route-static 10.1.1.0 24 1.1.1.1
             [H3C] ip route-static 10.1.1.0 24 2.1.1.1
             [H3C] ip route-static 10.2.1.0 24 1.1.1.2
             [H3C] ip route-static 10.2.1.0 24 2.1.1.2


8.9.11 TCP/IP Header Compression Protocol Application

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, two routers are connected directly.

           II. Network diagram


                                   V.24/V.35 cable
                             Serial0/0/0    Serial1/0/0
                  RouterA                                    RouterB

             Figure 8-26 Direct connection of two routers via serial interfaces (X.25)


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure RouterA:
             # Enter the view of interface Serial 1/0/0.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0

             # Encapsulate as x25 dte.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] link x25 dte ietf

             # Specify x121 address.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] x25 x121 1001

             # Specify IP.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] ip address 16.16.16.1 255.255.0.0


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             # Configure map multi-protocol.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 16.16.16.2 compressedtcp 16.16.16.2 x121 1002
             2)    Configure RouterB:
             # Enter the serial interface Serial1/0/0 view.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0

             # Encapsulate as x25 dce.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf

             # Specify x121 address.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] x25 x121 1002

             # Specify IP.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] ip address 16.16.16.2 255.255.0.0

             # Configure map multi-protocol.
             [H3C-serial1/0/0] x25 map ip 16.16.16.1 compressedtcp 16.16.16.1 x121 1001


8.9.12 X.25 PAD Configuration Example I

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, Router A is connected to Router B through an X.25
             network. It is required that Router B could place X.25 PAD calls to log onto Router A
             and then configure Router A.

           II. Network diagram

                            Serial 1/0/0              Serial 1/0/0

                                           X.25 Net

                  RouterA                                            RouterB

             Figure 8-27 Network diagram for X.25 PAD configuration example


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router A
             # Add a PAD user account.
             [H3C] local-user pad1
             [H3C-luser-pad1] password simple pad1
             [H3C-luser-pad1] service-type pad
             [H3C-luser-pad1] quit

             # Access a user-interface, and on it configure authentication mode and protocol type.
             [H3C] user-interface vty 0 4


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             [H3C-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
             [H3C-ui-vty0-4] protocol inbound pad
             [H3C-ui-vty0-4] quit

             # Configure domain user X.25 to use the local authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain x25
             [H3C-isp-x25] scheme local
             [H3C-isp-x25] quit

             # Set the link layer protocol of the interface to X.25. Specify the interface to operate as
             DTE.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte

             # Assign an X.121 address to the interface.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 1
             2)   Configure Router B
             # Set the link layer protocol of the interface to X.25. Specify the interface to operate as
             DTE.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte

             # Assign an X.121 address to the interface.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 2
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] quit

             # Place an X.25 PAD call to Router A.
             [H3C] pad 1
              Trying 1...Open
              Username:
              Password:


8.9.13 X.25 PAD Configuration Example II

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in the following figure, Routers A, B, and C are connected through an X.25
             network. It is required that Router A could place calls from interface Serial 0/0/0 to log
             onto and configure Router B and place calls from interface Serial 1/0/0 to log onto and
             configure Router C.




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           II. Network diagram


                          Serial 0/0/0                  Serial 0/0/0

                                     X.25 network
                          Serial1/0/0
                  Router A                                       Router B

                                              Serial 0/0/0




                                         Router C


             Figure 8-28 Network diagram for X.25 PAD configuration


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)     Configure Router B
             # Add a PAD user account.
             [H3C] local-user pad1
             [H3C-luser-pad1] password simple pad1
             [H3C-luser-pad1] service-type pad
             [H3C-luser-pad1] quit

             # Access a user-interface, and on it configure authentication mode and protocol type.
             [H3C] user-interface vty 0 4
             [H3C-ui-vty0-4] authentication-mode scheme
             [H3C-ui-vty0-4] protocol inbound pad
             [H3C-ui-vty0-4] quit

             # Configure domain user X.25 to use the local authentication scheme.
             [H3C] domain x25
             [H3C-isp-x25] scheme local
             [H3C-isp-x25] quit

             # Set the link layer protocol of the interface to X.25. Specify the interface to operate as
             DTE.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dte

             # Assign an X.121 address to the interface.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 3
             2)     Configure Router A
             # Set the link layer protocol of interface Serial 0/0/0 to X.25. Specify the interface to
             operate as DCE.
             [H3C] interface serial 0/0/0



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             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce

             # Assign an X.121 address to the interface.
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] x25 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] quit

             # Set the link layer protocol of interface Serial 1/0/0 to X.25. Specify the interface to
             operate as DCE.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce

             # Assign an X.121 address to the interface.
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] quit

             # Enable X.25 switching and configure X.25 routing. (Assume that the X.121 address of
             interface Serial 0/0/0 be 4.)
             [H3C] x25 switching
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 3 interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 4 interface serial 1/0/0

             # Place an X.25 PAD call to Router A.
             [H3C] pad 3
              Trying 1...Open
              Username:
              Password:


8.10 X2T Configuration Example
8.10.1 X2T SVC Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             The router connects X.25 and IP networks together. In this connection, the X.25
             terminal communicates with the router through SVC and the X2T technology applied on
             the router enables the communication between X.25 terminal and IP host.

           II. Network diagram

               X.121 address      X.121 address              IP address            IP address
                   2222               1111                     10.1.1.1             10. 1.1.2
                                         S1/0/0               E0/0/0

                           X.25 Network                          IP Network

               X.25 Terminal                      Router                           IP Host

             Figure 8-29 Network diagram for X2T SVC



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           III. Configuration procedure

             # Enable X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Configure the interface in X.25 network.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 1111

             # Configure the interface in IP network.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0

             # Configure an X.25 route.
             [H3C] x25 switch svc 2222 interface serial 1/0/0

             # Configure an X2T route.
             [H3C] translate ip 10.1.1.1 port 102 x25 2222
             [H3C] translate x25 1111 ip 10.1.1.2 port 102


8.10.2 X2T PVC Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             The router connects X.25 and IP networks together. In this connection, the X.25
             terminal communicates with the router through PVC and the X2T technology applied on
             the router enables the communication between IP host and X.25 terminal.

           II. Network diagram

                                                           IP address          IP address
                                                             10.1.1.1           10. 1.1.2
                                         S1/0/0            E0/0/0
                                   pvc 1
                          X.25 Network                         IP Network

               X.25 Terminal                      Router                       IP Host

             Figure 8-30 Network diagram for X2T PVC


           III. Configuration procedure

             # Enable X.25 switching.
             [H3C] x25 switching

             # Configure the interface in X.25 network.
             [H3C] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 vc-range in-channel 10 20 bi-channel 30 1024



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             # Configure the interface in IP network.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0

             # Configure an X2T route.
             [H3C] translate ip 10.1.1.1 port 102 pvc serial1/0/0 1


8.11 LAPB Troubleshooting
             Symptom 1: the link layer protocol of two connected sides is LAPB (or X.25), which is
             always disconnected.
             Solution: Perform the following procedure to remove the fault.
                  Enable the debug switch and discover one end sending SABM frame, while the
                  other sending FRMR frame cyclically.
                  The symptom indicates that two sides are working in the same mode (DTE or
                  DCE). Change the working mode of one side to solve it.
             Symptom 2: the link layer protocol of two connected sides is X.25, which has been in
             UP status, but unable to ping through.
             Solution: Perform the following procedure remove the fault.
                  Enable the debug switch and discover that one end discards the received frame
                  and does not transmit it to the packet layer.
             The maximum frame bit number of this end may be too small. Change the
             configuration.


8.12 X.25 Troubleshooting
             This section describes some common faults and their solutions. Though the cases here
             cannot cover all faults, they are helpful in the troubleshooting of common faults.
             Assume that the layer 2 connection (LAPB) of X.25 is completely correct.
             Symptom 1: LAPB is already in "Connect" status, but the X.25 protocol can not enter
             "UP" status.
             Solution: Perform the following procedure remove the fault.
                  It is possible that the local operating mode is not correctly configured, for example,
                  both sides of a connection are DTE or DCE. Retry after changing the working
                  mode of the interface.
             Symptom 2: X.25 protocol is "UP", but virtual circuit can not be established, i.e., unable
             to ping through.
             This may be caused by one of the following:
                  Local X.121 address not configured.
                  Address mapping to the peer not configured.


