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Japan 2003

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					            Explanatory Notes
*      Source
—      Not available or negligible
FY     Fiscal Year; Japan (Apr.–Mar.), US (Oct.–Sept.)
¥      Japanese Yen
$      US Dollar
£      Pound Sterling
DM     German Mark
=
C      European Currency Unit
FFr    French Franc
SFr    Swiss Franc
Lit    Italian Lira
Mtoe   Million tons of oil equivalent
APEC   Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
ASEAN  Association of Southeast Asian Nations
BOJ    Bank of Japan
China  People’s Republic of China
EU     European Union
FAO    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FOREX  Foreign Exchange
GDP    Gross Domestic Product
IEA    International Energy Agency
IMF    International Monetary Fund
Korea  Republic of Korea
METI   Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
MEXT   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
MLIT   Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
MOF    Ministry of Finance, Japan
MOFA   Ministry of Foreign Affairs
MPHPT  Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and
       Telecommunications
NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers Automated
       Quotations System
ODA    Official Development Assistance
OECD   Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
UAE    United Arab Emirates
UK     United Kingdom
UN     United Nations
US     United States of America
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Conversion rates are the average exchange rates of each period, unless
otherwise indicated; cf. 4-8 FOREX Rates.


                                                                         1
                Contents
     1    Population and Area
    1-1   Population, Area and Population Density           12
    1-2   Populations at Major Cities                       14
    1-3   Average Life Expectancy (at Birth)                14
    1-4   Persons Aged over 65 and Birthrate                15
    1-5   Death Rate                                        15
    1-6   Population by Age and Gender: Japan               16
    1-7   Change in Population Structure: Japan             16



     2    National Economy and Financial Situation
    2-1   Growth Rate in Real GDP                           17
    2-2   GDP & GDP per Capita                              17
    2-3   Stock Price Index                                 18
    2-4   Chart – Change in Stock Price                     18
    2-5   Change in Real Private Consumption Expenditures 19
    2-6   Change in Real Public Consumption Expenditures    19
    2-7   Change in Real Total Gross Fixed Capital Formation 20
    2-8   Wholesale Price Increase Rates                    20
    2-9   Consumer Price Increase Rates                     21
    2-10 Retail Sales Index                                 21
    2-11 Construction of New Buildings                      22
    2-12 Industrial Production Indices                      22
    2-13 Interest Rates                                     23
    2-14 Official Discount Rates and Money Supply           23
    2-15 Money Supply                                       24
    2-16 Securities Markets                                 24
    2-17 General Government Net Debt Interest Payments      25
    2-18 General Government Gross Financial Liabilities     25
2
2-19 Government Consumption                               26
2-20 Fund-Raising and Fund Operation by the Private Sector 26
2-21 Export of Goods and Services                         27
2-22 Import of Goods and Services                         27
2-23 Issue of Securities                                  28
2-24 Balance of Deposits and Lendings Held
     by Different Categories of Banks: Japan              28
2-25 Chart - Change in Economy: Japan                     29
2-26 Gross Domestic Expenditures: Japan                   30
2-27 Gross National Assets: Japan                         30



 3    Tax and Public Finance
3-1   Components of Tax Revenue                           31
3-2   Components of National Tax Revenue                  31
3-3   Highest Rate of Income Taxes                        32
3-4   Effective Tax Rates of Corporate Taxation           32
3-5   Defense Expenditures                                33
3-6   Composition of Tax Revenue: Japan                   33
3-7   Tax Revenue: Japan                                  34
3-8   National Budget: Japan                              34
3-9   Treasury Loans and Investments: Japan               35
3-10 Local Government Budget: Japan                       35
3-11 Public Works Expenditures: Japan                     36
3-12 Employment Insurance: Japan                          36



 4    International Balance of Payments and FOREX
4-1   Basic Balance: Major Countries/Areas                37
4-2   Current Account Balances                            37
                                                                3
                 Contents
    4-3   Current Account Balances to GDP                        38
    4-4   Trade Balances                                         38
    4-5   Nonfactor Services, Net (Whole Service Balance)        39
    4-6   Gold & FOREX Reserves                                  39
    4-7   Share of National Currencies in Total
          Identified Official Holdings of Foreign Exchange       40
    4-8   FOREX Rates                                            40
    4-9   Exchange Cross Rates                                   41
    4-10 Purchasing Power Parities                               41
    4-11 Balance of Payments: Japan                              42
    4-12 FOREX Turnover of Interbank (Yen to US Dollar): Japan   42



     5     Industries
    5-1   GDP by Industry                                        43
    5-2   Amounts of Major Agricultural Products                 43
    5-3   Fish Catches                                           44
    5-4   Crude Steel Production Ranking                         44
    5-5   Production of Crude Steel                              45
    5-6   Production and Trade of Machine Tools                  46
    5-7   Production of Four-Wheeled Vehicles                    46
    5-8   Automobiles Produced by World's Major Auto Makers 47
    5-9   Industrial-Use Robots in Operation                     47
    5-10 Newbuilding Orders Received
         by World's Major Shipbuilding Countries                 48
    5-11 Completion of Newbuilding
         by World's Major Shipbuilding Countries                 48
    5-12 Freight Transport                                       49
    5-13 Passenger Transport and Road Accidents                  49
    5-14 Comparison in Databases - Japan and the United States   50

4
5-15 Number of Internet Hosts by Nation                  50
5-16 Number of Host Computers (by Country)               51
5-17 International Comparison of Internet Service Fees   51
5-18 Domain Name Registrations under Top-Level Domains 52
5-19 Internet Diffusion Rate                             52
5-20 Shipment of PCs                                     53
5-21 Cellular Phone Subscribers                          53
5-22 R&D Expenditures                                    54
5-23 Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D                   54
5-24 Number of Mobile
     Telecommunication Service Subscribers               55
5-25 Telecommunication                                   55
5-26 Food Self-Supplying Ratio: Japan                    56
5-27 Manufacturing by Commodity in Value: Japan          56
5-28 Production of Processed Food, etc.: Japan           57
5-29 Production of Chemicals: Japan                      57
5-30 Production of Machinery & Equipment: Japan          58
5-31 Construction: Japan                                 59
5-32 Wholesale and Retail Sales: Japan                   59
5-33 Value of Exports and Imports: Japan                 60
5-34 Companies Possessing
     In-House Databases (by Industry): Japan             60
5-35 E-Commerce - B-to-C Market Scale: Japan             61
5-36 Digital Content Market Estimates: Japan             61



 6    Visible Trade (Commodity Trade)
6-1   International Trade: Imports                       62
6-2   International Trade: Exports                       62


                                                              5
                Contents
    6-3   Dependence on Foreign Trade                       63
    6-4   Major International Commodity Market Quotations 64
    6-5   Tonnage of World's Commercial Fleet               64
    6-6   Tonnage of Commercial Vessels by Flag State       65
    6-7   Air Transport                                     65
    6-8   World's Supply and Demand of Grains               66
    6-9   Export Value of Major Item Group                  66
    6-10 Import Value of Major Commodity                    67
    6-11 World Seaborne Trade                               67
    6-12 Imports by Commodity: Japan                        68
    6-13 Import Trend: Japan                                68
    6-14 Import of Foodstuffs: Japan                        69
    6-15 Import Origin of Foodstuffs: Japan                 69
    6-16 Import Origin of Major Foodstuffs: Japan           70
    6-17 Import of Manufactured Products: Japan             71
    6-18 Import Origin of Manufactured Products: Japan      71
    6-19 Import of Machinery & Equipment: Japan             72
    6-20 Import Origin of Machinery & Equipment: Japan      72
    6-21 Import Origin of General Machinery: Japan          73
    6-22 Import Origin of Transportation Equipment: Japan   73
    6-23 Import Origin of Electrical Machinery: Japan       74
    6-24 Import of Chemicals: Japan                         75
    6-25 Import Origin of Chemicals: Japan                  75
    6-26 Import of Textile Products: Japan                  76
    6-27 Import Origin of Textile Products: Japan           76
    6-28 Exports by Commodity: Japan                        77
    6-29 Export Trend: Japan                                77
    6-30 Export of Foodstuffs: Japan                        78
    6-31 Export Destination of Foodstuffs: Japan            78

6
6-32 Export of Machinery & Equipment: Japan                  79
6-33 Export Destination of Machinery & Equipment: Japan      79
6-34 Export Destination of General Machinery: Japan          80
6-35 Export Destination of Transportation Equipment: Japan   80
6-36 Export Destination of Electrical Machinery: Japan       81
6-37 Export of Metals: Japan                                 82
6-38 Export Destination of Metals: Japan                     82
6-39 Export of Chemicals: Japan                              83
6-40 Export Destination of Chemicals: Japan                  83
6-41 Export of Textile: Japan                                84
6-42 Export Destination of Textile: Japan                    84
6-43 Export and Import by Area: Japan                        85
6-44 Export and Import of Commodities: Japan                 85
6-45 Japan's Trading Partners                                86
6-46 Imports from APEC: Japan                                87
6-47 Exports to APEC: Japan                                  87



 7     Invisible Trade and ODA (Service Trade, etc.)
7-1   Balance of Payments in Technology                      88
7-2   Investment Income, Net                                 88
7-3   Foreign Direct Investment: Each Country                89
7-4   Foreign Direct Investment: Japan                       89
7-5   ODA Contributions in Each Region                       90
7-6   Services: Japan                                        91
7-7   Japan's Trading Partners in Services                   91
7-8   Service Balance of Transportation and Travel
      by Trading Partner: Japan                              92
7-9   Service Balance of Construction and Finance
      by Trading Partner: Japan                              92

                                                                  7
                 Contents
    7-10 Service Balance of Communications
         and Information by Trading Partner: Japan            93
    7-11 Number of Departures and Entries: Japan              93
    7-12 Entry into Japan by Nationality                      94
    7-13 Income Balance: Japan                                94
    7-14 Financial Account, Assets and Liabilities: Japan     95
    7-15 ODA Disbursement: Japan                              95



     8    Raw Materials, Energy and Environment
    8-1   Wood                                                96
    8-2   Oil - Reserves, Production, Consumption             96
    8-3   Natural Gas - Reserves, Production, Consumption     97
    8-4   Coal - Reserves, Production, Consumption            97
    8-5   Consumption - Nuclear Energy,
          Hydroelectricity, Primary Energy                    98
    8-6   Primary Energy Supplies                             98
    8-7   Electric Power Production                           99
    8-8   Electricity Generated in Major Countries            99
    8-9   Nuclear Power Generation                           100
    8-10 Final Energy Consumption                            100
    8-11 Crude Oil Processing Capacity of Major Country      101
    8-12 Import Dependency of Major Country                  101
    8-13 CO2 Emissions                                       102
    8-14 CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (By Type of Fuel) 102
    8-15 CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (By Sector) 103
    8-16 Emissions and Pollution - Air                       103
    8-17 Waste                                               104
    8-18 Consumption and Recovery Rate of Used Paper         104


8
8-19 Import of Metal Ores: Japan                       105
8-20 Import of Timber, Pulp and Others: Japan          105
8-21 Import of Mineral Fuels: Japan                    106
8-22 Import of Crude Oil and Oil Prices: Japan         106
8-23 Origin of Main Resources Imported: Japan          107
8-24 Supply and Demand of Energy: Japan                107



 9    Employment, Wages, Prices and Household Economy
9-1   Female Employment                                108
9-2   Part-Time Employment                             108
9-3   Unemployment                                     109
9-4   Unemployment of Females and Youths               109
9-5   Average Wage & Minimum Wage                      110
9-6   Hourly Earnings, Productivity
      and Unit Labor Cost in Manufacturing             110
9-7   Total Workforce Ratio and Its Ratio to Population 111
9-8   Household Savings Rates                          111
9-9   Gross National Saving                            112
9-10 Employees by Industry: Japan                      112
9-11 Average Number of Years Worked by Females: Japan 113
9-12 Illegal Foreign Workers: Japan                    113
9-13 Working Hours per Month: Japan                    114
9-14 Household Accounts: Japan                         114



10    Life, Culture and Others
10-1 Daily Supply of Nutrients                         115
10-2 GDP Deflators                                     115


                                                              9
                 Contents
     10-3 Consumer Price Index                              116
     10-4 Prices of Products and Services                   116
     10-5 Public Utility Charges                            117
     10-6 Urban Park Area                                   117
     10-7 Road Conditions                                   118
     10-8 Causes of Death                                   118
     10-9 Health: Expenditure                               119
     10-10 Ratio of Students Going On to Higher Education   119
     10-11 Education: Expenditures                          120
     10-12 Ratio of Students to Teaching Staff              120
     10-13 Average TOEFL Score (Asia)                       121
     10-14 Marriage and Divorce Rates                       121
     10-15 Nobel Prize Winners                              122
     10-16 Newspapers and Books                             122
     10-17 Military Forces                                  123
     10-18 Selected Non-State Armed Groups                  123
     10-19 Crime Rates in Developed Countries               124
     10-20 Real Residential Price Indices                   124
     10-21 National Medical Treatment Expenditures: Japan   125
     10-22 Medical Treatment Expenditures
           on Elderly People: Japan                         125
     10-23 Number of Foreign Residents: Japan               126
     10-24 Number of Japanese Living Overseas               126



           Reference
     Chronology of Japan                                    127
     Map of Japan                                           128



10
             An International
              Comparison




     Japan
      2003
                  Population and Area
     National Economy and Financial Situation
                Tax and Public Finance
  International Balance of Payments and FOREX
                       Industries
          Visible Trade (Commodity Trade)
   Invisible Trade and ODA (Service Trade, etc.)
      Raw Materials, Energy and Environment
Employment, Wages, Prices and Household Economy
               Life, Culture and Others
 1-1 Population, Area and Population Density (2000)
                                                                         Population
                             (A)
                          Mid-Year       Forecast for Forecast for Forecast for
                          Estimates         Year         Year         Year
                            2000            2010         2030         2050
                           (1,000)         (1,000)      (1,000)      (1,000)

 World total           6,056,715 6,825,736 8,270,064 9,322,251
     Japan                127,096         128,220          121,285        109,220
 United States            283,230          308,557         358,486        397,063
 Canada                     30,757          33,216           37,693        40,407
 Germany                    82,017          81,353           77,678        70,805
 Italy                      57,530          56,390           50,776        42,962
 United Kingdom             59,415          60,262           61,297        58,933
 France                     59,238          61,203           62,935        61,832
 Spain                      39,910          39,569           36,428        31,282
 Sweden                      8,842            8,703            8,426         7,777
 Poland                     38,605          38,253           36,577        33,370
 Russia                   145,491          136,976         121,420        104,258
 Australia                  19,138          21,029           24,230        26,502
 New Zealand                 3,778            4,041            4,367         4,439
 China                 1,275,133 1,366,215 1,484,619 1,462,058
 Indonesia                212,092          237,711         282,851        311,335
 Korea                      46,740          49,623           52,523        51,560
 Malaysia                   22,218          26,146           32,956        37,850
 Philippines                75,653          89,888         112,575        128,383
 Singapore                   4,018            4,604            5,059         4,620
 Thailand                   62,806          69,681           79,525        82,491
 India                 1,008,937 1,164,020 1,408,923 1,572,055
 Brazil                   170,406          191,444         226,496        247,244
 Mexico                     98,872         112,884         134,910        146,651
 Argentina                  37,032          41,474           48,896        54,522
 Nigeria                  113,862          146,935         220,393        278,788
 Egypt                      67,884          79,260           99,492       113,840
 (a) 1,000 km2=386.1 mile2
 * World Population Prospects, 2000, UN; Production Yearbook 2000, FAO



12
                                     Area                  Density
Estimated   Estimated      (B)                              (A/B)
 Increase    Increase   Total Area
FM 2010     FM 2030       1999               Agricultural
 TO 2030     TO 2050     (1,000                 Area      (Population
   (%)         (%)       km2)(a)     (%)         (%)       per km2)

  21.16       12.72 134,142          100.0       11.2         45.2
   -5.41       -9.95         378       0.3       12.9       336.4
  16.18       10.76        9,629       7.2       18.6         29.4
  13.48         7.20       9,971       7.4         4.6         3.1
   -4.52       -8.85         357       0.3       33.7       229.7
   -9.96     -15.39          301       0.2       37.9       190.9
    1.72       -3.86         243       0.2       24.6       244.6
    2.83       -1.75         552       0.4       35.4       107.4
   -7.94     -14.13          506       0.4       36.6         78.9
   -3.18       -7.70         450       0.3         6.1        19.7
   -4.38       -8.77         323       0.2       44.6       119.4
  -11.36     -14.13      17,075       12.7         7.4         8.5
  15.22         9.38       7,741       5.8         6.2         2.5
    8.07        1.65         271       0.2       12.1         14.0
    8.67       -1.52       9,598       7.2       14.1       132.9
  18.99       10.07        1,905       1.4       16.3       111.4
    5.84       -1.83          99       0.1       19.1       470.9
  26.05       14.85          330       0.2       23.1         67.4
  25.24       14.04          300       0.2       33.5       252.2
    9.88       -8.68            1      0.0         1.6     6480.6
  14.13         3.73         513       0.4       39.8       122.4
  21.04       11.58        3,287       2.5       51.6       306.9
  18.31         9.16       8,547       6.4         7.6        19.9
  19.51         8.70       1,958       1.5       13.9         50.5
  17.90       11.51        2,780       2.1         9.8        13.3
  49.99       26.50          924       0.7       33.3       123.3
  25.53       14.42        1,001       0.7         3.3        67.8



                                                                        13
 1-2 Populations at Major Cities
                                                             Population
                                                          (1,000 persons)
     Japan(a)                       Tokyo                     8,130
                                    Yokohama                  3,427
     Korea(b)                       Seoul                    10,231
     China(c)                       Beijing                   7,362
                                    Shanghai                  8,214
                                    Hong Kong                 6,843
     United States(d)               New York                  7,381
                                    Los Angeles               3,554
     Brazil(e)                      Sao Paulo                 9,928
     United Kingdom(d)              London                    7,074
     Italy(b)                       Rome                      2,649
     Germany(f)                     Berlin                    3,426
     France(c)                      Paris                     2,152
     Russia(f)                      Moscow                    8,405
     Australia(f)                   Sydney                    3,935
 (a) 2000 (b) 1995 (c) 1990 (d) 1996 (e) 1998 (f) 1997
 * Demographic Yearbook 1999, UN




 1-3 Average Life Expectancy (at Birth)
                                Male                               Female
                      2045-50 1995-2000 1950-55          2045-50 1995-2000 1950-55
  Japan         83.5                77.0         61.6     92.4     83.8     65.5
 France         80.6                73.4         63.7     87.3     81.5     69.5
 Italy          79.5                75.0         64.3     85.6     81.4     67.8
 Canada         80.1                75.7         66.8     85.6     81.3     71.6
 Sweden         82.1                76.8         70.4     87.1     81.8     73.3
 Spain          79.4                74.6         61.6     85.9     81.8     66.3
 Australia      80.3                75.9         66.9     85.7     81.5     72.4
 Germany        80.7                74.0         65.3     86.2     80.3     69.6
 United Kingdom 80.6                74.7         66.7     85.6     79.0     71.8
 United States 80.0                 73.6         66.1     85.3     79.4     72.0
 Korea          79.1                70.6         46.0     85.0     78.1     49.0
 Brazil         73.6                63.5         49.3     81.3     71.4     52.7
 China          76.7                67.9         39.3     81.3     72.0     42.3
 Egypt          75.6                64.7         41.2     80.1     67.9     43.6
 India          73.5                61.9         39.4     77.4     62.6     38.0
 * World Population Prospects 2000, UN



14
1-4 Persons Aged over 65 and Birthrate
                                 Persons Aged over 65
                          1950          2000       2050 (Prj.)     Birthrate
                        (% of total) (% of total) (% of total) (Per 1,000 persons)
Sweden                       10.3             17.4                30.4        10.0(a)

Canada                        7.7             12.6                24.3        11.6(b)

Germany                       9.7             16.4                31.0         9.5(a)

United Kingdom               10.7             15.8                27.3        11.9(a)

Italy                         8.3             18.1                35.9         9.3(c)

France                       11.4             16.0                26.7        12.6(a)

Australia                     8.1             12.3                22.4        13.0(a)

Japan                         4.9             17.4                35.7         9.4(a)

United States                 8.3             12.3                21.1        14.6(c)
(a) 1999 (b) 1997 (c)1998
* MPHPT




1-5 Death Rate
                         2030-35       2020-25        2010-15       2000-05   1970-75

World           8.7                       8.4            8.5          8.9      11.6
 Japan         13.0                      11.5            9.8          8.3       6.5
France         11.3                      10.4            9.8          9.4      10.7
Italy          15.3                      13.7           12.3         10.9       9.8
Canada         10.7                       9.4            8.4          7.7       7.3
Sweden         13.4                      12.0           11.2         10.6      10.4
Spain          13.7                      12.2           11.1          9.8       8.6
Australia(a)    9.8                       8.7            8.0          7.4       8.5
Germany        13.8                      12.6           11.5         10.8      12.3
United Kingdom 12.3                      11.0           10.4         10.5      11.8
United States   9.6                       8.5            8.3          8.4       9.2
Korea          10.1                       8.3            7.0          5.9       8.3
Brazil          8.7                       7.6            7.2          7.0       9.9
China(b)       10.1                       8.4            7.5          7.0       6.3
Egypt           6.7                       5.9            5.7          6.1      16.3
India           8.1                       7.6            7.5          8.4      15.9
(a) Includes Christmas Island, Cocos Islands and Norfolk Island
(b) Includes Taiwan, excludes Hong Kong and Macao
* World Population Prospects 2000, UN

                                                                                        15
 1-6 Population by Age and Gender(a) (2000): Japan
                            Total        Male        Female         Total       Male    Female
     Age-Groups                         (1000)                                  (%)
 Total           126,926 62,111 64,815 100.00                               48.93      51.07
            0-4 5,904 3,023 2,882        4.65                                2.38       2.27
            5-9 6,022 3,083 2,938        4.74                                2.43       2.31
          10-14 6,547 3,353 3,193        5.16                                2.64       2.52
          15-19 7,488 3,834 3,654        5.90                                3.02       2.88
          20-24 8,421 4,307 4,114        6.63                                3.39       3.24
          25-29 9,790 4,965 4,825        7.71                                3.91       3.80
          30-34 8,777 4,437 4,340        6.92                                3.50       3.42
          35-39 8,115 4,096 4,019        6.39                                3.23       3.17
          40-44 7,800 3,924 3,876        6.15                                3.09       3.05
          45-49 8,916 4,468 4,448        7.02                                3.52       3.50
          50-54 10,442 5,210 5,232       8.23                                4.10       4.12
          55-59 8,734 4,290 4,444        6.88                                3.38       3.50
          60-64 7,736 3,750 3,986        6.09                                2.95       3.14
          65-69 7,106 3,357 3,749        5.60                                2.64       2.95
          70-74 5,901 2,670 3,230        4.65                                2.10       2.54
          75-79 4,151 1,626 2,525        3.27                                1.28       1.99
          80-84 2,615       915 1,699    2.06                                0.72       1.34
          85-89 1,532       477 1,055    1.21                                0.38       0.83
     90 and over     701    176    525   0.55                                0.14       0.41
 (a) Total population
 * MPHPT




 1-7 Change in Population Structure: Japan
          1930
          2000                                   Over 90
                                            •



                                                           •




          2030 (prj.)                            85-89
                                                 80-84
                                            •



                                                           •




                                                 75-79
      Male                                       70-74                                 Female
                                            •



                                                           •




                                                 65-69
                                                 60-64
                                            •



                                                           •




                                                 55-59
                                                 50-54
                                            •



                                                           •




                                                 45-49
                                                 40-44
                                            •



                                                           •




                                                 35-39
                                                 30-34
                                            •



                                                           •




                                                 25-29
                                                 20-24
                                            •



                                                           •




                                                 15-19
                                                 10-14
                                            •



                                                           •




                                                  5-9
                                                  0-4
                                            •



                                                           •




     •    •       •     •      •    •                           •      •    •      •   •    •
 600 500 400 300 200 100                   0               0   100 200 300 400 500 600

 * National Institute of Population and Social Security Research

16
2-1 Growth Rate in Real GDP

(% change from previous year)       2001            2000             1999            1998

 Japan                              -0.4              2.4            0.7             -1.1
United States                        1.2              4.1            4.1              4.3
Germany                              0.6              3.0            1.8              2.0
France                               2.0              3.6            3.0              3.5
Italy                                1.8              2.9            1.6              1.8
United Kingdom                       2.2              3.0            2.1              3.0
Canada                               1.5              4.4            5.1              3.9
Australia                            2.4              3.4            4.5              5.4
Korea                                3.0              9.3           10.9             -6.7
Mexico                              -0.3              6.9            3.8              4.9
Netherlands                          1.1              3.5            3.7              4.3
Spain                                2.8              4.1            4.1              4.3
Switzerland                          1.3              3.0            1.6              2.4
EU                                   1.7              3.4            2.6              2.9
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




2-2 GDP & GDP per Capita (2001)
                                Total ($ billion)            Per Capita ($)
                          Using Current Using Current Using Current Using Current
                             PPPs(a) Exchange Rates      PPPs(a) Exchange Rates
 Japan          3,364.5 4,146.8                               26,500           32,600
United States  10,143.2 10,143.2                              36,500           36,500
Germany         2,185.3 1,846.1                               26,500           22,400
France          1,525.5 1,302.8                               25,100           21,400
Italy           1,510.6 1,088.7                               26,100           18,800
United Kingdom 1,526.1 1,424.1                                25,400           23,700
Canada            893.2    689.7                              28,800           22,200
Australia         517.7    357.1                              26,600           18,300
Korea             748.8    418.0                              15,700            8,800
Mexico            906.7    610.8                               9,300            6,300
Netherlands       457.8    379.8                              28,600           23,700
Spain             844.0    581.8                              21,000           14,500
Switzerland(b)    224.2    247.1                              31,000           34,200
EU              9,593.4 7,882.8                               25,200           20,700
(a) Purchasing Power Parties (PPPs) are the rate of currency conversion which eliminates the
    differences in price levels between countries. They are used to compare the volume of
    GDP in different countries. PPPs are obtained by evaluating the costs of a basket of goods
    and services between countries for all components of GDP; PPPs are given in national cur-
    rency units per US dollar (in euro per US dollar for euro area countries)
(b) Country still using the System of National Accounts (SNA) 1968.
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002                                                          17
 2-3 Stock Price Index(a)
                   Japan(b)          US(c)            UK(d)          Germany(e)   France(f)

