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					Internet Engineering


    Web Application development models
Introduction

   Company needs to provide various web services
       Hosting intranet applications
       Company web site
       Various internet applications
   Therefore there is a need to develop applications
       We should select web application model to use
       Discuss on different types of applications
Content
   Application development models:
     SSI

     CGI with Perl

     LAMP/WAMP

     J2EE

     .Net

   Typical web applications in an organization
     CMS

     DMS

     Groupware

     WIKI

     Workflow
SSI

   Server Side Includes
   This is very simple model, not really an application
    development model suitable for middle to large size
    applications
   Web server processes such instructions and generate
    dynamic content
   Directives that are placed in HTML pages, and evaluated
    on the server while the pages are being served.
   Let you add dynamically generated content to an existing
    HTML page, without having to serve the entire page via a
    CGI program, or other dynamic technology.
SSI

   SSI directives have the following syntax:
<!--#element attribute=value attribute=value ... -->
   It is formatted like an HTML comment
   so if you don't have SSI correctly enabled, the browser
    will ignore it
SSI examples
   Commonly used to obtain and display environment variables from
    the OS:

    <!--#echo var="DATE_LOCAL" -->

   Modification date of the file
    This document last modified
    <!--#flastmod file="index.html" -->

   Including the results of a CGI program:
    <!--#include virtual="/cgi-bin/counter.pl" -->

   Including a standard footer:
    <!--#include virtual="/footer.html" -->
SSI examples (cont.)

   Executing commands:
    <pre> <!--#exec cmd="ls" --> </pre>


   Conditional expressions:
    <!--#if expr="${Mac} &&
    ${InternetExplorer}" -->
    Apologetic text goes here
    <!--#else --> Cool JavaScript code goes
    here
    <!--#endif -->
SSI conclusion

   Minimize code duplications
   SSI for site management
   Creates dynamic content
   Can be a security problem
CGI
   Common Gateway Interface
   Invented in 1993 by NCSA for HTTPd web server
     Client requests program to be run on server-side
     Web server passes parameters to program through UNIX shell
         environment variables
     Program spawned as separate process via fork
     Program's output => Results

     Server passes back results (usually in form of HTML)

   Good for interfacing external applications with information servers
   Frequently mistaken for a language.
   In fact it is a standard that enables clients and servers to exchange data.
   Although the basis of all web applications, it is most often considered when
    a file is executed rather than read.
   it is language independent
   CGI programs are most often written in PERL, C/C++, VB, Java, or UNIX
    shell scripts.
CGI


      Request service
                        Run CGI
                        program
                        …
                        …
                        …
      HEADERS
                        print $result
      BODY
CGI with Perl

   Write a standard Perl Program
   Program's output (to stdout) is sent back as HTTP
    Response
   You must write out everything
       Headers
       Blank Space
       Body
CGI with Perl
   Some CGI programs are in machine code, but Perl programs are
    usually kept in source form, so Perl must be run on them
   A source file can be made to be “executable” by adding a line at
    their beginning that specifies that a language processing program be
    run on them first
   For Perl programs, if the perl system is stored in /usr/local/bin/perl,
    as is often is in UNIX systems, this is:
     #!/usr/local/bin/perl



   The file extension .cgi is sometimes used for Perl CGI programs
   An HTML document specifies a CGI program with the hypertext
    reference attribute, href, of an anchor tag, <a>, as in
     <a href =        “./cgi-bin/reply.cgi>" Click here to
       run the CGI program, reply.pl </a>
Perl

   Practical Extension and Reporting Language.
   Originally developed as a utility language for UNIX.
   Particularly well suited to manipulate patterns, especially
    text.
   Popular because it is free, available for most operating
    systems, and relatively easy to learn
   Exceedingly powerful, but ugly, noisy, and prone to
    errors.
Perl – a simple example

   “Hello World” in PERL
#! /usr/bin/perl
print "Content-type: text/html\n\n";
print "<html><body><h1>Hello World!";
print "</h1></body></html>\n";