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                  Opposite X.121 address not configured.
                  Address mapping from peer to local not configured.
                  Channel range not correct.
                  Inhibitive facility options carried.
             Solution: Perform the following procedure remove the fault.
                  If the addresses are configured improperly, modify them to the correct
                  configurations.
                  For the two last causes, consult the network administration.
             Symptom 3: The virtual circuit can be set up, but is frequently reset or cleared during
             data transmission.
             Solution: Perform the following procedure to remove the fault.
                  The symptom may be caused by erroneous flow control parameter setting.
                  If the two sides are connected directly, check whether output window and input
                  window of the local match with those of the remote.
                  If both sides are connected to the public packet network, consult the network
                  administration for the correct flow control parameter.
             Symptom 4: The request to set permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) is rejected.
             Solution: perform the following procedure to remove the fault.
                  If the assigned PVC number is in the disabled PVC channel range, X.25 of the
                  H3C Series Router will surely reject the PVC setup request. In this case, simply
                  enable the permanent virtual circuit channel range.
             Symptom 5: After configuring SVC application of XOT, unable to ping through.
             Solution: Perform the following procedure to remove the fault.
                  First check whether the physical connection status and protocol status of the
                  interface are UP.
                  If the interface status is DOWN, check whether the physical connections and lower
                  layer configurations are correct.
                  If the interface configuration is correct, check whether SVC is configured properly.
                  If the SVC configuration is also correct, check whether XOT is configured properly.
                  If DNS-based XOT switching is configured, check whether DNS-based XOT
                  switching route and DNS client are configured properly, whether the DNS server is
                  reachable, and whether the X.121-to-IP address mapping on the DNS server is
                  correct.
             Symptom 6: after configuring PVC application of XOT, unable to ping through.
                  First check whether the physical connection status and protocol status of the
                  interface are UP.
                  If the interface status is DOWN, check whether the physical connections and lower
                  layer configurations are correct.
                  If the interface configuration is correct, check whether PVC is configured properly.


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                  If the PVC configuration is also correct, check whether XOT is configured properly.
             Symptom 7: After the operation of shutdown/undo shutdown on X.25 primary interface,
             unable to ping through on the subinterface.
                  If the interface and the subinterface are mapped to the same X.121 address, the
                  said fault occurs because fully occupied virtual circuits; and you need to use the
                  x25 pvc-per-map command to add the number of virtual circuits.




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                   Chapter 9 Bridge Configuration

9.1 Introduction to Bridge
             Bridge is a type of network device on the data link layer, which interconnects Local Area
             Networks (LANs) and transfers data between them. In some small-sized networks,
             especially those widely dispersed networks, the employment of bridges can reduce the
             network maintenance cost, and the network terminal users do not need to make special
             settings for the devices, since the bridges interconnect networks just like hubs.
             In practice, there are four types of bridging:
                  Transparent Bridging: Such bridging is used to interconnect LANs of the same
                  medium. It is mainly applied in the Ethernet environment. Usually, transparent
                  bridging keeps a bridging table that records the correlation between destination
                  MAC addresses and interfaces.
                  Source-route Bridging: Such bridging forwards frames based on the routing
                  indicators contained in the frames. The table of correlation between destination
                  MAC addresses and routing indicators will be determined and maintained by the
                  end stations (the starting and the ending point). This bridging is found primarily in
                  the Token Ring environments.
                  Translational Bridging: Such bridging is used to interconnect LANs of different
                  physical media. It is typically applied to interconnect different types of networks,
                  such as Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Token Ring.
                  Source-route Translational Bridging: As the name implies, such bridging is the
                  hybrid of “Source-route Bridging” and “Translational Bridging”. They allow of the
                  communication between devices in mixed Toke Ring and Ethernet environments.
             The router supports transparent bridging function, supporting:
                  Bridging on PPP and HDLC links
                  Bridging on X.25 links
                  Bridging on ATM
                  Bridging on VLAN sub-interfaces
                  Bridging on dial interface
                  Both routing and bridging
                  Command configuration and management
                  Logging, trapping and debugging

9.1.1 Main Functions of Bridging

             The following covers the overall functions of bridging.




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           I. Obtaining address table

             A bridge makes forwarding decision based on the bridging table, which consists of MAC
             addresses and interfaces. It should obtain the associations between MAC addresses
             and interfaces. When the bridge connects with a physical network segment, it will
             detect all the Ethernet frames on this segment. Once the Ethernet frame sent from a
             node on an interface is detected, the source MAC address of this frame will be picked
             up and the correlation between this MAC address and the interface receiving this frame
             will be added to the bridging address table.
             As shown in the following figure, four workstations A, B, C and D are distributed in two
             LANs: Ethernet segment 1 connected with Bridge port 1 and Ethernet segment 2
             connected with Bridge port 2. At a certain moment, when Workstation A transmits an
             Ethernet frame to Workstation B, both the bridge and Workstation B will receive this
             frame.

                  00e0.fcaa.aaaa                                                         00e0.fcbb.bbbb


                                  Workstation A                                                       Workstation B



                                  Source address Destination address
                                  00e0.fcaa.aaaa00e0.fcbb.bbbb

                                                                                                 Ethernet segment 1
                                                                         Bridge port 1


                 00e0.fccc.cccc
                                                                                         00e0.fcdd.dddd

                                                       Bridge
                                   Workstation C                                                      Workstation D
                                                                       Bridge port 2



                                                                                                 Ethernet segment 2

             Figure 9-1 Workstation A transmits information to workstation B on the Ethernet
             segment 1


             Upon receiving the Ethernet frame, the bridge learns that Workstation A is connected
             with Bridge port 1 since the frame is received from Port 1. As a result, the correlation
             between the MAC address of Workstation A and Bridge port 1 will be added to the
             bridging table, as shown in the following figure:




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                00e0.fcaa.aaaa                                                                 00e0.fcbb.bbbb

                                                                                                                Workstation B
                               Workstation A


                                  Source addressDestination address
                                  00e0.fcaa.aaaa00e0.fcbb.bbbb


                                                                                     Bridge port 1        Ethernet segment 1
                                        Bridging table
                                   MAC address Port
                                  00e0.fcaa.aaaa 1
              00e0.fccc.cccc
                                                                                                 00e0.fcdd.dddd

                                                             Bridge

                                 Workstation C                                                                     Workstation D
                                                                                 Bridge port 2


                                                                                                          Ethernet segment 2


             Figure 9-2 Bridge learns that Workstation A is connected with Port 1


             Once Workstation B responds to Workstation A, the bridge can detect the responding
             Ethernet frame from Workstation B and learn that Workstation B is also connected to
             Bridge port 1 because the frame is detected on port 1 too. As a result, the correlation
             between the MAC address of Workstation B and Bridge port 1 is added to the bridging
             table too, as shown in the following figure:

                 00e0.fcaa.aaaa                                                                  00e0.fcbb.bbbb


                               Workstation A                                                                      Workstation B


                                                                Source address Destination address
                                                                00e0.fcbb.bbbb00e0.fcaa.aaaa


                                                                                                          Ethernet segment 1
                                       Bridging table                             Bridge port 1
                                   MAC address Port
                                  00e0.fcaa.aaaa 1
              00e0.fccc.cccc
                                  00e0.fcbb.bbbb 1                                               00e0.fcdd.dddd

                                                             Bridge
                                                                                                                  Workstation D
                               Workstation C                                   Bridge port 2



                                                                                                          Ethernet segment 2


             Figure 9-3 Bridge learns that Workstation B is connected with the port 1 too


             At last, given that all the workstations are in use, the bridge will obtain all correlation
             between the MAC addresses and the bridge ports as shown in the following figure:




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              00e0.fcaa.aaaa                                                                    00e0.fcbb.bbbb


                               Workstation A                                                                        Workstation B




                                                                                         Bridge port 1     Ethernet segment 1
                                       Bridging table
                                  MAC address Port
                                 00e0.fcaa.aaaa 1
              00e0.fccc.cccc     00e0.fcbb.bbbb 1                                                  00e0.fcdd.dddd
                                 00e0.fccc.cccc      2
                                 00e0.fcdd.dddd 2
                                                                Bridge

                                Workstation C                                      Bridge port 2                     Workstation D


                                                                                                           Ethernet segment 2


             Figure 9-4 Final bridging address table


           II. Forward and Filter

             The bridge will make the decision to forward frames or not (that is, to filter frames)
             depending on the following three conditions:
                    If Workstation A sends an Ethernet frame whose destination is Workstation C, the
                    bridge will detect this frame and learn that Workstation C corresponds to Bridge
                    port 2 by looking up its bridging table. So, it will forward the frame to Bridge port 2,
                    as shown in the following figure.