 1997             1,397.37          873.43 4,697.70 3,719.06 2,759.91



 1998             1,178.14 1,085.50 5,628.40 5,015.08 3,692.88



 1999             1,388.63 1,327.33 6,282.60 5,341.92 4,550.81



 2000             1,545.22 1,427.22 6,373.34 7,126.75 6,270.69



 2001             1,195.10 1,194.07 5,565.75 5,649.57 5,022.65
 (a) Average stock price within a relative period for each country
 (b) TOPIX (c) S&P 500 Index (d) FTSE 100 (e) DAX (f) CAC40
 * Tokyo Stock Exchange




 2-4 Chart-Change in Stock Price(a)

 300
          •




                                                                        France (CAC40)
 250
          •




 200
          •




                     Germany (DAX)
                                                         US (S&P 500)
                                                                                     188.90
 150
          •




                                                                                     171.23

                                                                                     145.64
 100                                                    UK (FTSE 100)
          •




                                                                                     121.18

     50
          •




                                                              Japan (TOPIX)           73.79

      0       •          •               •               •               •
          1997         1998            1999            2000            2001

 (a) Average stock price within a relative period for each country
 * Tokyo Stock Exchange


18
2-5 Change in Real Private Consumption Expenditures

(% change from previous year)   2001    2000   1999    1998

 Japan                           0.4    0.6     1.2     0.1
United States                    3.1    4.8     5.0     4.8
Germany                          1.1    1.4     3.1     1.8
France                           2.9    2.9     3.2     3.6
Italy                            1.1    2.7     2.4     3.2
United Kingdom                   3.9    4.1     4.2     3.8
Canada                           2.5    3.6     3.4     3.0
Australia                        3.2    2.7     5.1     4.7
Korea                            4.2    7.9    11.0   -11.7
Mexico                           3.4    9.5     4.3     5.4
Netherlands                      1.2    3.8     4.5     4.8
Spain                            2.7    4.0     4.7     4.5
Switzerland                      2.3    2.0     2.2     2.3
EU                               2.0    2.9     3.4     3.3
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




2-6 Change in Real Public Consumption Expenditures

(% change from previous year)   2001    2000   1999    1998

 Japan                            3.2    4.6   4.5      1.9
United States                     3.1    2.9   2.2      1.4
Germany                           1.7    1.2   1.6      1.2
France                            2.1    2.3   2.0     -0.1
Italy                             2.3    1.7   1.3      0.2
United Kingdom                    2.7    3.3   2.8      1.5
Canada                            2.2    2.2   2.6      1.8
Australia                         1.2    5.4   4.2      3.4
Korea                             0.2    0.1   1.3     -0.4
Mexico                           -1.4    3.5   3.9      2.3
Netherlands                       3.3    1.9   2.8      3.6
Spain                             3.1    4.0   4.2      3.7
Switzerland                       0.1   -0.4   0.5      1.3
EU                                2.2    2.1   2.2      1.4
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




                                                              19
 2-7 Change in Real Total Gross Fixed Capital Formation

     (% change from previous year)    2001           2000          1999      1998

  Japan                               -1.7            3.2          -0.8      -4.0
 United States                        -0.7            6.7           7.9      10.3
 Germany                              -4.8            2.3           4.2       3.0
 France                                2.8            6.2           6.2       7.2
 Italy                                 2.4            6.5           5.7       4.0
 United Kingdom                        0.1            3.9           0.9      13.2
 Canada                                1.0            6.7           7.3       2.4
 Australia                            -3.0            0.3           6.6       7.4
 Korea                                -1.7           11.4           3.7     -21.2
 Mexico                               -5.9           10.0           7.7      10.3
 Netherlands                          -1.1            3.8           7.8       4.2
 Spain                                 2.5            5.7           8.8       9.7
 Switzerland                          -1.3            5.8           3.7       4.5
 EU                                    0.1            4.7           5.0       6.8
 * OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




 2-8 Wholesale Price Increase Rates

     (% change from previous year) 2001       2000          1999    1998    1997

     Japan                           -0.8      0.0          -1.4     -1.5    0.6

 Canada                              1.0           4.3       1.8      0.4     0.7

 France                              1.7           4.4      -1.4     -0.9    -0.6

 Germany                             3.0           3.4      -1.0     -0.4    1.1

 Italy                               1.9           6.0      -0.2      0.1    1.3

 Korea                               1.9           2.0      -2.1     12.2     3.9

 United Kingdom                       0.2          2.6       1.6      0.6     1.0

 United States                       2.0           3.7       1.8     -0.9    0.4
 * Monthly Statistics of Japan, July 2002, MPHPT




20
2-9 Consumer Price Increase Rates

(% change from previous year) 2001           2000       1999   1998    1997

Japan                            -0.7        -0.7       -0.3    0.6     1.8

Canada                            2.5             2.7    1.7    1.0     1.6

France                            1.7             1.7    0.5    0.6     1.1

Germany                           2.5             1.9    0.6    1.0     1.9

Italy                             2.8             2.5    1.7    1.9     2.0

Korea                             4.1             2.3    0.8    7.5     4.4

United Kingdom                    1.9             3.0    1.5    3.4     3.1

United States                     2.8             3.4    2.2     1.6    2.3
* Monthly Statistics of Japan, July 2002, MPHPT




2-10 Retail Sales Index

(% change from previous year) 2001           2000       1999   1998    1997

Japan                            -2.2        -1.6       -2.8   -5.4    -0.7

Canada                            4.6             6.3    5.7    3.7     7.7

France                            2.2             1.8    2.7    3.2     0.5

Germany                           1.7             1.1    0.4    1.1    -1.8

Italy                             1.2        11.4        1.9    2.2     3.7

Korea                             4.6             9.8   13.0   -12.7    3.2

United Kingdom                    5.9             4.5    3.5    2.9     5.2

United States                     3.8             6.7    8.4     5.0    4.9
* Monthly Statistics of Japan, July 2002, MPHPT




                                                                              21
 2-11 Construction of New Buildings

     (1,000 units)                 2000             1999             1998           1997

     Japan                        109.1            106.9              99.9          115.6



 United States                       133              139              135           123



 United Kingdom                           -          14.4             14.1           15.0



 Germany                             35.3            39.4             41.7           47.6



 France                              29.4            24.4             31.7           22.5
 * Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Economics & Social Affairs May 2002, UN




 2-12 Industrial Production Indices

     (1995=100)            2001        2000        1999       1998           1997    1996

     Japan                 97.7 105.5             99.9        99.0 106.0 102.4
 United States           122.5 127.4 121.9 117.6                            111.8 104.6
 United Kingdom 103.5 105.8 104.1 103.3                                     102.4 101.3
 Germany                 117.6 117.6 110.2 108.5                            104.1 100.6
 France                  117.1 116.3 112.4 110.2                            104.7 100.9
 Italy                   107.0 107.7 104.4 104.3                            102.4    99.1
 Canada                  119.3 122.7 116.3 110.1                            106.2 101.2
 Korea                   156.7 154.0 131.9 106.2                            113.6 108.4
 Australia               118.3 117.1 111.8 108.3                            104.9 103.3
 China(a)                  82.4        85.1        84.7        90.2          96.6    97.0
 (a) Including Hong Kong
 * Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Economics & Social Affairs, May 2002, UN



22
2-13 Interest Rates

Long-Term Interest Rates(a)(%)      2001            2000             1999            1998

Japan                                1.3               1.7            1.7             1.5
United States                        5.0               6.0            5.6             5.3
United Kingdom                       4.9               5.3            5.1             5.5
Germany                              4.8               5.3            4.5             4.6
France                               5.0               5.4            4.6             4.7

Short-Term Interest Rates(b)(%)     2001            2000             1999            1998

Japan                                0.1               0.2            0.2             0.7
United States                        3.7               6.5            5.4             5.5
United Kingdom                       5.0               6.1            5.4             7.3
Germany                              4.2               4.4            3.0             3.5
France                               4.2               4.4            3.0             3.6
(a) 10-year benchmark government bond yields where available or yield on proximately similar
    financial instruments (for Korea a 5-year bond is used).
(b) 3-month money market rates where available, or rates on proximately similar financial
    instruments.
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




2-14 Official Discount Rates(a) and Money Supply
Official Discount
Rates (%)             2002(b)       2001        2000         1999        1998        1997

Japan                  0.10        0.10        0.50          0.50       0.50        0.50

United States          1.25        1.25         6.00         5.00        4.50       5.00

United Kingdom 4.000              4.000       6.000       5.500        6.250       7.250

Euro area              3.25        3.25         4.75         3.00        2.50       2.50
Annual Rates of Increase
of Money Supply (%)                 2001        2000         1999        1998        1997

Japan(c)                             2.8         2.1          3.6         4.0         3.1

United States(d)                     8.8          6.1         7.6         7.3         4.9

United Kingdom(e)                    6.6          8.3         4.2         8.3       11.9

Euro area(f)                         8.1          4.1         5.7         7.4         3.6
(a) At year-end (b) Sept. (c) (M2 + CD) average outstanding (d) M2 (e) M4 (f) M3
* Financial and Economic Statistics Monthly, Oct. 2002, BOJ


                                                                                               23
 2-15 Money Supply(a) (2000)
                                     Money                  Money plus Quasi-Money

     Japan                             3.5                           1.1
 United States                        -3.8                           6.5
 Euro Area                             5.8                             -
 United Kingdom                      14.1                           11.3
 Canada                              13.1                           14.0
 Thailand                             -7.5                           3.4
 Singapore                             6.9                          -2.0
 Korea                                 5.9                          25.4
 China                               16.1                           12.3
 Australia                             9.3                           3.8
 (a) % change from previous year
 * International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2002, IMF




 2-16 Securities Markets (2000)
                                            Stocks                Bonds
                                                Aggregate             Aggregate
     ($ billion)                    Turnover Market Value Turnover Market Value
     Japan (Tokyo)                   2,307.3        3,138.0         32.4    2,532.8
  United States (New York)           9,919.4 11,632.9                 2.3     296.8
  United Kingdom (London) 1,836.5                    2,703.5      1,149.2     526.2
  Germany(a)                         1,773.6         1,276.0       668.0    1,009.5
     France (Paris)                  1,073.1         1,433.7        28.0      724.9
     Italy (Milan)                      825.0             761.5    140.9      980.2
     Canada (Toronto)                   634.8             771.0       0.7       2.1
     Hong Kong (Hong Kong)              367.1             615.1     0.01        N/A
     Singapore (Singapore)                99.8            227.3       1.2     219.1
     Australia (Australia)              227.4             371.7       0.9      58.9
 (a) Figures refer to all of Germany's stock exchanges.
 * Tokyo Stock Exchange



24
2-17 General Government Net Debt Interest Payments

(% of nominal GDP)             2003(a)   2002(a)    2001    2000

Japan                            1.5       1.2       1.4     1.4
United States                     1.9      2.0       2.3     2.7
Germany                           2.9      2.9       2.8     2.8
France                            2.8      2.9       2.9     2.9
Italy                             5.8      5.8       5.9     6.0
United Kingdom                    1.8      1.9       1.6     2.1
Canada                            3.0      3.1       2.9     3.3
Australia                         1.5      1.6       1.7     1.8
Korea                            -1.0     -1.0      -1.1    -1.1
Netherlands                       1.7      2.2       2.5     3.2
Spain                             2.7      2.8       2.9     3.1
EU                                3.1      3.1       3.2     3.4
(a) projections
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




2-18 General Government Gross Financial Liabilities

(% of nominal GDP)             2003(a)   2002(a)    2001    2000

Japan                         152.0      143.3     132.8   123.5
United States                   57.6      58.9      59.5    59.4
Germany                         60.9      61.3      60.3    60.8
France                          65.7      65.6      64.8    64.1
Italy                         103.1      106.3     108.7   111.4
United Kingdom                  51.6      51.8      52.5    54.0
Canada                          96.2      99.7     101.6   103.0
Australia                       23.4      24.3      24.4    23.4
Korea                           12.4      13.8      15.9    19.2
Netherlands                     49.0      50.8      53.2    56.0
Spain                           65.4      67.5      69.1    72.1
EU                              67.1      68.4      69.1    70.5
(a) projections
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002



                                                                   25
 2-19 Government Consumption

     (1995 = 100)                  2001            2000            1999            1998

 Australia                       121.4           119.8            113.7           109.2
 Canada                          108.8           105.3            102.9           101.0
 France                          111.5           108.8            105.9           104.3
 Germany                         108.1           106.3            105.0           103.4
 Italy                           106.8           104.5            102.8           101.4
  Japan                          119.7           116.1            111.0           106.2
 Korea                           111.0           110.8            110.7           109.3
 Mexico                          110.0           111.6            109.4           104.5
 Netherlands                     115.3           111.4            109.4           106.4
 Spain                           120.7           117.0            112.5           108.0
 Switzerland                     103.5           103.4            103.8           103.3
 United Kingdom                  110.5           108.1            105.9           102.8
 United States                   113.9           109.8            106.8           103.7
 * Quarterly National Accounts, OECD, 2002




 2-20 Fund-Raising and Fund Operation by the Private Sector (1999)
                               Japan        US          UK        Germany France
                             (¥ billion) ($ billion) (£ billion) (DM billion) (FFr billion)
 Currency & deposits 24,187.9         88.1     32.3   18.0   209.0
                        (71.7%) (17.9%) (48.0%) (6.5%) (27.0%)
 Loans                     501.1      41.4     -0.8             2.5
                          (1.5%) (8.4%) (-1.2%)             (0.3%)
 Securities
   other than shares -6,370.8       433.3       8.7   92.6     38.2
                       (-18.9%) (88.1%) (13.0%) (33.5%) (4.9%)
 Shares and
   other equities          342.2 -387.1       -24.3   20.5    -13.1
                          (1.0%) (-78.7%) (-36.2%) (7.4%) (-1.7%)
 Insurance &
   pension reserves 13,613.6        304.5      47.1 137.2    378.9
                        (40.3%) (61.9%) (70.0%) (49.6%) (48.9%)
 Foreign assets         4,443.9
                        (13.2%)
 Others                -2,962.9       11.6      4.3    6.1   158.9
                         (-8.8%) (2.4%) (6.4%) (2.2%) (20.5%)
 Fund operation total 33,755.0      491.7      67.2 276.6    774.1
                      (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%)
 Fund-raising total    -2,247.0     622.2 6,215.3   144.1    297.4
 * Comparative Economic and Financial Statistics 2000, BOJ

26
2-21 Exports of Goods and Services

(1995 = 100)                     2001       2000    1999    1998

Australia                       143.4       142.2   128.6   123.0
Canada                          142.6       148.2   137.3   124.8
France                          150.1       148.2   131.1   125.4
Germany                         156.4       149.4   131.9   124.9
Italy                           125.0       124.0   111.0   110.7
 Japan                          123.1       131.8   117.3   115.7
Korea                           217.1       215.1   178.5   154.1
Mexico                          182.1       191.9   165.0   146.7
Netherlands                     142.3       141.0   128.8   122.2
Spain                           168.0       162.4   148.2   137.8
Switzerland                     137.1       137.9   123.7   116.9
United Kingdom                  142.1       140.1   127.2   120.8
United States                   133.1       140.7   128.2   124.0
* Quarterly National Accounts, OECD, 2002




2-22 Imports of Goods and Services

(1995 = 100)                     2001       2000    1999    1998

Australia                       141.6       148.3   138.5   126.8
Canada                          138.6       147.1   136.0   126.2
France                          149.2       148.1   129.1   121.5
Germany                         145.2       145.1   131.8   121.6
Italy                           137.8       137.6   125.8   119.5
 Japan                          119.8       120.5   110.0   106.8
Korea                           137.9       142.0   118.3    91.9
Mexico                          236.7       243.6   200.6   175.8
Netherlands                     145.5       144.3   131.9   124.1
Spain                           178.0       171.7   156.4   138.6
Switzerland                     142.0       141.1   127.6   121.2
United Kingdom                  164.4       160.1   143.3   131.8
United States                   168.3       173.2   153.0   138.0
* Quarterly National Accounts, OECD, 2002




                                                                    27
 2-23 Issue of Securities (1999)
                                          Japan              US               UK             Germany
                                        (¥ trillion)      ($ billion)      (£ billion)       =
                                                                                             (C billion)
 Stocks Total                              12.70            131.6             10.26            36.01
                    Nonfinancial
                     enterprises             4.91           110.3
                    Financial
                      institutions           7.79              21.3
 Bonds Total                               96.49         1,431.0              27.19          568.21
                    Public:                56.54            489.7             15.89          120.15
                    Nonfinancial
                     enterprises           14.77            294.0               7.12             2.57
                    Financial
                      institutions         24.52            647.3                            445.49
 Total issues                            109.19          1,562.6              37.45          604.22
     Total issues ($ billion)              958.6         1,562.6                60.6           644.6
 * Comparative Economic and Financial Statistics 2000, BOJ




 2-24 Balance of Deposits and Lendings Held by
      Different Categories of Banks(a) (2001)(b) : Japan
                                           Balance of                           Balance of
     (¥ trillion)                         All Deposits                        Loans Extended
 City banks                            212.0              (-5.0)            207.9              (-1.4)
 Long-term credit banks                    6.8(c)       (-11.3)                30.3(c)       (-17.7)
     Trust banks                         29.7(c)           (7.0)               32.3(c)           (5.7)
 Regional banks                        180.9               (0.3)            134.0                (0.9)
 Secondary regional banks 57.2                            (-1.3)               44.5            (-6.8)
 Shinkin            banks(d)           105.8               (2.1)               65.1            (-3.6)
 Credit cooperatives                     18.8(e)          (-4.4)               13.8(e)         (-5.2)
 Agricultural cooperatives 72.1(f)                         (2.6)               22.0(f)         (-0.4)
     Foreign banks                         8.7           (11.5)                  9.4          (17.7)
     Postal savings                    247.5              (-4.7)                     -
 (a) The total amount of deposits consists of sales of securities and deposits in the case of long-term
     credit and trust banks. Figures in parentheses show percentage change from the same month of the
     preceding year.
 (b) As of the end of June (c) As of Sept. 2000 (d) Credit banks (e) As of Dec. 2000 (f) As of March 2001
 * Financial and Economics Statistics Monthly, Aug. 2001, BOJ

28
2-25 Chart-Change in Economy: Japan
           Annual Growth Rate of GDP
 8
     •

                                  7.9
 6
     •



                       6.5                    Nominal GDP 3.5
 4
     •




                  Real GDP                                              1.8        2.4
 2         3.0
     •




                                                                 2.6 2.2       0.7
                                                                          -1.1
 0                                                                                               -0.4
     •




                                                                                          0.3
-2                                                                       -1.2 -0.8               -1.9
     •




-4     •    •     •     •     •     •     •   •      •   •   •    •     •     •     •     •     •
      1985 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01

12                             11.7
     •




                                        Annual Rate of Increase of
10                                      Money Supply (M2+CDs)(a)
     •




 8
     •




       Official Discount 6.0
 6
     •




       Rate
                                                                              4.0
 4                                                                      3.1         3.6
     •




                                                                                                    2.8
                                                                                          2.1
 2
     •




                 2.5                           0.6
                                                                  0.5                               0.1
 0     •    •     •     •     •     •     •   •      •   •   •    •     •     •     •     •     •
      1985 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01

400                               390.6
     •




                                              Land Prices in Business
                                              Districts of Six Major Cities(b)
300                            274.6
     •




                                        Nikkei 225
200
     •




                                                                                  164.1         154.5
                       TOPIX(c)
100                                                                                              98.4
     •




                        Nominal GDP                                                              80.4
                                                                                                 69.5
  0    •    •     •     •     •     •     •   •      •   •   •    •     •     •     •     •     •
      1985 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01

 5                                                                                                  5.0
     •




 4
     •




 3                          Unemployment Rates
     •




 2
     •




 1
     •




 0     •    •     •     •     •     •     •   •      •   •   •    •     •     •     •     •     •
      1985 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01
(a) Average outstanding (b) Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Kyoto, Kobe
(c) Tokyo Stock Price Index
* Tokyo Stock Exchange; Japan Real Estate Institute; Financial and Economic Statistics
  Monthly, Oct. 2002, BOJ; OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002

                                                                                                          29
 2-26 Gross Domestic Expenditures: Japan

     (¥ trillion)                                        2001             (%)(a)   2000       1999

 Nominal GDP                 506.1                                                 513.5     511.8
 Real GDP                    533.7                                                 534.1     521.8
  Private consumption        293.4   (1.4)                                         289.4     287.8
  Residential investment      19.4 (-5.7)                                           20.5      20.1
  Nonresidential investment 89.9     (0.2)                                          88.4      80.1
  Private inventory           -2.8 (-43.2)                                          -1.9      -1.6
  Government consumption 89.0        (2.9)                                          86.7      82.8
  Public investment           35.0 (-5.0)                                           37.5      41.5
  Public inventory             0.0 (-81.6)                                           0.1       0.0
  Exports of goods & services 55.5 (-7.0)                                           59.6      53.1
  Imports of goods & services 45.8 (-0.8)                                           46.2      42.1
 Nominal growth rate (%)      -1.5                                                   0.3      -0.8
 Real growth rate (%)         -0.2                                                   2.4       0.7
 (a) Rate of increase from the previous year
 * Cabinet Office, Economic and Social Research Institute




 2-27 Gross National Assets(a): Japan

 9,000
              •




                            8,477.5 8,581.2 8,381.7 8,429.6
                                                            8,266.0
 8,000
              •




 7,000
              •




 6,000
              •




                  Financial (66.5)    (66.1)   (64.3)   (63.7)   (63.0)
 5,000            Assets
              •




                  (%)
 4,000
              •




 3,000                                                                  Fixed Assets, Housing,
              •




                                                                        Inventories Buildings,
                             (15.4)   (15.1)   (15.5)   (15.5)   (15.2) & Others      Machinery, Net
                  Real
 2,000                                                                                Equipment Assets
              •




                  Assets
                                                                                      & Others
 1,000            (%)
              •




                             (18.1)   (18.8)   (20.3)   (20.9)   (21.8)
                                                                        Land
          0
                             2000 1999 1998 1997 1996
 (a) Not including net external assets
 * Annual Report on National Accounts 2002, Cabinet Office, Economic and Social Research
   Institute


30
3-1 Components of Tax Revenue(a)
                  Income and Corporate Tax          Domestic
                                                              Trade and
                                            Social Property
                                                             International Other        Non-Tax
                          Income Corporate Security   and
                Total                                        Transactions Taxes         Receipts
                            Tax     Tax Insurance Services
(%)                                                               Tax
                                                      Tax
Japan(b)       36.16 23.72 12.45 26.48 14.43                         1.24      6.24 15.45

Australia(c) 67.14 49.83 16.60                       - 20.24         2.56       3.73      6.33

France(d)      19.34 14.34             4.94 41.16 28.23                   -     5.20      6.07

Germany(c) 14.50 12.56                 1.94 47.58 20.04                   -     1.74 15.94

United
Kingdom(e) 39.71 29.13 10.58 17.02 31.02                                  -     7.36      4.89

United
States(f)      57.45 47.61             9.84 30.72          3.18      1.02       1.40      6.23
(a) Due to differences in data received from individual countries, exact comparisons are diffi-
    cult.
(b) 1993 (c) 1998 (d) 1997 (e) 1999 (f) 2000
* Government Finance Statistics Yearbook 2001, IMF



3-2 Components of National Tax Revenue (2000)
                               Japan(a)     US(b)       UK(c) Germany(b) France(d)
                              (¥ billion) ($ billion) (£ billion) (DM billion) (FFr billion)


Total tax revenue 52,720.9 1,324.9 255.3 431.5 1,942.8
                   (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0)




  Direct taxes                   (61.3)      (93.3)        (57.1)        (47.4)        (43.3)




  Indirect taxes                 (38.7)        (6.7)       (42.9)        (52.6)        (56.7)


( ): % of total tax revenue
(a) Based on fiscal year
(b) Based on accounting year
(c) Provisional appraisals by calendar year 1999
(d) Estimates for the fiscal year (from January to December)
* Tax Bureau, Ministry of Finance

                                                                                                   31
 3-3 Highest Rate of Income Taxes(a) (2000)

     (%)                                               Income Tax                               Corporate Tax

 Australia                                                    48.5                                      36.0
 Belgium                                                      65.6                                      40.2
 Canada                                                       48.6                                      43.4
 France                                                       62.9                                      41.7
 Germany                                                      53.8                                      54.0(b)
 Italy                                                        50.8                                      37.0
  Japan                                                       50.0                                      40.9
 Korea                                                        44.0                                      30.8
 Netherlands                                                  60.0                                      35.0
 Spain                                                        48.0                                      35.8
 Sweden                                                       53.3                                      28.0
 United Kingdom                                               40.0                                      30.0
 United States                                                45.6                                      39.5
 (a) International comparisons should also take into account differences among countries in the length of tax
 brackets, the amount of tax relief and rates of social security contributions. The highest rate of income tax
 includes temporary special surcharges. All rates include (average) rates of state and local income taxes as
 reported in the OECD Tax Database. (b) Retained profits, includes the highest local business tax
 * OECD in Figures 2002



 3-4 Effective Tax Rates of Corporate Taxation(a)
 60
       •




                                         Germany(b)
 55
       •




 50
       •




                                                          Japan(a)

 45
       •




                                                             United States(c)                                  40.87
 40                                                                                                            40.75
       •




                                                                                                               38.44
                                                                  France(d)
 35
       •




                     United Kingdom                                                                            34.33