   Simple concept -- the program executes, and the
    output is sent to the browser that called it.
Perl – a simple counter
#! /usr/bin/perl
open (INPUT,”count.txt”);
@inline= <INPUT>;
$count = $inline[0] + 1;
close INPUT;
open (OUT,”>count.txt”);
print OUT “$count\n”;
close OUT;
print "Content-type: text/html\n\n";
print "<html><body>”;
print “<h1>Let‟s Count! "</h1>";
print “This page accessed $count times<p>”;
print “</body></html>\n";
Perl – Basic syntax

   Perl statements end in a semi-colon:



   Comments start with a hash symbol and run to the end
    of the line



   Whitespace is irrelevant:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   Variable types:
       Scalars:




       Arrays:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   Variable types:
       Arrays:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   Variable types:
       Hashes:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   Variable scoping:




   Conditional constructs:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   Conditional constructs:




   While:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   for:




   foreach:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   Operators:
       Arithmetic:




       Numeric comparison:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   Operators:
       String comparison:




       Boolean logic:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   Files and IO:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   String matching:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   String matching:
Perl – Basic syntax (cont.)
   Subroutines:
CGI environment variables (%ENV)
CGI environment variables (%ENV)
   example- Printing environment variables:

#!/usr/bin/perl
use strict;
use CGI qw(:standard);
use CGI::Carp qw(warningsToBrowser
  fatalsToBrowser);
print header;
print start_html("Environment");
foreach my $key (sort(keys(%ENV))) {
  print "$key = $ENV{$key}<br>\n";
}
print end_html;
CGI environment variables (%ENV)
   Example- Referrer:

#!/usr/bin/perl
use strict;
use CGI qw(:standard);
use CGI::Carp qw(warningsToBrowser
  fatalsToBrowser);
print header;
print start_html("Referring Page");
print "Welcome, I see you've just come from
  $ENV{HTTP_REFERER}!<p>\n";
print end_html;
CGI environment variables (%ENV)
   Example- Browser detection:

#!/usr/bin/perl
use strict;
use CGI qw(:standard);
use CGI::Carp qw(warningsToBrowser fatalsToBrowser);

print start_html("Browser Detect");
my($ua) = $ENV{HTTP_USER_AGENT};
print "User-agent: $ua<p>\n";
if (index($ua, "MSIE") > -1) {
   print "Your browser is Internet Explorer.<p>\n";
} elsif (index($ua, "Netscape") > -1) {
   print "Your browser is Netscape.<p>\n"; }
elsif (index($ua, "Safari") > -1) {
   print "Your browser is Safari.<p>\n"; }
elsif (index($ua, "Opera") > -1) {
   print "Your browser is Opera.<p>\n";
} elsif (index($ua, "Mozilla") > -1) {
   print "Your browser is probably Mozilla.<p>\n";
} else { print "I give up, I can't tell what browser you're
   using!<p>\n"; }
print end_html;
Form processing
Form processing (cont.)
#!/usr/bin/perl
use CGI qw(:standard);
use CGI::Carp qw(warningsToBrowser fatalsToBrowser);
use strict;
print header;
print start_html("Thank You");
print h2("Thank You");
my %form;
foreach my $p (param()) {
  $form{$p} = param($p);
  print "$p = $form{$p}<br>\n";
}
print end_html;
Form processing (cont.)
#!/usr/bin/perl
use CGI qw(:standard);
use CGI::Carp qw(warningsToBrowser fatalsToBrowser);
use strict;

