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Atlanta Rail Corridor Assessment

VIEWS: 42 PAGES: 85

									          Reconnecting
          Communities:
     Atlanta Rail Corridors Assessment




P REPARED BY R AILS - TO -T RAILS C ONSERVANCY FOR
T HE A RTHUR M. B LANK F AMILY F OUNDATION AND       THE   T URNER F OUNDATION I NC .
                         PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS
                                  Jeffrey Ciabotti

                                   Hugh Morris

                                   Darren Smith

                                   Brian Yourish



                                       MISSION:
                      The purpose of Rails-to-Trails Conservancy
                is to enrich America’s communities and countryside
                  by creating a nationwide network of public trails
                   from former rail lines and connecting corridors.




                This report was made possible by generous grants from
       The Arthur M. Blank Family Foundation and the Turner Foundation Inc.
  Rails-to-Trails Conservancy and our many Georgia partners extend our gratitude
for the foundations’ support and vision to create a regional transit greenway system
        that will reconnect communities with parks and open space, walking
      and bicycling facilities, mass transit and cultural and historical resources.




                          SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:
         The Rails-to-Trails Conservancy would like to recognize the work
of several individuals that greatly enhanced the accuracy and utility of this report:
Members of the Project Advisory Committee, Andrea Ferster, RTC general counsel,
     Barbara Richey, RTC graphic designer and Jennifer Simmons, RTC editor.
  Reconnecting
  Communities
Atlanta Rail Corridors Assessment


            FINAL REPORT


                  April 2004




           TRAILDART
     TRAIL D EVELOPMENT A SSISTANCE R ESPONSE T EAM
          A Service of Rails-to-Trails Conservancy
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Preface ......................................................................................................................................... 1
  Project Goals .................................................................................................................................. 2
  Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 2
       Overview — Atlanta Metropolitan Area .................................................................................... 2
       Railroad History ....................................................................................................................... 2
       The Value of Rail-Trails ............................................................................................................. 3
       Technical Methodology ............................................................................................................ 4
            Phase I — Inventory
            Phase II — Assessment
            GIS Base Maps
            Appendix
  Phase I: Comprehensive Inventory ICC and STB research, Inventory of Related Cultural and Natural
  Resources ....................................................................................................................................... 6
      Concurrent Studies and Projects in Atlanta Metro Region — Implications for Study Corridors .... 6
  Phase II: Assessment of Inventoried Corridors Assessment of Abandoned Rail Corridors and Potential
  Shared Use Corridors (including: inventory — corridor evaluation, ownership and land use analysis,
  alternatives analysis GIS maps and photo inventory) ........................................................................ 7
       Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 7
       Regional Index Map ................................................................................................................. 8
       Corridor Segment 1: Map — Inventory — Assessment ................................................................ 9
       Corridor Segment 2: Map — Inventory — Assessment .............................................................. 12
       Corridor Segment 3: Map — Inventory — Assessment .............................................................. 16
       Corridor Segment 4: Map — Inventory — Assessment .............................................................. 19
       Corridor Segment 5: Map — Inventory — Assessment .............................................................. 22
       Proposed Regional System ..................................................................................................... 24
       Challenge Areas — Potential Trail System Connectors .............................................................. 24
       Challenge Area A: Map — Analysis ......................................................................................... 25
       Challenge Area B: Map — Analysis ......................................................................................... 27
       Challenge Area C: Map — Analysis ......................................................................................... 29
       Challenge Area D: Map — Analysis ......................................................................................... 31
       Project Advisory Committee ................................................................................................... 33
       Strategies for Implementation ................................................................................................. 33
  Appendices
     Appendix A: Atlanta Photo Inventory ..................................................................................... 36
     Regional Index Map with Photo Locators ............................................................................... 37
     Appendix B: Concurrent Studies and Projects — Implications for Study Corridors .................... 54
     Appendix C: Legal Analysis of Georgia Railroad Law and Shared-Use Corridor Issues .............. 67
     Appendix D: Funding and Support Sources for Trails and Greenways ...................................... 72
     Appendix E: Rail-with-Trail Report — Executive Summary ......................................................... 77
     Appendix G: Advisory Board List ............................................................................................ 78
     Appendix H: Georgia Rail-Trail Inventory — Open and Project Status ...................................... 79
     Appendix I: About Rail-to-Trails Conservancy .......................................................................... 80
PREFACE
PROJECT GOALS:

    •    Provide a comprehensive inventory and assessment of inactive railroad corridors in
         the Atlanta Metropolitan region
    •    Identify corridors best suited for rail-to-trail and rail-with-trail conversion
    •    Develop the study as a vehicle to encourage and promote local organizations and
         public agencies to pursue trail development



INTRODUCTION


OVERVIEW OF THE ATLANTA METROPOLITAN AREA
Atlanta is often identified with its major air transportation hub and automobile-oriented culture. This
association is only fitting, since antebellum Atlanta quickly grew from a frontier outpost to a bustling city
largely due to the rise of transportation. From old Indian trails to ferries to railroads, Atlanta’s early his-
tory is intertwined with the movement of people and goods.

In 1837 the Western and Atlantic Railroad, a state-sponsored project, established a town at the termina-
tion point for the railroad, calling that location Terminus. In 1845 this town, located eight miles south of
the Chattahoochee River, was incorporated as Atlanta. An interesting bit of history — the Western and
Atlantic Railroad Zero Milepost — can be seen just north of Underground Atlanta, a shopping and enter-
tainment area.



         Today Atlanta once again looks to its past as a railroad oriented town with proposals
         such as the in-town transit greenway known as the BeltLine, a smart growth idea that
         seeks to connect historic Atlanta neighborhoods. The BeltLine would use under-utilized
         and abandoned urban railroad corridors to create a new transit line to serve Atlanta’s
         intown neighborhoods. Bicycle and pedestrian paths would follow the 22-mile loop,
         creating a beautiful linear park and connecting over 40 historic Atlanta neighborhoods
         and five Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) stations.



RAILROAD HISTORY — ATLANTA
Atlanta was created by the stake of a railroad surveyor and later named by a railroad official. Staked on a
ridge separating Atlantic and Gulf drainage, today it is the largest United States city that is not a river or
ocean port. The creation of Atlanta began officially in 1837. Stephen A. Long, the Western and Atlantic
Railroad (W&ARR) chief engineer, approved a location on Mr. Hardy Ivy’s property for a terminus of the
rail line. The site was designated the point where the W&ARR and Georgia Railroad would meet. As a
result, the terminus was joined with Montgomery’s Ferry, Walton and Whitehall—all crucial points that
form the nucleus of Atlanta today. Both railroads pushed ahead with construction out from the center.




                                                      2
The name Terminus did not last; before December 1843, when incorporated as a town, it was changed
to Marthasville to honor the daughter of Wilson Lumpkin, the former Governor who had supported the
initiation of the State-owned Western & Atlantic Railroad (W&A) and who had participated in the pre-
liminary surveys of the 1820’s. That name was short-lived; a railroad superintendent sought a newer,
briefer name. His boss, the chief engineer of the Georgia Railroad, provided Atlanta as a feminized ver-
sion of Atlantic from the W&A. However, Lumpkin always maintained that the city had been twice-
named after his daughter as her middle name was Atalanta.

A third rail line, linking Macon and Atlanta joined the other two in 1846. By 1850 numerous rail lines
were entering the city and its population grew rapidly. It quickly became a transportation hub for travel-
ers and goods. During the Civil War Atlanta saw prosperity until the end — serving as a supplier of food
and troops. After the war new lines were built and many more added, leading to an intricate web of rails
that spread out to the rest of the country. Because of Atlanta’s central rail connections, the Georgia state
legislature ruled that it would become the official capitol of the state. Atlanta’s railroads are still vital
today, transporting goods and services from all the various industries and companies that have set up in
the city.


THE VALUE OF RAIL-TRAILS
Trails and greenways positively impact individuals and improve communities by providing recreation and
transportation opportunities and encouraging economic and community development. Trails and green-
ways bring many benefits to the communities they traverse.

Multiple Recreation Opportunities. Rail corridors are flat or have gentle grades, making them perfect for
multiple users, including walkers, inline skaters, bicyclists and people with disabilities. Trails are
multimodal and versatile passageways.

Economic Renewal and Growth. Trail users spend money on products and services related to recreational
activities. Bicycle and inline skate shops, food stores, hotels and tourist locations report an increase in
business as a result of trails. Trail-related businesses spring up in communities with trails, spurring eco-
nomic growth in the area.

Increased Property Values. Studies have shown that properties on land adjacent to trails and greenways
often increase in value. People are willing to pay more to have a multi-use trail in their neighborhood.
Trails have become an important amenity that homebuyers seek when choosing where to live.

Healthy Living. The U.S. Surgeon General estimates that 60 percent of American adults are not regularly
active and 25 percent are not active at all. In communities across the country, people do not have access
to trails, parks or other recreation areas close to their homes. Trails and greenways provide safe, inexpen-
sive avenues for regular exercise.

Environmental Protection. Trails and greenways help improve air and water quality. Communities with
trails provide enjoyable and safe options for clean transportation, which reduces air pollution. By protect-
ing land along rivers and streams, greenways prevent soil erosion and filter pollution caused by agricul-
tural and road runoff.

Connecting People and Communities. Trails serve as utilitarian transportation corridors between neigh-
borhoods and workplaces. They connect congested urban areas with open space. By bringing people to
greenways for their daily commutes, trails unite people and their natural surroundings.




                                                      3
Regional Systems. As trails begin to interconnect, regional systems emerge creating threads of green
linkages within and between communities. Trails serve as the backbone for these systems, increasing the
value of the whole by connecting the parts. Regional trail systems cross political, social and economic
barriers, allowing trail users to form new connections with neighboring communities. These ribbons of
green link schools, parks, commercial areas, neighborhoods and waterfronts, allowing trail users to
traverse the region solely and safely on trails. Trail networks also form a more cohesive transportation
system, allowing people to travel to other communities or to work and combine trail use with other
forms of transit. Regional trail systems draw more riders from outside the community, contributing to the
economic growth of the region. Bringing trails together to form networks dramatically increases the
positive impact that trails have on their communities.


TECHNICAL METHODOLOGY
This project inventories and assesses abandoned and under-utilized rail corridors in order to identify
opportunities for trail development in Atlanta and builds from the 1991 study, Abandoned Rail Corridor
Assessment Report: Atlanta Metropolitan Area produced by Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (RTC). RTC’s
trail planning team, in coordination with our partners at the National Park Service Rivers, Trails and
Conservation Assistance Program and the study advisory committee, researched, analyzed and produced
this report. Information and guidance was gained from the Atlanta City Council President’s Office, the
city Planning Department, the Metropolitan Area Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), the PATH Foundation
and Fulton County Tax Assessors Office. Railroad companies including CSX and Norfolk Southern were
also involved in the report.

The process of inventorying and analyzing abandoned and under-utilized rail corridors across the Atlanta
region was composed of two phases:

Phase one developed a comprehensive inventory of all rail corridor abandonments in the metro area
focusing on Fulton and DeKalb counties recorded between 1962 and 2003, including available original
ownership information, and was completed through:

      (a) Research of the Surface Transportation Board (STB) records and those of its predecessor, the
          Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). The STB maintains a database of abandonment pro-
          ceedings which it updates on a continual basis. A total of 10 entries — some of which com-
          bined mulitple STB proceedings — were identified in a comprehensive search of this data.

      (b) Findings of the Abandoned Rail Corridor Assessment Report: Atlanta Metropolitan Area,
          March 1991.

      (c) Findings of the current BeltLine Feasibility Study, August 2004.

      (d) Information gathered from local sources on the future disposition of area corridors including
          representatives from affected railroad companies.

Phase two assessed the inventoried corridors, completed an analysis of their merits for development as
multi-use trails, and identified five corridor segments for a more in-depth analysis. Current ownership
information was assembled for these priority corridors, relying largely on information from the city of
Atlanta’s Bureau of Planning, the Atlanta Regional Commission and transit reports from Georgia Regional
Transportation Authority (GRTA).

General information sections such as proposed implementation strategies, rails-with-trails and analysis of



                                                     4
potential funding sources were included to provide guidance on next steps in the rail-to-trail conversion
process. The appendix includes a broad range of information and material intended to demonstrate the
context of this study to regional transit and trail development and to offer support resources for moving
individual projects forward.