                00e0.fcaa.aaaa                                                           00e0.fcbb.bbbb


                                  Workstation A                                                           Workstation B


                                     Source address Destination address
                                      00e0.fcaa.aaaa 00e0.fccc.cccc


                                                                                                           Ethernet segment 1
                                           Bridging table                             Bridge port 1
                                     MAC address         Port
                                     00e0.fcaa.aaaa       1
              00e0.fccc.cccc                                                                   00e0.fcdd.dddd
                                     00e0.fcbb.bbbb       1                     Bridge
                                     00e0.fccc.cccc       2
                                     00e0.fcdd.dddd       2
                                                                  Forwarding                                     Workstation D
                                                                               Bridge port 2
                                    Workstation C


                                    Destination address Source address                                    Ethernet segment 2
                                      00e0.fccc.cccc 00e0.fcaa.aaaa


             Figure 9-5 Forward




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             Please be aware that the bridge will forward the broadcast or multicast frames received
             on one port to the other ports.
                  Given that Workstation A sends an Ethernet frame to Workstation B, the bridge will
                  filter this frame rather than forwarding it, for Workstation B and Workstation A are
                  located on the same physical network segment.
                00e0.fcaa.aaaa                                                                00e0.fcbb.bbbb


                            Workstation A                                                                      Workstation B


                             Source address Destination address
                             00e0.fcaa.aaaa 00e0.fcbb.bbbb

                                                                                                       Ethernet segment 1
                                       Bridging table                         Bridge port 1
                                   MAC address Port
                                 00e0.fcaa.aaaa      1
                                 00e0.fcbb. bbbb 1                                             00e0.fcdd.dddd
                                                                         Bridge
                                 00e0.fccc . cccc    2
                                 00e0.fcdd.dddd      2
                                                         No forwarding

                             Workstation C                                 Bridge port 2                         Workstation D



                                                                                                       Ethernet segment 2


             Figure 9-6 Filter(not forward)


                  Suppose that Workstation A sends an Ethernet frame to Workstation C, and the
                  bridge does not find the correlation between the MAC address of Workstation C
                  and the port in the bridging address table, what will the bridge do? The bridge will
                  forward this frame destined to an unknown MAC address to all ports except the
                  one on which it is received. In this case, the bridge actually plays the role of a hub
                  to make sure the continuous information transmission, as shown in the following
                  figure:




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                00e0.fcaa.aaaa                                                                   00e0.fcbb.bbbb




                                   Source address Destination address
                                    00e0.fcaa.aaaa 00e0.fccc.cccc

                                                                                                                Ethernet segment 1
                                           Bridging table                            Bridge port 1
                                      MAC address Port
               00e0.fccc.cccc        00e0.fcaa.aaaa 1                                                00e0.fcdd.dddd
                                     00e0.fcbb.bbbb      1
                                                                            Bridge


                                                                                 Bridge port 2



                                                                                                                Ethernet segment 2


             Figure 9-7 No matched MAC address is found in the bridging table


           III. Eliminating loop

             As shown in the following figure, both bridge X and bridge Y are connected with
             Ethernet segment 1. Once detecting a broadcasting frame, both bridges will send it to
             all ports except the source port on which the frame is detected. That is, both bridge X
             and bridge Y will forward this broadcast frame.




                                Broadcast address
                                                                 Bridge Y
                                FFFFFFFFFFFF

              Ethernet segment 1
                                                                                                        Ethernet segment 2




                                             Bridge X                                                Bridge Z


                                                                                                        Ethernet segment 3


             Figure 9-8 Preliminary examination state of bridging loops


             As shown in the following figure, the broadcast frame is forwarded over Ethernet
             segment 2 and Ethernet segment 3 that are connected with Bridge Z. Upon detecting
             two copies of this frame on two different ports, Bridge Z forwards them to Ethernet
             segment 3 and Ethernet segment 2 again. Thus, Ethernet segment 2 and Ethernet
             segment 3 receive a copy of this frame for the second time. In this way, the frame is
             repeatedly forwarded over the network, which is called bridging loop. See the figure
             below.


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                                                                  Forwarding broadcast frame
                                                                      FFFFFFFFFFFF

                            Broadcast frame
                                                                        FFFFFFFFFFFF
                             FFFFFFFFFFFF           Bridge Y     Forwarding broadcast frame again

              Ethernet segment 1
                                                                                               Ethernet segment 2


                                                                                                 Bridge Z
                       Bridge X
                                                Forwarding broadcast frame
                                                  FFFFFFFFFFFF

                                                                                           Ethernet segment 3
                                                  FFFFFFFFFFFF

                                                Forwarding broadcast frame again


             Figure 9-9 Bridging loop


             In practice, if there are hundreds of physical segments, bridging loops will cause a
             sharp decline to the network performance. After the location where loops occur is
             detected, the only solution is to cut off all connections. It is obvious that eliminating
             loops is an essential requirement for ensuring the bridge working normally. Therefore,
             the third function of bridge is to locate loops and block redundant ports.

9.1.2 Spanning Tree Protocol

             Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is used to prevent redundant paths through certain
             algorithms. A loop network is thus pruned to be a loop-free tree network so as to avoid
             the infinite cycling of data frames in the loop network. Currently, the bridge module does
             not support STP, so the following text will only simply introduces some aspects about
             STP.
             STP transmits a kind of special data frame called Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU)
             between bridges. The overall network will compute a minimum spanning tree
             describing the distribution of bridges in the network. This minimum spanning tree will
             also specify which bridge to be the “root bridge” and which bridges to be the “leaf
             nodes”.
             A BPDU contains the following information:
                    Root Identifier: Consists of the Root Bridge Priority and the MAC address of the
                    root bridge.
                    Root Path Cost: Path cost from the individual leaf nodes to the root bridge.
                    Bridge Identifier: Consists of the Bridge priority and the MAC address of the
                    current bridge.
                    Port Identifier: Consists of the Port Priority and the Port Number.
                    Message Age of BPDU.


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                  Max Age of BPDU.
                  Hello Time of BPDU.
                  Forward Delay of port state transition.

           I. Spanning tree protocol algorithm

             The spanning tree protocol algorithm contains enough information for a bridge to
             perform the following tasks:
             Specify the root bridge. The bridge with the smallest Bridge Identifier will be the root
             bridge of the local network.
             Specify the designated bridge. Designated bridge is the one directly connected with the
             current (subordinate) bridge and responsible for forwarding data to the current
             (subordinate) bridge. The path cost via a designated bridge is the lowest between the
             leaf nodes and root bridge.
             Specify the designated port. Designated ports are those on the designated bridge and
             responsible for forwarding data to the subordinate bridges. The path cost of BPDUs
             sent on a designated port will be the lowest.
             Specify the root port. Root port refers to the one on the current bridge and responsible
             for receiving the data forwarded by the designated bridge.
             Specify blocked ports. Except the designated ports and the root ports, all other ports will
             be blocked and are called blocked ports.
             Upon the computation of the minimum spanning tree, the newly generated root port and
             designated ports begin to forward packets after a period of forward delay. After all the
             bridges on the network accomplish the spanning tree computation, the network
             topology will be stabilized and will remain the same until the network takes changes.
             The following figure illustrates the topology of the minimum spanning tree on a network:




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                                                                                DP    Bridge 3
                                                                                                 DP
                                                                           RP

                                                                                                 DP
                                            Root Bridge/                        Designated
                                          Designed Bridge                        Bridge
                                     DP
                                                                                  Bridge 4
                                                          DP                                     DP
                                                                           RP
                                     DP
                                      Bridge 1    DP
                                                                                Designated       DP
                                                                                 Bridge
                                                 RP
                               DP
                                                       Designated                 Bridge 5
                                                        Bridge             RP                    DP
                              DP
                                   Bridge 2      DP
                                                                                                 DP
                                                                                Designated
                                                                                 Bridge
                       Hub                                     Hub



                                                                                                      RP = Root Port
                                                                                                      DP= Designated Port




             Figure 9-10 Spanning tree topology


           II. BPDU forwarding mechanism

             Upon the initiation of STP, all the bridges assume themselves as the root bridge. The
             designated interface of the bridge regularly sends its BPDU once each Hello Time. If it
             is the root port that receives the BPDU, it will increase the Message Age carried in the
             BPDU and enable the timer to time this BPDU. If a path fails, the root port on this path
             will not receive new BPDUs any more and old BPDUs will be discarded due to timeout,
             which will result in the spanning tree recompilation. A new path will thus be generated to
             replace the failed one.
             However, the recomputed new BPDU will not be propagated throughout the network
             right away, so the old root port and designated ports that have not detected the
             topology changes will still forward the data through the old path. If the newly elected
             root port and designated ports begin to forward data immediately, a temporary loop
             may be introduced. In STP, a transitional state mechanism is thus adopted. Specifically,
             the root port and the designated ports will undergo a transitional state for an interval of
             forwarding delay to enter the forwarding state to resume the data forwarding. Such a
             delay ensures that the new BPDU has already been propagated throughout the
             network before the data frames are forwarded according to the latest topology.




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9.1.3 Multi-Protocol Router

             Generally, a router is called multi-protocol router when it can implement the routed
             protocols like IP and IPX, as well as the bridging protocol. For a multi-protocol router,
             the bridging protocol can be either enabled or disabled. However, if both the routing
             protocols such as IP and IPX at network layer and the bridging protocols at MAC layer
             are enabled on a router, the router will be taken as a multi-protocol router. In this case,
             whether a packet should be routed through IP or IPX or forwarded via the bridge will
             depend on the protocol type of the packet. For example, bridging protocol and IP are
             concurrently enabled on a router. If the packet to be processed is an IP packet, it will be
             routed through IP. Certainly, if IP cannot find a route, it will discard the packet instead of
             forwarding it to the bridge for processing. If the packet uses a protocol other than IP (for
             example, if it is the packet from the network like AppleTalk or DecNet), it will be bridged.

9.1.4 VLAN ID Transparent Transmission

             VLAN ID transparent transmission means you can configure the outbound interface
             that joins a bridge set to support VLAN ID transparent transmission, thus making it
             directly forward a packet without processing VLAN ID in the packet.
             Through VLAN ID transparent transmission, the non-Ethernet outbound interface that
             joins a bridge set can forward a packet with VLAN ID without loosing this VLAN ID. And
             even in the case that there is VLAN ID on the outbound interface of the bridge set
             device, the original VLAN ID of a packet will not be changed, thus implementing
             isolation of different VLANs.