print header;
print start_html("Results");
# Set the PATH environment variable to the same path
# where sendmail is located:
$ENV{PATH} = "/usr/sbin";
# open the pipe to sendmail
open (MAIL, "|/usr/sbin/sendmail -oi -t") or
   &dienice("Can't fork for sendmail: $!\n");
# change this to your own e-mail address
my $recipient = 'nullbox@cgi101.com';
Form processing (cont.)
# Start printing the mail headers
# You must specify who it's to, or it won't be delivered:
print MAIL "To: $recipient\n";
# From should probably be the webserver.
print MAIL "From: nobody\@cgi101.com\n";
# print a subject line so you know it's from your form
   cgi.
print MAIL "Subject: Form Data\n\n";
# Now print the body of your mail message.
foreach my $p (param()) {
   print MAIL "$p = ", param($p), "\n";
}
# Be sure to close the MAIL input stream so that the
# message actually gets mailed.
close(MAIL);
Form processing (cont.)
# Now print a thank-you page
print <<EndHTML;
  <h2>Thank You</h2>
  <p>Thank you for writing!</p>
  <p>Return to our <a href="index.html">home
  page</a>.</p>
EndHTML
print end_html;

# The dienice subroutine handles errors.
sub dienice {
  my($errmsg) = @_;
  print "<h2>Error</h2>\n";
  print "<p>$errmsg</p>\n";
print end_html; exit;
}
Setting cookies

#!/usr/bin/perl
use strict;
my $cid = int(rand(1000000));
print "Set-Cookie: NAME=$cid\n";
print "Content-type: text/html\n\n";
print <<EndOfHTML;
  <html><head><title>Welcome</title></head>
  <body> <h2>Welcome!</h2> Your cookie is
  $cid.<p> </body></html>
EndOfHTML ;
Reading cookies
#!/usr/bin/perl
use CGI qw(:standard);
use CGI::Carp qw(warningsToBrowser fatalsToBrowser);
use strict;
print header();
print start_html("Cookie");
print h2("Welcome!");
if (my $cookie = cookie('mycookie')) {
  print "Your cookie is $cookie.<br>";
} else {
  print "You don't have a cookie named
    `mycookie'.<br>";
}
print end_html;
References

   http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/howto/ssi.html
   http://learn.perl.org/
   http://www.stanford.edu/class/cs193i/handoutsSum2004/
    21CGI.pdf
   http://www.stanford.edu/class/cs193i/handoutsSum2004/
    22CGI2.pdf
   http://www.stanford.edu/class/cs193i/handoutsSum2004/
    23CGI3.pdf
LAMP
What is LAMP?

   LAMP refers to a set of tools:
       Linux
       Apache
       MySQL
       PHP
   It allows for rapid deployment of software applications
   It can be defined as Open Source platform
   We have already discussed on Linux and Apache
   We should talk more about PHP and MySQL
PHP overview
   Open Source server-side scripting language designed specifically
    for the web.
   In-line scripting
   Conceived in 1994, now used on +10 million web sites. Now in
    version 5.0
   Outputs not only HTML but can output XML, images (JPG & PNG),
    PDF files and even Flash movies (using libswf and Ming) all
    generated on the fly. Can write these files to the filesystem.
   Supports a wide-range of databases (inherently or via ODBC).
   PHP also has support for talking to other services using protocols
    such as LDAP, IMAP, SNMP, POP3, HTTP.
   Supports OO programming
   Perl- and C-like syntax. Relatively easy to learn.
   Website @ http://www.php.net/
Why use PHP
   If you like free software or need a free solution
   If you need a solution that‟s portable across multiple platforms (e.g.
    Red Hat Linux to Windows 2000)
   If you want to add dynamic content to your pages
   If you want to make your pages easier to maintain
   There are a lot of open source/free packages/libraries available in
    PHP.
   Many mailing lists/sites are dedicated to it.
   Examples of uses of PHP :
     Surveys - Polls

     Small/Medium Portals

     Small/Medium Web-Mails

     Content Management
What is in a php file

   PHP files may contain text, HTML tags and scripts
   PHP files are returned to the browser as plain HTML
   PHP files have a file extension of ".php", ".php3", or “.phtml“

   Embedding PHP in HTML:
    <html>
    <body>
       <strong>Hello World!</strong><br />
    <?
       echo „This is a PHP introductory course!‟;
    ?>
    </body>
    </html>
Include mechanism
    <?php
    include '../includes/header.html';
    ?>
    <center>
    content of your web page
    </center>
    <?php
    include 'http://cs.ucy.ac.cy/php/footer.html';
    ?>