                                                                             30.00
 30 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
    1979 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01
 (a) Figures represent the total of corporate tax, corporate housing tax and corporate business tax after adjustments for
     such items as company net losses. (b) Supplemental taxes (5.5% of the corporate tax amount) are included.
     National tax is a joint federal and state tax (50/50). Regional tax is processed as a business tax, which is a stan-
     dardized tax on income from government enterprises. (c) Corporate tax rates for the state of California are used in
     this example. For states where city taxes apply, such as New York, the combination of federal, state and city taxes
     results in an average taxation rate of 45.95%. In addition to corporate income taxes, some cities and states require
     companies to pay such taxes as payroll taxes. (d) Includes supplemental taxes (equal to three percent of the
     amount of corporate taxes on enterprises. Also include occupation tax (regional tax).
 * National tax reference material, MOF
32
3-5 Defense Expenditures (2000)
                                     Expenditures                Burden      Ratio to
($ billion)                        2000        1999           per Capita ($) GDP (%)
United States                      294.7          292.1           1,059             3.0
Russia                              58.8           56.8             400             5.0
 Japan                              44.4           40.4             351             1.0
China                               41.2           39.9              32             5.3
France                              34.3           37.8             580             2.6
United Kingdom                      33.9           36.4             576             2.4
Germany                             28.2           31.2             343             1.6
Italy                               20.6           22.7             359             1.9
Saudi Arabia                        18.3           21.9             848            10.1
Brazil                              17.5           16.0             103             2.8
Taiwan                              17.2           15.0             785             5.6
India                               14.5           13.9              14             3.1
Korea                               12.5           12.1             263             2.8
Turkey                              10.6            9.7             159             5.2
Israel                               9.4            8.8           1,512             8.9
* Military Balance 2001/2002, Global Strategies Research Institute (England)




3-6 Composition of Tax Revenue (FY2000) : Japan

                               Residence (13.0)                  Income
                                                                  (21.3)

                    Fixed       Direct
                   Assets     (29.3)
                   (10.2)             National
                                    (59.7)
  Others                                    Total Tax
   (1.5)       Business                      Revenue            Direct Corporate
                                               88.3       Local
Light Oil        (4.7)                                          (36.6) (13.3)
                                            (¥ trillion) (40.3)
   (1.4)
                              Indirect
        Local                    (10.9)
Consumption
         (2.9)            Others            Indirect (23.1)
     Real Estate           (6.1)                                               Others (2.0)
Acquisition (0.6)                  Others                 Consumption
                                    (4.7)                    (11.1)
     Customs Duties (0.9)
           Automobiles (1.0)                                 Gasoline (2.4)
                     Tobacco (1.0)                 Liquor (2.1)

( ): % of total tax revenue
* MPHPT

                                                                                              33
 3-7 Tax Revenue: Japan
                                               Budget                    Settlement
     (¥ billion)                                2002                 2001           2000
 National taxes                              46,816.0           49,625.0          49,895.0
       Income tax                            15,831.0           18,116.0          19,047.0
          Withholding                        12,933.0           15,201.0          16,182.0
          Self-assessment                     2,898.0               2,915.0            2,865.0
       Corporate tax                         11,174.0           11,193.0          10,816.0
       Inheritance tax                        1,530.0               1,597.0            1,671.0
       Consumption tax                        9,825.0           10,129.0               9,856.0
       Liquor tax                             1,735.0               1,823.0            1,860.0
       Customs duties                           860.0                814.0              730.0
       Stamp revenue                          1,444.0               1,505.0            1,511.0
       Others                                 4,417.0               4,448.0            4,404.0
     Local taxes                             34,256.3           35,581.0          35,056.8
 * Ministry of Finance Statistics Monthly, May 2002, MOF




 3-8 National Budget(a): Japan
 General Account Revenue                                                          Others (3.6)

                        Tax and Stamp Revenue                        Government
 1996                                                                  Bonds             75,105
                                (68.4)                                 (28.0)


 2002                        (57.6)                                 (36.9)        (5.5) 81,230

                   •     •       •       •      •       •      •       •      •    •
           0       10    20     30    40        50      60     70     80     90   100
 General Account Expenditures Education and Science                          Defense
      National Debt             Social          Local       Public
 1996                                        Allocation                       Others 75,105
        Expense                Security      Tax Grants     Works (8.3) (6.5)
          (21.8)                (19.0)         (18.1)       (12.8)            (13.5)


 2002          (20.5)           (22.5)           (19.8)      (10.4) (8.2) (6.1) (12.5) 81,230

                   •     •       •       •      •       •      •       •      •    •
           0       10    20     30    40        50      60     70     80     90   100
 ( ): %
 (a) Initial budget
 * Ministry of Finance Statistics Monthly, May 2002, MOF


34
3-9 Treasury Loans and Investments: Japan

50,000                                   48,190
          •



40,000
          •




                                34,572

30,000                                                                  Social Welfare
          •




                                                       26,792           Facilities (3.8)
                                                     Others (9.3)       Transportation &
                       20,858                                           Communications
20,000        18,180                                 Roads (13.7)       (2.3)
          •




                                                   Small and Medium-
                                                    Sized Enterprises   Trade, Economic
                                                          (17.7)        Cooperation (4.8)
                                                     Improvement of
10,000                                             Living Environment
          •




                                                          (21.5)
                                                                        Local
                                                       Housing          Development
                                                        (23.0)          (3.9)
      0
            FY1980 1985 1990 1995                         2002
( ): % of total treasury loans and investments
* Ministry of Finance Statistics Monthly, May 2002, MOF




3-10 Local Government Budget(a) (FY2002): Japan
Revenue

                                      Local    Treasury Local
          Local Tax                 Allocation Disburse- Bonds           (7.7) 87,567
           (39.1)                       Tax     ments (14.4)
                                      (22.3)    (14.6)

                                                          Rental Fees         Others
                                                    and Commissions
                                                                (1.9)
Expenditures

                                                    General      Public
    Investment               Wage &
                                                  Administration Debt            87,567
      Expense              Salary Costs
                                                     Costs      Expense
       (28.1)                 (27.1)
                                                     (23.8)      (15.3)

                                                     Public Corporations'         Others
                                                          Expenses (3.7)          (2.0)
( ): %
(a) Initial budget
* Ministry of Finance Statistics Monthly, May 2002, MOF


                                                                                            35
 3-11 Public Works Expenditures: Japan

     (¥ million)                                            FY2002             FY2001

 Total                                                     8,517,729        11,476,045
 Afforestation projects                                    1,272,005          1,818,661
 Road maintenance                                          2,315,101          3,086,936
 Harbors and airports                                       589,309            780,828
 Housing projects                                           929,634           1,187,898
 Sewers, sanitation and others                             1,457,642          1,900,126
 Agriculture and forestry projects                         1,303,113          1,706,799
 Environmental, urban development
   projects and others                                      533,665            575,841
 Improvements expense                                        44,586             37,251
 Disaster reconstruction expense                             72,674            381,705
 * Ministry of Finance Statistics Monthly, May 2002, MOF




 3-12 Employment Insurance: Japan
                                   2001             2000             1999        1998

 Application

      Insured workers(a)
      (excluding day laborers)       34,111         33,905           33,902      34,195

     General employees

      Recipients(a)                    1,106          1,029           1,068       1,053

      Amount of benefits(b)      2,013,622 1,892,909 1,995,836 1,923,670

     Older persons

      Beneficiaries(a)                     11               11          12              13

      Amount of benefits(b)          46,114         45,011           70,467     110,527
 (a) 1,000
 (b) ¥ million
 * Monthly Statistics of Japan, Oct. 2002, MPHPT


36
4-1 Basic Balance (2001): Major Countries/Areas
                                         Current Balance                       Capital and
                   Current      Trade                                 Current Financial
(¥ billion)        Account     Balance      Services       Income    Transfers Account
Japan             10,652.3 8,527.0 -5,315.0 8,400.7                    -960.4 -6,172.6
United States     10,017.0 7,402.4 -1,801.9 4,604.9                    -188.3 -3,221.6
Canada                139.7      -101.6          -9.9       262.6       -11.3      155.4
France                -21.1        27.4       -237.5        195.6         -6.6    -615.2
Germany               853.6       476.4       -146.1        535.6       -12.3       59.5
Italy                 -37.2       -35.0       -140.0        141.3         -3.4    -380.4
United Kingdom         42.4       725.1       -329.9        -328.0      -24.8 -2,924.1
Australia            -714.0      -713.3       -179.4        188.3         -9.6    -269.3
Asia                1,889.4 2,529.4           -990.2        650.8      -300.6 -2,117.0
EU                  2,990.7 2,608.5           -946.8 1,392.4            -63.4 -2,730.8
* Balance of Payments Monthly, April 2002, BOJ




4-2 Current Account Balances
                                2002
($ billion)                  (Projected) 2001               2000       1999        1998
 Japan                         124.1   91.1 116.8 107.0 121.0
United States                 -469.9 -417.4 -444.7 -324.4 -217.5
United Kingdom                  -29.1 -25.1 -25.6 -31.0     -8.0
Germany                          26.8    2.1 -20.4 -19.1    -6.7
France                           25.8  24.0   20.1   35.6   39.3
Italy                             3.3    3.2  -5.4    8.2   23.0
Canada                           13.1  18.9   18.1    1.2   -8.3
Australia                       -14.6   -7.7 -13.4 -21.3 -16.4
Korea                             6.3    8.6  12.2   24.5   40.4
Mexico                          -17.7 -17.5 -17.7 -14.0 -16.1
Netherlands                      18.0  11.9   11.0   13.0   13.3
OECD                          -287.6 -278.8 -335.2 -211.2 -15.7
EU                               35.6    8.3 -32.1    4.3   70.0
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




                                                                                             37
 4-3 Current Account Balances to GDP
                              2002
     Ratio to GDP (%)      (Projected) 2001     2000   1999   1998
  Japan                         3.3       2.2    2.4    2.4    3.1
 United States                 -4.4      -4.1   -4.5   -3.5   -2.5
 Germany                        1.5       0.1   -1.1   -0.9   -0.3
 France                         2.0       1.8    1.5    2.5    2.7
 Italy                          0.3       0.3   -0.5    0.7    1.9
 United Kingdom                -1.9      -1.8   -1.8   -2.1   -0.6
 Canada                         1.9       2.7    2.5    0.2   -1.3
 Australia                     -3.8      -2.2   -3.5   -5.4   -4.5
 Korea                          1.4       2.0    2.7    6.0   12.8
 Mexico                        -2.6      -2.8   -3.1   -2.9   -3.8
 Netherlands                    4.6       3.1    2.9    3.2    3.4
 OECD                          -1.1      -1.1   -1.3   -0.8   -0.1
 EU                             0.4       0.1   -0.4    0.1    0.8
 * OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




 4-4 Trade Balances
                               2002
     ($ billion)            (Projected) 2001    2000   1999   1998
  Japan                       88.7   70.3 116.6 123.2 122.5
 United States              -462.3 -426.6 -452.2 -345.4 -246.7
 United Kingdom              -50.2 -47.6 -45.4 -44.6 -36.2
 Germany                     104.0   89.5   58.6   70.9   77.8
 France                         4.8   3.8   -0.4   18.6   25.4
 Italy                        20.2   17.5   10.0   23.5   36.5
 Canada                       33.9   39.8   39.9   25.9   15.3
 Australia                     -2.3   2.0   -4.7   -9.7   -5.4
 Korea                        10.8   13.4   16.9   28.4   41.6
 Mexico                        -9.0  -9.7   -8.0   -5.6   -7.9
 Netherlands                  27.6   23.5   21.3   16.0   21.0
 OECD                       -235.1 -222.1 -271.7 -121.0   17.7
 EU                          106.2   88.8   37.1   83.8 131.9
 * OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




38
4-5 Nonfactor Services, Net (Whole Service Balance)
                                2002
($ billion)                  (Projected) 2001             2000       1999     1998
 Japan                         -35.7       -43.8         -47.6      -54.1    -49.5
United States                   70.4        78.8          76.5       83.6     79.9
Germany                        -47.9       -52.3         -50.8      -53.0    -47.0
France                          18.9        19.0          19.9       18.0     17.6
Italy                             0.1        -0.0           0.9        1.2     4.8
United Kingdom                  17.6        16.9          20.9       18.9     21.0
Canada                           -4.0        -4.4         -4.5       -4.3     -4.5
Australia                        -1.2        -0.6           0.3       -0.9    -1.1
Korea                            -5.3        -3.5          -2.9       -0.7     1.0
Mexico                           -4.1        -3.6          -2.3       -1.8    -0.9
Netherlands                      -2.4        -1.5          -0.4        2.5     2.5
OECD                            65.8        61.9          64.5       58.8     80.5
EU                              15.7          9.1         14.8       13.3     22.0
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




4-6 Gold & FOREX Reserves

($ billion)                                       2001            2000       1999

Japan                                             402.0           361.6      288.1

United States                                      68.7            67.7       71.6

United Kingdom(a)                                  27.8            32.2       25.9

Euro Area(b)(c)                                   392.4           378.0      372.3

Canada(c)                                          34.0            31.9       28.1

Korea(c)                                          102.8            96.2       74.1

Singapore                                          75.8            80.1       76.8

Australia                                          18.7            18.8       22.0
(a) billion £ (b) billion Euro
(c) excluding gold
* Monthly Statistics of Japan, Oct. 2002, MPHPT


                                                                                     39
 4-7 Share of National Currencies in Total Identified
     Official Holdings of Foreign Exchange
                                                 ECU DM
 100
          •



              11.0   10.7   10.3   12.5   11.3    10.8       11.8     9.6      9.9      9.8   Others
               3.1   3.0    3.3           3.4     3.7        3.9      4.0      3.9      4.0   £
                                   3.2
                     8.2    7.7           5.9     5.0            0.8
     80        9.7                 6.8                       5.4 12.7                 13.0
          •




                                                  5.2                          13.0
                             7.9          6.0
               7.6   7.7           6.8                       12.2
                                                  12.9                5.5      5.2      4.9   ¥
                                          13.1
              13.3   13.7   14.2   13.7
     60
          •




                                                                                              $
     40
          •




                                                                      68.4     68.1   68.3
                                                             65.9
                     56.7          57.0   60.3    62.4
              55.3          56.6

     20
          •




      0
              1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
 * Annual Report 2001, IMF




 4-8 FOREX Rates(a)
                        Monetary Estimated(b)
                          Unit       2002         2001              2000         1999         1998
     Japan                  ¥       132.1        121.5              107.8       113.9         130.9
  Germany                   DM            -              -                 -    1.836         1.759
  France                    FFr           -              -                 -    6.157         5.899
  Italy                     Lit           -              -                 -    1,817         1,736
  United Kingdom £                   0.695       0.694              0.661       0.618         0.604
  Canada                    C$       1.594       1.548              1.485       1.486         1.483
  Australia                 A$       1.892       1.935              1.727       1.550         1.592
  Korea                     W      1,327.7 1,290.4 1,130.6 1,186.7 1,400.5
  Mexico                    P        9.062       9.344              9.453       9.553         9.153
  Netherlands               DGl           -              -                 -    2.068         1.983
  Switzerland               SFr      1.669       1.687              1.688       1.503         1.450
  Euro area                 =
                            C        1.139       1.117              1.085       0.939                -
 (a) Average of daily rates per US dollar
 (b) On the technical assumption that exchange rates remain at April 4,2002.
 * OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002


40
4-9 Exchange Cross Rates(a)
                    ¥            C$            =
                                               C             SFr            £             $

¥(b)               100        1.278           0.824       1.205         0.522         0.816


C$              78.26                 1       0.645       0.943         0.408         0.639

=
C               121.3         1.550                1      1.462         0.633         0.990


SFr             82.99         1.061           0.684                1    0.433         0.677


£               191.7         2.449           1.580       2.310                 1     1.565


$               122.5         1.566           1.010       1.476         0.639                 1
(a) As of Oct. 31, 2002 (b) Yen per 100
* Financial Times




4-10 Purchasing Power Parities
                        Purchasing power        Comparative price         Per capita volume
                        parities(a) for GDP        levels(b) for GDP          indices for GDP
                        2001          2000       2001         2000         2001        2000
 Japan                    150        155           136          152         107          109
United States            1.00       1.00           110          106         148          149
Germany                 0.946      0.954            93           93         108          108
France                  0.941      0.948            93           92         104          103
Italy                   0.790      0.786            78           77         108          107
United Kingdom          0.651      0.649           103          104         103          102
Canada                   1.20       1.21            85           86         117          117
Australia                1.33       1.32            76           81         108          107
Korea                     724        730            62           68          65           63
Mexico                   6.36       6.17            75           69          38           38
Netherlands             0.933      0.910            92           89         115          115
Switzerland              1.90       1.90           124          119         124          123
EU                      0.915      0.920            90           90         103          102
(a) The rates of currency conversion that eliminate the differences in price levels between
    countries
(b) The ratios of PPPs to exchange rates
* Main Economic Indicators, Sept. 2002, OECD

                                                                                                  41
 4-11 Balance of Payments: Japan

     (¥ billion)                         2001          2000     1999       1998

 Current account:                     10,652.3 12,875.5 13,052.2 15,527.8
       Goods & services                 3,212.0       7,429.8   7,865.0   9,529.9
       Income                           8,400.7       6,505.2   6,574.1   7,144.2
       Current transfers                 -960.4 -1,059.6 -1,386.9 -1,146.3
 Capital & financial accounts: -6,172.6 -9,423.3 -6,274.4 -17,082.1
       Financial account               -5,826.4 -8,428.7 -4,365.5 -15,150.8
       Capital account                   -346.2        -994.7 -1,908.8 -1,931.3
 Changes in reserve assets             -4,936.4 -5,260.9 -8,796.3              998.6
 Errors & omissions                       456.7       1,808.8   2,018.4        555.8
 Services & income                      3,085.7       1,371.6    423.7         689.7
 * Balance of Payments Monthly, April 2002, BOJ




 4-12 FOREX Turnover of Interbank (Yen to US Dollar)(a): Japan

     ($ million)                               Spot                    Swaps

 1994                                         5,828                    8,259

 1995                                         8,328                 12,066

 1996                                         9,791                 13,453

 1997                                       12,500                  15,805

 1998                                       13,836                  18,448

 1999                                       11,152                  15,008

 2000                                         9,029                 16,029

 2001                                         8,555                 18,573
 (a) Average per business day
 * Financial Economic Statistics Monthly, Aug. 2002, BOJ



42
5-1 GDP by Industry
Japan(a)                  29.1                 11.2        12.9       7.1     19.1             18.6
                  2.1

Korea(b)        6.4              31.7                    16.4         12.7     8.2          19.6      4.7

US(a)                     24.7          4.6         18.4        6.5           31.3                 12.6
                  2.0

UK(c)                      29.2               5.8        15.9      9.2              28.3            9.4
                  2.1

Germany(d)                  34.7                    6.4 11.9 6.5             16.3            22.8
                  1.3

France(b)                  28.2               5.5        18.8         7.3            29.4            8.0
                  2.9
                                 •                   •                 •                •                  •
              0                  20                 40                60               80                 100

  Agriculture, forestry    Mining & mfg.,                              Wholesale and retail trade,
  & fishing                electricity, gas and water Construction restaurants and hotels
  Transport, storage         Finance, insurance,                Other economic activities
  and communication          real estate and business services
(a) 1996 (b) 1997 (c) 1995 (d) 1993
(%)
* National Accounts Statistics, UN



5-2 Amounts of Major Agricultural Products (2000)

(1,000 t)                   Wheat               Rice              Corn        Potatoes Vegetables

 Japan                        689 11,863        - 4,554 12,851
Thailand                        1 23,403    4,571 18,773    2,782
China(a)                   99,370 190,168 105,231 188,320 278,592
India                      74,251 134,150 11,500 30,550 61,698
United Kingdom             16,700       -       -   6,648   2,996
Italy                       7,464   1,300 10,207    2,089 15,338
Spain                       7,333     798   3,867   3,156 11,822
Germany                    21,634       -   3,241 12,633    2,499
France                     37,559     107 16,395    6,652   7,938
Russia                     36,000     440   1,800 32,597 14,809
United States              60,512   8,669 253,208 24,025 37,698
Canada                     26,804       -   6,827   4,569     785
Mexico                      3,300     450 18,761    1,722   9,621
Argentina                  16,500     858 16,200    3,990   3,480
Brazil                      1,895 11,168 32,038 26,272      7,138
Australia                  19,550   1,400     365   1,333   1,799
(a) Including Taiwan
* Production Yearbook 2000, FAO

                                                                                                                43
 5-3 Fish Catches

     (1,000 t)                                     1999             1995              1990

 China                                            17,240          12,563              6,654
 Peru                                              8,429            8,937             6,869
     Japan                                         5,176            5,967             9,550
 Chile                                             5,051            7,434             5,163
 United States                                     4,750            5,225             5,555
 Indonesia                                         4,149            3,504             2,544
 Russia                                            4,141            4,312             7,554
 India                                             3,317            3,220             2,783
 Thailand                                          3,005            3,013             2,498
 Norway                                            2,620            2,524             1,603
 * Fishery Yearbook, FAO




 5-4 Crude Steel Production Ranking

     (million ton)                                                   2001             2000

 1 Pohang                                       Korea               28.60             28.48
 2 Nippon Steel                                 Japan               27.09             29.07
 3 Arbed group                                  Luxenburg           23.40             24.10
 4 NKK                                          Japan               20.22             20.56
 5 Usinor                                       France              20.12             21.00
 6 LNM group                                    UK                  19.25             20.86
 7 Shanghai Bao Steel group                     China               19.13             17.72
 8 Corus                                        UK                  17.74             19.98
 9 Thyssen Krupp Stahl                          Germany             16.50             18.00
 10 Riva group                                  Italy               15.00             15.57
 * Handbook for Iron and Steel Statistics 2002, The Japan Iron and Steel Federation




44
5-5 Production of Crude Steel
                             Composition  2001                     2000            1999
(1,000 t)                     Rate (%) (Projected)
World                             100.0        845,000          847,000          788,000

China                               17.6       148,950          127,240          123,954

Japan                              12.2        102,866         106,444           94,192

United States                       10.7         90,104         101,825           97,427

Russia                                6.8        57,529          59,098           51,510

Germany                               5.3        44,803          46,376           42,061

Korea                                 5.2        43,852          43,107           41,042

Ukraine                               3.9        33,108          31,373           27,453

Brazil                                3.2        26,718          27,865           24,996

India                                 3.2        27,291          26,924           24,296

Italy                                 3.2        26,690          26,475           24,701

ASEAN                                 1.0          8,566           9,933           8,111

Southeast Asia                      41.4       350,129          331,878          308,227

EU (15 nations)                     18.8       158,754          163,211          155,076

North America                       12.5       105,380          118,321          113,565

Central America
 and South America(a)                 6.1        51,726          55,885           50,951

Oceania                               0.9          7,859           7,832           8,946

Africa                                1.8        15,120          13,818           12,651

Middle East                           1.4        11,690          10,780            9,779
(a) Includes Mexico and Caribbean countries
* Handbook for Iron and Steel Statistics 2002, Japan Iron and Steel Federation



                                                                                           45
 5-6 Production and Trade of Machine Tools
                       Production               Export                   Import
     ($ million)     2000(a)   1999        2000(a)   1999           2000(a)   1999
 World               37,079.6 35,825.5 215,133.0 208,685.0 19,199.2 19,940.1
     Japan           8,771.1    7,546.1    6,775.6       5,552.0       816.8         639.6
 Germany              7,331.8   7,757.3     3,891.3      3,973.4     2,156.5       2,402.9
 United States        4,006.5   4,348.5     1,250.1      1,498.3     4,321.4       4,278.6
 Italy                3,901.6   3,808.9     1,763.8      2,052.2     1,254.0       1,232.8
 Switzerland          2,275.7   2,041.1     1,957.4      1,740.8       729.5         667.0
 China                2,109.0   1,839.0       297.8        221.0     1,817.0       1,445.0
 Korea                1,635.1   1,208.8       446.5        385.4     1,139.6         616.2
 Taiwan               1,577.4(b) 1,551.4    1,200.1(b) 1,180.3         981.5(b)      965.3
     Spain             884.3      971.9       446.8        507.1       460.6         526.2
     France            785.4      823.7       457.4        529.3     1,171.5      1,172.2
 (a) Estimates (b) Provisional
 * Machine Tools Statistics Handbook 2001, Japan Machine Tool Builders Association




 5-7 Production of Four-Wheeled Vehicles
                                                              Production
     (1,000 units)                                2001           2000              1999
 World                                          55,770          58,059            56,256
     Japan                                       9,777         10,141             9,892
 United States                                  11,425          12,774            13,025
 Germany                                          5,692            5,527           5,688
 France                                           3,628            3,348           3,180
 Korea                                            2,946            3,115           2,843
 Spain                                            2,850            3,033           2,852
 Canada                                           2,535            2,962           3,059
 China                                            2,332            2,069           1,830
 Mexico                                           1,865            1,935           1,550
 Brazil                                           1,798            1,682           1,351
 * Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc.