9.2 Configuring the Bridging Functions
             The bridge configuration tasks are described in the following sections:
             1)   Basic Bridge Configuration
                  Enabling/disabling bridging
                  Enabling/disabling a bridge-set
                  Adding interfaces to a bridge-set
             2)   Configuring Bridging over Link Layer Protocols
                  Configuring bridging on VLAN
                  Configuring bridging on PPP
                  Configuring bridging on MP
                  Configuring bridging on HDLC
                  Configuring bridging on X.25
                  Configuring bridging on frame relay
                  Configuring bridging on ATM
             3)   Configuring the Bridging Address Table
                  Configuring static address entries
                  Enabling/disabling forwarding by using dynamic address table


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                  Configuring the aging timer of the dynamic address table
             4)   Configuring the Bridge to Support STP
                  Enabling/disabling STP on ports
                  Specifying the STP version supported by a bridge-set
                  Assigning a priority to the bridge (optional)
                  Assigning a path cost to a bridge port (Optional)
                  Assigning a priority to a bridge port (optional)
                  Setting the Hello Time timer (optional)
                  Setting the Forward Delay timer (optional)
                  Setting the Max Age timer (optional)
             5)   Creating and Applying Bridging ACLs
                  Creating a bridging ACL
                  Applying the ACL on an interface
             6)   Configuring the Routing Function of the Bridge
                  Enabling the routing function of the bridge
                  Configuring a bridge-template interface
                  Configuring the MAC address of a bridge-template interface manually
                  Configuring a bridge-set to route or bridge for the network layer protocol
                  Enabling VLAN ID transparent transmission on an interface
             Note that if VRRP is enabled on the bridge-template corresponding to a bridge set,
             non-Ethernet interface is not allowed to join this bridge set.

9.2.1 Basic Bridge Configuration

           I. Enabling/disabling bridging

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-1 Enable/disable bridging

                              Operation                                       Command
               Enable bridging                              bridge enable
               Disable bridging                             undo bridge enable



             When an active bridge-set is defined, you cannot use the undo bridge enable
             command to disable bridging; and you need to use the undo bridge bridge-set enable
             command to remove the bridge-set first.
             By default, bridging is disabled.

           II. Enabling/disabling a bridge-set

             As bridge-sets are independent, packets cannot be transmitted between ports that
             belong to different bridge-sets. A packet that is received on a bridging port can only be



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             sent out another port in the same bridge-set. The interfaces on the router can join only
             one bridge-set.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-2 Enable/disable a bridge-set

                               Operation                                 Command
               Enable a specified bridge-set.             bridge bridge-set enable
               Disable a specified bridge-set.            undo bridge bridge-set enable



           III. Adding interfaces to a bridge-set

             In addition to Ethernet interfaces (including subinterfaces), PPP/MP, HDLC, X.25, FR,
             ATM, and dial (such as dialer and ISDN BRI/PRI) interfaces can be assigned to
             bridge-sets. Refer to the following section for more information.
             One interface on the router cannot be added to more than one bridge set.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 9-3 Add the port to a bridge-set

                               Operation                                 Command
               Add the port to a bridge-set               bridge-set bridge-set
               Remove the port from the bridge-set        undo bridge-set bridge-set



             By default, the port is not added to any bridge-set.

9.2.2 Configuring Bridging over Link Layer Protocols

           I. Configuring bridging on VLAN

             When setting up a bridge, you only need to add the bridging function to the
             subinterfaces after you configure a VLAN.
             Perform the following configuration in VLAN sub-interface view.

             Table 9-4 Configure bridging on VLAN

                                     Operation                                   Command
               Apply a bridge-set on the VLAN subinterface.             bridge-set bridge-set



           II. Configuring bridging on PPP

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.



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             Table 9-5 Configure bridging on PPP

                               Operation                                   Command
               Apply a bridge-set on the PPP interface.    bridge-set bridge-set



           III. Configuring bridging on MP

             Perform the following configuration in virtual template interface view or MP-group
             interface view.

             Table 9-6 Configure bridging on MP

                               Operation                                   Command
               Apply a bridge-set on MP                    bridge-set bridge-set



           IV. Configuring bridging on HDLC

             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 9-7 Configure bridging on HDLC

                                  Operation                                  Command
               Apply a bridge-set on the HDLC interface.          bridge-set bridge-set



           V. Configuring bridging on X.25

             In setting up a bridge, you need to map the bridge address to the X.121 address of
             X.25.
             Perform the following configuration in X.25 interface view.

             Table 9-8 Configure a bridge address to X.121 map entry

                               Operation                                   Command
               Apply a bridge-set on the X.25 interface.   bridge-set bridge-set
               Configure a bridge-set to X.25 map          x25 map bridge x121-address
               entry.                                      x.121-address broadcast
                                                           undo x25 map bridge x121-address
               Delete a map entry.
                                                           x.121-address



           VI. Configuring bridging on frame relay

             In setting up a bridge, you need to map the bridge address to DLCI.
             Perform the following configuration in frame relay interface view.


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             Table 9-9 Configure a bridge address to DLCI map entry

                                   Operation                                     Command
               Apply a bridge-set on the frame relay interface.     bridge-set bridge-set
               Configure a bridge-set to frame relay map entry.     fr map bridge dlci broadcast
               Delete a map entry.                                  undo fr map bridge dlci



             You can also configure bridging on a FR subinterface. This is implemented in two
             modes.
                  If the subinterface is a P2MP interface, the configuration is the same as on an FR
                  main interface: you just need to configure these three commands: fr dlci, fr map
                  bri broadcast and bridge-set.
                  If the subinterface is a P2P interface, you cannot configure the fr map command
                  on this interface. You need to configure the same fr dlci command on both the
                  DCE and DTE sides and add subinterface to a bridge set.

           VII. Configuring bridging on ATM

             Bridging on VLAN uses the same spanning tree algorithm adopted by bridging on other
             protocols. When setting up a bridge, you only need to add the bridging function to the
             ATM interface after you configure a PVC.

             Table 9-10 Configure bridging on ATM

                              Operation                                     Command
               Assign a bridge-set to an ATM interface
                                                           bridge-set bridge-set
               (in ATM interface view)
               Enable a PVC to transmit and receive
                                                           map bridge-group broadcast
               BPDUs (in PVC view)



           VIII. Configuring bridging on dial interface

             Bridging configuration on dial interface, such as dialer interface, ISDN BRI/PRI
             interface, is for connection with remote LAN through PSTN/ISDN line.
             When configuring bridging on dial interface, note that:
                  Configuring dial strings with the dialer route command is not allowed.
                  STP is not supported.
                  The dialer number command must be configured for incoming calls.
                  The link layer protocol must be set to PPP. MP is not allowed.
                  Any network parameter negotiation failure may result in dial link disconnection.
             Perform the following configuration in dial interface view.




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             Table 9-11 Configure bridging on dial interface

                                 Operation                                  Command
                  Assign a bridge-set to a dial interface     bridge-set bridge-set



             When configuring bridging on dial interface, configure the bridge-set command on the
             top layer dial interface. For example, when using a dialer interface for dial purpose, the
             top-layer dial interface is the dialer interface rather than its physical interface. You
             should therefore configure the bridge-set command on the dialer interface.

9.2.3 Configuring the Bridging Address Table

             The bridging address table records the association between destination MAC
             addresses and the ports for the bridge to make forwarding decision.

           I. Configuring static address entries

             Normally, a bridging table is dynamically generated according to the correlation
             between the MAC addresses and the ports obtained by the bridge. However, there are
             still some static entries in the bridging address table, which are manually configured
             and maintained by the administrators and will not age forever.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-12 Configure a static address entry

                             Operation                                  Command
                                                      bridge bridge-set mac-address mac-address
                  Configure a static address entry    { permit | deny } [ interface interface-type
                                                      interface-number | dlsw ]
                                                      undo bridge bridge-set mac-address
                  Delete a static address entry.      mac-address [ interface interface-type
                                                      interface-number ]



             By default, frames are forwarded according to the dynamic address table.



                    Note:
             If the deny argument is configured in the above configuration, the configuration of the
             arguments after the deny argument does not take effect.




           II. Enabling/disabling forwarding by using dynamic address table

                 Perform the following configuration in system view.


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             Table 9-13 Enable/disable forwarding by using dynamic address table

                              Operation                                   Command
               Enable forwarding using the dynamic
                                                          bridge bridge-set learning
               address table
               Disable forwarding using the dynamic
                                                          undo bridge bridge-set learning
               address table



             By default, the dynamic address table is used to forward frames.

           III. Configuring the aging timer of the dynamic address table

             The aging timer of the dynamic address table controls the time to live (TTL) of an entry
             before it is deleted from the table. The entry is deleted when the timer times out.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-14 Configure the aging timer of the dynamic address table

                              Operation                                   Command
               Configure the aging timer of the dynamic
                                                          bridge aging-time seconds
               address table.
               Restore the default aging timer value.     undo bridge aging-time



             The aging timer of the dynamic address table is in the range 10 to 1000000 seconds
             and defaults to 300 seconds.