   Content can be included from a local or remote source
    via such protocols as HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and FTPS
Types

   Scalar types
       Boolean
       Integer
       Float
       String
   Compound types
       Array
       Object
Variables

   Variables all start with a $
       Case-sensitive
       Must start with a letter or underscore,
   followed by any number of letters, numbers, or
    underscores
       Variables are not explicitly typed
           Type of value is inferred on operator application
   Uninitialised variables have value undef
       What undef means depends on context
           Numeric context it is 0
           String context it is empty string “”
Variables

   To assign values to variables:
       $foo = „bar‟; Data Type: String
       $foo = 1; Data Type: integer
       $foo = 5.34; Data Type: Double
       $foo = array(“bar”,”united”); Data Type: Array
   Data Types are automatically assigned though you can
    force a data type by type casting. For example:
       $foo = „Hello‟;
       $bar = (int)$foo;
       $bar now equals 0
   Almost all variables are local (page). Globals include
    $_Session
Example

<html>
<body>
   <p> <?php
   $temperature = 5;
   $conversionFactorC2K = 273;
   print("$temperature &deg;C");
   echo " is ";
   print($temperature+$conversionFactorC2K."&deg;K"); ?>
</p>
</body>
</html>
Associative arrays

  Java arrays are index by number, e.g. a[0]
 PHP arrays can also be indexed by association,

e.g.:
$phone['mark']='3497';
$phone['ian']='3098';
$people=array_keys($phone);
foreach ($people as $person)
   echo "$person is on ext ".$phone[$person]."<br />";
Arrays

   Actually an ordered map
       So you can use it like a vector, hashtable, dictionary, stack,
        queue etc.
   May contain other arrays
       You could build trees with them
   In fact, they can contain any PHP type
   They are dynamic (their size is changing at runtime)
Array Syntax

 Creation with array()
<?php
$arr = array("foo" => "bar", 12 => true);
echo $arr["foo"];
echo $arr[12];
?>
Array of array

<?php
$arr = array(
"somearray" => array(6 => 5, 13 => 9, "a" =>
42));
echo $arr["somearray"][6]; // 5
echo $arr["somearray"][13]; // 9
echo $arr["somearray"]["a"]; // 42
?>
Parameters

   Pass by value is deafult

<?php
function addNothing($string) {
$string .= ‘with a cherry on top.’;
}
$dessert = ‘Ice cream ’;
addNothing($dessert);
echo $dessert;
?>
Parameters

   By reference

<?php
function addTopping(&$string) {
$string .= ‘with a cherry on top.’;
}
$dessert = ‘Ice cream ’;
addTopping($dessert);
echo $dessert;
?>
Servers variable array

   $_SERVER is an array containing information
   such as
       Headers
       Paths
       Script locations
   The entries in this array are created by the webserver.
    There is no guarantee that every webserver will provide
    any of these; servers may omit some, or provide others
Servers variable array
Server variables

   'argv'
       Array of arguments passed to the script. When the script is
        run on the command line, this gives C-style access to the
        command line parameters. When called via the GET
        method, this will contain the query string.
   'argc'
       Contains the number of command line parameters passed
        to the script (if run on the command line).
Server variables

   'REMOTE_ADDR'
       The IP address from which the user is viewing the current
        page.
   'REMOTE_HOST'
       The Host name from which the user is viewing the current
        page. The reverse dns lookup is based off the
        REMOTE_ADDR of the user.
   'REMOTE_PORT'
       The port being used on the user's machine to communicate
        with the web server.
HTML Forms

   When a form is submitted to a PHP script, the
    information from that form is automatically made
    available to the script
       There‟s a few ways to do this
       Example:

<form action="foo.php" method="POST">
Name: <input type="text" name="username"><br>
Email: <input type="text" name="email"><br>
<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit">
</form>
   <html><body><p>
   <?php
   print $_POST['username'];
   ?>
   </p></body></html>