GIS maps show a regional perspective on all inventoried corridors, an area view of targeted corridors,
individual maps of each corridor and a recommended loop system. The project team also used the format
of the GIS map to illustrate photo location while providing narrative analysis associated with the map
segments. Photo images are imbedded into individual corridor maps at significant crossroads for a realis-
tic trail perspective.

The photo image inventory provides snapshot images at incremental points along each corridor. This
view provides a street level representation of the opportunities and constraints unique to each corridor
segment and gives descriptive context to the area. See appendix A.

Concurrent Studies and Projects in Atlanta Metro Region — Implications and Contact Information is a
thorough examination of the multitude of planning and design related studies either recently completed
or currently underway. The purpose of this comprehensive section is to first identify the realm of plan-
ning activity in Atlanta and, second, to analyze the linkage between those activities and the development
of the corridor segments (mostly comprised of the BeltLine) outlined in this report. See appendix B.

Georgia Legal Review provides a legal analysis of Georgia law as it relates to ownership of rail-trails and
related liability issues for trail managers. The legal review was completed by RTC’s general counsel. See
appendix C.

Georgia Trails and Greenway Funding is a compilation of federal, state, regional and local funding
sources for the development of trails and greenways. Additional guidance on strategic approaches to
securing funding is provided. See appendix D.

Executive Summary: Rails-with-Trails is a case study report completed by RTC focusing on the issues related
to shared use corridors. This summary is provided because of the strong possibility of combining trail,
trolley and light rail uses within the right-of-way on the identified corridor segments. See appendix E.

The following report describes the methodology undertaken in both phases of the project. Each corridor
is represented individually with subsections including corridor inventory, assessment summaries, owner-
ship analysis, GIS maps and photo images. An additional section describing a recommended trail loop
system provides a conceptual representation of future potential connectivity of the targeted corridors.




                                                     5
PHASE I: COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY

The corridor inventory information, which identifies abandoned and under-used corridors, is included in
each corridor section for this report. The database lists the corridors, Surface Transportation Board (STB)
docket numbers and submission numbers if applicable which are necessary for locating the abandonment
information for the corridor in STB records. Also included when applicable is the date the railroad owner
filed for abandonment. Further information on the corridor includes its length and title, which is usually
expressed by its location between two end points, and the county, or counties, through which it passes.
Finally, the inventory contains area resources that intersect with specific corridors and a comments section
derived from STB records and information gained from local sources. See individual corridor assessments
in Phase II for combined inventory and assessment information.


CONCURRENT STUDIES AND PROJECTS IN ATLANTA METRO REGION
In an effort to enhance the connection of this report to the many related studies and projects currently
in progress the team conducted a thorough survey of concurrent studies and projects in the Atlanta
Metro Region. The results of the survey and an evaluation of its relationship to this study are included in
Appendix B.

CORRIDOR INVENTORY KEY
Name: The railroad trackage name for the corridor (line, branch or spur name).

Endpoints: Potential beginning and end of the trail corridor.

Length: The total end-to-end length of the corridor (does not include spur trackage).

Linkages (Schools): Schools in immediate proximity to the corridor.

Linkages (Parks): Parks in immediate proximity to, or connected by, the corridor.

Linkages (Other: Museums, Hospitals, Libraries, etc.): Other landmarks and civic destinations

in immediate proximity to the corridor.

Comments: General narrative about the status of the corridor.

Docket Numbers: The docket numbers of any STB/ICC proceedings pertaining to the corridor.

STB: Surface Transportation Board

ICC: Interstate Commerce Commission




                                                     6
PHASE II: ASSESSMENT OF INVENTORIED CORRIDORS


INTRODUCTION
For the purposes of this evaluation, three different systems of designation will be used. The five con-
tinuous rail corridor segments that the team has identified as potential trail corridors are numbered
from one to five. Four of these five segments comprise a loop around central Atlanta that was referred
to in the previous Rails-to-Trails Conservancy report as the “Circle Line.” This report will refer to it as the
“Beltline.” However, the team has identified four areas where a connection between the continuous seg-
ments is not immediately apparent. These four areas are discussed in detail and referred to as “Challenge
Areas.” They are designated with the letters A–D.

In addition, this report provides a summary description of the 11 railroad “main lines” that serve the
Atlanta area. These corridors are designated in this report based on the direction from which they enter
the Atlanta area, with the Interstate-285 loop around Atlanta serving roughly as the circumference of a
clock face with due north being 12 o’clock. Thus, the corridor that passes Interstate-285 at a position
due east of downtown Atlanta is designated as the 3 o’clock corridor for the purposes of the report.




                                                       7
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             Woods St NW




                                                                                            Addie St NW
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                                      Marietta Blvd NW
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                                                                                             Pelham St NW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Corridor 1




                                                                  Finley Ave NW
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                                                                                                                                                                                                               Dalvigney St NW                                                                                                                 Corridor 3
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      W        Corridor 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           North Ave N                         Challenge Area A
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                                                                                                Cairo St NW
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kennedy St NW                                                                                      Challenge Area D




                                                                                                                                                  Oliver St NW
    North Ave NW


                                                                                                                                                                                       James P Brawley Dr NW
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                                                             Ne                                                                                                                        Neal St NW                                                                                                                                              City name
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               John St NW                                                                                      Highway
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                                                                                  Proctor St NW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Secondary road
                                                                                                                                                             Paines Ave NW                                                                                                                                                                     Local road


                                                                                                                                  Lindsay St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Jones Ave NW                                                Access road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Stream or river
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Elm St NW




                      Simpson Rd NW                                                                                                                                            Simpson St NW                                                                                                                                                   Airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Runway
                                                                                         Ashb                                                                                                                                                                      Tyler St NW                                                                 Lake or pond
                                                                                                                                                                                            Orr St NW




                                                               Temple St NW
                                                                                             y Ter
                                                         A                                                    NW                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Stream or river
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Maple St NW




                                Tro                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Park
                                   yS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Urban areas

                                                                                            May
                                        tN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     State
                                               W
                                                                                                                                                                       Newport St NW




                                                                                                   son
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Walnut St NW




                                                                                                                                                                                                               Griffin St NW




                        Cir NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Vine St NW




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N




      Burbank Dr NW
                                                                                                          urne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Sunset Ave NW




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Atlanta
                                                                                                               rR
                                                                                                               dN



0                                          0.3                                            0.6 Miles




                      Arcadia
                                                                           Ollie St NW
                                                                                                                   W




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Rigdon Pl NW                                     W            E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     S
                                      CORRIDOR SEGMENT 1


                                               INVENTORY

ENDPOINTS: ➊ Junction with CSX mainline to Jacksonville, Fla. (7 o’clock line) at southern tip of
           Maddox Park, just north of Simpson Road
           ➋ Terminus of line at Northside Drive, just northwest of Georgia Dome and Georgia World
           Congress Center

APPROXIMATE LENGTH: 2.4 miles

NEIGHBORHOODS: English Avenue, Bankhead

TRANSIT STATIONS: Bankhead MARTA Station

SCHOOLS: Herndon Elementary School, English Avenue Elementary School, Bethune Elementary School

PARKS AND COMMUNITY FACILITIES: Maddox Park

COMMERCIAL SITES AND OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST: Georgia World Congress Center, Georgia Dome


                                  C O R R I D O R S TAT U S C O M M E N T S

Originally part of the Atlanta, Birmingham and Coastal Railroad, this segment passed to CSX and was
abandoned in three separate parts beginning in 1987. That year, MARTA sought the abandonment of
two-tenths of a mile of the corridor at the southern tip of Maddox Park—upon abandonment this segment
was sold to MARTA, which used the land to accommodate the transit line that extends from the Ashby
Station north-northwest to the Bankhead Station. The abandonment of this line and the subsequent
acquisition of the right-of-way by MARTA allowed MARTA to build its new segment perpendicular to the
old right-of-way without worrying about preserving the integrity of the corridor to accommodate any
future freight rail use.

In 1994, CSX abandoned an additional half-mile of this corridor, extending from the eastern endpoint of
the 1987 abandonment up to the corridor’s crossing of Joseph E. Lowery Boulevard. This is also the
point at which several spurs branch off this line to serve various industrial sites north of Jefferson Street
and south of Marietta Street. Some of these spurs remain active and are connected to the CSX main line
by virtue of a track that parallels the abandoned line westward from this junction. It then branches off
from the abandoned track to proceed due west to the mainline, when the corridor turns south at the
north end of Maddox Park.

Finally, in November of 1997, CSX filed to abandon an additional .58-mile portion of track up to the
terminus of the segment near Simpson Street and Northside Drive. This abandonment comes approximately
four blocks short of Joseph E. Lowery Boulevard, however, space was left active to provide turning space
for trains servicing the industrial sites to the north along the spurs mentioned above. The City of Atlanta
requested a trail use negotiation period as well as a six-month public use condition period for this segment.
However, there is no record with the STB of any conveyance for public use having taken place during
this period, and CSX consummated the abandonment of this segment on July 9, 1998.




                                                     10
The City of Atlanta is now aggressively trying to buy as many segments of this corridor as possible. CSX
has apparently held off on selling any of the corridor until just recently. Representatives of the city
government anticipate meeting in the near future with representatives from CSX to negotiate a sale.

RELEVANT STB DOCKET NUMBERS: AB-55 sub 208x (1987); AB-55 sub 492x (1994); AB-55 sub 521x
(1998).


                                          LAND USE SUMMARY

Moving from the west endpoint to the east endpoint, the corridor forms the eastern boundary of Maddox
Park. On the opposite side of the corridor from the park are low-income, mostly high-density residential
areas. The corridor continues through lower-density residential areas as it descends to grade level and
turns eastward, but is significantly separated from residences and a substantial tree line. It continues in
this manner almost all the way to its terminus, with the exception of an opening at the intersection with
Lowery Boulevard where there are some warehouse buildings and a community food kitchen. Nearing
the eastern endpoint the corridor again opens up and runs adjacent to several parking lots before coming
to an abrupt end at Northside Drive.


                                                ASSESSMENT

This corridor segment could serve as a valuable connection between the proposed “BeltLine” and the
downtown area, as it terminates just across Northside Drive from the site of the Georgia World Congress
Center and the Georgia Dome. Especially near this eastern endpoint, the corridor passes through rather
blighted neighborhoods, but for much of its length through this neighborhood the corridor is fairly open
and in some places elevated from grade, providing a greater degree of safety. Although the segment is
active for about half a mile as it parallels Jefferson Street, the level of activity along the track is extremely
low and the width of the right-of-way is such as to provide ample room for a parallel trail.

The exciting portion of this segment comes after it turns southward and proceeds along the eastern edge
of Maddox Park. Through this area, the berm rises to at least 25 feet above grade, providing picturesque
views of the park.