9.2.4 Configuring the Bridge to Support STP

           I. Enabling/disabling STP on ports

             To have STP parameters take effect on a bridge port, you must enable STP on it.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 9-15 Disable/enable STP on the port

                              Operation                                   Command
               Enable STP on the port                     bridge-set bridge-set stp enable
               Disable STP on the port                    undo bridge-set bridge-set stp enable



             By default, STP is disabled on the port.

           II. Specifying the STP version supported by a bridge-set

             STP has multiple standards, which are not compatible. To prevent bridging loops, the
             communicating parties must use the same STP standard.


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             Currently, H3C Routers only support IEEE STP.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-16 Specify the STP version supported by a bridge-set

                              Operation                                    Command
               Specify the STP version supported by a
                                                             bridge bridge-set stp ieee
               bridge-set
               Disable a bridge-set to support STP           undo bridge bridge-set stp ieee



             By default, bridge-sets support IEEE STP.

           III. Assigning a priority to the bridge (optional)

             The ID of a bridge consists of two parts: bridge priority and bridge MAC address. During
             a spanning tree calculation in a network, the bridge with the lowest ID is elected as the
             root. The process is as follows:
                  Compare the priorities of the bridges in the network. The one with the lowest
                  bridge priority is elected as the root.
                  In case multiple bridges in the network have the same priority, compare their MAC
                  addresses and elect the bridge with the lowest MAC address as the root.
             When STP is enabled, changing the priority of a bridge may cause spanning tree
             recalculation.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-17 Assign a priority to the bridge

                              Operation                                    Command
               Assign a priority to the bridge               bridge stp priority value
               Restore the default priority of the bridge    undo bridge stp priority



             The default priority of the bridge is 32,768.

           IV. Assigning a path cost to a bridge port (Optional)

             Assign a path cost to a bridge port depending on its link speed. The higher the link
             speed is, the lower the path cost should be configured.
             When a bridge port uses the default path cost, STP can automatically identify the type
             of the port and get the corresponding default path cost value.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.




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             Table 9-18 Assign a path cost to a bridge port

                            Operation                                        Command
               Assign a path cost to a bridge port          bridge-set bridge-set stp port pathcost cost
               Restore the default path cost of the         undo bridge-set bridge-set stp port
               bridge port                                  pathcost



             For an Ethernet port, the default path cost is 19; for a serial port, the default path cost is
             1000.

           V. Assigning a priority to a bridge port (optional)

             The ID of a bridge port comprises port priority and port number.
             When the path costs of all ports on a bridge are the same, the one with the lowest port
             ID is more likely to be elected as the designated port. The process is as follows:
                  Compare the priorities of the ports on the bridge. The one with the lowest port
                  priority is elected as the designated port.
                  In case multiple ports on the bridge have the same priority, compare their port
                  numbers and elect the port with the lowest number as the designated port.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 9-19 Assign a priority to the bridge port

                            Operation                                        Command
               Assign a priority to the bridge port         bridge-set bridge-set stp port priority value
               Restore the default priority of the
                                                            undo bridge-set bridge-set stp port priority
               bridge port



             The default priority of the bridge port is 128.

           VI. Setting the Hello Time timer (optional)

             A Hello Time timer is used to control the interval for sending BPDUs. Enabling STP on a
             port starts a Hello Time timer. An appropriately set Hello Time timer allows the bridge to
             discover link faults on the network without occupying many resources.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-20 Set the Hello Time timer

                                  Operation                                       Command
               Set the Hello Time timer                                bridge stp timer hello seconds
               Restore default setting of the Hello Time timer         undo bridge stp timer hello




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             By default, the time value for a Hello Time timer is 2 seconds.
             When configuring a Hello Time timer, consider the following:
                  On a spanning tree, all bridges must use the Hello Time timer of the root bridge
                  instead of their own.
                  Set the Hello Time timer appropriately. A small Hello time timer may increase the
                  frequency of BPDU sending, increasing undesired CPU load. A large Hello Time
                  timer, on the contrary, may cause the bridge to take a frame loss for a link failure,
                  and then to recalculate the spanning tree. You are recommended to use the
                  default timer setting if possible.

           VII. Setting the Forward Delay timer (optional)

             A link fault on the network may cause a spanning-tree recalculation immediately;
             however, it takes time for the new BPDU to propagate throughout the entire network. If
             new root ports and designated ports start forwarding frames immediately after they are
             elected, a temporary loop may occur.
             To resolve the problem, STP adopts a state transition mechanism, where a root or
             designated port must undergo a transitional state before it enters the forwarding state
             to forward frames. The duration of this transitional state depends on the setting of a
             timer called Forward Delay timer. It ensures that the new BPDU has been propagated
             throughout the network before frames are forwarded according to the latest topology.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-21 Set the Forward Delay timer

                            Operation                                     Command
               Set the Forward Delay timer                 bridge stp timer forward-delay seconds
               Restore the default setting of the
                                                           undo bridge stp timer forward-delay
               Forward Delay timer



             The default setting of the Forward Delay timer is 15 seconds.
             When configuring a Forward Delay timer, consider the following:
                  On a spanning tree, all bridges must use the Forward Delay timer of the root
                  bridge instead of their own.
                  Use the default Forward Delay timer setting if possible. A small forward delay may
                  create temporary path redundancy; while a large forward delay may increase the
                  time required for the topology of the spanning tree to converge. In the latter case,
                  network connectivity recovery may take a long time.




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           VIII. Setting the Max Age timer (optional)

             A Max Age timer is used to limit the lifetime of BPDUs. Enabling STP on a port starts a
             Max Age timer. If the interface receives no BPDU before the timer expires, its link is
             considered faulty and STP starts to recalculate its topology.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-22 Set the Max Age timer

                                  Operation                                    Command
               Set the Max Age timer                              bridge stp max-age seconds
               Restore default setting of the Max Age timer       undo bridge stp max-age



             The default setting of the Max Age timer is 20 seconds.
             When configuring a Max Age timer, consider the following:
                  On a spanning tree, all bridges use the Max Age timer of the root instead of their
                  own.
                  Set the timer appropriately. A small timer may result in undesired spanning tree
                  calculation frequency and have the bridge mistake congestions for link failures. A
                  large timer, on the contrary, may decrease the self-tuning capability of the network
                  preventing the bridge from discovering link failures quickly.
             You are recommended to use the default Max Age timer setting in normal cases.

9.2.5 Creating and Applying Bridging ACLs

           I. Creating a bridging ACL

             You can create MAC-based ACLs.
             Perform the following configuration in system view (for the command acl) and ACL view
             (for the command rule).

             Table 9-23 Create a MAC-based ACL

                               Operation                                     Command
               Create an ACL and enter the ACL view.          acl number acl-number
               Delete one or all ACLs.                        undo acl { acl-number | all }

                                                              rule [ rule-id ] { deny | permit } [ type
                                                              type-code type-mask | lsap lsap-code
               Create a MAC-based access control rule.        lsap-mask ] ] [ source-mac sour-addr
                                                              source-mask ] [ dest-mac dest-addr
                                                              dest-mask ]
               Delete a MAC-based access control rule.        undo rule rule-id




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             By default, no MAC-based ACL is created.
             In creating a MAC-based ACL, acl-number takes a value in the range 4000 to 4999.
             rule-id represents a rule number.
             type-code is a hexadecimal number in the format of xxxx, used for matching the
             protocol type of the transmitted packets.
             type-mask represents the mask of the protocol type. For type-code values
             recommended by RFC 1700, see Table 9-32.
             lsap-code is a hexadecimal number in the format of xxxx, used for matching the
             encapsulation format of bridged packet on an interface.
             lsap-mask represents the protocol type mask.
             sour-addr represents the source MAC address of a data frame in the format of
             xxxx-xxxx-xxxx. It is used to match the source address of a data frame.
             source-mask represents the source MAC address mask.
             dest-addr represents the destination MAC address of a packet in the format of
             xxxx-xxxx-xxxx. It is used to match the destination address of a data frame.
             dest-mask represents the destination MAC address mask.
             For ACL commands, refer to Comware V3 Command Manual – Security.

           II. Applying the ACL on an interface

             You can apply a MAC-based ACL onto any interface supporting bridging.
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.
             1)   Applying a MAC-based ACL in the inbound/outbound direction of the interface
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.

             Table 9-24 Apply a MAC-based ACL on an interface

                              Operation                                 Command
               Apply a MAC-based ACL on the inbound       firewall ethernet-frame-filter
               direction of the interface.                acl-number inbound
               Remove the MAC-based ACL applied in        undo firewall ethernet-frame-filter
               the inbound direction of the interface.    inbound
               Apply a MAC-based ACL on the               firewall ethernet-frame-filter
               outbound direction of the interface.       acl-number outbound
               Remove the MAC-based ACL applied in        undo firewall ethernet-frame-filter
               the outbound direction of the interface.   outbound



             2)   Applying a MAC-based ACL to the interface of the DLSw module in the
                  inbound/outbound direction
             Perform the following configuration in interface view.