46
5-8 Automobiles Produced by World's Major Auto Makers (1999)

(1,000 cars)                          Total number       Passenger car

General Motors                             4,493               2,093
Ford                                       3,670               1,225
Toyota                                     3,118               2,699
Renault                                    2,306               1,982
Volkswagen Group                           2,207               2,097
Chrysler                                   1,960                432
Peugeot                                    1,497               1,329
Nissan                                     1,385               1,210
Honda                                      1,221               1,143
Mercedes-Benz                              1,112                908
* Nikkan Jidosha Shimbun




5-9 Industrial-Use Robots in Operation

(Units)                     2000    %        1999     1995      1990

World                  749,779      100.0 723,641 615,109 388,079
Japan                 389,442       51.9 402,212 387,290 274,210
United States           89,880      12.0     79,959   66,286    38,980
Germany                 91,184      12.2     81,203   51,375    27,320
Italy                   39,238       5.2     34,991   22,963    12,200
Korea                   37,987       5.1     33,656   18,149     2,990
France                  20,674       2.8     18,163   13,276     8,350
United Kingdom          12,344       1.6     11,537    8,314     5,940
Russia                      5,000    0.7      5,000   10,000           -
Spain                   13,163       1.8     10,473    4,913     2,160
Benelux                     7,791    1.0      7,504    5,086     1,680
* Japan Robot Association




                                                                           47
 5-10 Newbuilding Orders Received by World's
      Major Shipbuilding Countries(a)
                                            1999                  1998
     (1000g/t)                      No.             g/t     No.           g/t
 Total                             1,485           28,939   1,730        26,738

     Japan                            341          8,695     457     10,979

 Korea                                243          11,843    178          8,819

 Germany                                38           743      77          1,309

 Netherlands                            70           178     225           521

 Spain                                  89           216      88           305

 Poland                                 84           931      41           483

 China                                173           3,011     96           662

 United States                          71           215      65           276
 (a) Not including vessels smaller than 100g/t
 * Lloyd's statistics



 5-11 Completion of Newbuilding by World's
      Major Shipbuilding Countries(a)
                                            1999                  1998
     (1000g/t)                      No.             g/t     No.           g/t
 Total                             1,538           27,394   1,881        25,396

     Japan                            432        11,070      600     10,242

 Korea                                169           9,159    165          7,250

 Germany                                56           764      77          1,049

 Netherlands                            97           330      96           292

 Spain                                  87           490     117           439

 Poland                                 54           606      48           669

 China                                115           1,424    151          1,457

 United States                          80           137      90           219
 (a) Not including vessels smaller than 100g/t
 * Lloyd's statistics

48
5-12 Freight Transport (2000)
                                     Rail           Roads        Inland          Costal
(Billion t/km)                                                  Waterways       Shipping
Belgium                               7.7            45.9            6.4            1.6(a)
Canada                              300.9          148.5           29.9(b)       210.4
France                               55.4          184.2             7.5            6.3(a)
Germany                              76.0          280.7           66.5                -
Italy                                25.0          167.8             0.2          40.1(a)
Japan                               23.0           307.0         220.0(c)       229.0
Netherlands                           4.5            31.6          41.3                -
Spain                                12.2          263.8                -         37.1
Switzerland                          10.8            21.9            0.1               -
United Kingdom                       19.6          153.7             0.2          57.3(a)
United States                    2,093.0(a)       1,499.5(b)     430.6(b)        595.8(d)
(a) 1999 (b) 1998 (c) 1997 (d) 1996
* OECD in Figures 2002




5-13 Passenger Transport and Road Accidents (2000)
                                 Passenger transport                  Road accidents
                          Rail        Buses &        Private Accidents involving Killed and
(Billion passengers/km)               Coaches         Cars      injury(1,000) injured(1,000)
Belgium                    7.8              5.3       96.3          49.1          69.4
Canada                     1.5(a)      47.6(b)              -     153.7(a)       225.5(a)
France                    69.9         45.3          699.6        121.2          169.8
Germany                   75.1         70.3          723.4        382.9          511.6
Italy                     43.8         94.6          664.4        211.9          308.0
Japan                385.0             89.0          733.0        931.9 1,164.8
Netherlands               14.8         15.6          141.1          37.9          47.2
Spain                     20.1         37.8          304.9        101.7          155.6
Switzerland               12.8              6.3       77.9          23.7          30.7
United Kingdom 39.1                    45.0          613.0        242.1          335.0
United States              8.6(a)     238.7(c) 6,214.2(c) 2,017.0             3,231.0
(a) 1999 (b) 1997 (c) 1998
* OECD in Figures 2002



                                                                                               49
 5-14 Comparison in Databases - Japan and the United States (2000)
                Sales of Databases      United States
                (¥100 million)                              No. of Producers
                39,250 (13.5)                               1,488 (11.0)



                                                        Japan               No. of Firms
      No. of Fact                   2,916                                   Participating
      Databases              (¥100 million)
                             (¥100
                                              135                           1,634 (2.9)
      8,209 (5.6)                                         572
                                1,453

                                                    2,458
                               719      1,420

                                                                         No. of Available
                                                                         Databases
         No. of Business
                                                                         11,604 (4.7)
         Databases
         1,770 (2.5)
                                No. of Databases Produced Domestically
                                7,334 (5.2)
 ( ): Japan=1
 * Databases in Japan 2002, Database Promotion Center, Japan




 5-15 Number of Internet Hosts by Nation (2000)-per 1,000 persons
       United States                                                                234.2
              Finland                                            159.1
              Iceland                                 130.8
              Canada                                 127.2
             Norway                                116.5
             Sweden                              106.3
        New Zealand                           92.6
         Netherlands                       81.6
            Australia                    75.0
            Denmark                      72.5
          Switzerland                 63.5
              Austria                57.6
     United Kingdom                 52.5
             Belgium            39.7
                 Italy         32.6
               Japan           32.5
            Germany            31.7
                   EU           37.4
                               •        •           •           •          •        •
                         0     40       80          120         160       200      240
 * Communications Outlook 2001, OECD




50
5-16 Number of Host Computers (by Country)

(1,000)                           2001            2000            1999             1998

Total                         109,574            72,398         43,230           29,670
United States                    80,558          53,167         30,489           20,623
Canada                            2,364           1,670           1,119              839
United Kingdom                    2,291           1,902           1,424              988
Germany                           2,163           1,702           1,317              995
France                            1,230             780              488             333
Netherlands                       1,310              821             564             381
Australia                         1,616           1,090              792             665
Japan                             4,641          2,637            1,688           1,169
Italy                             1,631             658              339             243
Finland                             772             631              546             450
* Internet Software Consortium




5-17 International Comparison of Internet Service Fees(a)(b)
80
      •




          PSTN(d)
          Usage Rate
                                                      59.50         60.41
60
      •




            49.01                        50.71

            10.99
40
      •




                                                      48.39         46.77     ISP Fee(e)
                                         36.99
            28.17         23.76
20                         5.45
      •




                           4.66

                          13.65          13.72                      13.64     PSTN(d)
             9.86                                     11.11                   Fixed Rate
  0
            Tokyo       New York Düsseldorf           Paris        London
(a) Sept. 2000 (b) On the basis of 40-hour use per month (at peak times) (c) US$ Purchasing
    Power Parties
(d) Public Switched Telephone Network (e) Internet service provider fee
* Communications Outlook 2001, OECD
                                                                                              51
 5-18 Domain Name Registrations under Top-Level Domains(a) (2000)
 United Kingdom                                                             51.4
        Denmark                                                          48.2
    Luxembourg                                                  39.2
     Netherlands                                                39.0
   United States                                               37.1
      Switzerland                                      31.2
        Germany                                    26.7
         Norway                                    26.4
          Canada                                 25.3
          Iceland                                25.1
    New Zealand                                 23.4
         Sweden                              21.6
            Korea                            21.1
          Austria                           20.2
          Ireland                          18.7
        Australia                         17.6
          Finland                  12.2
           Japan        4.0
                              •           •         •           •        •         •
                    0         10          20        30         40        50        60
 (a) Per 1,000 inhabitants
 * Communications Outlook 2001, OECD




 5-19 Internet Diffusion Rate (Mar. 2002)
         Sweden                                                                 64.7
          Iceland                                                           60.8
        Denmark                                                             60.4
   United States                                                            59.8
      Hong Kong                                                            59.0
     Netherlands                                                          58.1
 United Kingdom                                                        55.3
         Norway                                                        54.4
        Australia                                                      54.4
          Canada                                                      53.3
          Taiwan                                                     51.9
       Singapore                                                    50.8
    New Zealand                                                    49.9
      Switzerland                                               46.8
            Korea                                               46.4
           Japan                                              44.0
          Finland                                             43.9
          Austria                                             43.5
        Bermuda                                            39.7
        Germany                                          36.4
          Andorra                                        36.3
                           •          •         •         •         •        •     •
                    0     10         20        30         40        50    60       70
 * 2002 White Paper Information and Communications in Japan, MPHPT




52
5-20 Shipment of PCs
                                                      % change from
(1,000 shipments)                       2000          previous year              1999           1998


Total                                 130,494                     13.6      114,889           93,327


United States                          47,736                      8.9          43,825        36,060


Western Europe                         29,004                      4.8          27,668        23,175


Japan                                 13,925                      30.6          10,664         7,737


Asia/Pacific                           39,809                     21.6          32,732        26,355

* Dataquest




5-21 Cellular Phone Subscribers (2001)

160                                                                                                 100
       •




                                                                                                •




                       144.8
140
       •




        127.0                                         Per 100 persons                                80
                                                                                                •




120
       •




100             74.8
       •




                                                                                                     60
                                                                                                •




 80
       •




                                                                                                     40
                                                                                                •




 60                                                 56.2
       •




                               48.7          47.0
                                                                         28.7
 40                                                        35.9
       •




                                      29.0                        26.5                               20
                                                                                                •




                                                                            21.8 20.0 21.6
 20
       •




                                                                                             11.9

   0                                                                                                   0
           US Japan China Italy Korea UK GermanyFrance Spain Brazil Mexico Turkey Taiwan Nether-
                                                                                          lands
* International Telecommunication Union




                                                                                                           53
 5-22 R&D Expenditures (1999)
                                              Total       Govt. Funds     Ratio to GDP
                                           (¥ trillion)   (% of total)         (%)
     Japan                                    16.0            21.9             3.12



 United States(a)                             27.9            29.3             2.63



     Germany(b)                                5.7            33.9             2.37



     France(a)                                 3.5            38.7             2.17



     United Kingdom(c)                         3.4            31.0             1.89
 (a) Provisional (b) Estimated (c) 1998
 * Cabinet Office




 5-23 Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D
                                       % performed by (2000)             Total Researchers
                            Industry     Higher education Government           (1999)
 Australia                    45.6             29.2          23.2              62,790

 Canada                       56.8             31.0          11.3              90,810

 France                       64.0             16.7          17.8            160,424

 Germany                      70.8             16.0          13.3            255,260

 Italy                        49.3             31.5          19.2              64,886

     Japan                    71.0             14.5           9.9            658,910

 United Kingdom               65.6             20.7          12.2            157,662

 United States                75.3             13.6           7.5          1,114,100
 * Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD 2002




54
5-24 Number of Mobile Telecommunication Service Subscribers

(1,000)                                                         Subscribers

United States                                                     86,050
Japan                                                             56,850
China                                                             43,240
Austria                                                           42,420
Italy                                                             30,300
United Kingdom                                                    23,940
Germany                                                           23,470
Korea                                                             23,440
France                                                            21,430
Brazil                                                            15,030
* Telecommunications Carriers Association




5-25 Telecommunication
                                       Internet Users                 Personal Computers
                             (1,000)     (per 10,000 persons)    (1,000) (per 10,000 persons)
Japan                      27,060           2,139.0             36,300            28.7
Korea                      10,860           2,317.6              8,519            18.2
China                        8,900               70.3           15,500              1.2
Hong Kong                    1,734          2,580.1              2,000            29.8
United States              74,100           2,717.4         141,000               51.7
Canada                     11,000           3,607.3             11,000            36.1
United Kingdom             12,500           2,100.8             18,000            30.3
Germany                    14,400           1,752.6             24,400            29.7
France                       5,370             916.1            15,680            26.8
Australia                    6,000          3,168.4              7,900            41.7
* World Telecommunication Indicators, 2000/2001, International Telecommunication Union




                                                                                                55
 5-26 Food Self-Supplying Ratio (FY2001): Japan
                                        Self-Supplying Production          Consumption
                                           Ratio(%)     (1,000 t)            (1,000 t)
 Cereals                                                      10,422           37,262
       Rice                                          95        9,490             9,988
       Wheat                                         11          688             6,311
       Barley                                         7          192             2,606
 Potatoes                                            83        3,972             4,800
 Beans                                                7          366             5,425
 Vegetables                                          82       13,722           16,722
 Fruit                                               44        3,847             8,691
 Meat                                                52        2,980             5,681
 Eggs                                                95        2,540             2,661
 Milk & dairy products                               68        8,417           12,312
 Fish & shellfish                                    53        5,736           10,857
 * Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries




 5-27 Manufacturing by Commodity in Value: Japan

     (¥ trillion)                                     2000        1999            1998

 Total manufacturing                                 110.93     110.99          113.47
   Food & beverages                                   13.69      12.95           12.71
   Textiles                                            1.10       1.17            1.30
   Pulp & paper                                        3.20       3.08            3.24
   Chemical products                                   8.94       9.65            9.25
   Oil & coal products                                 6.02       6.07            6.15
   Ceramics & cement                                   3.82       3.76            4.00
   Basic metals                                        7.26       6.77            7.12
   Metal products                                      5.68       5.83            6.30
   General machinery                                  10.36      10.23           11.35
   Electrical machinery                               20.77      20.00           19.72
   Transportation equipment                           11.25      12.03           12.05
   Precision instruments                               1.73       1.74            1.83
   Others                                             17.10      17.72           18.44
 * Annual Report on National Accounts 2001, Cabinet Office, Economic and Social Research
   Institute



56
5-28 Production of Processed Food, etc.: Japan
                                                       2001                  2000      1999

Ham(a)                                             146,308           150,029         152,718
Sausages(a)                                        296,929           292,606         292,878
Cheese(a)                                          123,413           126,249         123,659
Butter(a)                                            79,496             87,579        85,504
Retort pouch foods                                             -     265,329         245,592
Sugar(b)                                                       -        22,221        22,468
Edible    oils(b)                                    18,293             18,363        18,306
Domestic salt(c)                                       1,358                 1,374     1,327
Soy sauce(d)                                           1,027                 1,065     1,043
Beer(d)                                                        -             5,464     5,890
Cigarettes(e)                                             314                 325       332
Units: (a) t (b) 100 t (c) 1,000 t (d) 1,000 kl (e) Billion pieces (sales)
* Monthly Statistics of Japan, July 2002, MPHPT




5-29 Production of Chemicals: Japan

(1,000 t)                                              2001                  2000      1999

Ethylene                                               7,361                 7,614     7,687
Ethylene dichloride                                    3,275                 3,431     3,502
Propylene                                              5,342                 5,453     5,520
Polyethylene                                           3,294                 3,342     3,369
Polystyrene                                            1,811                 2,024     2,038
Polypropylene                                          2,696                 2,721     2,626
Polyvinyl chloride                                     2,195                 2,410     2,461
Synthetic rubber                                       1,466                 1,590     1,577
Synthetic detergents                                      878                 837       909
Surface active agents                                  1,029                 1,083     1,104
Paints                                                 1,812                 1,910     1,868
* Monthly Statistics of Japan, July 2002, MPHPT




                                                                                               57
 5-30 Production of Machinery & Equipment: Japan

     (¥ billion)                                      2001     2000

 Total                                              68,500    74,740

 Machinery                                          63,091    68,982

       General machinery                            11,355    12,978

          Boilers, engines and turbines               1,206    1,444

          Mining and construction machinery, etc.      847      989

          Conveyance machines and industrial robots    864     1,002

          Office machinery                             551      690

          Freezers, refrigerating equipment, etc.     2,007    2,088

       Electrical machinery                         26,121    30,933

          Communication & related equipment           3,973    4,287

          Consumer electronic appliances              1,876    2,191

          Electronic tubes, semiconductor
          devices, ICs, etc.                          5,743    7,547

          Associated electronic equipment             5,273    6,072

       Transport equipment                          24,456    23,809

          Motor vehicles(a)                         17,143    16,327

          Motor vehicle parts                         5,177    5,323

 Precision instruments                                 755      855

 Fabricated metals                                    3,211    3,336

 Steel casting and forgings                           2,197    2,422
 (a) Excluding motorcycles
 * Yearbook of Machinery Statistics, 2001, METI



58
5-31 Construction: Japan

(¥ billion)                                2001                2000         1999

Orders    received(a)                    13,747              14,968        16,033
  Buildings                                9,067               9,725       10,303
  Civil engineering                        4,680               5,243        5,730
  Public sector                            3,820               4,244        4,751
  Private sector                           8,629               9,326       10,269
Completions(b)                           59,616              64,266(c)     66,424
  Public sector                          27,756              29,204(c)     31,179
     Buildings                             4,131               4,200(c)     4,735
     Civil engineering                   23,625              25,004(c)     26,444
  Private sector                         31,860              35,062(c)     35,245
     Buildings                           26,723              29,648(c)     29,858
     Civil engineering                     5,137               5,414(c)     5,386
(a) Top 50 companies (b) Construction investment (c) Break-in series
* Monthly Statistics of Japan, Aug. 2002, MPHPT




5-32 Wholesale and Retail Sales: Japan

(¥ billion)                                        2001           2000      1999


Total                                         604,658         619,988     620,802


  Wholesale                                   468,571         480,856     479,352


  Retail                                      136,087         139,132     141,450


      Department stores                            9,626        10,012     10,285


      Supermarkets                                12,715        12,622     12,839

* Monthly Statistics of Japan, Aug. 2002, MPHPT




                                                                                    59
 5-33 Value of Exports and Imports(a): Japan
                                  Exports                                      Imports
     (¥ billion)       Total   Sogo Shosha(b) %                    Total    Sogo Shosha(b) %


 1998               50,645      11,920           25           36,654            12,109          38.2



 1999               47,548       9,455          20.2          35,268            11,709          35.5



 2000               51,654       8,856          17.8          40,938            12,431          32.5



 2001               48,979                  -                 42,416                     -

 (a) Customs-clearance basis (b) Japanese major trading companies
 * Monthly Statistics of Japan, Aug. 2002, MPHPT, Japan Foreign Trade Council, Inc.




 5-34 Companies Possessing In-House Databases (by Industry)(a)(b): Japan
                                        0       20           40            60       80               100
                                                 •            •            •         •                •
     Construction                (36)                        77.8                            22.2
     Oil/Chemicals           (55)                                 85.5                        14.5
     Iron & steel/Nonferrous (36)                     58.3                         41.7
       metals/Metal products
     Instruments & machinery (47)                           72.3                             27.7
     Other manufacturing         (67)                        80.6                             19.4
     Commerce                    (29)                48.3                         51.7
     Finance/Insurance      (31)                              83.9                            16.1
     Information processing (85)                         65.9                        34.1
       & services
     Publishing             (23)                              82.6                            17.4
     Distribution                 (6)                         83.3                            16.7
     Other services              (48)                         81.3                           18.7
     Public services            (153)                       74.5                             25.5
     Other                       (10)                    70.0                         30.0
                                                      Possessing                 Not Possessing
 (a) As of Oct. 2001
 (b) Figures in parentheses indicate number of companies surveyed.
 * Databases in Japan 2002, Database Promotion Center, Japan

60
5-35 E-Commerce - B-to-C Market Scale: Japan

(¥ billion)                                                 2001         2000

Total                                                      1,484          824
PC and related goods                                         148           91
Travel                                                       119           61
Entertainment                                                109           59
Books and music                                               34           20
Clothing and accessories                                      58           27
Gifts                                                          7            4
Food                                                          56           33
Hobbies, Furniture, etc.                                      49           22
Automotive                                                   347          202
Real estate                                                  326          176
Other products sales                                          98           54
Financial                                                     63           44
Other services                                                70           31
* METI




5-36 Digital Content Market Estimates (2001): Japan
                                                   Audio Visual 228.6
  Game Player 264.7
                                Others     Music
                                770.6      528.2 Game        Publishing 308.9
                                                 414.3
                                                                Others 202.8
           Mobile Phone                  Content
          (Using Internet)               Market
              1,706.0                                     Telecom-
                                         1,682.8
                                                         munications
                                  Total                   Network
                        Product 10,951.6                   1,220.9
                        Market (¥ billion) Service
                        6,005.3            Market           Internet
                                           3,263.5           494.3
                                                          Game
              PC Software,                               Centers
               Hardware                                   569.0
                2,499.1                            Karaoke
                                                    Shops
                                      CD/MD         832.8
                                      Player
                                       585.5           Others 146.5
                                                    Digital Video Camera 179.4
* Digital Contents White Paper 2002




                                                                                 61
     6-1 International Trade: Imports (2001)
                Imports
                  from     Japan         US          UK      Germany France            World
     ($ million)

     Japan                         - 63,846         5,825 12,381            5,949 359,452

     United States        129,708             - 42,367 60,492 30,984                   1,180.1(a)

     United Kingdom 13,502 45,056                         - 37,918 24,939 322,838

     Germany               20,251 40,710 34,223                       - 46,260 492,585

     France                 6,560 24,173 24,724 57,892                              - 325,719

     World(a)              447.98 789.14 269.16 567.85 311.90                          6,486.7
     (a) $ billion
     * Direction of Trade Statistics, June 2002, IMF; CIF customs-clearance basis




     6-2 International Trade: Exports (2001)
                Exports
                     to    Japan         US          UK      Germany France            World
     ($ million)

     Japan                         - 122,558 11,987 15,783                  6,173 404,914

     United States         57,639             - 40,798 30,114 20,125                    730.9(a)

     United Kingdom         5,342 42,794                  - 31,163 25,716 268,536

     Germany               11,709 60,266 47,692                       - 63,312 570,269

     France                 4,920 27,730 31,220 46,120                              - 321,332

     World(a)              326.30 1,112.50 332.58 475.07 314.79                        6,178.3
     (a) $ billion
     * Direction of Trade Statistics, June 2002, IMF; FOB customs-clearance basis



62
6-3 Dependence on Foreign Trade
                                    Imports                     Exports
Dependence Ratio (%)(a)         2001        2000         2001             2000
Japan                            8.4            8.0       9.7             10.1
United States                   11.7           12.8       7.2              8.0
United Kingdom                  22.6           23.3      18.8             19.6
Germany                         26.3           26.8      30.9             29.5
France                          22.4           23.7      22.5             22.9
Italy                           21.4           22.2      22.2             22.4
Canada                          31.4           33.3      36.8             38.6
Switzerland                     31.2           31.8      31.6             31.3
Belgium(b)                      77.4           77.5      82.5             82.2
Netherlands                     51.2           53.5      56.8             56.6
Spain                             2.6          27.3      19.8             20.2
Brazil                          11.1             9.9     11.6              9.3
Mexico                          27.2           30.0      25.7             28.6
India                                -         11.0         -              9.1
Indonesia                            -         22.0         -             40.8
Thailand                        54.0           50.9      56.7             56.6
Malaysia                        83.9           91.3      99.9         109.0
Philippines                     43.9           45.3      45.7             52.6
Korea                           33.4           34.8      35.6             37.3
Hong Kong                     122.6          128.7      115.8         122.1
Singapore                     135.3          145.2      142.1         148.7
Australia                       17.8           17.8      17.7             15.9
New Zealand                     26.5           27.8      27.2             26.4
China                                -         19.1         -             23.1
Russia                          19.0           19.7      33.3             42.2
(a) Imports (Exports)/GDP 100 (b) Includes Luxembourg
* International Financial Statistics, Nov. 2002, IMF



                                                                                 63
 6-4 Major International Commodity Market Quotations(a)

     ($)                                                                  2000           1999

 Wheat                 US                            bushel                  3.10           3.05
 Rice                  Bangkok                       MT                  203.69          248.97
 Sugar                 EU                            100 pound             25.16          26.84
 Tea                   Sri Lanka                     100 pound           108.61          104.28
 Cotton                US                            100 pound             43.78          40.18
 Coffee                New York                      100 pound             79.80          88.92
 Jute                  Bangladesh                    MT                           -      275.67
 Wool                  Australia, New Zealand 100 kg                     733.54          619.25
 Rubber                Malaysia                      100 pound             31.35          28.83
 Tin                   London                        100 pound           246.57          244.55
 Copper                London                        100 pound             82.31          71.33
 Crude Oil (WTI) New York                            barrel                30.32          19.17
 (a) averages of month-end quotations
 * International Financial Statistics, IMF




 6-5 Tonnage of World's Commercial Fleet(a)
                                     2000             1999              1998             1997

 Total
   No.                87,546                       86,817            85,828            85,494
   Thousand g/t      558,054                      543,610           531,893           522,197
   Age                    20                           20                19                19
 Cargo Carrying Ships
   No.                46,205                       46,002            45,576            45,830
   Thousand g/t      528,785                      515,394           504,806           496,481
 Other Freighters(b)
   No.                32,854                       32,594            32,203            32,345
   Thousand g/t      212,170                      202,344           195,205           187,205
 Oil Tankers
   No.                 7,009                        7,051             6,960             6,933
   Thousand g/t      155,429                      154,092           151,036           147,108
 (a) Subject to vessels of 100g/t or greater that are engaged in economic activities
 (b) Liquid bulk carriers (not including oil tankers), general cargo carriers, containerships,
     reefer vessels, cruise ships and ro/ro ships
 * Statistical Tables, World Fleet Statistics

64
6-6 Tonnage of Commercial Vessels by Flag State(a)
                                                 No.              Thousand g/t       Age

Total                                         87,546                558,054           20
Panama                                          6,184               114,382           16
Liberia                                         1,557                 51,451          12
Bahamas                                         1,295                 31,445          16
Malta                                           1,505                 28,170          19
Greece                                          1,529                 26,402          24
Cypress                                         1,475                 23,206          17
Norway                                          2,349                 22,604          23
Singapore                                       1,728                 21,491          11
China                                           3,319                 16,499          20
 Japan                                         8,012                 15,257           12
(a) as of December 31, 2000
* World Fleet Statistics




6-7 Air Transport
                                    Total (International and Domestic)
                                    Freight                      Passenger
                               (million ton-kilo)         (million passenger-kilo)
                              1998           1995           1998           1995
Total                     348,480            293,934 2,627,056 2,248,215
Japan                       20,896             17,922           154,402          129,981
Korea                       11,605             10,018             47,711          48,441
China                         8,893              6,779            75,823          64,204
United States             117,773            100,914            978,498          858,629
Canada                        7,751              6,214            63,801          49,288
United Kingdom              19,589             21,757(a) 151,880                 152,698(a)
Italy                         5,261              4,505            38,122          33,390
France(b)                   14,033             11,570             90,225          68,192
Australia                     8,929              8,127            73,647          64,495
(a) Include Hong Kong
(b) Include data for airlines that have hubs in territories or protectorates
* Statistical Yearbook, 45th, UN


                                                                                              65
 6-8 World's Supply and Demand of Grains
                                               1999/2000            2000/01     2001/02
     (million tons)                                               (prospects) (projections)
 Total                   Production               1,873               1,833          1,847
                         Consumption              1,877               1,867          1,894
     Wheat               Production                  587                588            569
                         Consumption                 594                589            594
     Coarse grain        Production                  878                858            881
                         Consumption                 883                877            896
     Rice (polished) Production                      408                397            396
                         Consumption                 399                401            405
     Soy beans           Production                  160                172                -
                         Consumption                 160                170                -
 * The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan




 6-9 Export Value of Major Item Group (2000)
                       Office   Communication            IC           Scientific and Machinery
     (¥ billion)      machinery   apparatus                         optical equipment  total
 Total                3,094.2          920.3        2,933.8            2,625.7 38,367.3
 US                   1,101.6          433.8           546.7             870.1 12,528.2
 Canada                  35.4            11.4                 2.9          40.9        680.2
 UK                      94.7            44.1            73.8              96.3     1,297.3
 Netherlands            380.0            35.1            13.1            122.4      1,105.7
 France                  64.1            25.3            14.9              56.5        606.0
 Germany                 20.9            47.2          157.5             174.4      1,722.0
 Australia               38.8            14.0                 2.1          30.6        742.7
 Korea                   78.4            23.2          267.9             210.0      2,012.0
 Taiwan                 268.2            14.6          238.4             356.9      2,566.3
 Hong Kong              113.7            37.2          383.6             132.4      1,944.1
 * Foreign Trade Statistics, MOF




66
6-10 Import Value of Major Commodity (2000)
                                                             Semi-                 Scientific
                     Machinery     Office      Aircraft    conductors Automobiles and optical
(¥ billion)            total      machines                   & parts              equipment
US                3,816.1         546.0        263.2       605.4       106.1        367.9
Germany              846.7         15.8           3.2        34.2      423.8         47.3
UK                   321.1        100.5           4.7        14.5        35.8        19.9
France               176.6         13.1         38.3         18.6        15.0        11.8
Korea                933.8        265.3           0.6      310.1           1.0       56.3
Taiwan            1,280.4         603.3           0.1      357.2           0.2       46.3
Hong Kong              91.7        14.5           0.1        31.0             -      12.3
Thailand             484.5        124.4           0.0        45.3          0.2       32.7
Singapore            476.9        226.0           1.0      143.6              -      19.8
Malaysia             817.6        249.2           0.0      221.2           0.0       28.4
* Foreign Trade Statistics, MOF




6-11 World Seaborne Trade

(million tons)                       2003(a)         2002(a)        2001(a)          2000

Total trade estimate                 5,671           5,508          5,435           5,434

Crude oil                            1,600           1,575          1,585           1,608

Oil products                           430                420          412            419

Iron ore                               455                445          445            454

Coal                                   595                575          560            523

Grain                                  240                230          220            230

Bauxite and Alumina                      54               52             51             53

Phosphate                                27                26            27             28

Other cargoes estimate 2,270                         2,185          2,135           2,119
(a) estimate
* Fearnley's Review 2001



                                                                                                67
 6-12 Imports by Commodity: Japan

     ($ million)                                      2001       2000          1999

 Total imports                                  349,190        379,718    311,246
 Foodstuffs                                      43,131         46,051     44,309
 Raw materials                                   21,171         24,380     22,286
   Textiles                                         829            961      1,015
   Metal ores                                     7,716          8,653      7,361
   Timber                                         5,025          5,984      5,681
 Mineral fuels                                   70,203         77,088     50,213
   Coal                                           6,190          5,411      5,455
   Crude oil, etc.                               38,864         44,660     27,109
 Manufactured products                          208,218        232,026    194,252
   Machinery & equipment                        108,864        119,893     97,409
   Chemicals                                     25,638         26,615     23,386
   Metals                                        14,952         18,085     14,293
   Textiles                                      23,803         24,534     20,945
 * METI




 6-13 Import Trend: Japan
 100
        7.0
                                                   Others
     90 9.0                                                                    23.0
                    Machinery & Equipment
     80 7.0
                       Chemicals
     70
          19.0
     60                                                                        31.2

     50 16.0                       Mineral Fuels

     40             Other                                                       7.3
                    Materials
     30 13.0
                                                                               20.1
                     Metal Ores
     20 11.0
                   Textile Materials                                            3.6
                                                                                2.2 0.2
     10
          18.0                                                                 12.4
                                         Foodstuffs
       0
        1965 1970          1975        1980   1985      1990   1995     2000     2001
 * METI




68
6-14 Import of Foodstuffs: Japan

50
     •


                                       46.1
                         44.3          (3.8)             43.1
                         (3.8)                                    Others
         41.4                          (10.6)            (4.0)
                                                                  Beverages
         (3.8)           (10.8)
40
     •




                                       (4.5)             (10.4)   & Tobacco
         (11.7)          (4.4)         (3.9)                      Feed
                                                         (4.9)
                         (4.1)         (1.2)
         (5.0)                                           (3.6)    Coffee, etc.
                         (1.2)
         (4.9)                                           (1.4)
30                                     (14.1)                     Sugar
     •




         (1.6)           (14.6)                          (14.3)
                                       (10.1)                     Fruit
         (14.1)                                                   & Vegetables
                         (10.7)                          (10.9)
         (12.2)                                                   Cereals, etc.
20
     •




                         (32.8)        (33.2)            (31.0)
         (30.4)                                                   Fish& Shellfish,
                                                                  etc.
10
     •




         (16.3)          (17.6)        (18.6)            (19.4)
                                                                  Meat
 0
         1998            1999          2000              2001
( ): %
* METI




6-15 Import Origin of Foodstuffs (2001): Japan



                         Others 12.0            China
                           (27.8)               (13.7)

                    Canada                          Thailand
                     (4.8)                           (5.2) Korea
                                                             (3.4)
                  Australia       Total 43.1
                   (6.7)                                   Asia 13.9
                                  ($ billion)
                                                            (32.3)
                   EU 4.2
                    (9.9)

                                       US 13.0
                                        (30.0)




( ): %
* METI



                                                                                     69
 6-16 Import Origin of Major Foodstuffs (2001): Japan
 Total ($ million)          43,131
 Meat                        8,381            (100%)
     United States           3,358             (40.1)
     Australia               1,113             (13.3)
     Denmark                 1,020             (12.2)
 Fish & shellfish, etc.     13,361            (100%)
     China                   2,227             (16.7)
     United States           1,385             (10.4)
     Thailand                1,068              (8.0)
 Fruit                       2,956            (100%)
     United States            969              (32.8)
     China                    504              (17.1)
     Philippines              430              (14.5)
 Vegetables                  3,200            (100%)
     China                   1,595             (49.9)
     United States            637              (19.9)
     Korea                    221               (6.9)
 Beverages                   1,932            (100%)
     France                   803              (41.6)
     United Kingdom           306              (15.9)
     United States            280              (14.5)
 Milk, etc.                   739             (100%)
     Australia                207              (28.0)
     New Zealand              169              (22.8)
     United States             51               (6.9)
 * METI




70
6-17 Import of Manufactured Products: Japan

240                                        232.0
      •


                                           (18.3)        208.3
210
      •



                            194.3
                                                         (16.8)      Others
180       174.1                            (7.8)
      •




                            (19.7)
                                                             (7.2)   Metals
          (19.8)                           (10.7)
150                         (7.4)
      •




                                                         (11.4)      Textiles
          (8.2)             (10.8)
120
      •




          (10.8)

 90                                                                  Machinery
      •




                                           (51.7)                    & Equipment
                                                         (52.3)
                            (50.1)
          (49.1)
 60
      •
      •




 30
          (12.1)            (12.0)         (11.5)        (12.3)      Chemicals
  0
          1998              1999           2000              2001
( ): %
* METI




6-18 Import Origin of Manufactured Products (2001): Japan


                             Others 19.3
                                (9.3)

                  EU 37.9                           China
                   (18.2)                           (23.1)


              Germany                Total 208.3
               (5.7)                                      Taiwan
                                      ($ billion)          (6.0)
                                                         Korea
                                                         (5.9)
                      US 44.0
                       (21.1)               Asia 107.1
                                              (51.4)




( ): %
* METI



                                                                                   71
 6-19 Import of Machinery & Equipment: Japan
                                               119.9
 120
          •

                                               (8.8)
                                                            108.9
                                                                     Precision
                                               (11.3)       (9.6)    Instruments
 100                         97.4
          •




                             (9.3)                          (11.0)   Transportation
              85.5                                                   Equipment
              (9.4)          (15.3)
     80
          •




              (15.8)                           (45.0)
                                                            (44.5)
     60
          •




                             (41.6)                                  Electrical
                                                                     Machinery
              (40.3)
     40
          •




                                                                     General
                                               (34.9)                Machinery
     20                                                     (35.0)
          •




              (34.5)         (33.9)


      0
              1998           1999              2000         2001
 ( ): %
 * METI




 6-20 Import Origin of Machinery & Equipment (2001): Japan

                                      Others
                                        5.7
                                       (5.3)
                         EU 18.2
                          (16.7)
                                                        US 30.2
                                                         (27.7)
                       Germany
                        (7.1)
                                       Total 108.9
                                        ($ billion)
                 Asia 54.8
                  (50.3)                                China
                                                        (15.1)
                          Malaysia
                           (5.9)         Taiwan
                                  Korea (8.3)
                                   (6.6)



 ( ): %
 * METI



72
6-21 Import Origin of General Machinery (2001): Japan
General machinery ($ million)          38,073       (100%)
  United States                        10,927        (28.7)
  China                                 4,586        (12.0)
  Taiwan                                4,452        (11.7)
  Korea                                 2,515          (6.6)
  Singapore                             1,978          (5.2)
Office machinery                       22,770       (100%)
  United States                         4,544         (20.0)
  Taiwan                                3,912        (17.2)
Computers                              22,396       (100%)
  United States                         4,491         (20.1)
  Taiwan                                3,887        (17.4)
Portable computers                      1,697       (100%)
  Taiwan                                1,087        (64.0)
  Korea                                   258         (15.2)
* METI




6-22 Import Origin of Transportation Equipment (2001): Japan
Transportation equipment ($ million)   11,924       (100%)
  Germany                               3,731         (31.3)
  United States                         3,401         (28.5)
  China                                   673          (5.6)
  United Kingdom                          506          (4.2)
  Sweden                                  380          (3.2)
Passenger cars(a)                       6,429       (100%)
  Germany                               3,390         (52.7)
  United States                           689         (10.7)
  United Kingdom                          374          (5.8)
Aircraft                                1,969       (100%)
  United States                         1,636         (83.0)
  France                                  113          (5.8)
  Canada                                  109          (5.5)
(a) Excludes parts
* METI



                                                               73
 6-23 Import Origin of Electrical Machinery (2001): Japan
 Electrical machinery ($ million)    48,423      (100%)
     United States                   12,415        (25.6)
     China                            9,391        (19.4)
     Korea                            4,219         (8.7)
     Malaysia                         4,209         (8.7)
     Taiwan                           3,891         (8.0)
 Semiconductors & parts              15,756      (100%)
     United States                    4,303        (27.3)
     Taiwan                           2,430        (15.4)
 Visual apparatus                     2,738      (100%)
     Malaysia                           975        (35.6)
     China                              907        (33.1)
 ICs                                 14,023      (100%)
     United States                    3,960        (28.2)
     Taiwan                           2,302        (16.4)
 Communications apparatus             4,370      (100%)
     United States                    1,730        (39.6)
     China                              521        (11.9)
 Heavy electrical machinery           3,613      (100%)
     China                            1,634        (45.2)
     United States                      380        (10.5)
 Audio apparatus                      2,513      (100%)
     China                              916        (36.4)
     Malaysia                           619        (24.6)
 Hardwired communications instruments 4,003      (100%)
     United States                    1,604        (40.1)
     China                              491        (12.3)
 * METI




74
6-24 Import of Chemicals: Japan

28
      •

                                         26.6
                                                       25.6

24                         23.4          (21.6)
      •



                                                       (20.9)     Others
          21.0             (19.0)
20
      •




                                         (12.1)        (11.7)     Plastics
          (21.1)
                           (11.7)        (2.0)                    Fertilizers
                                                       (1.9)
16                         (2.1)         (6.8)         (5.5)      Cosmetics,
      •




          (11.2)
                           (7.4)                                  etc.
          (2.3)
          (7.0)                          (17.9)        (19.6)     Medicines
12                         (19.7)
      •




          (17.8)                         (3.3)         (3.2)      Dyes
                           (3.5)         (8.0)         (7.7)      & Coatings
  8       (3.8)
      •




                           (7.8)                                  Inorganic
          (8.8)                                                   Compounds
  4                                      (28.3)        (29.5)
      •




          (28.0)           (28.8)                                 Organic
                                                                  Compounds
  0
          1998             1999          2000          2001
( ): %
* METI




6-25 Import Origin of Chemicals (2001): Japan


                           Others 3.2
                             (12.7)       Germany
                                           (10.5)
                                                    Ireland
             Asia 5.8                                (6.5)
              (22.6)                                    France
                                                         (6.3)
              Korea                 Total 25.6
                                                       UK (5.3)
              (4.6)                 ($ billion)
                                                    Switzerland
                   China                                  (3.5)
                   (6.7)
                                                        EU 9.9
                                                        (38.7)
                                    US 6.7
                                    (26.0)



( ): %
* METI



                                                                                75
 6-26 Import of Textile Products: Japan

     25                                    24.5
          •

                                                           23.8

                             20.9
     20
          •




              18.9
                                                                     Clothing, etc.

     15
          •




                                           (80.0)
                                                          (80.2)
                             (78.5)
              (77.1)
     10
          •




      5
          •




                              (5.9)        (5.1)           (4.5)     Fabric
               (6.8)                       (4.1)           (4.0)
               (5.4)          (4.8)                                  Yarn
              (10.7)         (10.8)        (10.8)         (11.3)     Others
      0
              1998           1999          2000            2001
 ( ): %
 * METI




 6-27 Import Origin of Textile Products (2001): Japan
                  US 0.6 (2.7)                         Others 0.4 (1.5)

                             EU 2.1
                              (9.0)

                             Italy
                             (5.4)

                Asia 20.7
                 (86.8)
                                      Total 23.8
                     Korea            ($ billion)
                     (4.1)


                                              China
                                              (70.8)




 ( ): %
 * METI



76
6-28 Exports by Commodity: Japan

($ million)                                   2001       2000             1999

Total exports                            403,227       479,284      419,358
Foodstuffs                                 2,991         2,103        2,114
Machinery & equipment                    292,551       356,034      307,929
  General machinery                       84,269       102,988       89,539
  Electrical machinery                    95,021       126,827      102,125
  Precision instruments                   21,656        25,726       21,212
  Transportation equipment                91,605       100,493       95,053
    Automobiles(a)                        59,333        64,327       62,493
    Vessels                                8,460        10,319        9,990
Metals                                    23,733        26,428       23,863
  Iron & steel                            13,557        14,837       13,512
Chemicals                                 30,816        35,336       30,930
Textile products                           7,571         8,553        7,981
(a) Excludes parts
* METI




6-29 Export Trend: Japan
100
      12.0                        Others                                10.1
 90

 80
      33.0
 70

 60
                                     Machinery & Equipment
                                                                        72.6
 50

 40 23.0

 30                  Metals
    7.0
 20 5.0
                              Chemicals                                   5.9
 10 16.0                       Nonmetal Mineral Products
        Textile Products                                        1.9 1.2   7.6
                                                                                0.7
  0 4.0    Foodstuffs
   1965 1970         1975     1980     1985     1990   1995      2000      2001
* METI




                                                                                  77
 6-30 Export of Foodstuffs: Japan
                                                           2,991
     3,000
             •


                                                                     Others
     2,500
             •




                                                           (34.3)

                               2,114         2,103
                 2,004
     2,000
             •




                               (48.8)        (48.0)
     1,500       (43.5)                                              Cereals
             •




                                                           (37.5)

     1,000       (16.7)        (12.8)        (10.1)
             •




                                              (2.7)
                                                                     Vegetables
                                                            (1.8)
                 (2.7)
                 (1.9)
                               (2.8)
                               (2.3)
                                              (1.9)         (1.2)    Fruit
                 (11.5)                      (11.9)         (7.4)    Processed Fish
      500                      (11.5)
             •




                                                                     & Shellfish
                 (23.7)        (21.8)        (25.4)        (17.8)    Fresh Fish
                                                                     & Shellfish
        0
                 1998          1999           2000          2001
 ( ): %
 * METI




 6-31 Export Destination of Foodstuffs (2001): Japan


                                Others 269
                                   (8.9)
                            EU 87
                            (2.9)
                   US 375                              North Korea
                   (12.6)                                (30.9)
                                        Total 2,991
                                         ($ million)
                  Asia 2,260
                    (75.6)
                                                       Hong Kong
                                South                    (12.1)
                                Korea       Taiwan
                                (8.3)       (11.0)




 ( ): %
 * METI



78
6-32 Export of Machinery & Equipment: Japan
                                        356.0
350
      •
                                        (7.2)
                          307.9
300                                                 292.6
      •



          285.5           (6.9)
                                        (28.2)      (7.4)    Precision
          (6.3)                                              Instruments
250
      •




                          (30.9)
          (31.6)                                    (31.3)
                                                             Transportation
200                                                          Equipment
      •




                                        (35.6)               Electrical
150
      •




                          (33.2)                             Machinery
          (31.5)                                    (32.5)
100
      •




                                                             General
 50                                                          Machinery
      •




          (30.6)          (29.1)        (28.9)      (28.8)

  0
          1998            1999          2000        2001
( ): %
* METI




6-33 Export Destination of Machinery & Equipment (2001): Japan



                         Others 44.1
                           (15.1)
                                                  US 98.1
                                                   (33.5)
             EU 49.7
              (17.0)
                 Germany           Total 292.6
                  (4.1)             ($ billion)
                   UK (3.2)
                                            Hong China
                      Asia 100.7 Korea      Kong (5.8)
                        (34.4)   (4.8)      (5.3)
                                       Taiwan
                                        (5.1)


( ): %
* METI



                                                                              79
 6-34 Export Destination of General Machinery (2001): Japan
 General machinery ($ million)             84,269        (100%)
   United States                           26,629          (31.6)
   China                                    6,259           (7.4)
   Taiwan                                   5,674           (6.7)
   Netherlands                              5,428           (6.4)
   Korea                                    4,358           (5.2)
 Office machinery                          23,240        (100%)
   United States                            8,619          (37.1)
   Netherlands                              3,822          (16.4)
   Singapore                                1,399           (6.0)
 Power generating machinery                14,151        (100%)
   United States                            6,521          (46.1)
   United Kingdom                             770           (5.4)
   China                                      491           (3.5)
 * METI




 6-35 Export Destination of Transportation Equipment (2001): Japan
 Transportation equipment ($ million)      91,605        (100%)
   United States                           41,621          (45.4)
   Panama                                   4,619           (5.0)
   Australia                                3,825           (4.2)
   Canada                                   3,236           (3.5)
   United Kingdom                           2,909           (3.2)
 Passenger cars(a)                         52,944        (100%)
   United States                           30,381          (57.4)
   Australia                                2,522           (4.8)
   Canada                                   2,349           (4.4)
 Vessels                                    8,460        (100%)
   Panama                                   4,516          (53.4)
   Hong Kong                                  629           (7.4)
 Motorcycles(b)                             4,736        (100%)
   United States                            1,902          (40.2)
   Italy                                      465           (9.8)
   Germany                                    407           (8.6)
 (a) Excludes parts (b) Includes parts
 * METI


80
6-36 Export Destination of Electrical Machinery (2001): Japan
Electrical machinery ($ million)       95,021        (100%)
  United States                        23,189         (24.4)
  Hong Kong                             8,543          (9.0)
  China                                 8,130          (8.6)
  Korea                                 7,417          (7.8)
  Taiwan                                6,102          (6.4)
Visual apparatus                        4,964        (100%)
  United States                         2,082         (41.9)
  Hong Kong                               455          (9.2)
  Netherlands                             443          (8.9)
Electrical circuit devices              9,903        (100%)
  United States                         1,750         (17.7)
  China                                 1,280         (12.9)
  Hong Kong                             1,003         (10.1)
Communications apparatus                6,322        (100%)
  United States                         2,423         (38.3)
  China                                   669         (10.6)
  United Kingdom                          356          (5.6)
Audio apparatus                         2,077        (100%)
  United States                           836         (40.3)
  Germany                                 241         (11.6)
  United Kingdom                          143          (6.9)
Heavy electrical machinery              4,832        (100%)
  United States                         1,331         (27.5)
  China                                   555         (11.5)
  Hong Kong                               397          (8.2)
Semiconductor devices, etc.            30,060        (100%)
  United States                         4,370         (14.5)
  Hong Kong                             3,924         (13.1)
  Korea                                 3,175         (10.6)
* METI




                                                                81
 6-37 Export of Metals: Japan

 30
         •



                                                  26.4
 25          24.5
         •




                               23.9                                 23.7
                                               (24.3)
                                                                             Metal
             (22.6)                                                          Products
                               (24.6)                               (23.7)
 20
         •




             (17.1)                            (19.6)
                               (18.8)                               (19.2)   Nonferrous
 15
         •




                                                                             Metals

 10
         •




             (60.4)            (56.6)          (56.1)                        Iron & Steel
                                                                    (57.1)
     5
         •




     0
             1998              1999               2000              2001
 ( ): %
 * METI




 6-38 Export Destination of Metals (2001): Japan



                               Others 3.2
                                 (13.5)            China
                                                   (14.0)
                      EU 1.7
                       (7.3)
                                                              Korea
                                                              (13.1)
                                         Total 23.7
                    US 3.5               ($ billion)
                    (14.9)                                    Taiwan
                                                               (8.3)

                                                         Thailand
                                      Asia 15.3           (6.8)
                                       (64.3)




 ( ): %
 * METI



82
6-39 Export of Chemicals: Japan
                                           35.3
35
     •


                           30.9           (16.6)
                                                          30.8
30
     •




         27.3              (15.1)                        (16.1)   Others

25       (14.3)                           (27.8)
     •




                           (27.7)                                 Plastics
                                                         (26.6)
20       (27.4)
     •




                                           (3.4)                  Cosmetics,
                           (3.3)           (7.7)          (3.5)   etc.
         (3.1)
15                         (7.8)                          (8.9)   Medicines
     •




         (7.0)                             (6.9)
                           (7.4)                          (6.1)   Dyes
         (7.3)                             (5.9)                  & Coatings
         (5.8)             (5.8)                          (5.8)
10
     •




                                                                  Inorganic
                                                                  Compounds
                                          (31.7)
 5       (35.1)            (32.9)                        (33.0)   Organic
     •




                                                                  Compounds

 0
         1998              1999            2000           2001
( ): %
* METI




6-40 Export Destination of Chemicals (2001): Japan


                             Others 2.5
                               (8.1)
                                            Korea
                                            (12.8)
                   EU 4.9
                   (15.9)
                                                       China
                                                       (12.7)
                                    Total 30.8
                                    ($ billion)
                                                      Taiwan
                  US 5.6                              (12.1)
                  (18.1)
                                                  Hong Kong
                                                    (6.0)
                                    Asia 17.8
                                     (57.9)



( ): %
* METI



                                                                               83
 6-41 Export of Textile: Japan

     10
          •



                                              8.5
                                8.0
      8
          •




               7.4                                        7.6
                                             (23.8)
                            (22.8)
              (22.1)                                     (22.9)   Clothing, etc.
      6
          •




                            (50.8)           (49.8)
      4       (49.5)                                     (50.5)
          •




                                                                  Fabric


      2
          •




              (13.1)        (13.0)           (12.7)      (12.6)   Yarn
              (15.3)        (13.4)           (13.7)      (14.0)   Others
      0
              1998              1999         2000        2001
 ( ): %
 * METI




 6-42 Export Destination of Textile (2001): Japan


                                Others 0.6
                                  (8.0)
                         US 0.6
                          (7.8)

                 EU 0.7
                                                      China
                  (9.2)                               (37.6)
                                       Total 7.6
                                       ($ billion)

                     Asia 5.7
                      (75.0)
                                  Taiwan     Hong Kong
                                 (4.4) Korea   (11.5)
                                       (6.5)



 ( ): %
 * METI



84
6-43 Export and Import by Area: Japan
Export
        0                    20                  40                            60                     80                   100
                             •                    •                            •                      •                     •
1960                 32.4                  3.5 11.7 1.6                         29.7                   7.5 8.7 4.9
1970                 28.5               2.8 15.0            2.3                     33.7                   6.1 7.4 4.2
1980                 28.1               10.1           16.5              2.8             26.0               6.9 6.2 3.4
1990                 31.1                 3.4           21.9             1.2                   33.8                 3.6 3.1
                                                                                                                             2.0
2000                         41.1                     2.3     17.2                              31.3                 4.4
                                                                               0.5                                   1.1     2.1
Import
        0                    20                  40                            60                     80                   100
                             •                    •                            •                      •                     •
1960           21.1               9.4      8.8 2.1                             39.1                       6.9 3.6 9.0
1970         17.6             12.0        10.2 3.1                        34.4                        7.3 5.8 9.6
1980               25.8                           31.3                         7.4 1.5         20.7           4.13.2 6.0
1990                 28.8                 13.4                18.0             1.7             25.9              4.2 6.3
                                                                                                                             1.7
2000                         41.7                           13.0               13.6               21.3             2.9 4.7
                                                                                         1.5                         1.3
 Asia       Middle      Western         CIS, Central              North   Central America                        Africa    Oceania
            East        Europe          and Eastern               America and
                                        Europe                            South America
* White Paper on International Trade Japan, METI



6-44 Export and Import of Commodities: Japan
Export
        0                    20                  40                            60                  80                      100
                             •                   •                             •                      •                     •
1960                 30.2                 4.2 13.8                   25.3 (2.6)                            26.5
1970        12.5      6.4          19.7                                   46.3 (6.9)                              15.2
1980 4.8 5.2          16.4                                           62.8 (17.9)                                   10.7
1990 2.55.5 6.8                                              75.0 (17.8)                                            10.2
2000 1.87.4 5.5                                              74.3 (14.9)                                           11.0