   $_GET
   $_REQUEST
   $_FILES: An associative array of items uploaded to the current
    script via the HTTP POST method.
Session

   $_SESSION
       An associative array containing session variables available
        to the current script.
       A way to preserve certain data across subsequent
        accesses
   Loads of session handling functions
       name, lifetime, cache etc.
Session

   The idea of a session is to track a user during a single session on a
    web site. This enables customized web pages, single login during a
    session, shopping cart applications, and tracking users behavior
   Cryptographically generated to be a unique session id
   Session ID is stored as a cookie on the client box or passed along
    through URL's.
   Session variable values are stored in the 'superglobal„ associative
    array '$_SESSION.'
   The values are actually stored at the server and are accessed via
    the session id from your cookie.
   On the client side the session ID expires when connection is broken.
Session handling example

  Page 1
<?php
session_start();
$_SESSION[„FName'] = $_Get[„FName'];
$_SESSION[„LName'] = $_Get[„LName'];
include '../includes/header.html';
?>
 Page 2

<?php
session_start();
echo $_SESSION[„FName'] . “ “ . $_SESSION[„LName'];
?>
Cookies

   Cookies are little text file that a web site stores in the
    client‟s computer to maintain information about that client
   Cookies are sent along with the rest of the HTTP
    headers
   Like other headers, cookies must be sent before any
    output from your script (this is a protocol restriction).
   This requires that you place calls to this function prior to
    any output, including <html> and <head> tags
Cookies

   Setting a cookie
       setcookie(“TestCookie", “lng=en”);
   Setting a cookie with expiration
       setcookie("TestCookie", “lng=en”, time()+3600); /* expire in
        1 hour */
   Access and print a cookie
       echo $_COOKIE[„TestCookie‟]
   Delete a cookie
       setcookie ("TestCookie", "", time() - 3600);
       set the expiration time to an hour ago
PHP and MySQL

   PHP and MySQL are a perfect companion
   Largely because they are both free and they have
    numerous capabilities
   PHP as of version 3 supports inherently MySQL i.e.
    specialized build-in functions handle the database
    interactions
   Same goes with ORACLE but not with Microsoft
    databases (Access, SQL Server)
Example
 <html>
 <body>
 <h1>A List of Users Who Have Signed Up For ….</h1>
 <?
 $dbh = mysql_connect("localhost",“dbusername",“dbpassword")
 or die(“Couldn't connect to database.");
 $db = mysql_select_db(“dbname", $dbh)
 or die(“Couldn't select database.");
 $sql = “SELECT username, email FROM userspool”;
 $result = mysql_query($sql)
 or die(“Something is wrong with your SQL statement.");
 while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) {
     $username = $row[„username‟];
     $email = $row[„email‟];
     echo „<a href=“mailto:‟.$email.‟”>‟.$username.‟</a><br />‟;
 }
 ?>
 </body>
 </html>
MySQL
What is MySQL?
SQL – Structured Query Language

MySQL is a open-source, multithreaded, multi-user, SQL (Structured Query
  Language) relational database server

MySQL works on many different platforms—including FreeBSD, UNIX, Linux,
  Mac OS X, OS/2 Warp, Solaris, SunOS, SCO, Windows, and other OS’s.¹

MySQL is used by companies like The Associated Press, Google, NASA, Sabre
  Holdings, American Greetings, and Suzuki.²
Relational Database
Basically information organized in a structure.

Top level:
Database (Excel File)
   -> Tables (Excel Sheet)
         -> Columns and Rows
                 -> Data

Therefore data is organized into categories which can be stored and retrieved
   in an efficient manner as long as you know where to look.
Programming Languages
Programming languages which can access MySQL databases include: C, C++,
   Eiffel, Smalltalk, Java, Lisp, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and Tcl.²

You need to either compile in MySQL support when installing these languages
   or have access to MySQL libraries respective to the programming
   language (i.e. libMySQL.dll)
Installation and Setup
Download installation package or source/rpms from www.mysql.com.

Run setup utility/install rpms/compile from source.