                                                       11
                                                                                                                                          Atlanta - Corridor Segment 2
                                                                                          1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1                                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     7                                                                         Wabash Ave NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5
                   Simpson Rd NW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Simpson St NW                                                                                                                                         E
                                                                                D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Highland Ave
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Boulevard NE




                                                                                                                                              Newport St NW




                                                                                                                            Ashby St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Atlanta




                                                                                                                                                                              Sunset Ave NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ellis St NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Irwin St NE
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                                           Burbank Dr NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Auburn Ave NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               S
                                                                                                       Martin Luther King Jr Dr SW




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                   Chappell Rd NW
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                                           Parsons St SW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 c     atu




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    rin                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Study corridors




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ity                                                                                                                                                                                       Kirkwood Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     A




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ve                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Corridor 1




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              rs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Memorial Dr SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             te
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Corridor 3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         e
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Corridor 4




                                                                                                                          Ashby St SW
                                                                    I 2
                                                                        0
                       2                                                        S
                                                                                    W                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Corridor 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I 20 SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Gibson St SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Challenge Area A
      Lucile Ave SW




                                                                                                                                            Lee St SW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Fulton St SW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Challenge Area B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Chester Ave SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Grant St SE




                                                                                                                                                                                              Northsi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Challenge Area C
                   Ralph D                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Challenge Area D
                           avid Abe




                                                                                                                                                           W
                                    rnathy
                                                                                                   Blvd SW




                                                                                                                                                                                                   de Dr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Rail lines




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ira St SW




                                                                                                                                                      St S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Georgia Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Park Ave SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Counties

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fraser St SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Berne St SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     I 75 SW




                                                                                                                                                                                                         SW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Parks




                                                                                                                                                 ehall
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                                                                                                                                              hit
  Beecher St SW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ormewood Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             City name
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ormond St SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Highway




                                                                                    Lawton St SW
                                                                                                                                          W W




                                                                                                         Azalia St SW
                                                                                                   2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Atlanta Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Primary road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Secondary road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Boulevard SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Local road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Capitol Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Crew St SW




       Ingram Dr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  McDaniel St SW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Windsor St SW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Access road
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Hill St SE




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2                                                                                                                             Airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ale




                                                           Oakland Dr SW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     d




                                                                                                                                                              Allene Ave SW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Runway




                                                                                                                                                                                               Metropolitan Pky SW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Alloway Pl SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  on




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               University Av
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             e SW                                                                                      Englewood Ave SE                                                                                                                                      Lake or pond
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Stream or river
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Park
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                                                                                                                                                                              Dill Ave SW                                                                                                                                                                                         cD                                                                                                                                                         Urban areas




                                                                               SW
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   gh                                                                          Custer Ave SE                                                 State




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                           Lorenzo Dr SW
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                                                                                                                    Sylvan Rd SW
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                                                                                                                                                                                              Deckner Ave SW                                                                                                                                                                                                               E




                                                                           Le
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Capitol Ave SW




y Picture>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Pryor St SW




  0                                                                                                     1                                                                                                                         2 Miles
                                                                                                                                          Everhart St SW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         W             E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Dale Dr SE


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 S
                                     CORRIDOR SEGMENT 2


                                              INVENTORY

ENDPOINTS: ➊ The northwest corner of Washington Park, at Westmoor Street
           ➋ The former junction with the CSX mainline to Augusta (3 o’clock line) near the intersec-
           tion of Wylie and Flat Streets

APPROXIMATE LENGTH: 8.2 miles

NEIGHBORHOODS: Washington Park, Hunter Hills, Mozley Park, Ashview Heights, Westview, Oakland
City, West End, Adair Park, Capitol View, Capitol View Manor, Pittsburgh, Carver Homes, High Point,
South Atlanta, Peoplestown, Chosewood Park, Grant Park, Boulevard Heights, Ormewood Park,
Reynoldstown

TRANSIT STATIONS: West End MARTA Station

SCHOOLS: Carter Elementary, Booker T. Washington High, Brown Middle, Salvation Army/Boys and Girls
Club, Atlanta Metro College, Atlanta Area Technical School, Capitol View Elementary, Carver High, Slater
Elementary, Southside High, Beulah Heights Bible College, West/Slaton Elementary, Hubert Elementary

PARKS AND OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES: Washington Park, Gordon White Park, Rose Circle Park,
Adair Park, Stanton Park, Grant Park, Cyclorama, Zoo Atlanta, Lang Carson Community Center

COMMERCIAL SITES AND OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST: Westview Commercial District, Cascade/
Ralph David Abernathy Commercial District, West End Commercial District and West End Mall,
Reynoldstown Commerical District


                                 C O R R I D O R S TAT U S C O M M E N T S

This study corridor actually consists of segments of two different railroad corridors that connect south-
west of downtown Atlanta near the intersection of Stewart and University Avenues. Though both corridors
passed to CSX, the segment that proceeds northwest from this junction was originally part of the
Louisville and Nashville Railroad (L&N), while the segment that continues east from the junction was
originally part of the Atlanta and West Point Railroad (A&WP) system. According to Norfolk Southern
Railroad (NSR), this corridor became inactive around 1990 when the reroute occurred that accommodated
the extension of MARTA to the Bankhead Station. This reroute meant the CSX freight traffic entering
central Atlanta from the northwest could proceed out of town to southerly and southwesterly destinations
via the former AB&C line (7 o’clock line) rather than continuing counter-clockwise along the BeltLine to
the junctions with other south- and eastbound CSX trunk lines. This made the L&N segment from
Washington Park to the junction with the A&WP segment unnecessary, and the line was left in disrepair
though apparently not formally abandoned. In fact, according to NSR, the line is looked at as a potential
reroute of freight traffic for both CSX and NSR to avoid the Union Station area downtown, which is
being considered for renewed use as a passenger transit facility with Amtrak and MARTA service.

Most of the former Atlanta and West Point segment of the study corridor remains marginally active,
serving a single shipper, a concrete production facility in the Beulah Heights/Ormewood area. The only
connection this segment has with an active trunk line is with the shared CSX/NSR trunk line (8 o’clock
line) just west of the junction with the inactive L&N line. Connection to the main eastbound trunk line



                                                    13
(3 o’clock line) was severed in 1990 when CSX abandoned a .48-mile portion of the corridor between
Glenwood Avenue, SE, and Memorial Drive, SE, (Georgia 154). The Georgia Department of Transportation
requested the abandonment of this portion in order to facilitate improvements to Interstate 20. Relevant
documents indicate that provisions were to be made to preserve the continuity of the corridor through
this area, but it does not appear that any measures were taken in that regard. Indeed, following the
abandonment, CSX began serving the Recycall scrap paper recycling facility at Georgia 154 from the
north instead of from the south. This facility was leased by Weyerhauser Paper beginning in 1996, but
Weyerhauser left the facility in 1997 and it remained vacant. In 1998 CSX filed for the abandonment of
the remainder of the A&WP corridor from Georgia 154 north to the junction with the eastbound trunk
line (3 o’clock line) at Hulsey Yard. An interim trail use request was made at this time by the City of
Atlanta, but CSX did not agree to negotiations for the transfer of this corridor under Railbanking. It is
assumed that this corridor was instead purchased by the Georgia Department of Transportation, although
the PATH Foundation reports that they were recently contacted by an individual who claims to own a
portion of the corridor in this area.

While, as mentioned, the A&WP portion of this study corridor is still marginally active, this segment is
unlikely to remain active far into the future unless it becomes part of the freight reroute described above.

RELEVANT STB DOCKET NUMBERS: AB-55 sub 346x (1990); AB-55 sub 559x (1998)


                                         LAND USE SUMMARY

Beginning at Washington Park and continuing to the intersection of Cascade Avenue, SW, and Ralph
David Abernathy Boulevard, SW, the L&N portion of the study corridor passes through mostly residential
areas. After that major intersection, the corridor widens and passes between several large, mostly-vacant
industrial and warehouse facilities. It starts out near Washington Park as an elevated berm, but then
lowers to pass beneath I-20 and continues as a depressed cut until after it has passed beneath the shared
CSX/Norfolk Southern trunk line at Murphy Avenue, SW (8 o’clock line). Southeast of this point the
corridor rises to meet the A&WP line at a site that has a considerable amount of adjacent, unutilized
open space. Continuing east along the A&WP line, the corridor again descends, passing under I-85 and
through a tunnel beneath the intersection of University Avenue, SW, Hank Aaron Drive/Capitol Avenue,
SE, and McDonough Boulevard, SE. The Norfolk Southern trunk line to McDonough and points south-
east (5 o’clock line) also passes through this very complicated intersection. The corridor is fairly narrow
and has a substantial tree canopy through this section, and has little interaction with adjacent land uses,
including several residential areas of the Capitol View and Capitol View Manor neighborhoods. Proceeding
east the corridor rises to grade level and passes through an area characterized by industrial uses, before
entering into an open area just west of Boulevard, SE, where it intersects with a wide overhead power
line corridor. As the corridor turns northward from this point, it is bounded on both sides by a mix of
light industrial and residential areas including the neighborhoods of Boulevard Heights and Ormewood
Park. As the corridor nears Southside High School it enters a commercial area before ending at
Glenwood Avenue, SE, the point where Railroad Avenue, SE, was built in its place. Beyond Georgia 154,
Railroad Avenue, SE, ends and the corridor continues on mostly unobstructed through an area of light
industrial uses.




                                                    14
                                             ASSESSMENT

This study corridor forms a crescent around the southern half of Atlanta, which historically is certainly
the less-advantaged sector of the city. However, as expounded upon in Ryan Gravel’s thesis, there are
several opportunities for redevelopment along the corridor and locations where redevelopment is already
occurring. Although largely dependent upon decisions regarding routing of freight rail traffic through
Atlanta, this corridor is a good candidate for trail conversion. There are few places where the corridor is
hidden from outside view to the point where trail users might feel their safety is compromised. For the
most part, the corridor is elevated and/or in largely open areas. The portion of this corridor from
Washington Park to I-85 presents perhaps the best opportunity of any study corridor for trail conversion
in a short amount of time, and it would connect to PATH Foundation projects at Washington Park (along
Lena Street, NW) and at Langhorn Street, SW. The loss of corridor continuity beyond Glenwood Avenue,
SE presents difficulties in connecting with study corridor 3. This will be addressed at greater length in
our consideration of Challenge Area B.




                                                    15
                                                                                                                              Atlanta - Corridor Segment 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           North Druid Hills




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Page Ave NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Clifton Rd NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Moreland Ave NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     E                                                                                                                                                                      Stream or river
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Boulevard NE
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               NE
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ave
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                                                                                   1                                     S
                                                                                                                                          2 Miles




                                                  Raymond St SW
                                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                                                                                           Hill St SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I 20 SE                                                                     E                                                                Marbut Ave SE                                                                        W            E
                                                                                                         I   20                                                                                                                                                                                               Ave S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Faith


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 S
                                     CORRIDOR SEGMENT 3


                                              INVENTORY

ENDPOINTS: ➊ Junction with CSX trunk line (3 o’clock line) at Decatur Street, SE and Cornelia Street, SE
           ➋ Junction with NSR/Amtrak/MARTA trunk corridor (1 o’clock line) near Plasters Avenue,
           NE, and Mayson Street, NE, between Armour Drive, NE, and Interstate 85

APPROXIMATE LENGTH: 4.3 miles

NEIGHBORHOODS: Inman Park, Old Fourth Ward, Bedford Pine, Poncey Highlands, Virginia Highlands,
Midtown, Morningside, North Boulevard Park, Ansley Park, Sherwood Forest, Piedmont Heights

TRANSIT STATIONS:

SCHOOLS: Henry Grady High School, Samuel Inman Middle School

PARKS AND OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES: Martin Luther King Junior Center and National Historic
Site, Georgia Baptist Hospital, Freedom Park, Carter Presidential Center, City Hall East, Piedmont Park,
McClatchey Park, Atlanta Botanical Garden, Ansley Golf Club

COMMERCIAL SITES AND OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST: Virginia Highlands Commercial District,
Ansley Mall, Armour Industrial Park


                                 C O R R I D O R S TAT U S C O M M E N T S

This corridor is inactive but not formally abandoned. It was formerly held by Southern Railroad, and is
now part of the Norfolk Southern system. The corridor may be put into use as a means for Amtrak pas-
senger trains from the north to get into Union Station downtown (these trains currently go to Peachtree
Station and continue out of town to the northwest via Inman Yard), but this is still undecided along with
potential rerouting of freight traffic.

RELEVANT STB DOCKET NUMBERS: Not applicable.


                                        LAND USE SUMMARY

The corridor is abutted by light industrial facilities for most of the space between Decatur Street, SE and
Piedmont Park. There are several at-grade road crossings as it winds northward, just east of the King
Center. This remains a fairly blighted area and many of the adjacent parcels are vacant. As the corridor
gets closer to the Carter Center, it rises to pass over Ralph McGill Boulevard, NE, North Avenue, NE and
Ponce de Leon Avenue, NE. This area has seen some new development associated with the Carter Center,
including the construction of Freedom Parkway, NE. Despite being elevated, the corridor is somewhat
hidden through this area, obscured in many places by a kudzu-covered tree canopy.

From North Avenue to the northern tip of Piedmont Park, the corridor was the subject of a comprehensive
land use concept plan by the City of Atlanta Planning Bureau in 1987. The adjacent land uses through
this area are perhaps more diverse than along any other part of the BeltLine, with vacant industrial sites
mixed in with active commercial sites like Ford Factory Square, Ansley Mall, and strip-mall type develop-
ment around Virginia Avenue, NE. North of Virginia Avenue the corridor separates a neighborhood of



                                                    17
single-family homes from Piedmont Park, passing underneath Park Drive, NE, which provides access to
the park and is closed to auto traffic periodically based on a regular schedule. There are again some
vacant industrial parcels adjacent to the corridor to the east as it passes by the northern reaches of Pied-
mont Park. The corridor then passes along the east side of the Ansley Golf Course, with progressively
more expensive residences on the other side of the corridor. Just north of the golf course, the corridor
passes beneath Georgia 13 and Interstate 85 and connects to the Norfolk Southern trunk line (1
o’clock line) with several industrial sites just to the east off of Armour Drive, NE.