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             Table 9-25 Apply a MAC-based ACL on an interface

                              Operation                                     Command
               Apply a MAC-based ACL on the inbound         dlsw ethernet-frame-filter acl-number
               direction of the interface.                  inbound
               Remove the MAC-based ACL applied in          undo dlsw ethernet-frame-filter
               the inbound direction of the interface.      inbound
               Apply a MAC-based ACL on the                 dlsw ethernet-frame-filter acl-number
               outbound direction of the interface.         outbound
               Remove the MAC-based ACL applied in          undo dlsw ethernet-frame-filter
               the outbound direction of the interface.     outbound



             By default, no ACL is applied on the interface.
             When applying an ACL on an interface, consider the following:
                  Add the interface into a bridge-set before applying the ACL on the interface.
                  When you apply the same type of ACLs on the interface, the last one will overwrite
                  the previous one.

9.2.6 Configuring the Routing Function of the Bridge

           I. Enabling the routing function of the bridge

             Bridge routing provides forwarding that integrates routing and bridging. For some
             particular protocol data units (PDUs), if the communication is conducted between
             bridging ports, they are bridged; if the communication is conducted with a network
             outside the bridge-set, they are routed. When the integrated bridging and routing
             function is disabled, all PDUs are bridged. With the function enabled, you can specify to
             forward the PDUs of a particular protocol by means of bridging or routing and toggle
             between them through commands.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-26 Enable/disable the routing function of the bridge

                                   Operation                                     Command
               Enable the routing function of the bridge             bridge routing-enable
               Disable the routing function of the bridge            undo bridge routing-enable



             By default, the routing function of the bridge is disabled.

           II. Configuring a bridge-template interface

             A bridge-template interface exists on the router. It does not support bridging; but on the
             router it represents the bridge-set associated to a routing interface and carries the



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             number of the bridge-set. Bridge-template interfaces are virtual routing interfaces on
             which you can configure network layer attributes. For each bridge-set, you can assign
             only one bridge-template interface.
             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-27 Configure a bridge-template interface

                            Operation                                    Command
               Create a bridge-template interface to
               connect the specified bridge-set to      interface bridge-template bridge-set
               the network of the route
               Delete a bridge-template interface       undo interface bridge-template bridge-set



           III. Configuring the MAC address of a bridge-template interface manually

             When the devices on each side of a link are both H3C series routers, they will conflict
             with each other because the system automatically creates the same MAC address on
             the bridge-template interfaces. You are recommended, therefore, to manually specify a
             MAC address to the bridge-template interface.
             Perform the following configuration in bridge-template view.

             Table 9-28 Configure the MAC address of a bridge-template interface manually

                                  Operation                                    Command
               Configure the MAC address of a
                                                                   mac-address H-H-H
               bridge-template interface.
               Delete the manually configured MAC address.         undo mac-address



             By default, the bridge-template interface uses the automatically created MAC address.

           IV. Configuring a bridge-set to route or bridge for the network layer protocol

             Perform the following configuration in system view.

             Table 9-29 Configure a bridge-set to route or bridge for the network layer protocol

                              Operation                                    Command
               Enable the routing function of a
                                                            bridge bridge-set routing { ip | ipx }
               bridge-set for the network layer protocol.
               Disable the routing function of a            undo bridge bridge-set routing { ip |
               bridge-set for the network layer protocol.   ipx }
               Enable the bridging function of a            bridge bridge-set bridging { ip | ipx |
               bridge-set for the network layer protocol.   others }




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                                    Operation                                Command
                  Disable the bridging function of a           undo bridge bridge-set bridging { ip |
                  bridge-set for the network layer protocol.   ipx | others }



             By default, bridging is enabled and routing is disabled.
             You can view the routing and bridging configurations on each interface with the display
             bridge information bridge-template bridge-set command.

           V. Enabling VLAN ID transparent transmission on an interface

                 To implement VLAN ID transparent transmission, you must add an outbound interface
                 to a bridge set.
                 Perform the following configuration in interface view.

                 Table 9-30 Enable VLAN ID transparent transmission

                                Operation                                   Command
                  Enable VLAN ID transparent                bridge vlanid-transparent-transmit
                  transmission                              enable
                  Disable VLAN ID transparent               undo bridge vlanid-transparent-transmit
                  transmission                              enable



             By default VLAN ID transparent transmission is disabled.



                    Note:
                    In most cases, communication is bidirectional. Therefore, you are recommended to
                    enable VLAN ID transparent transmission on all interfaces that join a bridge set.
                    After the Ethernet subinterface on the router is configured with VLAN ID and is
                    added to a bridge set, this subinterface only receives data from VLAN of this VLAN
                    ID.
                    After VLAN ID transparent transmission is enabled, the intermediate device will not
                    process VLAN ID of a packet. You need to configure the same VLAN ID for the trunk
                    interface on the switches of the two ends for normal communication.




9.3 Displaying and Debugging Bridging Information
             After you complete the aforesaid configurations, execute display command in any view
             to view the operating state of the bridge and verify effect of the configurations.




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             Execute the debugging command in user view for the debugging of bridge and the
             reset command in user view to clear the related information.

             Table 9-31 Display and debug bridges

                               Operation                                 Command
                                                          debugging bridge eth-forwarding
               Enable bridge-set debugging                [ dlsw | interface interface-type
                                                          interface-number ]

                                                          undo debugging bridge
               Disable bridge-set debugging               eth-forwarding [ dlsw | interface
                                                          interface-type interface-number ]
               Display information on one or all the
                                                          display bridge information
               enabled bridge-sets in the bridge
                                                          [ bridge-set bridge-set ]
               module.

                                                          display bridge address-table
               Display information on the bridging        [ bridge-set bridge-set | interface
               address table.                             interface-type interface-number | mac
                                                          mac-address | dlsw ] [ static | dynamic ]
                                                          display bridge traffic [ bridge-set
               Display traffic statistics on one or all
                                                          bridge-set | interface interface-type
               interfaces in a bridge-set.
                                                          interface-number | dlsw ]
                                                          reset bridge address-table
               Clear the MAC address forwarding table.    [ bridge-set bridge-set | interface
                                                          interface-type interface-number | dlsw ]
                                                          reset bridge traffic [ bridge-set
               Reset traffic statistics on one or all
                                                          bridge-set | interface interface-type
               interfaces in a bridge-set.
                                                          interface-number | dlsw ]
                                                          reset firewall ethernet-frame-filter { all
               Clear statistics about ACL-based
                                                          | dlsw | interface interface-type
               filtering.
                                                          interface-number }




9.4 Transparent Bridging Configuration Examples
9.4.1 Transparent Bridging on PPP

           I. Network requirements

             There are several PCs located on the Ethernet segment LAN1 of a building’s floor and
             several PCs and servers on the Ethernet segment LAN2 of another floor of the building.
             Set up transparent bridging between these two LANs.




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           II. Network diagram




                            e0/0/0              s1/0/0     s1/0/0              e0/0/0


                                     Router A                       Router B



                        LAN 1                                                     LAN 2


             Figure 9-11 Network diagram for setting up transparent bridging between multiple
             Ethernet segments


           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router A
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] bridge-set 1

             Configure Router B:
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface Serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] bridge-set 1


9.4.2 Transparent Bridging on MP

           I. Network requirements

             Router A and Router B are connected using MP. For the Ethernet segments of LAN 1
             and LAN 2 to communicate, configure transparent bridging on the routers.




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           II. Network diagram




                             e0/0/0              s1/0/0      s1/0/0               e0/0/0

                                                 s2/0/0      s2/0/0
                                      Router A                        Router B




                         LAN 1                                                        LAN 2


             Figure 9-12 Network diagram for transparent bridging


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router A
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-virtual-template1] bridge-set 1
             [H3C virtual-template1] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
             2)   Configure Router B
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface virtual-template 1
             [H3C-virtual-template1] bridge-set 1
             [H3Cvirtual-template1] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] interface serial 2/0/0
             [H3C-Serial2/0/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1




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9.4.3 Transparent Bridging on Frame Relay

           I. Network requirements

             Two routers are directly connected using their serial interfaces to implement
             transparent bridging on frame relay.

           II. Network diagram



                            e0/0/0                                                  e0/0/0
                                                s1/0/0          s1/0/0
                                     Router A
                                                                         Router B


             Figure 9-13 Network diagram for transparent bridging on frame relay


           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router A:
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr dlci 50
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] fr map bridge 50 broadcast

             Configure Router B:
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/O/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial1/O/0] fr interface-type dte
             [H3C-Serial1/O/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Serial1/O/0] fr map bridge 50 broadcast




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9.4.4 Transparent Bridging on X.25

           I. Network requirements

             Two routers are directly connected using their serial interfaces to implement
             transparent bridging on X.25.

           II. Network diagram



                             e0/0/0                                                  e0/0/0
                                                 s1/0/0          s1/0/0
                                      Router A
                                                                          Router B


             Figure 9-14 Network diagram for transparent bridging on X.25


           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router A:
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25 dce
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 100
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map bridge x121-address 200 broadcast
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] bridge-set 1

             Configure Router B:
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface serial 1/0/0
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] link-protocol x25
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 x121-address 200
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] x25 map bridge x121-address 100 broadcast
             [H3C-Serial1/0/0] bridge-set 1


9.4.5 Transparent Bridging on ATM

           I. Network requirements

             Two routers are directly connected using ATM interfaces to implement transparent
             bridging on ATM.