Setup administrator access using mysqladmin. This command allows you to
     setup root access and run administrative commands from the command
     prompt.

Login to MySQL daemon:
     Windows: c:/mysql/bin/mysql –u username –p –h host
     *nix: mysql –u username –p –h host

Use root user to add new users with privileges.
 Setup Users
Privileges can be granted at four levels:
Global level
      Global privileges apply to all databases on a given server. These privileges are stored in the
           mysql.user table. GRANT ALL ON *.* and REVOKE ALL ON *.* grant and revoke only
           global privileges.
Database level
      Database privileges apply to all tables in a given database. These privileges are stored in the
           mysql.db and mysql.host tables. GRANT ALL ON db_name.* and REVOKE ALL ON
           db_name.* grant and revoke only database privileges.²
Table level
      Table privileges apply to all columns in a given table. These privileges are stored in the
           mysql.tables_priv table. GRANT ALL ON db_name.tbl_name and REVOKE ALL ON
           db_name.tbl_name grant and revoke only table privileges.
Column level
      Column privileges apply to single columns in a given table. These privileges are stored in the
           mysql.columns_priv table. When using REVOKE, you must specify the same columns
           that were granted.²
Setup Users
So a command to grant user to database test:
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO „user‟@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY
     „password‟;
Then we need to reload the privileges:
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Thus ‘user’ may access the MySQL database from ‘localhost’ (server) on all
     tables in the ‘test’ database.
mysql –u user –p
password: password
 Creating Databases
Syntax:
     create database databasename;
     create database library;

Then we can see the database:
    show databases;
+-------------------+
| library           |
| test              |
+-------------------+


Then we need to access/use the databse:
    use library;
Creating Tables
Syntax:
     CREATE TABLE tablename (
        column1 attributes,
        column2 attributes,
        column3 attributes);

    CREATE TABLE books (
       book_id INT(4) PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL
       AUTO_INCREMENT UNSIGNED,
       title VARCHAR(255),
       author VARCHAR(255),
       location VARCHAR(32),
       ISBN VARCHAR(16),
       quantity INT DEFAULT „0‟);
 Creating Tables Cont…
We can then see what tables are in a database:
    Show tables;
+-------------------+
| Tables_in_library |
+-------------------+
| books             |
+-------------------+



Then we can see what columns are in a table.
    DESCRIBE (DESC) tablename;
    DESC TABLE books;
+----------+------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field    | Type             | Null | Key | Default | Extra           |
+----------+------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| book_id   | int(4) unsigned |       | PRI | NULL     | auto_increment |
| title    | varchar(255)     | YES |      | NULL    |                 |
| author   | varchar(255)     | YES |      | NULL    |                 |
| location | varchar(32)      | YES |      | NULL    |                 |
| ISBN     | varchar(16)      | YES |      | NULL    |                 |
| quantity | int(11)          | YES |      | 0       |                 |
+----------+------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
Insert Rows
Syntax:
     INSERT (IGNORE) INTO tablename (columns to insert) VALUES
     (values to insert);

     INSERT INTO books (title, author, location) VALUES ("The
     Hobbit", "JRR Tolkien", “F Tolkien, J”);

     INSERT INTO books (title, author, location, ISBN, quantity)
     VALUES (“Windows XP", “William Gates", “115.4”,
     “1282105242142943”, 1);

Notice I did not specify a book_id, this is because it is an auto incrementing
     row. Therefore The Hobbit will be book_id 1, and Windows XP will be
     book_id 2.
 Selecting Rows
Syntax:
     SELECT columns FROM tablename WHERE condition
     SELECT title, author FROM books WHERE book_id = 1;
+------------+-------------+
| title      | author      |
+------------+-------------+
| The Hobbit | JRR Tolkien |
+------------+-------------+