Import
        0                    20                  40                            60                  80                      100
                             •                   •                             •                      •                     •
1960 12.2                   17.6            15.0                  16.5             5.9 9.7                  23.1
1970        13.6      5.1 14.3                    20.7                   5.3 12.2                         28.8
1980 10.4             6.0                         49.8                                   4.4 7.0            20.6
              1.7
1990        13.4       3.9           24.2               6.8              17.4                             33.1
               1.1
2000 12.1                        20.3           7.0                      31.6                              26.5
               0.3     2.3
 Foodstuffs          Textiles       Raw materials                 Fuel         Chemicals         Machinery                      Other
                                                                                                 ( ): Automobiles
* White Paper on International Trade Japan, METI


                                                                                                                                        85
 6-45 Japan's Trading Partners (2001)
 Origin       $ million   %    Destination   $ million   %

 Total imports 349,190 100.0   Total exports 403,227 100.0
 United States 63,171 18.1     United States 121,146 30.0
 China          57,786 16.5    China          30,941   7.7
 Korea          17,210   4.9   Korea          25,285   6.3
 Indonesia      14,870   4.3   Taiwan         24,214   6.0
 Australia      14,451   4.1   Hong Kong      23,248   5.8
 Taiwan         14,195   4.1   Germany        15,639   3.9
 Malaysia       12,858   3.7   Singapore      14,712   3.6
 UAE            12,855   3.7   United Kingdom 12,145   3.0
 Germany        12,395   3.5   Thailand       11,873   2.9
 Saudi Arabia 12,321     3.5   Netherlands 11,482      2.8
 Thailand       10,372   3.0   Malaysia       11,013   2.7
 Canada          7,751   2.2   Philippines     8,190   2.0
 Philippines     6,417   1.8   Australia       7,683   1.9
 France          6,181   1.8   Canada          6,563   1.6
 Qatar           6,027   1.7   Indonesia       6,402   1.6
 United Kingdom 6,003    1.7   France          6,252   1.6
 Italy           5,390   1.5   Panama          4,838   1.2
 Singapore       5,389   1.5   Italy           4,819   1.2
 Iran            5,017   1.4   Belgium         4,576   1.1
 Kuwait          4,430   1.3   Mexico          4,088   1.0
 Russia          3,855   1.1   Saudi Arabia    3,593   0.9
 Ireland         3,632   1.0   Spain           2,618   0.6
 Switzerland     3,286   0.9   UAE             2,563   0.6
 South Africa    2,787   0.8   Brazil          2,476   0.6
 Vietnam         2,604   0.7   Switzerland     1,966   0.5
 Brazil          2,540   0.7   India           1,922   0.5
 Chile           2,434   0.7   Vietnam         1,776   0.4
 Oman            2,357   0.7   South Africa    1,493   0.4
 India           2,216   0.6   Sweden          1,388   0.3
 Sweden          2,192   0.6   Puerto Rico     1,380   0.3
 Denmark         2,116   0.6   Ireland         1,334   0.3
 * METI


86
6-46 Imports from APEC: Japan
                                      APEC's Contribution to
 75
      •

                                      Japan's Total Imports
          70.5     70.3     69.2
 70
      •



                                     69.1
 65

280
      •




                            262.9
                                     241.3
240
      •




                   218.6    (20.1)            Others
                                     (20.4)
200       192.6             (4.7)
                                              Metals
      •




                   (21.4)   (8.2)    (4.3)
          (22.0)   (4.5)             (8.6)    Textile
160
      •




          (4.4)    (8.2)                      Products
          (7.8)             (36.9)
120                                           Machinery
      •




                   (35.5)            (36.1)
                                              & Equipment
          (35.0)
 80
      •




                            (5.4)    (5.5)    Chemicals
          (5.7)    (5.4)
 40       (9.3)    (9.2)    (10.9)   (10.9)   Mineral Fuels
      •




          (15.8)   (15.8)   (13.8)   (14.2)   Foodstuffs
  0
          1998     1999     2000     2001
( ): %
* METI




6-47 Exports to APEC: Japan
                            74.9     74.4
 75
      •




                   72.3
 70       69.8                         APEC's Share of
      •




                                       Japan's Total Exports
 65
                            359.0
350
      •




                            (13.1)
                   303.2             299.9    Others
300                         (5.5)
      •




          267.9    (14.2)            (14.4)
                            (17.9)            Precision
250       (13.6)   (5.1)             (5.5)    Instruments
      •




          (4.7)
                   (18.6)            (20.0)   Transportation
200       (18.5)
      •




                                              Machinery
                            (28.0)
150                (26.5)                     Electrical
      •




          (25.6)                     (25.0)
                                              Machinery
100
      •




                            (21.4)            General
          (22.7)   (21.2)            (20.7)   Machinery
 50
      •




          (7.4)    (6.6)    (6.3)    (6.5)    Metals
          (7.5)    (7.8)    (7.8)    (7.9)    Chemicals
  0
          1998     1999     2000     2001
( ): %
* METI



                                                               87
 7-1 Balance of Payments in Technology (2000)

     ($ million)                          Payments     Receipts    Balance

 Australia(a)                               224.9        103.0     -121.9
     Belgium                               4,235.3     5,642.2    1,406.9
     Canada(b)                             1,409.4     1,995.0      585.6
     Finland(a)                             412.8        107.4     -305.4
     France(b)                             3,169.5     2,755.0     -414.5
     Germany                              17,753.8 12,994.3       -4,759.5
     Italy                                 3,502.9     2,804.8     -698.0
     Japan(b)                             3,602.0      8,435.0    4,832.9
  Spain(a)                                 1,025.4       190.9     -834.5
     Switzerland                           1,756.2     1,562.6     -193.6
     United Kingdom(a)                     8,923.1 16,095.7       7,172.6
     United States                        16,106.0 38,030.0 21,924.0
 (a) 1998 (b) 1999
 * OECD in Figures 2002




 7-2 Investment Income, Net

     ($ billion)                2003(a)      2002(a)      2001       2000

     Japan                       92.3        79.7        72.6        57.5
 United States                  -37.0        -26.8       -19.1       -14.8
 Germany                          -4.0        -5.7       -11.3        -3.1
 France                          16.3         15.7        14.0       13.8
 Italy                          -13.1        -13.3       -10.5       -12.0
 United Kingdom                    9.4        11.1        16.1       13.0
 Canada                         -18.9        -18.1       -17.7       -18.3
 Australia                      -12.1        -11.1       -10.7       -10.9
 Korea                             2.1         0.6        -0.9        -2.4
 Netherlands                      -1.1        -1.5        -3.6        -3.6
 Spain                          -11.3        -10.7       -10.0        -8.3
 (a) projections
 * OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002



88
7-3 Foreign Direct Investment(a): Each Country
                                      Outward                  Inward
($ million)                       2001        2000      2001            2000
Total                         617,752 1,368,076       694,753 1,469,221
 Japan                         38,497    31,534         6,191     8,227
United States                 127,840 178,294         130,796 307,747
Canada                         37,063    43,956        27,574    62,758
United Kingdom                 39,648 266,218          53,854 119,933
France                         83,193 169,481          52,504    43,173
Germany                        42,268    52,048        28,699 189,178
Netherlands                    44,413    70,150        55,563    56,631
Australia                      11,126     5,133         4,067    11,512
Korea                            2,600    4,999         3,198     9,283
Thailand                           125      -23         2,839     3,366
China                            6,885      916        44,241    38,399
Brazil                          -2,259    2,280        22,636    32,779
EU                            356,375 961,847         321,941 800,005
(a) International Balance of Payment Basis
* JETRO




7-4 Foreign Direct Investment(a): Japan
                                      Outward                  Inward
($ million)                       2001        2000      2001            2000
Total                           38,333       31,556     6,241           8,322
United States                    7,081       14,112     3,495            -976
Canada                             595           58       758           1,036
United Kingdom                  12,856        6,801    -1,219             225
France                             225          292       424           2,277
Germany                            686          548       243           1,932
Netherlands                      3,076        2,273     2,556           1,691
China                            2,161          937         1               1
Korea                              653        1,082        38              48
Singapore                          970       -1,512        20              83
Brazil                             885         -324        -0              -1
Russia                              10           15         4               0
Australia                          554          161        13             364
EU                              17,591       10,957     2,794           3,948
Asia                             7,836        2,173       129             986
(a) International Balance of Payment Basis
* JETRO

                                                                                89
 7-5 ODA Contributions in Each Region(a) (1999)

      Asia                                       Middle East


               Others                                     Others
               (17.7)                                     (18.1)
        UK                                                                   US
       (4.2)     Total                         Germany            Total    (33.0)
     Germany ($ million)                        (11.0)         ($ million)
      (7.5)     11,007 Japan                                     3,521
           US            (60.2)                      Japan
         (10.4)                                      (15.4)          France
                                                                     (22.5)




      Oceania                                    Europe

              Others
               (7.0)
         Japan
         (10.1)                                                                 US
                                                                              (33.5)
        US           Total                       Others           Total
      (13.4)      ($ million)    France                        ($ million)
                                 (52.8)          (45.1)
                    1,370                                        2,562
         Australia
                                                                             Germany
          (16.7)
                                                               France         (8.3)
                                                                (6.5)

                                                                        Netherlands
                                                                           (6.6)
      Central America and
      South America                              Africa



                                                                        France
                                  US                                    (17.0)
       Others                   (29.2)
       (33.1)
                     Total                       Others           Total           US
                  ($ million)                    (44.8)        ($ million)      (15.2)
                    4,240                                        8,344
        Spain               Japan                                            Japan
        (9.1) Germany       (19.2)                                           (11.9)
                                                               Germany
               (9.4)                                            (11.1)

 ( ): %
 (a) Net disbursement basis
 * White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2001, MOFA


90
7-6 Services: Japan
                                       2001                        2000
(¥ billion)                 Debit      Credit    Balance   Debit   Credit   Balance
Total                      13,150      7,834     -5,316 12,596     7,463    -5,133
Transportation              3,934      2,917     -1,017    3,783   2,760    -1,024
  Sea transport             2,481      1,995       -486    2,272   1,811      -460
  Air transport             1,443        919       -523    1,503     945      -558
Travel                      3,219        402     -2,817    3,437     364    -3,073
Other services              5,997      4,515     -1,482    5,376   4,339    -1,037
  Construction services       464        582       118      431      630      198
  Financial services          200        330       129      203      309      106
  Computer and
   information services       320        171       -149     331      169      -162
  Other business services 2,893        1,972       -921    2,618   1,909      -709
* Balance of Payments Monthly, April 2002, BOJ




7-7 Japan's Trading Partners in Services
                                       2001                        2000
(¥ billion)                 Debit      Credit    Balance   Debit   Credit   Balance
Total                    13,149.2    7,834.1 -5,315.1 12,595.8 7,462.2 -5,133.6
United States             4,303.8    2,501.9 -1,801.9 4,127.8 2,524.8 -1,603.0
France                      334.9       97.4 -237.5 301.0         99.6 -201.4
Germany                     414.4      268.3 -146.1 393.8 258.2 -135.6
Netherlands                 258.4      285.2     26.8 236.3 237.2           0.9
United Kingdom              931.3      601.4 -329.9 793.9 389.0 -404.9
Australia                   304.7      125.3 -179.4 320.4 135.6 -184.8
China                       480.2      284.8 -195.4 451.4 253.9 -197.5
Korea                       653.1      390.4 -262.7 686.0 366.2 -319.8
Hong Kong                   581.9      410.1 -171.8 523.2 429.5 -93.7
Singapore                   556.6      434.0 -122.6 532.9 464.4 -68.5
Russia                       36.1       10.8 -25.3        37.9    11.0 -26.9
Asia                      3,492.9    2,502.7 -990.2 3,434.1 2,572.5 -861.6
EU                        2,534.4    1,587.6 -946.8 2,325.0 1,250.7 -1,074.3
* Balance of Payments Monthly, April 2002, BOJ


                                                                                      91
 7-8 Service Balance of Transportation and
     Travel by Trading Partner (2001): Japan
                                     Transportation               Travel
     (¥ billion)             Debit       Credit Balance   Debit   Credit     Balance
 Total                    3,933.5 2,916.9 -1,016.6 3,218.8        402.0     -2,816.8
 United States              614.9 694.3       79.4 829.8           66.9       -762.9
 France                      87.6    31.5 -56.1       90.1          7.7        -82.4
 Germany                    136.8 131.2       -5.6    66.8         11.2        -55.6
 Netherlands                 92.6 133.6       41.0    23.4          1.7        -21.7
 United Kingdom             195.9 187.5       -8.4 118.2           23.6        -94.6
 Australia                   98.4    77.8 -20.6 126.3              11.8       -114.5
 China                      130.6 129.2       -1.4 190.4           38.2       -152.2
 Korea                      209.9 202.7       -7.2 334.7           50.8       -283.9
 Hong Kong                  231.7 178.5 -53.2 186.4                14.2       -172.2
 Singapore                  218.6 168.3 -50.3 100.6                 6.1        -94.5
 Russia                      18.5     5.2 -13.3        4.2          2.4         -1.8
 Asia                     1,111.5 1,031.5 -80.0 1,271.0           222.2     -1,048.8
 EU                         677.6 640.5 -37.1 530.9                53.6       -477.3
 * Balance of Payments Monthly, April 2002, BOJ



 7-9 Service Balance of Construction and
     Finance by Trading Partner (2001): Japan
                                     Construction                 Finance
     (¥ billion)             Debit      Credit Balance    Debit    Credit    Balance
 Total                     463.8 581.6 117.8 200.1 329.5 129.4
 United States              50.8 55.3    4.5 90.8 144.6 53.8
 France                      7.0   0.8 -6.2    1.5   3.2   1.7
 Germany                     9.3   1.5 -7.8    2.7   9.9   7.2
 Netherlands                 3.2   1.7 -1.5    0.4   2.1   1.7
 United Kingdom             44.5 12.1 -32.4 75.9 78.4      2.5
 Australia                   2.3   0.8 -1.5    0.6   1.4   0.8
 China                      13.2 27.5 14.3     0.3   0.8   0.5
 Korea                       6.9   2.6 -4.3    1.0   2.0   1.0
 Hong Kong                  11.9   6.6 -5.3    8.4 19.8 11.4
 Singapore                  25.5 22.0 -3.5     3.3   2.8 -0.5
 Russia                      0.1   0.2   0.1   0.2   0.7   0.5
 Asia                      156.9 236.7 79.8 14.5 34.2 19.7
 EU                         80.1 17.1 -63.0 84.0 112.1 28.1
 * Balance of Payments Monthly, April 2002, BOJ

92
7-10 Service Balance of Communications and
     Information by Trading Partner (2001): Japan
                                 Communications           Computers and Information
(¥ billion)              Debit      Credit Balance      Debit    Credit Balance
Total         130.0                 87.3         -42.7 320.4 171.4 -149.0
United States  44.6                 36.5          -8.1 184.6 111.8 -72.8
France          2.0                  1.7          -0.3   4.1   0.7   -3.4
Germany         1.7                  2.4           0.7   4.3   1.5   -2.8
Netherlands     0.8                  1.0           0.2   4.8   6.4    1.6
United Kingdom 8.1                   4.1          -4.0 26.9    7.8 -19.1
Australia       4.9                  1.5          -3.4 14.1    0.5 -13.6
China          13.5                  6.7          -6.8 10.8    0.8 -10.0
Korea           5.7                  9.8           4.1   3.3   2.1   -1.2
Hong Kong      14.9                  6.4          -8.5   9.6   1.6   -8.0
Singapore       3.0                  1.2          -1.8 18.3 26.8      8.5
Russia          0.3                  0.3           0.0   0.0     -      -
Asia           55.8                 33.4         -22.4 64.7 33.9 -30.8
EU             14.6                 10.5          -4.1 44.2 18.5 -25.7
* Balance of Payments Monthly, April 2002, BOJ



7-11 Number of Departures and Entries: Japan
                        Japanese Departed               Foreigners Entered
(1,000 persons)               Total                  Total    Short-Term Stay
1991                             10,634              3,856                -
1992                             11,791              3,926                -
1993                             11,934              3,747                -
1994                             13,579              3,831                -
1995                             15,298              3,732                -
1996                             16,695              4,245                -
1997                             16,803              4,670          3,535
1998                             15,806              4,557          3,402
1999                             16,358              4,901          3,678
2000                             17,819              5,272          3,911
2001                             16,216              5,286          3,878
* Ministry of Justice




                                                                                      93
 7-12 Entry into Japan by Nationality

     (1,000 persons)                              2001             %           2000

 Total                                        5,286.3            100.0        5,272.1
 Asia                                         3,280.5             62.1        3,223.0
   Korea                                      1,343.0             25.4        1,286.6
   Taiwan                                       838.0             15.9          944.0
   China                                        444.4              8.4          385.3
 Europe                                         817.0             15.5          814.9
   United Kingdom                               203.6              3.9          198.7
   Germany                                       89.9              1.7           90.6
 Africa                                          21.3              0.5           20.6
 North America                                  862.4             16.2          890.8
   United States                                715.0             13.5          749.3
   Canada                                       128.7              2.4          122.3
 South America                                  114.0              2.1          135.8
 Oceania                                        189.3              3.6          185.0
 * Ministry of Justice




 7-13 Income Balance: Japan
                                             2001                           2000
     (¥ billion)                 Debit       Credit      Balance       Debit    Credit
 Total                         4,114 12,514              8,401     3,967 10,472
 Compensation of
 employees                          31            26        -5           29        29
 Investment income 4,083 12,489                          8,406     3,938 10,444
        Direct investment
        income                    502       2,045        1,543         283       891
        Portfolio investment
        income             1,436            7,663        6,227     1,496       6,608
        Other investment
        income           2,145              2,781         636      2,159       2,945
          Interest on loans 1,491           2,006         515      1,363       2,122
          Interest on deposits 570            659           89         714       638
 * Balance of Payments Monthly, April 2002, BOJ




94
7-14 Financial Account, Assets and Liabilities(a): Japan
                                                   2001                          2000
(¥ billion)                               Assets     Liabilities        Assets     Liabilities
Total                         343 -6,169                               -1,452 -6,977
Direct investment          -4,659    759                               -3,401     897
Portfolio investment      -13,068  7,438                               -8,928   5,081
  Equity securities        -1,402  4,785                               -2,140    -118
  Debt securities         -11,666  2,654                               -6,788   5,199
    Bonds and notes       -11,806  3,453                               -5,110   6,132
    Money market instruments 141    -800                               -1,678    -933
    Financial derivatives 12,456 -12,270                               11,516 -12,025
Other investments           5,613 -2,096                                 -640    -929
  Loans                    -3,175 -3,925                                5,866 -1,815
  Trade credits               927   -132                                 -190     -25
  Currency & deposits       7,598  1,952                               -5,030     715
  Others                      263     10                               -1,286     196
(a) Negative figures show outflow of Capital (on increase in Assets or a decrease in Liabilities)
* Balance of Payments Monthly, April 2002, BOJ




7-15 ODA Disbursement(a): Japan

($ million)              2000           %                                  1980          %

Total of developing                                Total of developing
 countries      9,640 100.0                         countries      6,940 100.0
Indonesia                  970        10.1         Indonesia                  350          5.0
Vietnam                    924          9.6        Bangladesh                 215          3.1
China                      769          8.0        Thailand                   190          2.7
Thailand                   635          6.6        Burma(b)                   152          2.2
India                      368          3.8        Egypt                      123          1.8
Philippines                304          3.2        Pakistan                   112          1.6
Pakistan                   280          2.9        Philippines                  94         1.4
Tanzania                   217          2.3        Korea                        76         1.1
Bangladesh                 202          2.1        Malaysia                     66         0.9
Peru                       192          2.0        Sri Lanka                    45         0.6
(a) Net disbursement basis (b) From 1989, referred to as Myanmar
* White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2001, MOFA



                                                                                                    95
 8-1 Wood (2000)
                                                      Production
     (Million m3)                            Total      Wood       For Fuel
 World                                      3,352.4   1,586.5      1,765.9
 China(a)                                     287.5      96.4        191.1
 United States                                500.5     428.5         72.0
 India                                        319.5      22.2        297.3
 Brazil                                       235.4     103.0        132.4
 Indonesia                                    120.4      31.4         89.0
 Canada                                       187.5     182.8          4.7
 Russia                                       158.1     105.8         52.3
 Nigeria                                       68.7       9.4         59.3
 Sweden                                        61.8      55.9          5.9
 Finland                                       54.2      50.1          4.1
 Ethiopia                                      90.0       2.5         87.5
 Congo                                         68.6       3.7         64.9
 Tanzania                                      23.1       2.3         20.8
 Germany                                       49.1      46.5          2.6
 France                                        50.2      39.1         11.1
  Japan                                        18.1      18.0          0.1
 (a) Includes Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau
 * Forest Yearbook 2000, FAO



 8-2 Oil-Reserves, Production, Consumption
             Reserves(a)            Production(b)        Consumption(b)

 Total              1,050.0    Total        74,493     Total       75,291
 Saudi Arabia 261.8            Saudi Arabia 8,768      US          19,633
     Iraq            112.5     US            7,717     Japan        5,427
     UAE              97.8     Russia        7,056     China        5,041
     Kuwait           96.5     Iran          3,688     Germany      2,804
     Iran             89.7     Mexico        3,560     Russia       2,456
     Venezuela        77.7     Venezuela 3,418         Korea        2,235
     Russia           48.6     Norway        3,414     India        2,072
     US               30.4     China         3,308     France       2,032
     Libya            29.5     Canada        2,763     Italy        1,946
     Mexico           26.9     UK            2,503     Canada       1,941
 (a) 1,000 million barrels
 (b) 1,000 barrels daily
 * BP 2002


96
8-3 Natural Gas-Reserves, Production, Consumption
         Reserves(a)                     Production(b)       Consumption(b)

Total            5,476.7          Total          2,464.0   Total       2,404.9
Russia           1,680.0          US               555.4   US           616.2
Iran               812.3          Russia           542.4   Russia       372.7
Qatar              508.5          Canada           172.0   UK             95.4
Saudi Arabia 219.5                UK               105.8   Germany        82.9
UAE                212.1          Algeria           78.2   Japan         79.0
US                 177.4          Indonesia         62.9   Canada         72.6
Algeria            159.7          Netherlands       61.4   Ukraine        65.8
Venezuela          147.6          Iran              60.6   Iran           65.0
Nigeria            124.0          Norway            57.5   Italy          64.5
Iraq               109.8          Saudi Arabia 53.7        Saudi Arabia 53.7
(a) trillion cubic feet
(b) billion cubic meters
* BP 2002




8-4 Coal-Reserves, Production, Consumption
         Reserves(a)                     Production(b)       Consumption(b)

Total           984,453           Total          2,248.3   Total       2,255.1
US              249,994           US               590.7   US           555.7
Russia          157,010           China            548.5   China        520.6
China           114,500           Australia        168.1   India        173.5
India             84,396          India            161.1   Russia       114.6
Australia         82,090          South Africa 126.7       Japan        103.0
Germany           66,000          Russia           120.8   Germany        84.4
South Africa49,520                Poland            72.5   South Africa 80.6
Ukraine           34,153          Indonesia         56.9   Poland         57.5
Kazakhstan 34,000                 Germany           54.2   Australia      47.6
Poland            22,160          Ukraine           43.6   Korea          45.7
(a) million tons
(b) million tons oil equivalent
* BP 2002


                                                                                 97
 8-5 Consumption(a)-Nuclear Energy, Hydroelectricity, Primary Energy
         Nuclear Energy                 Hydroelectricity               Primary Energy

 Total              601.2          Total            594.5             Total        9,124.8
 US                 183.2          US                 48.3            US           2,237.3
 France               94.9         Canada             75.0            China          839.7
     Japan            72.7         Brazil             61.4            Russia         643.0
 Germany              38.7         China              58.3            Japan          514.5
 Russia               30.9         Russia             39.8            Germany        335.2
 Korea                25.4         Norway             27.4            India          314.7
 UK                   20.4         Japan              20.4            Canada         274.6
 Canada               17.4         France             18.1            France         256.4
 Ukraine              17.2         Sweden             17.9            UK             224.0
 Switzerland          16.4         India              16.1            Korea          195.9
 (a) million tons oil equivalent
 *BP 2002



 8-6 Primary Energy Supplies (2000)(a)
                           Total     Nuclear       Coal         Oil        Natural Others(c)
     (Mtoe)(b)                                                              Gas
 Australia       110.17      - 47.43 36.55 19.29      6.90
 Belgium          59.22 12.55    8.37 23.77 13.36     1.16
 Canada          250.97 18.97 30.38 88.03 74.62 38.97
 France          257.13 108.19 14.97 87.24 35.30 11.42
 Germany         339.64 44.20 80.59 131.56 71.83 11.46
 Italy           171.57      - 12.56 88.21 57.92 12.87
  Japan          524.71 83.93 93.74 265.17 64.80 17.08
 Korea           193.63 28.40 41.93 103.79 16.99      2.51
 Mexico          153.51   2.14   7.11 94.84 33.34 16.09
 Netherlands      75.80   1.02   8.00 28.55 34.70     3.53
 Spain           124.88 16.21 20.91 64.85 15.21       7.69
 Sweden           47.48 14.93    2.58 13.35    0.70 15.91
 United Kingdom 232.64 22.17 35.96 83.16 87.47        3.88
 United States 2,299.67 208.46 541.65 887.84 544.88 116.84
 EU            1,477.75 229.44 216.50 595.67 344.51 91.64
 (a) These figures are based on an assumption of 100% efficiency for hydro-electric, 33% for
     nuclear and approximately 10% for geothermal plants; preliminary data.
 (b) Million tons of oil equivalent
 (c) Includes hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, combustible renewables, waste and international
     trade in electricity.
     * Energy Balances of OECD Countries 1999-2000, IEA/OECD, Paris, 2002;
       Main Economic Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2002
98
8-7 Electric Power Production(a)
                  Total        Hydro        Thermal(a)         Nuclear          Total
(Billion kWh)     1998              (%)           (%)                (%)        1980
World         14,445.6 2,643.0(18.3) 9,358.9(64.8) 2,443.7(16.9) 8,247.3
United States 3,834.0 323.5          2,796.4         714.1       2,354.4
China          1,166.2 208.0           944.1          14.1         300.6
 Japan         1,046.3 102.6           611.4         332.3         577.5
Russia(b)        827.1 159.5           563.9         103.7       1,293.9
Canada           561.8 332.0           158.3          71.5         377.5
Germany          556.4    21.2         374.0         161.1         467.6
France(c)        504.6    66.0          50.6         388.0         246.4
India            494.4    82.7         399.6          12.0         119.3
United Kingdom 358.7       6.7         251.8         100.1         284.9
Brazil           321.6 291.4            27.0           3.3         139.5
Italy(d)         260.2    47.4         212.9           0.0         185.7
Korea            240.6     6.1         144.8          89.7          40.1
South Africa     193.9     1.6         178.8          13.6          90.4
Spain            195.3    35.8         100.5          59.0         110.5
Belgium           85.8     1.5          38.2          46.2          53.6
(a) Includes geothermal power generation (b) Former USSR (c) Includes Monaco
(d) Includes San Marino
* Energy Statistics Yearbook, UN




8-8 Electricity Generated in Major Countries

(billion kWh)                      1997         1996           1995             1994

World total                    13,947         13,673          13,133           12,697

Up/down from
 a year earlier(%)                   2.0           4.1             3.4            2.4

United States                      3,572        3,577          3,347            3,244

Russia                              834           847             860            876

Japan                              1,040       1,009              990            964

United Kingdom                      345           347             336            325

Germany                             546           545             535            527

Canada                              567           556             542            539
* Energy Statistics Yearbook, UN


                                                                                        99
  8-9 Nuclear Power Generation (2001)(a)
                                     In Operation                Under Construction(b)
                              Million kW Reactors(c)            Million kW Reactors(c)
  World                          366.3              432            67.9             78
  United States                  101.7              103               -              -
  France                          62.9               57             3.0              2
   Japan                          45.1               52            12.2             11
  Russia                          22.6               30             4.0              4
  Germany                         22.4               19               -              -
  Korea                           13.7               16            10.8             10
  United Kingdom                  13.5               33               -              -
  Ukraine                         11.8               13             5.0              5
  Canada                          10.6               14               -              -
  Sweden                           9.8               11               -              -
  Spain                            7.8                9               -              -
  Belgium                          6.0                7               -              -
  Taiwan                           5.1                6             2.7              2
  (a) Dec. 2001 (b) Includes planned facilities (c) Number of units
  * Nuclear Power Plants in the World 2001, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc.