The width of the corridor varies from 100 feet to 250 feet, with the section south of Piedmont Park
being predominantly 100 feet wide and the section adjacent to Piedmont Park and to the north being
considerably wider.


                                              ASSESSMENT

Of any of the sections of the BeltLine this study corridor has received the most attention, probably because
it passes directly adjacent to Piedmont Park where the possibilities for the corridor as a recreational trail
are most apparent. As mentioned, areas near the corridor have been the focus of many different redevelop-
ment efforts, some of which have advanced further than others. Community improvements around the
Carter Center included PATH Foundation trails that could easily be connected to the rail corridor. The
Planning Bureau’s 1987 concept plan for the Ford Factory Square to Ansley Mall section recommended
rezoning many of the adjacent, vacant, industrial parcels as commercial, residential, or mixed-use sites,
but the plan has been implemented only sporadically. We have little doubt that the conversion of the
railroad line into a trail or trail-and-transit corridor would be a huge catalyst for the redevelopment of
much of the area’s underutilized land. The uncertainty surrounding the fate of the corridor is, in fact,
probably the biggest thing holding back this area. For these reasons, we see this corridor as a tremendous
opportunity.




                                                     18
                                                                                                                      Atlanta - Corridor Segment 4




                                                                                                                                                 NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Ave NE
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                                                                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Stream or river
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                                                                                                                                                               N
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                                                                                                                                                                E                                                   East Ave NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Park
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Clifton Rd NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Moreland Ave NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Boulevard NE




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                y NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Urban areas




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                                                                                  Atlanta                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        State




                                                                                                                                         r    ee
                                                                                                              5




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          NE                                                                          Foote St NE




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3rd Ave




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Boulevard Dr NE
                                                                                                                                                                           S


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    kalbB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             De
                                                                                                                                                                       5


0                                                                             1                                                                       2 Miles
                                                                                                                                                                       7




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                W           E
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      S
                                       CORRIDOR SEGMENT 4


                                                INVENTORY

ENDPOINTS: ➊ Junction with CSX trunk line (3 o’clock line) at DeKalb Avenue, NE and Ridgecrest Road,
           NE, near the Atlanta-North Decatur municipal boundary
           ➋ Junction with Norfolk Southern trunk line at the southeast end of Inman Yard, near the
           intersection of Marietta Boulevard, NW and West Marietta Street, NW

APPROXIMATE LENGTH: 10.4 miles

NEIGHBORHOODS: North Kirkwood, Druid Hills, North Decatur, Emory University, Piedmont Heights,
Peachtree Hills, Brookwood Hills, Collier Hills, Brookwood Park, Underwood Hills, Loring Heights, Berke-
ley Park, Blandtown

TRANSIT STATIONS: East Lake MARTA Station

SCHOOLS: Fernbank Elementary, Emory University

PARKS AND OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES: Deepdene Park, Emory Grove Park, Tanyard Creek Park,
Piedmont Hospital, Atlanta Memorial Park/Bobby Jones Golf Course, Ardmore Park

COMMERCIAL SITES AND OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST: Sage Hill Shopping Center, Armour Industrial
Park, Brookwood Commercial/Medical District, Bennett Street Arts District, Chattahoochee Industrial
District


                                   C O R R I D O R S TAT U S C O M M E N T S

The entirety of this study corridor remains active, but only marginally so. It has been considered a good
candidate for abandonment for many years, but CSX has yet to make any abandonment filings before the
STB. The corridor was originally part of the Seaboard Coast Lines system, Seaboard Coast being one of
the predecessor railroads of CSX.

RELEVANT STB DOCKET NUMBERS: Not applicable.


                                          LAND USE SUMMARY

In the North Decatur/Druid Hills area, the corridor takes on an almost rural character as it winds through
wooded areas in between middle-upper income residential neighborhoods. There are few places where
the corridor is even visible from any homes, let alone close to any. One notable exception is at the
Ladson Court townhouse complex near the intersection of North Decatur and Clairmont Roads. The
development butts up very close to the east side of the corridor. After the corridor turns west, it emerges
from the trees to bisect Emory University, passing underneath Clifton Road, NE. The corridor is very
much separated from its surroundings as it is somewhat lower than the level of the campus buildings on
either side, and there is a significant barrier of trees on both sides of the line as well. This is also one of
the few places where the line is double-tracked; the little-used corridor is a single track for most of its
more than 10-mile length.

Once beyond Interstate 85, the corridor enters a more industrial area before passing underneath the



                                                      20
Norfolk Southern/Amtrak/MARTA trunk corridor (1 o’clock line). At this point, it again travels through
some high-end residential neighborhoods. After passing beneath Interstate 75, the land use again shifts
to industrial as the corridor enters the more vibrant industrial part of the city northwest of the downtown
area. In this section, the corridor also passes just to the northwest of the Hemphil Waterworks.


                                               ASSESSMENT

This line will likely not be abandoned until there is a decision made on the future scheme of passenger
(Amtrak) and freight rail traffic around Atlanta, although its importance as a potential connector is much
less than that of some of the other segments that make up the BeltLine. The fact that the corridor is fairly
narrow and is only a single track in most locations makes it a very unlikely candidate for rail-with-trail
plans as well. Because a trail on the corridor would pass very close to some homes, the possiblility exists
for adjacent landowner opposition. It would make for a beautiful trail that certainly could allow trail
users to forget they are in the middle of Atlanta, but of all the study area corridors it is probably the least
likely trail possibility in the short term.




                                                      21
                                                                   Atlanta - Corridor Segment 5




                                                                                                                                                                  Luc
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                                                                                                                                                  W
                                                                                                                                                                    ie S



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                                                                                                                                             ry S
                                                                                                                                                                          W
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Williams St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Winship Aly NW




                                                                                                                                             nd




                                         Mangum St NW
                                                                                                                                         Fou
                                                                                                                                                    Marie
                                                                                                                                                       tt
                                                                                                                                                       a St N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     W




                                                                                                                                                              W
                                                                                                                                                                                                               g St N                              Study corridors
                                                                                                                                d NW                                                                      Sprin                                         Corridor 1




                                                                 Magnolia Pl NW
                                                                                                              International Blv                                                                                                                         Corridor 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          W                             Corridor 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     St N




                                                                                         Elliott St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                 Wa                                                                     Corridor 4




         Haynes St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ne
                                                                                                                                                                                     lto
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Co                                       Corridor 5
                                                                                                                                                                                     nS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Challenge Area A
                                                                                                                                                                                        tN


                                                                                                                             5                                                                                                                          Challenge Area B
                                                                                                                                                                                           W



Rhodes St NW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Challenge Area C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Challenge Area D
                                                                                                                                                              W   all                                                                                   Rail lines




                                                  Mangum St NW
                                                                                                                                                                      St
    Georgia Dome Dr NW                                                                                                            NW                                                                          W                                         Counties
                                                                                                                             Dr                                                                          tN                                             Parks
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                                                                                                                      w  ood                                                                    irl ie S
                                                                 Block Pl NW                                      Tech                                                                     Fa                     t NW                                  City name
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                                                                                                                                                                                                   For                               NW                 Primary road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              St                        Secondary road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ad                           Local road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Bro                             Access road
                        Martin Luther King Jr Dr NW                                                                                                                                                                                                     Stream or river
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    t




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ee S




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Runway
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                                                                                                                                                                          t SW




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Stream or river
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                        Mitchell St SW                                                                                                                                        Alab                                                                      Park
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Urban areas




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                                                                        Techwood Dr SW
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                      Markham St SW
                                                                                                                                       ing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               r St




                                                                                              Elliott St SW
                                                                                                                                                            SW




                                                                                                                                       Spr




0                            0.1                                    0.2 Miles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pryo




                                                        Chapel St SW                                                                                                                                                                                   W            E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             S
                                     CORRIDOR SEGMENT 5


                                              INVENTORY

ENDPOINTS: ➊ Junction with north to south downtown trunk line near Nelson Street, SW and Elliot
           Street, SW
           ➋ Junction with north to east downtown trunk line near International Viaduct at the Georgia
           World Congress Center

APPROXIMATE LENGTH: .45 miles

NEIGHBORHOODS: Not applicable.

TRANSIT STATIONS: Not applicable.

SCHOOLS: Not applicable.

PARKS AND OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES: Not applicable.

COMMERCIAL SITES AND OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST: Georgia World Congress Center


                                 C O R R I D O R S TAT U S C O M M E N T S

This corridor served as a connector or “wye track” between the two major corridors coming through
downtown Atlanta. Norfolk Southern and its subsidiary, Central of Georgia, abandoned three-tenths of a
mile of this segment in 1994, presumably to accommodate downtown construction associated with the
Olympics. The abandonment filing stated that Central of Georgia held fee simple title to the corridor at
that time. It is unknown what the current status of the corridor is, other than the fact that the tracks
remain in place, though unused.

RELEVANT STB DOCKET NUMBERS: AB-290 sub 163x (1994)


                                        LAND USE SUMMARY

This corridor runs through what could really be considered the “underbelly” of downtown Atlanta. The
adjacent land is mainly taken up with parking lots and parking garages.


                                             ASSESSMENT

This corridor may, at some point, be of use as a downtown pedestrian connector, but it has little scenic
value and does not really connect much of anything at present. However, it is certainly underutilized
space in its current state.




                                                    23
PROPOSED REGIONAL SYSTEM

Throughout the project the team has emphasized the importance of connecting the viable corridors into
a cohesive system. As seen in the Regional Index map, we are linking (graphically) the opportunities
presented in the corridor segments with the proposed connectors identified in the Challenge Area section.
The proposed regional loop system, primarily composed of BeltLine corridors and recommended on-road
connections proposed by the project team, is a conceptual model and is to be viewed as a starting point
for future planning. The regional map shows an emerging loop system that links each segment into a
singular trail that interacts with a multitude of resources and communities throughout Atlanta. Our
purpose in presenting the potential for a regional system is to show the relation of each of these potential
projects to each other and to introduce a larger vision that demonstrates the utility of the identified
corridor segments as the backbone of that system. As planning moves forward to develop a shared-use
transit and trail system, we encourage all stakeholders to consider the genuine opportunities made
available by these rail corridors.

The most unique element in this emerging system is the transit — trail interaction. Currently, MARTA is
coordinating a multi-year study of the BeltLine. The study will provide the design and development
framework for a proposed transit facility as well as identify optimum areas for trail and transit co-location.
Local organizations and agencies such as the PATH Foundation, the city council and the newly formed
Friends of the BeltLine are working together to secure funding and public support for both the motorized
and non-motorized use of these available corridors. Given the enormity and cost of the project it is most
likely that trail sections along the right of way will be phased in as the first constructed segments of the
BeltLine. It is anticipated that the developed segments, once open to the public, will help foster increased
awareness and support for the regional connection of these important community resources.


CHALLENGE AREAS
As the potential for the BeltLine project emerged through the corridor research, it became apparent to
the project team that there were areas of physical disconnect between the corridor segments. These
“challenge areas” are identified on segment maps A–D and the photo inventory in appendix A. If the
BeltLine “loop system” is to be preserved it will take additional analysis to determine the best available
linkages. This section on challenge areas offers analysis and initial conceptual solutions to reconnecting
this important series of corridors.