If you do not specify a WHERE clause, it will select EVERYTHING:
     SELECT title, author FROM books;
+------------+---------------+
| title      | author        |
+------------+---------------+
| The Hobbit | JRR Tolkien   |
| Windows XP | William Gates |
+------------+---------------+
 Selecting Rows Cont…
If you want to rename the returned column, use an as:
     SELECT title as what, author as who FROM books;
+------------+---------------+
| what       | who           |
+------------+---------------+
| The Hobbit | JRR Tolkien   |
| Windows XP | William Gates |
+------------+---------------+


The wildcard ‘*’ can be used to select all columns:
     SELECT * FROM books;
+---------+------------+---------------+--------------+------------------+----------+
| book_id | title      | author        | location     | ISBN             | quantity |
+---------+------------+---------------+--------------+------------------+----------+
| 1       | The Hobbit | JRR Tolkien   | F Tolkien, J | NULL             | 0        |
| 2       | Windows XP | William Gates | 115.4        | 1282105242142943 | 1        |
+---------+------------+---------------+--------------+------------------+----------+

ISBN is NULL for The Hobbit since we did not specify, and the quantity is 0 since
    that is the default value we set.
 Selecting Count
Count is a special syntax which returns a numerical amount of a select
    statement:
    SELECT COUNT(*) FROM books;

+----------+
| COUNT(*) |
+----------+
| 2        |
+----------+


Distinct is another syntax which returns unique values of a select statement:
      SELECT DISTINCT author FROM books;
 Updating Rows
Updating rows changes values of data within rows.
Syntax:
     UPDATE tablename SET attribute1 = value1, attribue2 = value2
     WHERE conditions;
     UPDATE books SET quantity = 5 WHERE book_id = 1;
     SELECT * FROM books WHERE book_id = 1;
+---------+------------+-------------+--------------+------+----------+
| book_id | title      | author      | location     | ISBN | quantity |
+---------+------------+-------------+--------------+------+----------+
| 1       | The Hobbit | JRR Tolkien | F Tolkien, J | NULL | 5        |
+---------+------------+-------------+--------------+------+----------+

WARNING! Be careful of update statements and to specify a WHERE clause.
   Without a WHERE clause, all rows will be updated with quantity of 5.
 Deleting Rows
Syntax:
     DELETE FROM tablename WHERE conditions;
     DELETE FROM books WHERE book_id = 2;
     SELECT * FROM books;
+---------+------------+-------------+--------------+------+----------+
| book_id | title      | author      | location     | ISBN | quantity |
+---------+------------+-------------+--------------+------+----------+
| 1       | The Hobbit | JRR Tolkien | F Tolkien, J | NULL | 5        |
+---------+------------+-------------+--------------+------+----------+



WARNING! Be careful of delete statements and to specify a WHERE clause.
    Without a WHERE clause, all rows will be deleted. If you need to delete all
    the contents of a table:
    DELETE FROM books;
However, this does not reset the indexes of a table, therefore a better
    command is:
    TRUNCATE books;
Where Clauses
Where clauses are very important to select, update, and delete statements.
Where clauses can be in multiple formats and contain multiple parameters:

     WHERE   number (NOT) IN (0,1,2);
     WHERE   (book_id = 1 AND ISBN IS (NOT) NULL) OR         location = 0;
     WHERE   (date > 10212004) AND (date < 11222004);
     WHERE   (quantity + 2) = 4;

Where clauses can be quite long and complex, as the programmer you need to
    know how to read them as well as script them.
Altering Tables
Altering tables enables you to change the structure of a table, whether it be
      changing default values to removing or adding columns.
      ALTER (IGNORE) TABLE tablename alter_specification;
      ALTER TABLE books ADD date timestamp;
      ALTER TABLE books RENAME catalog;
      ALTER TABLE books MODIFY author INT(11) NOT NULL;
      ALTER TABLE books CHANGE ISBN price float;
      ALTER TABLE books DROP COLUMN quantity;
Drop Statements
Drop syntax deletes entire tables or databases.
     DROP TABLE tablename;
     DROP TABLE books;

     DROP databasename;
     DROP library;