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           II. Network diagram


                                                             ATM1/0/0              e0/0/0
                            e0/0/0
                                                ATM1/0/0
                                     Router A
                                                                        Router B


             Figure 9-15 Network diagram for transparent bridging on ATM


           III. Configuration procedure

             Configure Router A:
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface atm 1/0/0
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] pvc 10/50
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-10/50] map bridge-group broadcast
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-10/50] quit
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] bridge-set 1

             Configure Router B:
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] interface atm 1/0/0
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] pvc 10/50
             [H3C-atm-pvc-Atm1/0/0-10/50] quit
             [H3C-Atm1/0/0] bridge-set 1


9.4.6 Implementing Integrated Routing and Bridging

           I. Network requirements

             Use a router, allowing routing through any interfaces in a bridge-set.




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           II. Network diagram

                                         Bridge-template 1(1.1.1.1)
                                                       1
                                                Bridge-set




                                         E1/0/0
                                                           E0/0/0
                                                          2.1.1.1
                                         E2/0/0




             Figure 9-16 Network diagram for implementing integrated routing and bridging


           III. Configuration procedure

             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge routing-enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 routing ip
             [H3C] interface ethernet1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] interface ethernet2/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] interface bridge-template 1
             [H3C-Bridge-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
             [H3C-Bridge-Template1] interface ethernet0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 2.1.1.1 255.255.0.0


9.4.7 Bridging on Ethernet Subinterfaces

           I. Network requirements

             Two routers are connected. Enabling bridging on the sub-interfaces so that the two
             bridges established on the routers can be interconnected.




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           II. Network diagram




                         e1/0/0                            e1/0/0
                                     e0/0/0.1   e0/0/0.1

                  Router A          e0/0/0.2    e0/0/0.2        Router B
                         e2/0/0                            e2/0/0




             Figure 9-17 Network diagram for bridging on subinterfaces


           III. Configuration procedure

             # Configure Router A.
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] bridge 2 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] interface ethernet 2/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] bridge-set 2
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] interface ethernet 0/0/0.1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.1] vlan-type dot1q vid 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.1] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.1] interface ethernet 0/0.2
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.2] vlan-type dot1q vid 2
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.2] bridge-set 2

             # Configure Router B.
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] bridge 2 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] interface ethernet 2/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] bridge-set 2
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] interface ethernet 0/0/0.1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.1] vlan-type dot1q vid 1
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.1] bridge-set 1




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             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.1] interface ethernet 0/0.2
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.2] vlan-type dot1q vid 2
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0.2] bridge-set 2


9.4.8 Bridging on FR Subinterfaces

           I. Network requirements

             Router A and Router B are connected using an FR link. Enable bridging on FR
             subinterfaces S0/0/0.1 and S0/0/0.2, allowing PC 1 and PC 2 to communicate through
             bridge-set 1 and PC 3 and PC 4 to communicate through bridge-set 2.
             In this example, Router B is at DCE side.

           II. Network diagram



                        PC1                                      PC2


                       e1/0/0                                  e1/0/0
                                      s0/0/0.1   s0/0/0.1
                  Router A                                        Router B
                                      s0/0/0.2   s0/0/0.2
                      e2/0/0                                   e2/0/0



                                PC3                                      PC4



             Figure 9-18 Network diagram for bridging on FR subinterfaces


           III. Configuration procedure

             1)    Configure Router A
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] bridge 2 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] interface ethernet 2/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] bridge-set 2
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0.1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] fr map bridge 50 broadcast
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] interface serial 0/0/0.2
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.2] fr map bridge 60 broadcast




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             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.2] bridge-set 2
             2)    Configure Router B
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable
             [H3C] bridge 2 enable
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0] interface ethernet 2/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] bridge-set 2
             [H3C-Ethernet2/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] link-protocol fr
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] fr interface-type dce
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0] interface serial 0/0/0.1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] fr map bridge 50 broadcast
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] fr dlci 50
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] interface serial 0/0/0.2
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.2] fr map bridge 60 broadcast
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.1] fr dlci 60
             [H3C-Serial0/0/0.2] bridge-set 2

             Note that when implementing bridging on P2P FR subinterfaces, you need not to
             configure the fr map command, but must configure the same fr dlci at DCE and DTE
             sides.

9.4.9 Bridging on Dial Interface and Filtering MAC Address

           I. Network requirements

             The IP addresses of the Ethernet connecting Router1 and Router2 belong to a same
             network segment.
             Configure the bridge interfaces on the two routers, allowing only the packets with the
             source or destination MAC of 1111-2222-0000 (ffff-ffff-0000 in hexadecimal format) to
             pass.

           II. Network diagram


                  eth0/0/0    bri1/0/0             bri1/0/0   eth0/0/0
                                         ISDN




             Figure 9-19 Network diagram for bridging and MAC-based filtering on dial interface




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           III. Configuration procedure

             1)   Configure Router 1
             # Enable the firewall.
             [H3C] firewall enable

             # Enable bridging globally.
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable

             # Configure a dialer ACL.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 bridge permit

             # Configure an ACL for MAC-based filtering.
             [H3C] acl number 4000
             [H3C-acl-ethernetframe-4000]      rule    0    permit     source-mac   1111-2222-0000
             ffff-ffff-0000
             [H3C-acl-ethernetframe-4000]       rule    1     permit    dest-mac    1111-2222-0000
             ffff-ffff-0000
             [H3C-acl-ethernetframe-4000] rule 2 deny
             [H3C-acl-ethernetframe-4000] quit

             # Configure dial-up on the ISDN BRI interface.
             [H3C] interface bri1/0/0
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] dialer circular-group 2
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] quit

             # Assign the dialer interface to a bridge-set and configure MAC-based filtering on the
             interface.
             [H3C] interface dialer2
             [H3C-Dialer2] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Dialer2] firewall ethernet-frame-filter 4000 inbound
             [H3C-Dialer2] firewall ethernet-frame-filter 4000 outbound
             [H3C-Dialer2] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Dialer2] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Dialer2] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer2] dialer number 660208
             [H3C-Dialer2] quit

             # Assign the Ethernet interface to the bridge-set and configure MAC-based filtering on
             the interface.
             [H3C] interface ethernet0/0/0




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             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] promiscuous
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] firewall ethernet-frame-filter 4000 inbound
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] firewall ethernet-frame-filter 4000 outbound
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1
             2)   Configure Router 2
             # Enable the firewall.
             [H3C] firewall enable

             # Enable bridging globally.
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 1 enable

             # Configure a dialer ACL.
             [H3C] dialer-rule 1 bridge permit

             # Configure an ACL for MAC-based filtering.
             [H3C] acl number 4000
             [H3C-acl-ethernetframe-4000]      rule    0    permit     source-mac   1111-2222-0000
             ffff-ffff-0000
             [H3C-acl-ethernetframe-4000]       rule    1     permit    dest-mac    1111-2222-0000
             ffff-ffff-0000
             [H3C-acl-ethernetframe-4000] rule 2 deny
             [H3C-acl-ethernetframe-4000] quit

             # Configure dial-up on the ISDN BRI interface.
             [H3C] interface Bri1/0/0
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] dialer circular-group 2
             [H3C-Bri1/0/0] quit

             # Assign the dialer interface to a bridge-set and configure MAC-based filtering on the
             interface.
             [H3C] interface Dialer2
             [H3C-Dialer2] link-protocol ppp
             [H3C-Dialer2] firewall ethernet-frame-filter 4000 inbound
             [H3C-Dialer2] firewall ethernet-frame-filter 4000 outbound
             [H3C-Dialer2] bridge-set 1
             [H3C-Dialer2] dialer enable-circular
             [H3C-Dialer2] dialer-group 1
             [H3C-Dialer2] dialer number 660206
             [H3C-Dialer2] quit




                                               9-36
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             # Assign the Ethernet interface to the bridge-set and configure MAC-based filtering on
             the interface.
             [H3C] interface Ethernet0/0/0
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] promiscuous
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] firewall ethernet-frame-filter 4000 inbound
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] firewall ethernet-frame-filter 4000 outbound
             [H3C-Ethernet0/0/0] bridge-set 1


9.4.10 VLAN ID Transparent Transmission Configuration Example

           I. Network requirements

             As shown in Figure 9-20, PC1 and PC2 are connected respectively to Switch1 and
             Switch2 and then transparent bridging is set up through a router. The same VLAN ID is
             configured on the trunk interfaces on Switch1 and Switch2. Ping PC2 on PC1. If VLAN
             ID transparent transmission is enabled on both Ethernet subinterface and ATM1/0/0 of
             the two routers, PC2 can receive ping packet from PC1, and PC1 can receive the
             response packet from PC2.