  8-10 Final Energy Consumption(a) (2000)

      (Mtoe)(b)                    Total          Industry       Transport         Other

  Australia                        71.60            27.72           28.14          15.74
  Canada                         192.48             75.42           53.66          63.40
  France                         167.88             49.81           53.13          64.94
  Germany                        245.35             80.59           67.62          97.14
      Japan                      346.84          146.03             94.43         106.38
  Korea                          129.21             59.95           30.48          38.78
  Netherlands                      60.41            23.37           14.24          22.80
  Spain                            89.10            33.90           33.89          21.32
  Sweden                           35.70            14.36             8.46         12.89
  United Kingdom                 161.53             44.79           52.97          63.76
  United States                1,499.13           398.86          614.95          485.32
  EU                           1,062.76           356.42          321.25          385.09
  (a) Includes nonenergy use (b) Million tons of oil equivalent
  * Energy Balances of OECD Countries 1999-2000, IEA/OECD, 2002



100
8-11 Crude Oil Processing Capacity of Major Country

(1,000 barrels per day)                2000     1999     1998     1997

Total                                 81,550   80,310   78,784   76,066

US                                    16,541   16,423   15,898   15,433

Canada                                 1,912    1,873    1,815    1,852

Venezuela                              1,239    1,187    1,177    1,177

France                                 1,902    1,947    1,865    1,786

Germany                                2,275    2,241    2,184    2,108

Italy                                  2,341    2,446    2,453    2,262

UK                                     1,785    1,854    1,826    1,941

 Japan                                4,998    5,059    4,966    4,989
* Oil & Gas Journal




8-12 Import Dependency of Major Country

(%)                                    2000     1999     1998     1997

 Japan                                  99.7     99.7     99.7     99.7


United States                           61.7     61.1     59.8     57.9


United Kingdom                          32.7     27.9     30.9     31.4


Germany                                 97.1     97.4     97.6     97.6


France                                  98.2     98.2     98.1     97.8


Italy                                   96.3     95.9     95.2     94.8
* Oil, Gas, Coal & Electricity, IEA




                                                                          101
  8-13 CO2 Emissions (2000)
                                 Total            Change            CO2/               CO2/
                        (Million tonnes of CO2) 2000/1990 (%)      GDP(a)            capita(b)
  Australia                  329.3                 26.8             0.73             17.19
  Canada                     526.8                 22.4             0.75             17.13
  France                     373.3                   5.8            0.21               6.18
  Germany                    833.0                -13.6             0.31             10.14
  Italy                      425.7                   6.4            0.35               7.37
      Japan               1,154.8                  13.4             0.20               9.10
  Korea                      433.6                 91.7             0.70               9.17
  Mexico                     359.6                 23.1             0.96               3.70
  Poland                     292.8                -14.9             1.79               7.58
  UK                         531.5                  -5.1            0.41               8.89
  US                      5,665.4                  17.4             0.63             20.57
  EU                      3,161.7                    1.5            0.32               8.35
  (a) Kilogrammes of CO2 per 1995 USD
  (b) Tonnes of CO2 per capita
  * OECD in Figures 2002




  8-14 CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion(a) (By Type of Fuel)

      CO2 (Million t)                                   Coal           Oil             Gas

  Australia                                          179.5          105.0            44.0
  Belgium                                             30.9           57.2            30.7
  Canada                                             119.4          239.0           168.3
  France                                              55.2          238.4            79.7
  Germany                                            339.3          325.6           163.4
  Italy                                               44.5          246.7           134.0
   Japan                                             352.0          650.3           152.5
  Korea                                              169.0          223.8            38.8
  Netherlands                                         32.5           61.2            79.8
  Spain                                               80.3          169.0            34.7
  United Kingdom                                     136.3          195.5           198.7
  United States                                    2,113.6        2,307.0         1,227.4
  EU                                                 840.1        1,532.3           773.6
  (a) Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are calculated using the IEA energy balances, the IPCC
      Sectorial Approach and the default emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC
      Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. They may differ from National
      Communications submitted by the Parties to the UNFCCC.
  * CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion IEA/OECD, Paris, 2002

102
8-15 CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion(a) (By Sector)
                                 Public
                               Electricity Industry Transport(b) Residential        Others
CO2 (Million t)                and Heat
Australia                     164.3          51.3    75.3               6.9         31.4
Belgium                        24.7          35.0    24.7              20.3         15.7
Canada                        121.7          97.7 150.0                42.5        114.9
France                         31.7          78.3 139.1                54.6         69.4
Germany                       279.5         136.3 174.2               119.3        123.7
Italy                         136.9          79.9 113.0                68.2         27.7
 Japan                        326.0         268.1 253.1                73.9        233.8
Korea                         124.5          83.8    87.9              29.7        107.8
Netherlands                    47.2          38.1    31.7              18.9         41.2
Spain                          84.9          55.3    91.8              16.7         36.0
United Kingdom                154.8          72.4 134.2                82.0         88.0
United States               2,138.8         580.0 1,721.2             371.4        854.0
EU                            893.5         568.6 826.7               417.7        455.2
(a) Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are calculated using the IEA energy balances, the IPCC
    Sectorial Approach and the default emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC
    Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. They may differ from National
    Communications submitted by the Parties to the UNFCCC.
(b) Excludes international marine and aviation bunkers
* CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion IEA/OECD, Paris, 2002




8-16 Emissions and Pollution--Air
                                             Sulphur                          Nitrogen
(Per capita)                                Oxides (kg)                      Oxides (kg)
Australia                                         96                             135
Belgium                                           20                              36
Canada                                            90                              67
France                                            14                              28
Germany                                           10                              20
Italy                                             16                              26
 Japan                                             7                              13
Korea                                             25                              23
Netherlands                                        6                              27
Spain                                             40                              33
Sweden                                             8                              30
United Kingdom                                    20                              27
United States                                     63                              84
EU                                                19                              27
* OECD Environmental Data, OECD, Paris, 2002


                                                                                             103
  8-17 Waste
                                                 Industrial(a) Municipal(b)         Nuclear(c)

  Australia                                          110              690                 -
  Belgium                                             60              530               1.3
  Canada                                               -              330(d)            5.0
  France                                              80              510               4.5
  Germany                                             40              550               1.3
  Italy                                               20              490                 -
   Japan                                              40              410               1.9
  Korea                                               60              360               2.7
  Netherlands                                         30              610               0.2
  Spain                                               40              670               1.2
  Sweden                                             110              450               4.7
  United Kingdom                                      40              560               3.4
  United States                                        -              760               0.9
  (a) Tons per $ million, per unit of GDP waste from manufacturing industries (b) kg per capita
  (c) Tons of heavy metal waste based on Mtoe of fuel spent in nuclear power plants (primary
      energy supply)
  (d) Household wate only
  * OECD Environmental Data, OECD, Paris, 2002




  8-18 Consumption and Recovery Rate of Used Paper (2000)
                         Production Consumption
                          of paper        of paper              Collection          Recovery
                        (million tons) (per capita, kg)            (%)                (%)
  World                     323.3                53.8               47.6               48.0

  United States               85.5             331.7                48.7               42.0

  China                       30.9               28.4               33.9               51.0

      Japan                   31.8             249.9                58.0               57.0

  Germany                     18.2             232.5                71.0               60.5

  France                      10.0                    -             46.6               57.8

  Canada                      20.7                    -             46.0               24.5

  Korea                         9.3            156.1                67.7               74.8
  * Japan Paper Association


104
8-19 Import of Metal Ores: Japan

10
      •


                                 8.65

  8                             (12.5)      7.72
      •




           7.15       7.36
                                           (13.5)     Nonferrous
          (12.0)     (12.9)     (47.7)                Metal Scrap

  6                                        (45.3)
      •




          (44.1)     (46.6)                           Nonferrous
                                                      Metal Ores
                                  (28.4)              Copper Ore
                       (29.1)                (26.4)
  4         (26.2)
      •




           (1.4)
                                 (2.6)
                                            (1.4)     Iron
                      (1.9)                           & Steel Scrap
  2
      •




          (42.5)     (38.6)     (37.3)     (39.8)     Iron Ore


  0
           1998       1999       2000       2001
( ): %
* METI




8-20 Import of Timber, Pulp and Others: Japan

15                              14.77
      •




                     13.91
          13.51                 (13.4)
                     (13.9)                12.63
          (13.6)
12
      •




                                (13.0)     (12.2)     Others
          (11.5)     (10.6)
                                (3.3)      (10.5)     Pulp
                     (3.9)
          (4.7)                 (10.2)
                     (10.1)                (3.7)      Oils and Fats
 9
      •




          (10.9)                           (11.1)     Fertilizers and
                                                      Raw Minerals

 6                              (41.1)                Wood/Cork
      •




          (35.6)     (41.3)                (39.8)

                                                      Natural
 3
      •




          (4.3)                                       Rubber
                     (3.7)      (3.9)      (5.7)
          (17.6)     (14.8)     (13.5)     (15.1)     Oil Seeds
                                                      Rawhide
          (1.8)      (1.7)      (1.6)      (1.9)      and Fur
 0
          1998       1999       2000       2001
( ): %
* METI



                                                                        105
  8-21 Import of Mineral Fuels: Japan

  80
          •

                                              77.09

                                              (16.9)           70.20
                                                                         Liquefied
                                                               (18.7)    Natural Gas
                                               (6.4)
  60
          •




                                                                         Liquefied
                                              (11.5)           (6.2)     Petroleum Gas
                             50.20
                                                               (10.6)    Petroleum
              43.10          (16.8)                                      Products
  40          (18.4)          (6.4)
          •




              (5.8)          (11.7)
              (9.5)                           (57.9)                     Crude and
                                                               (55.4)    Partly Refined
                                                                         Oil
  20
          •




              (52.1)         (54.0)



              (14.2)         (11.1)            (7.3)           (9.1)     Coal
      0
              1998            1999             2000            2001
  ( ): %
  * METI




  8-22 Import of Crude Oil and Oil Prices: Japan
                                                      Imports                Price
                                          $ Billion         Million kl    ¥ per Barrel
  1988                                        18.9              192             1,891
  1989                                        21.5              205             2,540
  1990                                        31.6              225             3,227
  1991                                        30.2              236             2,507
  1992                                        30.1              247             2,416
  1993                                        28.0              252             1,814
  1994                                        27.6              267             1,726
  1995                                        30.0              264             1,758
  1996                                        33.4              261             2,432
  1997                                        34.8              268             2,306
  1998                                        22.5              255             1,641
  1999                                        27.1              251             2,308
  2000                                        44.7              251             3,119
  2001                                        38.9              246             2,965
  * Financial and Economic Statistics, BOJ;
    METI



106
8-23 Origin of Main Resources Imported (2001): Japan
                               Top Three Origins (% of import)                    Share of
                         1                    2                    3              Top 3(%)
Coal              Australia (58.9)     China       (15.3)   Indonesia     (9.2)    (83.4)
Crude oil         Saudi Arabia(25.7)   UAE         (24.9)   Iran         (12.2)    (62.8)
LNG               Indonesia (30.9)     Malaysia    (20.6)   Australia    (13.6)    (65.1)
Iron ore          Australia (49.4)     Brazil      (22.7)   India        (11.7)    (83.8)
Nonferrous
  metal ores      Indonesia   (25.2)   Chile       (23.6)   Australia (16.6)       (65.4)
Copper ore        Chile       (37.7)   Indonesia   (23.8)   Canada (12.5)          (74.0)
Soybeans          US          (73.8)   Brazil      (12.8)   Canada      (7.0)      (93.6)
Wood              Canada      (26.1)   US          (19.8)   Russia (11.9)          (57.8)
Pulp              Canada      (38.6)   US          (31.5)   Brazil      (9.1)      (79.2)
Wool              Australia   (32.5)   Taiwan      (24.0)   New Zealand (9.4)      (65.9)
Cotton            Australia   (50.6)   US          (33.9)   India       (3.1)      (87.6)
Wheat             US          (49.0)   Canada      (30.3)   Australia (20.7)      (100.0)
Corn (for feed)   US          (94.9)   Argentina    (2.1)   China       (1.2)      (98.2)
* METI




8-24 Supply and Demand of Energy: Japan

Electric Utilities (Billion kWh)                   2001           2000             1999

Power generated                                   922.00         940.69           921.06
 Hydroelectric                                     86.51          89.33            88.28
 Thermal                                          512.66         526.92           513.63
 Nuclear                                          319.65         321.34           315.91
Power consumed                                    844.28         858.08           836.74
 Electric light                                   254.47         254.59           248.23
 Electric power                                   589.81         603.49           588.51

City Gas (Billion MJ(a))                           2001           2000             1999

Production & purchases                      1,084.42   947.71 1,001.82
Sales                                       1,064.11 1,035.05   983.58
  Residential                                 396.56   392.58   384.04
  Commercial                                  173.55   167.51   159.65
  Industrial                                  402.02   388.30   361.42
(a) MJ=Megajoule
* Monthly Statistics of Japan, Oct. 2002, MPHPT



                                                                                             107
  9-1 Female Employment
                                                             Female Participation Rate(a)
      (%)                                                     2001                 1991
      Japan                                                   64.4                        61.4
  Australia                                                   66.1                        61.7
  Canada                                                      70.5                        67.9
  France                                                      63.3                        58.2
  Germany                                                     64.4                        61.0
  Italy                                                       47.8                        46.2
  Korea                                                       55.0                        51.8
  Netherlands                                                 66.3                        54.5
  Spain                                                       50.8                        42.1
  United Kingdom                                              67.5                        66.3
  United States                                               69.7                        68.5
  EU                                                          60.7                        56.6
  (a) Defined as female labor force of all ages divided by female population aged 15-64
  * Labour Force Statistics 1981-2001, OECD, Paris, 2002




  9-2 Part-Time Employment(a)
                                                                           Female Part-Time
                            Female                       Male             (% of total part-time)
      (% of total)       2001    1991             2001          1991       2001         1991
   Japan                 41.0         34.3        13.7          10.1        67.5          70.0
  Australia              41.6         39.7        15.8          12.4        67.5          70.1
  Canada                 27.1         28.0        10.4          10.1        69.1          69.4
  Denmark                20.9         28.6         9.1           9.9        66.7          71.5
  France                 23.8         21.3         5.1           4.5        80.4          79.5
  Germany                33.9(b)      25.2         4.8(b)        2.2        84.5(b)       89.4
  Italy                  23.7         18.2         5.4           3.8        72.6          71.9
  Korea                  10.5          6.8         5.3           3.2        58.4          59.0
  Netherlands            58.1         52.6        13.8          13.7        76.3          70.5
  Spain                  16.6         10.7         2.7           1.4        78.9          78.6
  United Kingdom         40.8(b)      40.3         8.4(b)        5.5        79.9(b)       85.1
  United States          18.2         20.5         8.1           8.8        67.5          67.7
  (a) Defined by a common definition of less than 30 usual-hours worked per week in the main
      job
  (b) 2000
  * Labour Force Statistics 1981-2001, OECD, Paris, 2002

108
9-3 Unemployment(a)
               Unemployed (1,000 persons)                  Unemployment Rates (%)
                        2001              2001               2000       1999      1998
 Japan          3,400                             5.0          4.7           4.7           4.1
Australia         644                             6.8          6.3           6.9           7.7
Canada          1,170                             7.2          6.8           7.6           8.3
France          2,325                             8.7          9.4          10.8          11.5
Germany         3,185                             7.4          7.5           8.2           8.9
Italy           2,267                             9.6         10.7          11.5          11.9
Korea             819                             3.7          4.1           6.3           6.8
Netherlands       221                             2.2          2.6           3.2           4.2
Spain           1,868                            10.5         11.4          12.9          15.4
Switzerland       101                             1.9          2.0           2.7           3.9
United Kingdom 1,404                              5.1          5.5           6.0           5.9
United States   6,742                             4.8          4.0           4.2           4.5
EU             13,171                             7.4          7.8           8.7           9.4
(a) Based on the number of job seekers
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002; Labour Force Statistics 1981-2001, OECD, 2002




9-4 Unemployment of Females and Youths
                          Unemployed                      Unemployed Youths(c)(d)
                           Females(a)(b)               Female              Male
(% of total)             2001       1991           2000       1999    2000        1999
 Japan         4.7                    2.2          8.0(e)       8.2         11.7(e)      10.3
Australia      6.3                    8.6          9.2         12.0         10.2         14.7
Canada         6.8                    9.7          9.0         12.6         13.7         15.3
Denmark        5.3                   10.0          6.7         10.5          6.2          9.5
France        10.5                   12.0         22.7         29.7         18.6         24.2
Germany        8.1                    7.0          7.1          7.7          9.6          9.9
Italy         13.0                   16.7         32.6         38.3         26.9         28.6
Korea          3.0                    1.9            -         11.9            -         17.9
Netherlands    3.4                    9.5          4.5          8.2          4.2          6.6
Spain         15.2                   24.1         32.8         37.3         18.3         21.7
United Kingdom 4.2                    7.3          7.6         10.5         10.8         14.5
United States  4.7                    6.4          5.8          9.5          7.1         10.3
EU               -                      -            -         19.2            -         16.7
(a) National definitions (b) % of total female labor force (c) Under 25 (d) % of total youth labor
    force
(e) 15 to 24 years old
* Labour Force Statistics 1981-2001, OECD, Paris 2002; Employment Outlook, OECD, 2002

                                                                                                     109
  9-5 Average Wage(a) & Minimum Wage
                                  Japan           US        Germany(b)           UK


  Average wage per hour ¥2,270                 $18.28 DM 45.59                 S£ 7.84


  Purchase power parity               100           145            177                87


      Minimum Wage                               2001            1990           1985

  Japan                     ¥/hour                  633            516            438


                              ¥/day               5,168           4,117          3,478


  United States             $/hour                 5.15            3.80           3.35
  (a) Manufacturing Industry 1999 (b) Former West Germany
  * Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare




  9-6 Hourly Earnings, Productivity, and Unit
      Labor Costs in Manufacturing
                          Hourly earnings        Productivity         Unit labor costs
      (annual % change)   2001       2000      2001       2000       2001         2000
  Advanced Economies 2.5              4.5        0.6        4.8         1.9       -0.2

  United States            1.6         7.4       0.9        4.0         0.6        3.2

      Japan                0.9        -0.2     -4.5         6.6         5.6       -6.3

  Germany                  3.4        2.8        4.1        6.6         -0.7      -3.5

  France                   3.1        2.3        0.6        6.7         2.5       -4.1

  Italy                    2.7        2.7        3.2        4.0         -0.5      -1.2

  United Kingdom 4.3                  4.6        2.0        5.5         2.3       -0.9

  Canada                   3.5        1.3       -2.0        2.1         5.5       -0.7
  * World Economic Outlook, IMF


110
9-7 Total Workforce Ratio and Its Ratio to Population (2001)
                                  Workforce (1,000)                   Total Workforce(a)
                                  Male       Female                   Male       Female
Japan                         39,920             27,600               92.4            64.4
Australia                         5,459           4,309               84.3            66.2
Canada                            8,769           7,477               82.3            70.6
France                        14,204             12,246               75.7            63.5
Germany                       22,150             17,625               80.3            64.4
Italy                         14,306              9,261               75.6            47.8
Korea                         13,012              9,169               75.5            55.0
Spain                         10,752              6,971               78.7            50.9
United Kingdom                16,223             13,149               82.5(b)         67.7(b)
United States                 75,743             66,071               84.7(b)         71.8(b)
(a) % of population from 15-64 years
(b) 2000
* Labor Force Statistics 1981-2001, OECD




9-8 Household Savings Rates(a)

20
     •




                                                                                 15.8 France
15
     •




                                                                                 10.9 Italy
                                                                                 10.5 Japan
10
     •




                                                                                 10.2 Germany



                                                                                  5.6 UK
 5
     •




                                                                                  3.6 Canada

                                                                                  1.6 US
 0       •     •       •      •       •      •       •      •         •      •
     1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
(a) Includes savings by nonprofit institutions, except France/Japan
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002



                                                                                                111
  9-9 Gross National Saving

      (% of nominal GDP)              2000             1999             1998    1997

   Japan                              27.7             27.6            29.1    30.2
  United States                       17.7             18.0            18.3    17.6
  Germany                             21.3             21.0            21.5    21.4
  France                              21.8             21.7            21.4    20.4
  Italy                               20.2             20.8            21.2    21.6
  United Kingdom                      15.7             15.8            17.7    17.0
  Canada                              23.7             21.0            19.5    19.9
  Australia                           18.3             18.6            18.5    19.0
  Korea                               32.1             32.6            33.7    33.3
  Mexico                                 -             20.6            20.5    24.0
  Netherlands                         27.6             26.7            25.2    27.9
  Spain                               22.3             22.2            22.6    22.6
  Switzerland                            -             31.6            30.7    30.3
  EU                                  20.6             20.5            20.9    20.7
  * OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002




  9-10 Employees by Industry: Japan

      (Millions)                     2001             2000             1999    1998

  Total                             64.12            64.47             64.62   65.14
  Agriculture(a)                     2.86             2.97              3.07    3.17
  Fisheries                          0.27             0.29              0.28    0.26
  Mining                             0.05             0.05              0.06    0.06
  Construction                       6.32             6.53              6.57    6.62
  Manufacturing                     12.84            13.21             13.45   13.82
  Public utilities(b)                0.34             0.34              0.38    0.37
  Transportation &
    communications                   4.07             4.14              4.06    4.05
  Commerce(c)                       14.73            14.74             14.83   14.83
  Finance & insurance,
    real estate                      2.40             2.48              2.51    2.57
  Services                          17.68            17.18             16.86   16.85
  Others                             2.11             2.14              2.14    2.17
  (a) Includes forestry (b) Electricity, gas, heat supply and water
  (c) Wholesale and retail trade, eating and drinking establishments
  * Monthly Statistics of Japan, Oct. 2002, MPHPT


112
9-11 Average Number of Years Worked by Females: Japan

1980          15.2               23.6                        16.9                 25.0               10.7 5.03.4




1990      14.0                  22.5                     14.8               22.2              11.4       7.8 7.3




2000 9.9                  18.7                14.0                   24.7                13.8        7.9        11.0


                 •         •              •          •          •        •          •           •          •           •
      0         10         20         30            40          50       60        70         80           90       100


      0          1-2                3-4             5-9             10-14           15-19               20 and over

* White Paper on Labour of Women 2001, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare




9-12 Illegal Foreign Workers: Japan

70
      •




60
      •




                                                  Total Detection
50
      •




40
      •




                                                              Male                                                  33.5
30
      •




20
      •




                                                                                                                    19.3
                                                                                                                    14.2
                                                              Female
10
      •




  0       •          •          •             •          •           •        •          •          •           •
      1992           93        94             95         96         97       98          99     2000 2001
* Ministry of Justice




                                                                                                                           113
  9-13 Working Hours per Month(a): Japan

  190
            •




  180
            •




                                               Male
  170
            •




                                                                                          166.5

  160
            •




  150
            •




                                               Female
  140
            •




                                                                                          136.4

  130
            •




        0       •   •    •      •       •       •      •       •       •      •       •
            1990 91     92      93     94      95      96     97      98      99 2000
  (a) Companies with over 5 employees
  * White Paper on Labour of Women 2001, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare




  9-14 Household Accounts(a): Japan

      (¥)                                           2001            2000             1999

  Total monthly income                          551,160            560,954        574,676
    Regular                                     371,407            379,700        381,995
    Temporary & bonuses                          77,903             80,737         86,314
    Others                                      101,851            100,518        106,367
    Disposable income                           464,723            472,823        483,910
    Expenditures                                421,479            429,109        436,943
      Living expenditures                       335,042            340,977        346,177
        Food                                     73,180             74,889         78,059
        Housing, etc.(b)                         54,559             54,006         55,404
        Clothing & footwear                      16,192             17,192         18,876
        Trans. & comm.(c)                        43,955             43,660         40,610
        Education                                17,668             18,214         17,813
        Reading & recreation                     33,522             33,831         35,284
        Others                                   95,966             99,185        100,130
    Surplus                                     129,681            131,846        137,733
      Net savings                                86,175             87,763         94,033
  (a) Average monthly receipts and disbursements per household (b) Housing, fuel, light, water
      charges, etc.
  (c) Transportation & communications
  * Monthly Statistics of Japan, Oct. 2002, MPHPT