This is for deleting databases and tables, not just clearing the entries!
More on Selects
Select Statements can be used for multiple tables:
Example:
     SELECT author_id FROM authors WHERE lastname LIKE “%Rawling%”;
    +-----------+
    | author_id |
    +-----------+
    | 1029      |
    +-----------+

    SELECT title FROM books WHERE author_id = 1029;
    +-----------------------------------------+
    | Title                                   |
    +-----------------------------------------+
    | Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone   |
    | Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets |
    +-----------------------------------------+
More on Selects
Instead of doing two queries, combine them:
     SELECT b.title FROM authors a, books b WHERE       b.author_id =
     a.author_id AND a.lastname LIKE “%Rawling%”;
    +-----------------------------------------+
    | Title                                   |
    +-----------------------------------------+
    | Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone   |
    | Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets |
    +-----------------------------------------+

Even better, we can use a ‘left join’:
     SELECT b.title FROM books LEFT JOIN authors ON b.author_id =
     a.author_id WHERE a.lastname LIKE “%Rawling%”;
Join’s are generally better.
This can also be applied to multiple UPDATES and DELETES.
Indexes
What are indexes?

When talking about databases, indexing is a technique used by most current
    database management systems to speed up particular kinds of queries
    (usually by internally generating and storing redundant information to
    more quickly locate table entries).

For integers, strings, and text, this is invaluable! Especially if the size of the
      table is large!
Creating Indexes
Syntax:
     CREATE (UNIQUE|FULLTEXT|SPATIAL) INDEX index_name
        (index_type) ON tablename (column1,column2,…);
     CREATE INDEX isbn_index ON books (ISBN);
You can specify a certain amount to index on, especially helpful with strings:
     CREATE INDEX title_index ON books (title(11));
Unique indexes help prevent duplicate entries:
     CREATE UNIQUE INDEX author_lastname ON author (lastname(11));
You can assign an index to multiple columns to prevent duplicate entries:
     CREATE UNIQUE INDEX author_ref ON books (title, authorid);
Creating Tables With Indexes
Syntax:
     CREATE TABLE tablename (
         column1 attributes,…
         KEY index_name (column(size))
     );
     CREATE TABLE books (
         book_id INT(4) PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL
         AUTO_INCREMENT UNSIGNED,
         title VARCHAR(255),
         author VARCHAR(255),
         KEY title_index (title(11)),
         KEY author_index (author(11)),
);
Note: book_id does not need an index since primary key attribute takes care of
     it.
Dropping Indexes
Syntax:
     DROP INDEX index_name ON tablename;
     DROP INDEX author_index ON books;
MySQLdump
MySQLdump is a command which dumps defined contests of a database. This is handy in
      terms of backups:
Syntax:
      mysqldump –u username –p (databasename) (tablename)
Useful flags:
      -A|--all-databases – dumps all databases
      -a|--all – same as previous
      -c|--complete-insert – use complete insert statements
      -e|--extended-insert – use extended insert statements
    --add-drop-table – add a drop table before each create table syntax
      -h|--host – define a host
      -n|--no-create-db – do not specify a create database command
      -d|--no-data – do not include the data
      -P|--port
      --tables
MySQLdump
A method of backing up a entire database in *nix is:
    mysqldump –u username –p database > date.sql
Mysqldump exports to the console screen, so it is useful to pipe it into a file, no
      idea how to do this in MSDOS.
There are two ways to restore a backup to mysql:
1. Pipe data back into mysql server:
      mysql –u username –p databasename < file
      mysql –u user –p library < date.sql
2. Source data from within mysql server:
     source filename
     source date.sql
MySQL limitations

   If MyISAM table types are used (default), transactional
    support is disabled. To enable transactions you will need
    to set up MySQL to use InnoDB tables and create the
    database tables as InnoDB type.
   No views, Triggers, Stored procedures support
   User defined functions only possible with external C/C++
    code
   Foreign keys supported only for InnoDB tables
   No support for cursors
   No nested select statement
References

   http://php.net
   http://mysql.com
   http://www.wikipedia.net
   http://www.mysql.com
   https://ims.ecn.purdue.edu/documentation.html

				
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