           II. Network diagram




             Figure 9-20 Network diagram for implementing VLAN ID transparent transmission on
             ATM interface


           III. Configuration procedure

              1)   Configure Router1
             # Enable transparent bridging on the router.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] bridge enable



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             [H3C] bridge 2 enable

             # Add an interface to a bridge set and enable VLAN ID transparent transmission.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0.1
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0.1] vlan-type dot1q vid 2
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0.1] bridge-set 2
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0.1] bridge vlanid-transparent-transmit enable
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0.1] quit
             [H3C] interface atm1/0/0
             [H3C-ATM1/0/0] bridge-set 2
             [H3C-ATM1/0/0] bridge vlanid-transparent-transmit enable
             [H3C-ATM1/0/0] pvc to_r2 1/100
             [H3C-ATM1/0/0-1/100-to_r2] map bridge-group broadcast
              2)     Configure Router2
             # Enable transparent bridging on the router.
             <H3C> system-view
             [H3C] bridge enable
             [H3C] bridge 2 enable

             # Add an interface to a bridge set and enable VLAN ID transparent transmission.
             [H3C] interface ethernet 1/0/0.1
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0.1] vlan-type dot1q vid 2
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0.1] bridge-set 2
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0.1] bridge vlanid-transparent-transmit enable
             [H3C-Ethernet1/0/0.1] quit
             [H3C] interface atm1/0/0
             [H3C-ATM1/0/0] bridge-set 2
             [H3C-ATM1/0/0] bridge vlanid-transparent-transmit enable
             [H3C-ATM1/0/0] pvc to_r1 1/100
             [H3C-ATM1/0/0-1/100-to_r1] map bridge-group broadcast


9.5 Ethernet Type-Code Values
             The following table lists the Ethernet type-code values recommended in RFC 1700 and
             their meanings.

             Table 9-32 Ethernet type-code values

                      Ethernet type-code value (in
                                                                           Represents
                             hexadecimal)
               0000-05DC                                    IEEE802.3 Length Field
               0101-01FF                                    Experimental
               200                                          XEROX PUP (see 0A00)



                                               9-38
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                     Ethernet type-code value (in
                                                                     Represents
                            hexadecimal)
               201                                   PUP Addr Trans (see 0A01)
               400                                   Nixdorf
               600                                   XEROX NS IDP
               660                                   DLOG
               661                                   DLOG
               800                                   Internet IP (IPv4)
               801                                   X.75 Internet
               802                                   NBS Internet
               803                                   ECMA Internet
               804                                   Chaosnet
               805                                   X.25 Level 3

               806                                   ARP
               807                                   XNS Compatibility
               081C                                  Symbolics Private

               0888-088A                             Xyplex
               900                                   Ungermann-Bass net debugr
               0A00                                  Xerox IEEE802.3 PUP

               0A01                                  PUP Addr Trans
               0BAD                                  Banyan Systems
               1000                                  Berkeley Trailer nego

               1001 – 100F                           Berkeley Trailer encap/IP
               1600                                  Valid Systems
               4242                                  PCS Basic Block Protocol
               5208                                  BBN Simnet
               6000                                  DEC Unassigned (Exp.)
               6001                                  DEC MOP Dump/Load
               6002                                  DEC MOP Remote Console
               6003                                  DEC DECNET Phase IV Route
               6004                                  DEC LAT
               6005                                  DEC Diagnostic Protocol
               6006                                  DEC Customer Protocol



                                              9-39
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Comware V3                                                        Chapter 9 Bridge Configuration


                    Ethernet type-code value (in
                                                                    Represents
                           hexadecimal)
               6007                                 DEC LAVC, SCA
               6008 – 6009                          DEC Unassigned
               6010 – 6014                          3Com Corporation
               7000                                 Ungermann-Bass download
               7002                                 Ungermann-Bass dia/loop
               7020-7029                            LRT
               7030                                 Proteon
               7034                                 Cabletron
               8003                                 Cronus VLN
               8004                                 Cronus Direct
               8005                                 HP Probe

               8006                                 Nestar
               8008                                 AT&T
               8010                                 Excelan

               8013                                 SGI diagnostics
               8014                                 SGI network games
               8015                                 SGI reserved

               8016                                 SGI bounce server
               8019                                 Apollo Computers
               802E                                 Tymshare

               802F                                 Tigan, Inc.
               8035                                 Reverse ARP
               8036                                 Aeonic Systems
               8038                                 DEC LANBridge
               8039 – 803C                          DEC Unassigned
               803D                                 DEC Ethernet Encryption
               803E                                 DEC Unassigned
               803F                                 DEC LAN Traffic Monitor
               8040 – 8042                          DEC Unassigned
               8044                                 Planning Research Corp.
               8046                                 AT&T



                                             9-40
Operation Manual – Link Layer Protocol
Comware V3                                                       Chapter 9 Bridge Configuration


                    Ethernet type-code value (in
                                                                  Represents
                           hexadecimal)
               8047                                 AT&T
               8049                                 ExperData
               805B                                 Stanford V Kernel exp.
               805C                                 Stanford V Kernel prod.
               805D                                 Evans & Sutherland
               8060                                 Little Machines
               8062                                 Counterpoint Computers
               8065                                 Univ. of Mass. @ Amherst
               8066                                 Univ. of Mass. @ Amherst
               8067                                 Veeco Integrated Auto.
               8068                                 General Dynamics

               8069                                 AT&T
               806A                                 Autophon
               806C                                 ComDesign

               806D                                 Computgraphic Corp.
               806E – 8077                          Landmark Graphics Corp.
               807A                                 Matra

               807B                                 Dansk Data Elektronik
               807C                                 Merit Internodal
               807D-807F                            Vitalink Communications

               8080                                 Vitalink TransLAN III
               8081-8083                            Counterpoint Computers
               809B                                 Appletalk
               809C – 809E                          Datability
               809F                                 Spider Systems Ltd.
               80A3                                 Nixdorf Computers
               80A4 – 80B3                          Siemens Gammasonics Inc.
               80C0 – 80C3                          DCA Data Exchange Cluster
               80C4                                 Banyan Systems
               80C5                                 Banyan Systems
               80C6                                 Pacer Software



                                             9-41
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Comware V3                                                         Chapter 9 Bridge Configuration


                    Ethernet type-code value (in
                                                                    Represents
                           hexadecimal)
               80C7                                 Applitek Corporation
               80C8 – 80CC                          Intergraph Corporation
               80CD – 80CE                          Harris Corporation
               80CF – 80D2                          Taylor Instrument
               80D3 – 80D4                          Rosemount Corporation
               80D5                                 IBM SNA Service on Ether
               80DD                                 Varian Associates
               80DE – 80DF                          Integrated Solutions TRFS
               80E0 – 80E3                          Allen-Bradley
               80E4 – 80F0                          Datability
               80F2                                 Retix

               80F3                                 AppleTalk AARP (Kinetics)
               80F4 – 80F5                          Kinetics
               80F7                                 Apollo Computer

               80FF – 8103                          Wellfleet Communications
               8107 – 8109                          Symbolics Private
               8130                                 Hayes Microcomputers

               8131                                 VG Laboratory Systems
               8132 – 8136                          Bridge Communications
               8137 – 8138                          Novell, Inc.

               8139 – 813D                          KTI
               8148                                 Logicraft
               8149                                 Network Computing Devices
               814A                                 Alpha Micro
               814C                                 SNMP
               814D                                 BIIN
               814E                                 BIIN
               814F                                 Technically Elite Concept
               8150                                 Rational Corp
               8151 – 8153                          Qualcomm
               815C – 815E                          Computer Protocol Pty Ltd



                                             9-42
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Comware V3                                                         Chapter 9 Bridge Configuration


                    Ethernet type-code value (in
                                                                    Represents
                           hexadecimal)
               8164 – 8166                          Charles River Data System
               817D – 818C                          Protocol Engines
               818D                                 Motorola Computer
               819A – 81A3                          Qualcomm
               81A4                                 ARAI Bunkichi
               81A5 – 81AE                          RAD Network Devices
               81B7 – 81B9                          Xyplex
               81CC – 81D5                          Apricot Computers
               81D6 – 81DD                          Artisoft
               81E6 – 81EF                          Polygon
               81F0 – 81F2                          Comsat Labs

               81F3 – 81F5                          SAIC
               81F6 – 81F8                          VG Analytical
               8203 – 8205                          Quantum Software

               8221 – 8222                          Ascom Banking Systems
               823E – 8240                          Advanced Encryption Syste
               827F – 8282                          Athena Programming

               8263 – 826A                          Charles River Data System
               829A – 829B                          Inst Ind Info Tech
               829C – 82AB                          Taurus Controls

               82AC – 8693                          Walker Richer & Quinn
               8694 – 869D                          Idea Courier
               869E – 86A1                          Computer Network Tech
               86A3 – 86AC                          Gateway Communications
               86DB                                 SECTRA
               86DE                                 Delta Controls
               86DF                                 ATOMIC
               86E0 – 86EF                          Landis & Gyr Powers
               8700 – 8710                          Motorola
               8A96 – 8A97                          Invisible Software
               9000                                 Loopback



                                             9-43
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                    Ethernet type-code value (in
                                                                 Represents
                           hexadecimal)
               9001                                 3Com(Bridge) XNS Sys Mgmt
               9002                                 3Com(Bridge) TCP-IP Sys
               9003                                 3Com(Bridge) loop detect
               FF00                                 BBN VITAL-LanBridge cache
               FF00-FF0F                            ISC Bunker Ramo




                                             9-44

				
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