                                                     24
                                                                        Atlanta - Challenge Area A
                                                                                                                               1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Jett St NW
                                                                                                                                               l   NW
    Kennesaw Dr NW                                                                                                                        lP
                                                                                                                                        a
                                                                                                                                     Ne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Neal St NW




                                                                                                                                                                                          Cairo St NW
                       Ma




                                                                                                                                                                     Tazor St NW
                         ys
                             on
                                     Tu                                                                                                                                                                  Proctor St NW




                                                                                                                                            Temple St NW
                                       rne                                                                                                                                                                                                             Transit line




          d NW
                                             rR                                                                                                                                                                                                   Study corridors
                                               dN                                                                                                                                                       Division St NW                                 Corridor 1




           ell R
                                                   W




                                                                                                               Archer Way NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Corridor 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Corridor 3




     Chapp
                                                                        Simpson Rd NW                                                                                                                   Simpson St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Corridor 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Corridor 5
                                                                                    Mobile St NW                                                                  Ashby
                                                                                                                                                                                   Ter NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rail lines
     Collier St NW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Counties
                                                                                                                                                                                                          W




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Parks
                                                                                                                                                                                                            N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ashby St NW



                                                                                                                                                                                                   y    Cir




                                                                                   Tro                                                                                                                                                                    City name
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                                                                                           tN                                           hing                                                                                                              Highway
                                                                                              W                                                    ton H                                                                                                  Primary road




                                                                                                    t NW
           Andrews St NW                                                                                                                                        eigh
                                                                                                                                                                         ts Te
                                                                                                                                                                                   r NW                                                                   Secondary road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Thurmond St NW                     Local road
                                                                                                                               Ollie Cir NW                                                                                                               Access road




                                                        Burbank Dr NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Stream or river
                                                                              Arcadia Cir NW                                                       Westmoor Dr NW                                                                                         Airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                           M




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Runway
                                                                                                                                                                                                              ays




         Scott St NW
                       Eason St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  on




                                                                                                  NW                                                                                                                                                      Lake or pond
                                                                                  Stanhope Cir                                                                            Michigan Ave NW                                                                 Stream or river
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Tur
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ner




                                                                                                               Washington Park                                                                                                                            Park
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      R




                                                  Akridge St NW                                                                                                                                                                                           Urban areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       dN




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          State
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           W




                                                                                                                                                           Ollie St NW




                                                                            Bronx St NW                                                                                              Desoto St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             N
0                                                 0.2                              0.4
                                                                             Lena St NW Miles                                                         Lena St NW                                          #                                           W            E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              S
                                        CHALLENGE AREA A
Challenge: There is no immediately apparent way to connect study corridor segment 1 with corridor
segment 2. Corridor segment 2 terminates west of Washington Park, where MARTA emerges from below
ground and takes over where the freight rail corridor used to be. MARTA goes back underground as it
approaches where corridor segment 1 formerly crossed perpendicular to corridor segment 2

Proposed Alternatives: There already exists a path that leads from the northwest corner of Washington
Park onto Westmoor Drive, NW. It would be possible to reach corridor segment 1 by traversing relatively
quiet residential streets beginning with Westmoor, then Ollie Street, NW, Flowers Place, NW, and crossing
Simpson Street, NW to Temple Street, NW, which terminates a few hundred feet from corridor segment
1. Corridor segment 1 is on a raised berm at this point, so a ramp up to the corridor from Temple Street,
NW would be necessary, but there are no obstructions to doing so. The Herndon Elementary School is
on the west side of Temple Street, NW, and the pedestrian crossing of Simpson Street, NW from Flowers
Place, NW is signalized and well marked as it is frequently used by school children.

Another alternative might be to put a trail facility alongside the MARTA line where it is above ground
and somehow bring trail users up from that corridor to the berm of corridor segment 1. It is very difficult
to access this area, however, and it is not clear that a construction of that kind would even be feasible.




                                                    26
                                                                                                                                 Atlanta - Challenge Area B




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              W
                                                                                                                                                                                    Dixie Ave NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              av
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 e
                                                                                                                                   3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           W




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rly
                                                                     Ave NE                                                                                                                                            E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             alt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NE
                                                          Auburn                                                                                                                                                   e N




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   W
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Av                                                                                                                                                                      Hardee St NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 h
                                                                                                                                                                                           w         ood




                                          Boulevard NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ay
                                                                                                                                                                                       dge




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 all
                                                                                                                                                                                    E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     St
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ave
                                                                                                                                                                                                             kalb
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NE
                                                                                                                E
                                                                                                           St S
                                                                                      ard
                                                                                   Ezz                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Boulevard Dr NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Moreland Ave




    Jack
     son
                                                                                                      SE                                                                                                                                                                     Wylie St SE
                                                                                       St
                                                                                  ur
                                                                               cat




                                                                                                            P
                                                                De
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Field St SE




      St S
                                                                                                               ow




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                                                                                                                          el
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          F
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Study corridors




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Colmer




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              t




                                                                                                                               t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ave SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   S




                                                                                                                                                                    Estoria St SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Corridor 1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             o




                                                                                                                                 SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 a
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Kirkwood Ave SE                                                                                                                                                                                                      Corridor 2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             v
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Corridor 3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Corridor 4



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Moreland Ave SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ter SE                                                                                                                                                                       righ    t Pl S




                                                                                           Carroll St SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Fulton                                                                                                                                                                             Arkw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Corridor 5




                                                                                                                 Berean Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                       Tye St SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rail lines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Wilbu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Memorial Dr SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Counties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          r Ave
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Parks
                                                                                                                                 Memorial Dr SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Stovall St SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        City name

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Gibson St SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Highway




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chester Ave SE
                                                           Woodward Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I 20                   Primary road




                             Wood St SE
                                                                                                                          Narrow St SE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Secondary road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E




                                                                                                                                                                                     Pearl St SE
                                                         Bryan St SE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     r SE                                                                   e S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Local road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ell D                                                                      Av
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           How                                                                                            son                           Access road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       er
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ph
                                                                                                           I 20 SE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Mc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                e SE                                                                    Stream or river
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Faith Av

                                                                                                                                                        Ka
                                                                                                                                                           lb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Airport
                                                                                                                                                                   St
                                                                                                                                                                            SE                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SE         Runway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ta   n A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Sanders Ave SE                                                                                                             p   oli
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Lake or pond
                             Sydney St SE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         tro
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Me                                         Stream or river




                                                                                       Boulevard SE
                                                                                                                                                                                    Gl
                                                                                                                                                                                        en
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Park
                                                                                                                                                                                                   wo                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Urban areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                     od




           Cherokee Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Av
                                                                                                                                                                                                               e                                                                                                                                                              Glenwood Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SE                                                                                                                                                                                                   State
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Stovall St SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hemlock Cir SE




                                                                 Park Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Portland Ave SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 d Pl SE




                                                                                                            Waldo St SE
                                                                                                                                       Cameron St SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2
Cherokee Pl SE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Lo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        rin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                g
0                                                        0.2                                   0.4 Miles                                                                                                Killian St SE                                                                                                                S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       t S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Glenwoo




                                                                Berne S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                W             E
                                                                        t SE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pendleton St SE


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             S
                                       CHALLENGE AREA B:
Problem: The previous alignment of corridor segment 2 was replaced by a street (Railroad Avenue, SE)
during the widening of Interstate 20. Although the corridor is again open north of Georgia 154, its own-
ership is unclear, and there is no apparent way to get across the CSX trunk line (3 o’clock line) to reach
corridor segment 3.

Proposed Alternatives: Railroad Avenue, SE appears to be the only way over Interstate 20, but it looks
possible to accommodate bicycles and pedestrians through that corridor with a bike lane and/or marked
side path as there are few driveways or other hazards. North of Georgia 154, the former rail corridor
could be used up to Wylie Street, SE where on-road accommodation can be made to get trail users over
a three-block stretch west to Estoria Road, SE. At Estoria Road, SE there is a tunnel beneath the CSX
trunk line that is currently used as a bicycle/pedestrian connection as it features separated paths on both
sides of the road. Once through the tunnel trail users can follow existing sidewalks and marked PATH
Foundation bike lanes up Estoria to Edgewood Street, NE. At Edgewood Street, NE the bike lanes continue
west along the south side of the street up to the intersection with study corridor segment 3 (the marked
bike lanes in fact continue on in to downtown Atlanta, providing a connection between downtown and
the proposed BeltLine). According to the PATH Foundation, several safety improvements for cyclists and
pedestrians will be made in the coming year to the Estoria Road tunnel.




                                                    28
                                                                          Atlanta - Challenge Area C
                                                                                                                                                               Peachtree Hills Ave NE




                     NE
                                                                                                                                            Pin
                                                                                                                                               eC




                                                                              NE




                  tree Rd
                                          Mobile                                                                                                     ir N
                                                             Ave N
                                                                    E                                                                                      E




                 Peach
                                                                                                                           Virginia Pl NE
                                                                                                                                            Kinse




                                                                                                    Stephen Long Dr NE



                                                                           Fairhaven Cir
                                                                                                                                                     y Ct N
                                                                                                                                                                E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Armour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cir NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Study corridors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Corridor 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     e NE             Corridor 2
   Peachtree Park Dr NE                                                                                                                                                                                                                       s Av                    Corridor 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pl   as ter             n NE        Corridor 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    rd Con            Corridor 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ng      Bufo                  Rail lines

                                                                                                                                                                                        Mayson St NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Spri
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Counties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               M




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I 85




                                                                                                                         NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Parks




                                                                                                       r      Dr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               onro




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                                                                                                                                            NE



                                                                                                    ou
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                                                     R                                                                                                                                                                                                                   City name




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   l NE




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                                                                                                                           Ot
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      Brig
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Secondary road
                                   NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Local road
                             r                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Access road
                       l  dD                                            Cla                                                                                                       13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Lebanon D




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               k   efi                                                         nR                                                                                         STH                                                                                            Airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       r NE




             Wa                                                                                                                                                                                            Wimbledon Rd NE
                                                                                     dN                                                                           E                                                                                                      Runway
                                                                                           E                                                                n  nN
                                                                                                                                                      d   Co                                                                                                             Lake or pond
                                     NE                                                                                                           for                                                                                                                    Stream or river
              de      s Rd                                                                                                                   Bu
                                                                                                                                                                                                          M




       Palisa                                                                                                                        ng                                                                                        Rock Springs Rd NE                        Park
                                                                                                                             S   pri                                                                                                                                     Urban areas
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                                                                                                    E                                                                         3
                                                                                                 5N                                                                                                                                                                      State
                                                                                                                                                                                                                eD




                                                                                                                                    E




                                          Huntington Rd NE
                                                                                               I8
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fla




                                                                                                                              rl N
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  0                                                           0.3                                                                0.6 Miles




                      Woodcrest Ave NE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Alle
                                                                                                                Litt



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     W             E
mpty Picture>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S
                                        CHALLENGE AREA C
Problem: Just north of Ansley Golf Course and Interstate 85, corridor segment 3 comes to a junction
with the Norfolk Southern trunk line (1 o’clock). This junction is approximately three-quarters of a mile
short of corridor segment 4, presenting a barrier to linking the two corridors. In addition, corridor seg-
ment 4 does not cross the Norfolk Southern trunk line at grade, but passes far over the top of it at a
location that is topographically problematic.

Proposed Alternatives: One alternative would be to create a rail-with-trail arrangement along the east
side of the Norfolk Southern trunk line once corridor segment 3 joins it from the south. There is ample
width along the corridor as it continues north toward corridor segment 4. For much of this stretch, there
are multiple tracks, and the easternmost tracks are largely inactive and used to park rail cars. Although
the westernmost tracks are used heavily, there is the possibility of adequately separating a trail facility on
the eastern side of the corridor from the active lines on the western side. However, this area is quite
secluded and surrounded by fairly heavy industrial land uses. And at some point there still must be a way
of getting trail users to the west side of the corridor and up to the grade of corridor segment 4 in order
to continue west around the BeltLine. Because of the steep and varied topography in the area where
corridor segment 4 passes over the Norfolk Southern trunk line it would likely be prohibitively difficult to
get trail users from one corridor to the other in this area while still ensuring their safety.

A second alternative would be to route trail users away from corridor segment 3 at its intersection with
Piedmont Avenue, NE just north of Piedmont Park. Trail users could then continue up Piedmont Avenue,
NE via on-road bike lanes and/or a sufficiently wide multi-use sidepath until it reaches corridor segment
4 just north of Interstate 85. Piedmont Avenue, NE is not particularly friendly to such an arrangement in
this area, as it is relatively narrow and windy, but at the same time heavily-traveled. This alternative
would avoid the industrial area around Armour Road, NE.

The most favorable alternative for Challenge Area C would be to make use of a natural corridor formed
by a tributary to Peachtree Creek that begins within Winn Park, proceeds through McClatchey Park and
along the west boundary of Ansley Golf Course, and meanders north to its confluence with Peachtree
Creek just after passing underneath corridor segment 4. A multi-use path could diverge from corridor
segment 3 at the southern tip of Ansley Golf Course and swing briefly west around the golf course to
meet the waterway and continue north on either side of it. The small creek corridor passes underneath
Interstate 85 and the Norfolk Southern trunk line (1 o’clock line), allowing for easy avoidance of these
obstacles and the industrial area around Armour Road, NE. In addition, a trail following this waterway
would provide a connection to the small park near Huntington Road, NE. The location where the creek
meets corridor segment 4 is relatively open and flat, so connecting the two would not be difficult.