114
10-1 Daily Supply of Nutrients (2000)
                          Total Intake    Protein      Fat     Vegetables
(Per capita)                (Kcal)          (g)        (g)        (g)
 Japan                       2,762         91.8        83.1        306
United States                3,772        114.0       151.3        345
Italy                        3,661        114.6       153.7        508
France                       3,591        116.5       166.2        360
Germany                      3,451         94.7       152.3        202
United Kingdom               3,334         98.4       144.6        230
Netherlands                  3,294        109.3       144.7        229
Canada                       3,174        103.9       129.4        328
Australia                    3,176        107.0       138.4        271
Korea                        3,093         90.0        75.6        636
China(a)                     3,029         85.5        84.0        558
Brazil                       2,985         79.9        88.5        107
Russia                       2,917         86.0        77.4        244
India                        2,428         57.1        47.9        171
Kenya                        1,965         50.5        46.9         48
(a) Hong Kong and Macao excluded
* Food Balance Sheets, FAO




10-2 GDP Deflators

(% change from previous year) 2003
                                   (a)      2002(a)     2001       2000

 Japan                             -1.7      -1.4       -1.4       -2.0
United States                       1.6       1.5        2.2        2.3
Germany                             0.9       1.4        1.3       -0.4
France                              1.4       1.6        1.6        0.8
Italy                               2.2       2.6        2.6        2.1
United Kingdom                      2.5       3.2        2.4        1.7
Canada                              2.0       0.5        1.2        3.7
Australia                           2.4       2.5        3.2        4.1
Korea                               2.2       2.6        1.4       -1.1
Mexico                              4.1       4.6        5.4       12.0
Netherlands                         2.9       3.6        4.7        3.7
Spain                               2.4       2.6        3.9        3.4
Switzerland                         1.2       1.4        1.8        1.1
EU                                  1.9       2.3        2.3        1.4
(a) projections
* OECD Economic Outlook 71, June 2002



                                                                            115
  10-3 Consumer Price Index (2000)
      (Tokyo index
      on each city=100)          New York        Berlin      London           Paris    Geneva

  All commodities                   1.22         1.71          1.21           1.60      1.23
        Food                        1.49         2.36          1.66           2.01      1.24
        Durable goods               1.45         1.09          0.97           1.13      0.86
        Clothing & footwear 1.49                 1.57          1.81           1.82      1.05
        Other goods                 1.25         1.53          1.09           1.35      0.91
        House rent                  1.57         1.60          1.21           2.04      1.72
        Public utilities(a)         1.54         1.00          1.46           1.28      0.97
        Trans. & comm.(b)           1.11         1.34          1.15           1.44      1.08
        Medical care                0.83         5.32          1.68           2.25      0.38
        Education                   0.56         1.41          0.61           1.65      0.57
  (a) Fuel, light and water charges (b) Transportation & communications
  * Cabinet Office




  10-4 Prices of Products and Services (2001)(a)(b)

      (¥)                           Tokyo        New York(c)       London(d)          Paris(e)

  Rice (10 kg)                      3,963           2,083            3,257             3,809
  Bread (1 kg)                        421             536              136               260
  Milk (1 liter)                      203             220               91               114
  Eggs (1 kg)                         310             524              406               373
  Oranges (1 kg)                      388             271              200               130
  Coke (1 can)                        141             138              120                87
  Beer (1 can)                        204              84              195               121
  Dress shirt (1 shirt)             4,885           5,955            4,189             2,696
  Tissues (5 boxes)                   341             905            2,459               961
  Gasoline (1 liter)                  106              43              123               115
  VTR (1 unit)                     20,290          14,693           25,971            26,513
  Color film (1 roll)                 284             402              599               385
  Newspaper (1 edition)               133              68               98               114
  Golf playing fee (1 person)      14,720           2,500            4,576             3,956
  Movie ticket (1)                  1,800           1,185            1,297               814
  (a) Nov. 2001 (b) Quality and other factors are not necessarily the same.
  (c) US$1 = ¥121.53 (d) £1 = ¥175.00 (e) FFr1 = ¥16.58
  * Cabinet Office


116
10-5 Public Utility Charges(a)(b)

(Japan=100)                          Japan Germany            UK        France         US

Electricity (280 kWh/mo) 100                        68         55          46          94



Gas (550,000 kcal/mo) 100                           47         27          43          47



Telephone (100 km)                   100           101       129         157           76



Domestic mail (1 letter) 100                        76         59          56          52



Taxi (5 km, daytime)                 100            62         74          35          52
(a) Nov. 2001 (b) Rate structures, service, supply and demand structures and tax systems
    vary among countries.
* Cabinet Office




10-6 Urban Park Area
                                                                        Per Capita (m2)

Japan(a)                                   Sapporo                              10.4
                                           Tokyo                                 3.1
                                           Osaka                                 3.5
                                           Kobe                                 16.5
France(b)                                  Paris                                11.8
Germany(c)                                 Berlin                               27.4
United    Kingdom(d)                       London                               26.9
United States                              Los Angeles(b)                       17.8
                                           New York(d)                          29.3
Canada(e)                                  Vancouver                            26.5
(a) 2002 (b) 1994 (c) 1995 (d) 1997 (e) 1993
* Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport



                                                                                            117
  10-7 Road Conditions (2000)
                              Ratio of Paved Roads                Density of Roads
                                       (%)                          (km/km2)(a)
      Japan(b)                             76.0                         3.07
  Australia                                38.7(b)                       0.13(c)
  Brazil                                    5.5                          0.20
  Canada                                   35.3(d)                       0.09(e)
  France                               100.0                             1.62
  Germany(c)                               99.1                          1.77
  Italy(b)                             100.0                             1.59
  Korea(b)                                 74.5                          0.88
  Singapore                                100(b)                        4.71(c)
  Thailand(b)                              97.5                          0.13
  United Kingdom(b)                    100.0                             1.62
  United States                            58.8                          0.65
  (a) Road extensions/land area (b) 1999 (c) 1996 (d) 1995 (e) 1992
  * International road federation; UN




  10-8 Causes of Death
                                                           Circulatory Respiratory Digestive
      (No. of deaths per           Total          Cancer     Organ       Organ      Organ
      100,000 persons)                                      Diseases Diseases Diseases
   Japan(a)           782.9                   231.6        246.7       115.1        31.0
  Australia    (b)    692.3                   184.7        291.6        42.1        20.9
  Canada(c)           719.2                   195.8        265.0        39.8        25.4
  France(c)           904.8                   243.3        289.6        40.4        44.5
  Germany      (d)  1,039.2                   259.4        501.6        37.5        49.3
  Italy(e)            966.5                   262.1        418.4        42.5        45.6
  Korea(c)            519.0                   113.5        121.5        19.0        34.4
  Netherlands(c)      870.2                   238.0        318.9        46.2        32.0
  Russia   (c)      1,370.3                   199.1        748.0        47.0        39.1
  Singapore(c)        409.5                   110.5        152.0        22.2         9.6
  United Kingdom(d) 1,072.8                   263.8        440.3        67.9        41.1
  United States(c)    863.5                   201.3        353.9        52.5        29.5
  (a) 1999 (b) 1995 (c) 1997 (d) 1998 (e) 1996
  * Demographic Yearbook 1999, UN



118
10-9 Health: Expenditure
                  Expenditure per Capita       Doctors               Beds        Average Length of Stay
                         (USD)           (Per 1,000 persons) (Per 1,000 persons)        (Days)
                     1999         1989     1999 1989           1999 1989            1999 1989
 Japan         1,844 1,013                       1.9(a)   1.6(b)   16.4 15.8           39.8 51.4
Australia      2,058(a) 1,224                    2.5(a)   2.3(c)    7.9 9.8            16.3 16.5
Belgium        2,144 1,158                       3.8      3.2       7.3(d) 8.3         11.1(d) 14.4
Canada         2,428 1,541                       2.1      2.1       3.9 6.3             8.7 13.9
France         2,226 1,517(e)                    3.0(a)   2.6       8.4 9.9            10.6 13.4
Germany        2,451(a) 1,494                    3.5      3.0       9.2 10.8           12.0 15.7
Italy          1,882 1,184                       5.9      4.5       4.9 7.1             8.0(a) 11.7
Korea            739 316                         1.3      0.8       5.5 3.0            12.0 14.0
Netherlands    2,172 1,228                       3.1      2.4      11.1 11.6           33.3 34.3
Spain          1,469 712                         3.1      2.0       4.1 4.3             9.7(d) 12.6
United Kingdom 1,666 903                         1.8      1.4       4.1 6.2             9.8(f) 15.6(e)
United States 4,373 2,475                        2.8      2.4       3.6 5.0             7.0 9.2
(a) 1998 (b) 1988 (c) 1991 (d) 1997 (e) 1990 (f) 1996
* OECD Health Data, 2002, OECD, Paris, 2002




10-10 Ratio of Students Going On to Higher Education(a)

80
     •




                                                              Male             Total        Female

70
     •




                                                                            63.6
60                                                                   58.4
     •




                                                              53.4
          49.8 49.3 48.7                         50.4
50
     •




                                          45.9
                                   41.5
40
     •




30
     •




                                                                                                    22.3
20                                                                                      19.3 20.8
     •
     •




10

 0          Japan(b)            United States(c) United Kingdom(d)                      Germany(c)
(a) Figures are the percentages of those enrolled in institutions of higher education among the
    segment of the population of the age relevant to enrollment (Japan, United States and
    United Kingdom age 18, Germany age 19). (b) 2001 (c) 1998 (d) 1999
* MEXT

                                                                                                           119
  10-11 Education: Expenditures (1999)
                     Expenditure on                 Annual Expenditure
                 Educational Institutions(a)     per Student (US dollars)(a)
                   (Public and Private)       Primary Secondary Tertiary
                        % of GDP             Education Education Education
  Australia                     5.46                   3,981             5,830           11,539
  Canada                        6.16                       -                 -           14,579
  France                        6.24                   3,752             6,605            7,226
  Germany                       5.55                   3,531             6,209            9,481
  Italy                         5.01                   5,653             6,458            6,295
   Japan                        4.72                   5,075             5,890            9,871
  Korea                         7.03                   2,838             3,544            6,356
  Mexico                        4.75                     863             1,586            3,800
  Netherlands                   4.61                   3,795             5,304           10,757
  Spain                         5.30                   3,267             4,274            5,038
  United Kingdom                4.92                   3,329             5,230            9,699
  United States                 6.43                   6,043             7,764           19,802
  (a) Converted using Purchasing Power Parities
  * Education at a Glance-OECD Indicators 2002, OECD




  10-12 Ratio of Students to Teaching Staff (2000)
                                                    Ratio of Students to Teaching Staff(a)
                                                      Primary Secondary Tertiary
                                                     Education Education Education
  Australia                                               17.3             12.6                     -

  Canada                                                  18.1             18.8                9.8

  Germany                                                 19.8             15.2              12.1

      Japan                                              20.9              15.2             11.4

  Netherlands                                             16.8             17.1              12.6

  Spain                                                   14.9             11.9              15.9

  Sweden                                                  12.8             14.1                9.3

  United Kingdom                                          21.2             14.8              17.6

  United States                                           15.8             15.2              13.5
  (a) For public and private institutions, by level of education, calculations based on full-time
      equivalents
  * Education at a Glance-OECD Indicators 2002, OECD


120
10-13 Average TOEFL(a) Score (Asia)
                                              Total Mean Score
                            July 2000-     July 1999- July 1998-         July 1997-
                            June 2001      June 2000 June 1999           June 1998
Japan                            505            504                501      498
China                            560            559                562      560
India                            575            581                583      581
Indonesia                        534            525                545      517
Korea                            530            533                535      522
Malaysia                         545            535                536      530
Philippines                      568            566                584      577
Singapore                             -             -                -      603
Taiwan                           519            515                510      508
Thailand                         515            511                512      502
(a) Test of English as a Foreign Language
* TOEFL Test and Score Data Summary, Educational Testing Service




10-14 Marriage and Divorce Rates (1999)

(Per 1,000 persons)                          Marriages                    Divorces

 Japan(a)                                        6.2                       1.92
Australia                                        6.0                       2.87(b)
Belgium(a)                                       4.3                       2.59
Brazil(b)                                        4.6                       0.60
Canada(c)                                          -                       2.25
France                                           4.8                       1.98(c)
Germany                                          5.2                       2.29(c)
Italy                                            4.7(c)                    0.47(d)
Korea(a)                                         6.6                       2.12
Netherlands                                      5.6                       1.96
Russia                                           6.3                       3.66
Singapore                                        6.6                       1.31
United Kingdom                                   5.1(a)                    2.91(b)
United States(a)                                 8.3                       4.19
(a) 1998 (b) 1996 (c) 1997 (d) 1995
*UN



                                                                                      121
  10-15 Nobel Prize Winners (1901-2002)
                                                       Nobel Prize
                           All Total   Physics Chemistry Medicine(a) Economics Literature   Peace
  Total          748                   168        141       178          52        99       110
  United States 271                     72         49        83          34        10        23
  United Kingdom 100                    20         26        26           7         9        12
  Germany         76                    22         27        15           1         7         4
  France          49                    11          7         7           1        14         9
  Sweden          30                     4          4         8           2         7         5
  Switzerland     27                     3          6         6           -         2        10
  Former USSR     17                     8          1         2           1         3         2
  Netherlands     15                     8          3         2           1         -         1
  Italy           14                     3          1         3           -         6         1
  Denmark         13                     3          1         5           -         3         1
   Japan          12                     4          4         1           -         2         1
  Canada          11                     2          4         2           1         -         2
  Austria         10                     3          1         4           -         -         2
  Belgium         10                     -          1         4           -         1         4
  Others          93                     5          6        10           4        35        33
  (a) Includes physiology
  * MEXT, The Nobel Foundation




  10-16 Newspapers and Books
                            No. of Books                  No. of Daily Newspapers
                             Published                          in Circulation(a)
                              (Titles)               (Total, 1,000) (Per 1,000 persons)
   Japan                     56,221(b)                 71,694                     664.0
  Australia                       -                     3,083                     202.3
  Canada                     22,941(c)                  5,185                     189.0
  China                           -                   117,815                     130.5
  France                     39,083(c)                  8,597                     180.7
  Italy                      32,365(c)                  6,100                     127.8
  Germany                    78,042(d)                 23,838                     371.1
  Korea                      30,487(b)                      -                         -
  Netherlands                     -                     4,375                     363.5
  Russia                     36,237(b)                      -                         -
  United Kingdom            110,965(d)                 17,899                     383.4
  United States              68,175(b)                 55,578                     274.1
  (a) 2001. Countries do not provide 2001 figures, their latest data are used instead.
  (b) 1996 (c) 1999 (d) 1998
  * UNESCO; The Japan Newspaper Publishers & Editors Association


122
10-17 Military Forces (2001)
                                  Regular Forces                   Reserve Semi-Military
(1,000 persons)           Army        Navy      Air Force          Forces    Forces
 Japan          148.7                   44.2            45.4     47.4               12.3
United States   477.8                  537.4           352.5 1,200.6                53.0
United Kingdom 114.0                    43.5            54.0    247.1                  -
Germany         211.8                   26.1            70.6    363.5                  -
France          150.0                   45.6            63.0    419.0              100.7
Poland          120.3                   16.8            43.7    406.0               22.0
Russia          321.0                  171.5           184.6 20,000.0              409.1
Israel          120.0                    6.5            37.0    425.0                8.1
Iraq            375.0                    2.0            47.0    650.0               44.0
Egypt           320.0                   19.0           104.0    254.0              325.0
India         1,100.0                   53.0           110.0    535.0            1,089.7
Korea           560.0                   60.0            63.0 4,500.0                 4.5
Taiwan          240.0                   62.0            68.0 1,657.5                26.7
China         1,600.0                  250.0           420.0    600.0            1,500.0
* Military Balance 2001/2002, Global Strategies Research Institute (England)




10-18 Selected Non-State Armed Groups
          Organization                        Origin        Established           Strength

al-Qaida                                    Afghanistan         1988               1,000+
Islamic Group,
  al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya                   Malaysia            1995                       -
Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)                      Philippines         1991                 200+
Chechen Rebels                              Russia                    -        2,000-3,000
Hizbollah (Party of God)                    Lebanon             1982               2,000+
Popular Front for the
 Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) Lebanon                         1967               1,000+
Ejercito de
  Liberacion Nacional (ELN)                 Colombia            1964               18,000
Irish Republican
   Army (IRA)                               UK, Ireland         1969              400-600
* Military Balance 2002/2003, Global Strategies Research Institute (England)




                                                                                               123
  10-19 Crime Rates in Developed Countries(a)
                                      Rate of Incidence(b)                 Arrest Rate (%)
      Serious Crimes                  1990          1999                  1990         1999
      Japan                          1,324              1,709             42.3              33.8
  France                              6,169             6,097             37.5              27.6
  Germany                             7,108             7,682             47.0              52.8
  United Kingdom                      8,578            10,061             31.6              25.2
  United States                       5,820             4,267             21.6              21.4
                                      Rate of Incidence(b)                 Arrest Rate (%)
      Homicides                       1990          1999                  1990         1999
      Japan                              1.0               1.1            96.7              95.2
  France                                    4.5            3.4            77.2              81.4
  Germany                                   3.9            3.6            94.2              94.4
  United Kingdom                            2.3            2.9            92.0              87.1
  United States                             9.4            5.7            67.2              69.1
  (a) The definition of criminal activity and methodologies for calculating statistics vary accord-
      ing to country.
  (b) Number of crimes per 100,000 persons
  * White Paper on Crime 2001, Ministry of Justice



  10-20 Real Residential Price Indices
  160
           •




            (Logarithmic scale; 1992=100)
  140
           •




                                                                     United Kingdom


  120
           •




                                                       United States


  100
           •




                                                                                 France
           •




                                                                        Japan
      80
           •




                                                           Italy
                                                                                  Germany
           •




      60       •       •       •        •         •        •        •        •        •         •
           1992     93        94        95        96      97       98       99      2000 2001
  *Bank for International Settlements




124
10-21 National Medical Treatment Expenditures: Japan
                                                                                                   30,933.7
30,000                                                                                     29,825.1
          •

                                                                             26,957.7
25,000
          •




                                                                 20,607.4
20,000
          •




                                                       16,015.9
15,000
          •




                                            11,980.5

10,000
          •




                                  6,477.9
 5,000
          •




                     2,496.2
           1,122.4
      0
              1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1998 1999
* Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare




10-22 Medical Treatment Expenditures on Elderly People: Japan

120,000                                                                                                 1,200,000
          •




                                                                                                    •




                   Total                         Per Person                            111,997
                   (left scale)                  (right scale)
100,000            (¥100 million)                (¥)                                                    1,000,000
          •




                                                                                                    •




                                                                        89,152

 80,000                                                                                       757,856    800,000
          •




                                                                                                    •




                                                                                 752,169


 60,000                                                59,269 609,000                                    600,000
          •




                                                                                                    •




                                             499,000
                                        40,673
 40,000                                                                                                  400,000
          •




                                                                                                    •




                              360,000

                         21,269
 20,000        184,000                                                                                   200,000
          •




                                                                                                    •




           8,666

      0                                                                                                        0
              1975         1980            1985           1990           1995              2000
* Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare




                                                                                                                125
  10-23 Number of Foreign Residents(a): Japan
                       2001          %                                   2001             %

  Total       1,778,462 100.0
  Korea  (b)    632,405 35.6                        Canada     11,032                      0.6
  China         381,225 21.4                        Australia  10,550                      0.6
  Brazil        265,962 15.0                        Malaysia    9,150                      0.5
  Philippines 156,667     8.8                       Pakistan    7,903                      0.4
  Peru           50,052   2.8                       Bangladesh 7,850                       0.4
  United States 46,244    2.6                       Sri Lanka   6,467                      0.4
  Thailand       31,685   1.8                       France      5,935                      0.3
  Indonesia      20,831   1.2                       Iran        5,921                      0.3
  Vietnam        19,140   1.1                       Russia      5,329                      0.3
  United Kingdom 17,527   1.0                       Myanmar     5,080                      0.3
  India          11,719   0.7                       Germany     4,543                      0.3
  (a) Registered (b) Includes the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)
  * Annual Report of Statistics on Legal Migrants 2001, Ministry of Justice




  10-24 Number of Japanese Living Overseas
                                                    2001                                1980
                                   Total             %          Permanent               Total
  Total                           837,744           100.0        293,310         445,372
  United States                   312,936            37.4        113,233         121,180
  Brazil                           73,492             8.8         71,033         141,580
  China                            53,357             6.4            537           6,199
  United Kingdom                   51,896             6.2          9,310          10,943
  Australia                        41,309             4.9         18,501           5,007
  Canada                           34,446             4.1         22,002          12,280
  Germany                          26,402             3.2          4,392          14,235
  Singapore                        23,174             2.8            961           8,140
  Thailand                         22,731             2.7            593           6,424
  France                           21,785             2.6          4,771           6,842
  Korea                            17,613             2.1            808           3,040
  Taiwan                           14,554             1.7            531           5,022
  Malaysia                         11,653             1.4            648           3,201
  Argentina                        11,629             1.4         10,857          15,887
  Indonesia                        11,366             1.4            759           6,026
  * Ministry of Foreign Affairs


126
Chronology of Japan
10,000 B.C.– 300 B.C. Jomon Period
   300 B.C.– 300 A.D. Yayoi Period; Introduction of a method of rice cultivation
 538 Introduction of Buddhism
 607 Founding of the Horyuji Temple
 710 Founding of the capital Heijo-kyo (Nara)
 752 Founding of the Todaiji Temple in Nara
 794 Transfer of the capital to Heian-kyo (Kyoto) from Nara
1192 Founding of Kamakura Shogunate in Kamakura by Minamoto-no-Yoritomo
1338 Founding of Muromachi Shogunate in Kyoto by Ashikaga Takauji
1543 Portuguese cast ashore on Tanegashima; Introduction of firearms
1549 Introduction of Christianity; Arrival of Saint Francis Xavier
1590 Completion of national unification by Toyotomi Hideyoshi
1603 Founding of Edo Shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu in Edo (Tokyo)
1639 Enforcement of National Isolation Policy
1853 Arrival of US envoy Commodore Perry
1858 Signing of friendship and trade treaties with US, UK, Russia,
     the Netherlands, and France (end of National Isolation Policy)
1868 Meiji Restoration; Transfer of the capital from Kyoto to Edo (renamed Tokyo)
1889 Promulgation of Imperial Constitution of Japan
1890 First National Diet
1894 Sino-Japanese War
1904 Russo-Japanese War
1911 Revision of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance; US-Japan, Anglo-Japanese,
     and German-Japanese treaties of amity, trade, and navigation
1914 Entry of Japan into World War I
1923 Great Kanto Earthquake
1933 Withdrawal from the League of Nations
1941 Start of the War in the Pacific
1945 Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Surrender of Japan;
     Beginning of Occupation by Allied Powers
1946 Beginning of Land Reform Policy; The new constitution enacted
1951 Signing of San Francisco Peace Treaty and the US-Japan Security Pact;
     Japan regains full independence the following year
1956 Approval of Japan’s participation in the United Nations
1960 Announcement of Income-Doubling Plan by Prime Minister Ikeda
1964 Japan assumes the obligations of Article 8 of the IMF agreement;
     Membership in OECD; Shinkansen service begun;
     The 18th Summer Olympic Games held in Tokyo
1967 Adoption of Free Capital Transaction Policy
1972 Return of Okinawa to Japan; Diplomatic relations between
     Japan and the People’s Republic of China restored
1973 The 4th Middle East War; Oil crisis in Japan
1985 Plaza Accord to revalue the yen
1987 Breakup and privatization of Japan National Railways
1989 Introduction of consumption tax (3%)
1991 Liberalization of beef and orange imports
1993 Formation of coalition government
1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake; Yen reaches its strongest value
     of ¥79.75=US$1.00 (April)
1997 Consumption tax raised to 5%
1998 Financial deregulations implemented (Japanese “Big Bang”)
1999 Bill passed officially recognizing Hinomaru and Kimigayo as national flag and
     anthem, respectively
2000 Bankruptcies of major banks, life insurance companies, department stores
     andgeneral constructors
2001 Terrorist attacks in the US

                                                                                127
  Map of Japan
  Major Cities and Population
  (August 2002)
                      (1,000 people)
                                                  140˚E                       100km
  Tokyo (23 wards)            8,277
  Yokohama                    3,493
  Osaka                       2,619
  Nagoya                      2,185                           Asahikawa
  Sapporo                     1,844
                                                               HOKKAIDO
  Kobe                        1,510
  Kyoto                       1,467                        Sapporo

  Fukuoka                     1,367
  Kawasaki                    1,281
  Hiroshima                   1,134
                                                          Aomori
  Sendai                      1,018
                                                                    Morioka
  Kitakyushu                  1,007
  Chiba                         903
  *Monthly Statistics of Japan, Oct.
                                                                    Sendai
   2002, MPHPT
                                                          Niigata

      SEA OF JAPAN
                                                      HONSHU
                                       Kanazawa
                                                           Tokyo                      35˚N
                                                    Kawasaki     Chiba
                                                   Yokohama
                          Matsue      Kyoto     Nagoya
                                   Kobe
                       Okayama            Osaka
                   Hiroshima
                                   Takamatsu
             Kitakyushu                                                  PACIFIC OCEAN
                             SHIKOKU
                 Fukuoka
                   Kumamoto
      Nagasaki
                 KYUSHU
                   Kagoshima                               140˚E




                                                                                  35˚N




         Naha
                                                                                  Minami
                                                                Okino             Torishima
                                                                Torishima         24˚ 17'N
                                                  Yonaguni-Jima 20˚ 25'N          153˚ 59'E
                                                  24˚ 26'N      136˚ 05'E
                                                  122˚ 56'E

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