                                                     30
                                                                                             Atlanta - Challenge Area D
                                                                                             W                                                                               Atlanta Water Works Reservoirs
                                                                 Huff Rd N




                                        Marie
                                              tta B
                                                                                         Menlo
                                                                                                                                                      4                       Earnest St NW




                                               lvd NW
                                                                                             Dr NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                            t NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                             rS
       W Marietta St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     14th St NW




                                                                                                                                                                                                        oste
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         14th St NW




                                                                                                                                                                                                      F




                                                                 Carr St NW
                                                   Church St NW                                                                                                                                                                    NW                   Ethel St NW                               Study corridors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ve                                                                       Corridor 1




        Champa Ave NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        d  yA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Bra                                                                               Corridor 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11th St NW                                             Corridor 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Corridor 4




                                                   Rice St NW
                                                                                             Longley Ave NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Corridor 5




                                                                              Tilden St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rail lines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ho


                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10th St NW
                                                                                                                              Baylor St NW                                                                                                                                                             Counties




                                                                                                              Herndon St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        well M




                                Niles Ave NW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Parks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Fielder Ave NW



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ill R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         City name
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Northside Dr NW




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              d NW




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Highway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Primary road




                                      Hall Pl NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Secondary road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Local road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Access road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ma




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Stream or river
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              riet




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ta S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     t




                                                                                                                                                                               Ashby St NW


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Runway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NW




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Jefferson St NW                                                                            Lake or pond
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Stream or river
                                                                                                       Jefferson St NW                                                                                                                                                                                   Park
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bedford St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                             Oliver St NW




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Urban areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1                                                                                 State
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wheeler St NW                                Wheeler St NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Echo St NW




                                                                                                     Hornady St NW



                                                                 Marietta Blvd NW
                                                                                                                                              Addie St NW




                                      Woods St NW                                                                                                                                            Bankhead Ave NW                                             Bankhead Ave NW
   0                                                       0.3                                                                          0.6 Miles
                                                                                                                                                            Whitaker St NW




                                                                                                                              Finley Ave NW




                        Gary Ave NW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     W              E
mpty Picture>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S
                                        CHALLENGE AREA D
Problem: There is no available rail, utility or natural corridor connecting study corridor segments 4 and 1.

Proposed Alternatives: The simplest alternative would be to route trail users off of corridor segment 1 at
Joseph E. Lowery Boulevard, NW and proceed north along this thoroughfare until it reaches West
Marietta Street, NW. At this point, there would be a flyover necessary to get users over the shared Norfolk
Southern/CSX trunk line. The only existing crossing of this corridor anywhere in the area is at Marietta
Boulevard, NW, but that location is far out of the way and would require dumping trail users onto heavily
traveled roads to get there. Joseph E. Lowery Boulevard, NW already has a sidewalk on its east side that
could be widened and signed for trail users, and does not feature many driveway or street crossings that
would pose hazards. The biggest conceptual obstacle is getting across West Marietta Street, NW and
over the active trunk line. We do not see any alternative at this time other than a potentially expensive
overpass for trail users. The benefits of this alignment, however, would be its connections to several
redevelopment sites along Joseph E. Lowery Boulevard, NW, including the Puritan Mill business park and
the King Plow Arts Center. It also avoids the area around the Fulton County Prison complex.




                                                    32
PROJECT ADVISORY COMMITTEE
The process of updating Reconnecting Communities: Atlanta Rail Corridor Reassessment began with the
assemblance of an advisory committee to apprise stakeholders in Atlanta of the project and to engage
their expertise and knowledge of local issues. Advisory committee members included city officials and
staff, representatives from related public agencies, leadership from local partner organizations and citizen
advocates. See Appendix G for listing of Advisory Board Members. Significant outreach efforts were
made to engage a broader constituency both within and outside of the traditional trails and planning
communities. This dedicated group will continue to advise the project in its next phase of development.


STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION
As community groups and public agencies pursue the conversion of Atlanta’s rail corridors to multi-use
trails including transit use, some important steps must be followed to avoid common pitfalls, inform the
public and assure safe and enjoyable trail use.

Rails-to-Trails Conservancy has identified three crucial components to a successful trail and greenway
project.
      • Strong, volunteer citizen support or “friends of the trail group”
      • A plan of action that articulates a vision for the project and asks the tough questions about
        ownership, funding, management, etc.
      • Public agency support

Following are some good practices to apply during the trail development process:

DETERMINE SALEABILITY
The first step for any corridor conversion will include meeting with the railroad company or corridor
owner to determine their willingness to sell, a timeline for selling, conditions of sale and an estimate of
the acquisition cost. The outcome of this step will determine how the process should proceed.

USEFUL RESOURCE: RTC has published a how-to manual, Acquiring Rail Corridors for detailed guidance
on this process.

STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
If the sale appears to be imminent and feasible, the next step will be to determine who potential stake-
holders will be. Because stakeholders will be the organizing force behind trail implementation, they
should be the first audience to receive information about the projected benefits, costs and development
framework for the trail project. The following categories of stakeholders are recommended for the Atlanta
railroad corridor projects:

      • Neighborhood Planning Units

      • Collaborative partners from similar and connected projects

      • Local user groups including bicycling, walking and youth groups

      • Local nonprofit groups such as Friends of the BeltLIne and the PATH Foundation
      • Local governmental elected officials, especially Atlanta City Council and mayor
      • Local government departments including Atlanta Department of Parks and Recreation, Atlanta
        Department of Planning and Development and MARTA


                                                     33
       • Neighborhood associations and housing groups
       • Nearby businesses and area Chamber of Commerce

The stakeholders should meet as one large, or several small, groups to discuss the project and receive
factual and anecdotal input on its potential, issues and opportunities. Their input can help customize the
rest of the steps. The lead stakeholders in the trail’s development should be determined at these meet-
ings. The leaders who step forward to help with the trail project may be formed into a steering commit-
tee to help with the implementation steps.

PROJECT INTEGRATION
If stakeholders agree to proceed with the trail project, the next step involves incorporating the project as
a priority in critical planning documents, such as the recreation plan, the community master plan and the
community zoning plan. In order for the project to be formally adopted by local elected planning and
recreation boards, trail project planners will have to advocate for the project and present the project plans
and benefits to relevant boards and groups. The integration of the project into community plans is a
requirement of many public grant programs at the state and federal level. Stakeholders on the project
steering committee can have a considerable influence by advocating for the project to appropriate
decision makers, lending professional expertise and notifying necessary parties when the integration is
official.

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
Another requirement of many public grant programs, and the next step in the process, is a Phase I
environmental assessment. The assessment will include a visual inspection, examination of relevant public
records and a sampling of possible problem areas. If the Phase I study identifies problem areas, a Phase II
assessment may be required, including tests to determine contamination levels and clean-up steps
necessary before securing public funding. The Phase II assessment can be avoided if the corridor owner
assumes responsibility for clean-up costs should problem areas need attention.

FEASIBILITY STUDY AND TRAIL COST ESTIMATE
A feasibility study is the next step in the corridor conversion process. While this report details which
corridors hold realistic potential as a trail projects, more detailed feasibility studies will guide the imple-
mentation and development of the projects. A feasibility study involves a specific physical review of the
corridor, including an analysis of treatment options for intersections, possible realignments of the corridor,
surface alternatives, potential locations and design of trailheads and all other design issues and oppor-
tunities. A feasibility study will also include potential trail management options and a determination of
maintenance tasks to be undertaken regularly or on an as-needed basis. The administrative structure
required to accomplish the trail maintenance will be discussed in the study. Specific questions addressed
in the feasibility study will be:
       • Who will own and manage the trail?
       • How will the trail be maintained, including standards for vegetation management, snow removal,
         trail surface repair, litter removal, graffiti cleanup and sweeping?

       • How will the trail be patrolled by police and volunteer citizens?

       • What provisions will exist for emergency vehicle access and citizen emergency phone access?

Additionally, two or three sessions inviting public input on the feasibility study topics will help customize
the trail design for its potential users. Individual meetings with stakeholders as needed will further help
the steering committee arrive at a preliminary design. From this information, the community group or


                                                      34
public agency leading the project will create a trail cost estimate and a strategy for funding, which will
include a list of federal, state and private grants for which the project would be most eligible. A trail cost
estimate will indicate how much local match will be required, and thefeasibility study will explore possible
ways of raising these dollars, tailored to the community.

INCREASING PUBLIC AWARENESS
A brochure depicting the vision for the trail project including who, what, where and why will draw
potential trail supporters to comment on design considerations, provide financial support and advocate
at public meetings. A marketing plan should accompany the development of the brochure to determine
how they will be distributed and how and when to contact the media for coverage of the trail effort.
Possible venues for a display booth should be explored by trail supporters to increase public awareness.
The more places information can be disseminated, the more likely the trail will gain acceptance in the
community.

USEFUL RESOURCE: Secrets of Successful Rail-Trails, An Acquisition and Organizing Manual for Convert-
ing Rails into Trails, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 1993.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCE FOR THE TRAIL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: Trails for the 21st Century: Plan-
ning, Design and Management Manual for Multi-Use Trails, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 2001.




                                                     35
   APPENDIX A:
    ATLANTA
PHOTO INVENTORY




      36
                                    Regional Index Map with Photo Locators
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Briarcliff Rd NE
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ie
             B                                                      107, 108
                                                                                                                                     113, 114
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                                                                                       105                      D                                                   11, 12
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                                          N                                                                     #
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                                           W                                                                            #                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Challenge Area A
                                                                                                       W#                                                                                                                                                      Ave NE                                                                                                                                                                  #
                                                                                               d Hwy N                                                                                                                                                      #
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ponce De Leon
                                                                    Bankhea                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Challenge Area B
                                                                                                        13               7, 8
                                                                                                                                                                        North Ave NW                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         118, 119
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           45, 46                                                                                                                                                                                                #
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                                                   Simpson Rd NWA                                                                     3, 4    St
                                                                                                                                     Simpson 1, 2 NW                                                                                                                                                                      #                                                                                                                                                                      Rail lines
                                                                                                                                                                        #                                                                                              Pky                                                                                               Dekalb Ave NE
                                                                              82           #




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  0                    pb                                                                                           3                                                                               o                                                                                                     6 Miles
                    m                                                                                                                                                                             ry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             SE




                 Ca                                                                                                                                                                           P                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Flat Shoals Rd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                W          E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      S
           CORRIDOR
            SEGMENT
              ONE


                                        1. End of abandoned CSX line near        2. Abandoned CSX line at bridge over
                                        Simpson Street NW and Northside Drive    Simpson Street NW; northwest view.
                                        NW; southeast view.




3. Abandoned CSX line at bridge over    4. Abandoned CSX line at bridge over     5. Abandoned CSX line at bridge over
Jones Avenue NW near Maple Street NW;   Jones Avenue NW near Maple Street NW;    Western Avenue NW near Maple Street
southeast view.                         northwest view.                          NW; southeast view.




6. Abandoned CSX line at bridge over    7. Abandoned CSX line at North Avenue    8. Abandoned CSX line at North Avenue
Western Avenue NW near Maple Street     NW (missing overpass); southeast view.   NW (missing overpass); northwest view.
NW; north-northwest view.




                                                              38
9. Abandoned CSX line at Griffin Street       10. Abandoned CSX line at Griffin Street   11. Active CSX line junction with spur line
NW; southeast view.                           NW; northwest view (end of abandoned       to Archer Daniels Midland facility, at
                                              section).                                  Bedford Street NW and Joseph E. Lowery
                                                                                         Boulevard NW; east view.




12. Active CSX line junction with spur line   13. Abandoned CSX line adjacent to         14. Active CSX line near Mason Turner
to Archer Daniels Midland facility, at        Maddox Park at maintenance facility        Road NW at former junction with now-
Bedford Street NW and Joseph E. Lowery        parking lot near North Avenue NW; east-    abandoned eastward continuation (berm
Boulevard NW; west view.                      northeast view.                            visible to right of active line, also indicated
                                                                                         by gap in tree line); east view.




15. Active CSX line near Mason Turner         16. Active CSX line at Mason Turner Road   17. Active CSX line (with train) at Mason
Road NW; east view.                           NW; southwest view.                        Turner Road NW; south-southwest view.




                                                              39
             CORRIDOR
              SEGMENT
                TWO


                                               18. Neighborhood path along Lena Street   19. Neighborhood path along Lena Street
                                               NW near the southeast corner Washington   NW; east view toward downtown Atlanta.
                                               Park; east view.




20. Inactive CSX (former Louisville and        21. Inactive CSX (former Louisville and   22. Inactive CSX (former Louisville and
Nashville) corridor with MARTA line directly   Nashville) corridor at end of West Fair   Nashville) corridor at end of West Fair
underground, crossed by neighborhood           Street SW, just north of Interstate 20;   Street SW, just north of Interstate 20;
path; near Lena Street at the southwest        northeast view.                           southwest view.
corner of Washington Park; south-
southwest view.




23. Inactive CSX (former Louisville and        24. Inactive CSX (former Louisville and   25. Salvation Army/Boys and Girls Club
Nashville) corridor at Lucile Avenue SW        Nashville) corridor at Lucile Avenue SW   facility adjacent to inactive CSX corridor (in
near Muse Street SW; north view.               near Muse Street SW; south view.          rear), from Donnelly Avenue SW; northeast
                                                                                         view.




                                                                      40
26. Inactive CSX (former Louisville and        27. Inactive CSX (former Louisville and       28. Inactive CSX (former Louisville and
Nashville) corridor from Lawton Street SW      Nashville) corridor from Lawton Street SW     Nashville) corridor at CSX/Norfolk
between Donnelly Avenue SW and White           between Donnelly Avenue SW and White          Southern mainline overpass, from Murphy
Street SW; northwest view.                     Street SW; southeast view.                    Avenue SW; southeast view.




29. Marginally active CSX (former Atlanta      30. Marginally active CSX (former Atlanta     31. Marginally active CSX (former Atlanta
and West Point) line next to inactive CSX      and West Point) line next to inactive CSX     and West Point) line at tunnel underneath
(former Louisville and Nashville) line (to     (former Louisville and Nashville) line (to    intersection of active Norfolk Southern line
right) near junction southwest of University   left) near junction southwest of University   and University Avenue SW, Ridge Avenue
Avenue SW and Metropolitan Parkway             Avenue SW and Metropolitan Parkway            SW, Hank Aaron Drive SE, and
SW; west-northwest view.                       SW; east-southeast view.                      McDonough Boulevard SE; west-
                                                                                             southwest view.




32. Utility corridor at intersection of        33. Marginally active CSX (former Atlanta     34. Marginally active CSX (former Atlanta
Englewood Avenue SE and Boulevard SE;          and West Point) line at Boulevard SE near     and West Point) line at Boulevard SE near
southeast view.                                Hamilton Avenue SE; west-southwest view.      Hamilton Avenue SE; east-northeast view.




                                                                41
35. Marginally active CSX (former Atlanta     36. Marginally active CSX (former Atlanta       37. Walkers and joggers on track at
and West Point) line at Chester Avenue SE     and West Point) line at Chester Avenue SE       Southside High School.
and Killian Street SE, near Southside High    and Killian Street SE, near Southside High
School; south-southwest view.                 School; north-northeast view.




             CORRIDOR
              SEGMENT
                THREE


                                                                                              39. Martin Luther King Junior Historic Site,
                                                                                              south-southwest view.


                                              38. Inactive Norfolk Southern Line at
                                              Edgewood Avenue SE, just east of Martin
                                              Luther King Junior Historic Site; north view.




40. Inactive Norfolk Southern Line at Lake    41. Inactive Norfolk Southern Line at Lake      42. Inactive Norfolk Southern line overpass
Avenue NE near Krog Street NE, just east      Avenue NE near Krog Street NE, just east        at Ralph McGill Boulevard NE, just west of
of Martin Luther King Junior Historic Site;   of Martin Luther King Junior Historic Site;     the Carter Presidential Center; west-
south view.                                   north view.                                     southwest view.




                                                                      42
43. Inactive Norfolk Southern line, on          44. Inactive Norfolk Southern line, on          45. Inactive Norfolk Southern line at Ponce
overpass at Ralph McGill Boulevard NE,          overpass at Ralph McGill Boulevard NE,          de Leon Avenue NE between Lakeview
just west of the Carter Presidential Center;    just west of the Carter Presidential Center;    Avenue NE and Ponce de Leon Place NE,
south view.                                     north view.                                     near City Hall East; south view.




46. Inactive Norfolk Southern line at Ponce     47. Inactive Norfolk Southern line, at          48. Inactive Norfolk Southern line, at
de Leon Avenue NE between Lakeview              intersection of Monroe Drive NE and 10th        intersection of Monroe Drive NE and 10th
Avenue NE and Ponce de Leon Place NE,           Street NE near Henry Grady High School          Street NE near Henry Grady High School
near City Hall East; north view.                and Piedmont Park; southeast view.              and Piedmont Park; northwest view.




49. Inactive Norfolk Southern line, adjacent    50. Inactive Norfolk Southern line, adjacent
to east edge of Piedmont Park, from Park        to east edge of Piedmont Park, from Park
Drive NE (closed periodically to auto traffic   Drive NE (closed periodically to auto traffic
on a regular schedule from this point           on a regular schedule from this point
westward through the park); south view.         westward through the park); north view.         51. Inactive Norfolk Southern line from
                                                                                                Montgomery Ferry Drive NE overpass,
                                                                                                adjacent to golf course; southeast view.




                                                                 43
52. Inactive Norfolk Southern line from     53. Inactive Norfolk Southern line at
Montgomery Ferry Drive NE overpass,         Mayson Street NE, at junction with active
adjacent to golf course; northwest view.    Norfolk Southern line (active MARTA line
                                            visible at top-right); south view.




             CORRIDOR
              SEGMENT
                FOUR


                                            54. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)       55. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)
                                            line at Ponce de Leon Avenue NE near         line at Ponce de Leon Avenue NE near
                                            Atwood Road NE in Druid Hills; south view.   Atwood Road NE in Druid Hills; north view.




56. Partially active CSX (former Seaboard   57. Partially active CSX (former Seaboard    58. Partially active CSX (former Seaboard
Coast) line near Belt Junction in North     Coast) line at Belt Junction in North        Coast) line near Belt Junction in North
Decatur, near Ladson Court (private         Decatur, near Ladson Court (private          Decatur, near Ladson Court (private
residential complex); south view.           residential complex); north view.            residential complex); northwest view.




                                                                   44
59. Partially active CSX (former Seaboard   60. Partially active CSX (former Seaboard   61. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)
Coast) line from Clifton Road NE overpass   Coast) line from Clifton Road NE overpass   line from Cheshire Bridge Road NE
within Emory University campus in Druid     within Emory University campus in Druid     overpass near Faulkner Road NE; east
Hills; east view.                           Hills; west view (partially obstructed).    view.




62. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)      63. Marginally active CSX line [4] near     64. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)
line from Cheshire Bridge Road NE           point where it passes under Norfolk         bridge over tributary of Peachtree Creek
overpass near Faulkner Road NE; west-       Southern trunk line near Armour Drive NE;   near Camden Road NE; north view.
northwest view.                             west-southwest view.




65. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)      66. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)      67. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)
line from Peachtree Road NE overpass;       line from Peachtree Road NE overpass;       line on trestle within Ardmore Park,
east view.                                  west view.                                  southwest of Collier Road NW; northeast
                                                                                        view.




                                                            45
68. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)     69. Trestle structure of active CSX (former   70. Playground within Ardmore Park, near
line on trestle within Ardmore Park,       Seaboard Coast) line within Ardmore Park,     active CSX (former Seaboard Coast) line;
southwest of Collier Road NW; southwest    southwest of Collier Road NW; west-           west view.
view.                                      southwest view.




71. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)     72. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)        73. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)
line near Old Chattahoochee Avenue NW      line near Old Chattahoochee Avenue NW         line from Huff Road NW overpass; north-
near Howell’s Mill Road NW, at three-way   near Howell’s Mill Road NW, at three-way      northeast view.
CSX junction; east-northeast view.         CSX junction; south-southwest view.




74. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)     75. Active CSX/Norfolk Southern line from     76. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)
line from Huff Road NW overpass; south-    Marietta Boulevard NW overpass; east          line from Marietta Boulevard NW overpass,
southwest view.                            view.                                         parallel to CSX/Norfolk Southern main line
                                                                                         (on right); east view.




                                                                  46
             CORRIDOR
              SEGMENT
                FIVE


                                            77. End of abandoned Central of Georgia     78. Active Norfolk Southern line junction
                                            line, near International Viaduct NW, west   with abandoned Central of Georgia line,
                                            of Marietta Street NW at the Georgia        from Nelson Street NW bridge (closed to
                                            World Congress Center; south-southwest      traffic) near Spring Street NW; north-
                                            view.                                       northeast view.




79. Active Norfolk Southern line junction
with abandoned Central of Georgia line,
from Nelson Street NW bridge (closed to
traffic) near Spring Street NW; south-
southwest view.




       CHALLENGE AREA
                    A


                                            80. Neighborhood pathway into               81. Neighborhood pathway into
                                            Washington Park, near west end of           Washington Park, near west end of
                                            Westmoor Drive NW, adjacent to active       Westmoor Drive NW, adjacent to active
                                            MARTA line (on other side of fence on       MARTA line; south view.
                                            right); south view.




                                                            47
82. Active MARTA line on abandoned CSX     83. Active MARTA line on abandoned CSX     84. Active CSX (former Atlanta and West
(former Atlanta and West Point) corridor   (former Atlanta and West Point) corridor   Point) line at bridge over North Avenue NW
from Mobile Street NW, near intersection   from Simpson Street NW; south view.        in Maddox Park, near MARTA underpass;
with Mayson Turner Road NW; south view.                                               north view.




85. Abandoned CSX line [1] (elevated
berm behind houses) from north end of
Temple Street NW on oppostie side of
corridor from Maddox Park; north-
northwest view.




       CHALLENGE AREA
             B


                                                                                      87. Cyclists turning from bike lane on
                                                                                      Edgewood Street NE onto Estoria Street
                                                                                      NE; east view.

                                           86. Inactive Norfolk Southern Line at
                                           Edgewood Avenue SE, just east of Martin
                                           Luther King Junior Historic Site; south-
                                           southeast view.




                                                                 48
88. Traffic signs directing cyclists onto   89. Estoria Street tunnel under MARTA and   90. Bike path along west side of Estoria
Estoria Street NE from Edgewood Street      CSX lines at Decatur Street NE with bike    Street through Street tunnel under MARTA
NE; east view.                              paths on either side of Estoria Street;     and CSX lines at Decatur Street NE;
                                            south-southeast view.                       south-southeast view.




91. Storage lot adjacent to and south of    92. Abandoned CSX (former Atlanta and       93. Abandoned CSX (former Atlanta and
CSX trunk line at site of former junction   West Point) line at Wylie Street SE near    West Point) line at Wylie Street SE near
with abandoned CSX belt line, north of      Flat Shoals Avenue SE, just south of        Flat Shoals Avenue SE, just south of
intersection of Wylie and Kenyon Streets    active CSX line; north view.                active CSX line; south view.
SE; north view.




94. Abandoned CSX (former Atlanta and       95. Former CSX (former Atlanta and West
West Point) corridor at Memorial Drive SE   Point) corridor converted to Railroad
(State Highway 154) and Railroad Avenue     Avenue SE, at Memorial Drive SE (State
SE; north view.                             Highway 154); south view.




                                                            49
        CHALLENGE AREA
              C


                                             96. Inactive Norfolk Southern line at        97. Inactive Norfolk Southern line at
                                             Mayson Street NE, at junction with active    Mayson Street NE, at junction with active
                                             Norfolk Southern line (active MARTA line     Norfolk Southern line (active MARTA line
                                             visible at top-right); north view.           visible at right); north-northeast view.




98. Partially active Norfolk Southern line   99. Partially active Norfolk Southern line   100. Active Norfolk Southern line
on overpass at Armour Drive NE;              on overpass at Armour Drive NE;              southeast of Peachtree Hills Avenue NE,
southwest.                                   northeast.                                   near CSX (former Seaboard Coast) line
                                                                                          overpass; south-southwest view.




101. Marginally active CSX line [4] near
point where it passes under Norfolk
Southern trunk line near Armour Drive NE;
east-northeast view.




                                                                     50
       CHALLENGE AREA
             D


                                               102. Active CSX line junction with spur line   103. Active CSX line junction with spur line
                                               to Archer Daniels Midland facility, at         to Archer Daniels Midland facility, at
                                               Bedford Street NW and Joseph E. Lowery         Bedford Street NW and Joseph E. Lowery
                                               Boulevard NW; east view.                       Boulevard NW; northwest view up spur
                                                                                              line.




104. Active CSX line junction with spur line   105. Abandoned CSX spur from parking lot       106. Sidewalk along east side of Joseph E.
to Archer Daniels Midland facility, at         of Puritan Mill office development, just       Lowery Boulevard NW north of Jefferson
Bedford Street NW and Joseph E. Lowery         west of Joseph E. Lowery Boulevard NW;         Street NW; north view.
Boulevard NW; northwest view up spur           southwest view.
line.




107. Active Norfolk Southern and CSX           108. Active Norfolk Southern trunk line
trunk lines in the direction of downtown       (foreground) and active CSX line linking to
Atlanta, from north side of West Marietta      study corridor 4, from north side of West
Street NW near King Plow Arts Center;          Marietta Street NW near King Plow Arts
east view.                                     Center; north view.




                                                                51
           ADDITIONAL
             IMAGES


                                             109. Active Norfolk Southern line at Martin   110. Active Norfolk Southern line at Martin
                                             Luther King Jr. Drive NW, near Walker         Luther King Jr. Drive NW, near Walker
                                             Street SW; north view.                        Street SW; south view.




111. Partially active CSX (former Georgia    112. Partially active CSX (former             113.Active CSX/Norfolk Southern line from
Railroad) line from Forsyth Street SW        Georgia Railroad) line from Forsyth           West Marietta Street NW overpass near
overpass near Wall Street SW; southeast      Street SW overpass near Wall Street           Brady Avenue NW; southeast view.
view.                                        SW; northwest view.




114. Active CSX/Norfolk Southern line from   115. Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)       116.Active CSX (former Seaboard Coast)
West Marietta Street NW overpass near        line from Marietta Boulevard NW overpass;     line near Old Chattahoochee Avenue NW
Brady Avenue NW; northwest view.             west-northwest view.                          near Howell’s Mill Road NW, at three-way
                                                                                           CSX junction; northwest view.




                                                                    52
117. Active Norfolk Southern line southeast   118. Active CSX line in Decatur at      119. Active CSX line in Decatur at
of Peachtree Hills Avenue NE, near CSX        McDonough Street between Howard         McDonough Street between Howard
(former Seaboard Coast) line overpass;        Avenue and College Avenue, near Agnes   Avenue and College Avenue, near Agnes
north-northeast view.                         Scott College; east-northeast view.     Scott College; west-southwest view.




120. Active Norfolk Southern line at          121. Active Norfolk Southern line at    122. Active CSX/Norfolk Southern line
intersection of University Avenue SW,         intersection of University Avenue SW,   (with CSX train in distance) and MARTA
Ridge Avenue SW, Hank Aaron Drive SE,         Ridge Avenue SW, Hank Aaron Drive SE,   line from Murphy Avenue SW at
and McDonough Boulevard SE; east view.        and McDonough Boulevard SE; north-      intersection with Lillian Avenue SW and
                                              northwest view.                         Allene Avenue SW; southwest view.




                                                             53
APPENDIX B: CONCURRENT STUDIES AND PROJECTS —
IMPLICATIONS AND CONTACT INFORMATION

                                                                                      CITY OF ATLANTA COMPREHENSIVE
  CITY OF ATLANTA COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING                                              PLANNING DOCUMENTS AND INITIATIVES
  DOCUMENTS AND INITIATIVES ..................... 54                                  The City of Atlanta Bureau of Planning is the primary
                                                                                      contact for all unless otherwise noted. Information
  MOBILITY 2030: REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION                                              accurate as of March 2004.
  PLAN AND ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS ........ 56
                                                                                      Name: City of Atlanta 2004 Comprehensive Develop-
                                                                                      ment Plan
  DOCUMENTS SPECIFIC TO THE “BELTLINE” OR
                                                                                      Lead Org(s): City of Atlanta Bureau of Planning
  INDIVIDUAL “BELTLINE” CORRIDORS ........... 58
                                                                                      Description: The annual Comprehensive Development
                                                                                      Plan (CDP) is used as a guide in the preparation and
  ADDITIONAL COMPREHENSIVE DOCUMENTS                                                  adoption of the five year Capital Improvements Pro-
  RELATED TO GREENSPACE AND BICYCLE/                                                  gram and the yearly City Budget. Incorporated into the
  PEDESTRIAN PLANNING ................................. 60                            CDP are various ongoing plans and programs, some of
                                                                                      which are described in more detail below.
  ADDITIONAL COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING                                                   Completion Date: July 2003
  DOCUMENTS NOT SPECIFICALLY RELATED TO                                               Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: Though
  THE ATLANTA CDP OR THE MOBILITY 2030                                                not mentioned in the transportation section of the
  RTP ..................................................................... 61        CDP, the idea of a greenway ring around the city,
                                                                                      including portions of Study Corridors 1–4, is men-
  ADDITIONAL RAIL-SPECIFIC PLANNING DOCU-                                             tioned in the parks and recreation section of the plan:
  MENTS FOR THE ATLANTA AREA (GENERAL OR                                              “A proposed cultural ring around Downtown and
  SPECIFIC CORRIDORS) ................................... 63                          Midtown will consist of a circular greenway park with
                                                                                      a pedestrian/bicycle trail that will coincide with more
  SELECTED NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT                                                   than 20 cultural facilities and historic districts and sites.
  PLANS FOR AREAS ADJACENT TO OR NEAR                                                 Regional and national arts events will be held annually
  STUDY CORRIDORS ........................................ 65                         in and around the cultural ring, which will contain
                                                                                      numerous historic sites and structures for staging art
                                                                                      shows, craft shows, sculpture displays, theater, dance,
                                                                                      concerts, lectures, conferences and other special
                                                                                      events. This greenway will generally follow the route
                                                                                      of abandoned rail lines around Downtown and Mid-
                                                                                      town. The northeast quadrant will be a rail/trail that
                                                                                      will share use with the Amtrak trains, on their way to
                                                                                      the future Downtown multi-modal facility.”
                                                                                      In addition, there are countless other bicycle, pedes-
                                                                                      trian, and open space projects outlined in the CDP
                                                                                      that have some degree of interaction with one or more
                                                                                      of the Study Corridors. Many of these are described in
                                                                                      greater detail within other, previous plans formally
                                                                                      incorporated into this year’s CDP.
                                                                                      For More Information: http://apps.atlantaga.gov/
                                                                                      citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/CDP/
                                                                                      comprehensive_development_plan.htm
                                                                                      City of Atlanta Department of Planning and Commu-
                                                                                      nity Development, Bureau of Planning
                                                                                      55 Trinity Ave. Suite 3350
                                                                                      Atlanta, GA 30303
                                                                                      Phone: 404-330-6145 • Fax: 404-658-7491


                                                                                 54
                     ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


                                                                 Completion Date: December 1993
Name: City of Atlanta Capital Improvement Program                Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This
2004-2019                                                        plan involves the same interactions with the Study
Lead Org(s): City of Atlanta Bureau of Planning                  Corridors mentioned below in relation to the 1992
Description: The City of Atlanta’s Capital Improve-              Trail Corridor Plan. In addition, it provides information
ment Program (CIP), which covers a fifteen-year time             on the city’s goals in relation to general park and
period, is updated annually. The CIP recommends the              greenspace expansion and improvements.
use of the projected revenues for capital purposes               For More Information: http://apps.atlantaga.gov/
expected over the next five years and identifies all             citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/Greenspace/
capital needs over the full fifteen-year period. Also            greenspace.htm
included in the CIP is a general financial plan for                                  ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




funding those projects over the entire fifteen-year
period. It covers those items typically thought of as            Name: City of Atlanta Greenway Trail Corridor Plan
“infrastructure” —streets, sewer lines, bridges, etc.—as         Lead Org(s): City of Atlanta (PATH Foundation)
well as facilities through which city government pro-            Description: The City of Atlanta Greenway Trail Corri-
vides services directly to citizens or in support of city        dor Plan was completed with a grant from the Georgia
operations. The latter category includes such facilities         Office of Energy Resource Oil Restitution Fund and
as police precincts, recreation centers, maintenance             was sponsored by the Georgia Department of Natural
facilities, and general office buildings. The CIP covers         Resources. It was presented to the City by The PATH
all facilities that City government owns and for which           Foundation and its volunteers; all aspects of the plan
it has responsibility.                                           were developed in cooperation with the Mayor’s Green
Completion Date: October 2003 (updated annually)                 Ribbon Committee, related special interest groups and
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: Details             the Neighborhood Planning Unit (NPU) planning
planned improvements to various park and trail facili-           process. The goal of the plan was to create a network
ties around the city, some of which would be linked              of greenway trails throughout Atlanta, with PATH
by or connect to one or more of the Study Corridors.             planning to assemble the greenway corridors, build
For More Information: http://apps.atlantaga.gov/                 the improvements, dedicate the network to the City
citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/CIP/                         and ensure the perpetual maintenance of the corridors.
Web_pgs/capitol_improvements_program.htm                         Completion Date: 1992
                     ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                                                                 Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The
                                                                 plan called for greenways to be established on at least
Name: Atlanta Parks, Open Space and Greenways Plan               part of Study Corridors 1-4. It also includes align-
Lead Org(s): City of Atlanta Department of Planning              ments off the rail corridors that could be considered
and Development, Department of Parks and Recre-                  additional alternatives for avoiding Challenge Areas A,
ation, Mayor’s Green Ribbon Committee                            C, and D. Although the plan has been implemented
Description: Established in 1993 under Mayor                     only in part and has been somewhat supplanted by
Maynard Jackson, The Atlanta Parks, Open Space and               more recent plans, it serves as a good foundation for
Greenways Plan establishes park planning policies                an understanding of various options for greenway
which are intended to guide the development of parks             development in Atlanta, and how the various non-rail-
and recreational facilities from 1994 through 2009.              trail greenways would interact with any greenways
The plan views parks and recreation as a single,                 developed on the study corridors.
citywide system of public open spaces and facilities             For More Information: http://apps.atlantaga.gov/
that provide cultural, educational, recreational and             citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/Greenspace/
leisure-time opportunities. It reevaluates the system’s          trails.htm
open space frame work, planning and design stan-                 PATH Foundation
dards, facility distribution, and cultural, educational          PO Box 14327
and environmental protection roles. This plan follows            Atlanta, GA 30324
closely the recommendations made by the PATH                     Phone: 404-875-PATH (7284) • Fax: 404.875.3242
Foundation in the Trail Corridor Plan cited below.               E-mail: info@pathfoundation.org




                                                            55
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


                                                                MOBILITY 2030: REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION
Name: Atlanta Commuter On-Street Bike Plan                      PLAN AND ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS
Lead Org(s): City of Atlanta Department of Planning
                                                                The Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) is the primary
and Development, Department of Public Works,
                                                                contact for all unless otherwise noted.
Mayor’s Bicycle Planning Committee
Description: This plan consists of a map identifying            Name: Mobility 2030: Regional Transportation Plan
proposed greenway trails as well as prioritized routes          Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission
for on-street bike facilities. It has been used as guid-        Description: Mobility 2030 is the new long-range plan
ance by the Department of Public Works in its current           by the Atlanta Regional Commission that “will look
effort to stripe bike lanes under the Quality of Life           beyond the traditional planning processes and will
Bond Program.                                                   determine what kinds of investments will truly bring
Completion Date: September 1995 (currently being                congestion relief.” The plan encompasses planning for
updated by the Atlanta Bicycle Advisory Committee)              five basic transportation systems: Bicycle and Pedes-
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The                trian System, Cross-Regional System, HOV System,
plan mainly follows the 1992 Trail Corridor Plan and            Management and Operations System, and Transit
1993 Greenways and Open Space Plan in its identifi-             System. In late 2003, the ARC Board was to adopt an
cation of proposed greenways, including those that              aspirations plan identifying specific strategies intended
make use of Study Corridors 1-4. Notable, however, is           to alleviate congestion and improve mobility, without
the inclusion of the entire length of Study Corridor 1,         being limited by available funds. The aspirations plan
as well as a connection with Study Corridor 2 via               will then be constrained, based on the region’s financial
Washington Park and continuing south.                           capabilities and willingness to pay, by selecting those
For More Information: http:/apps.atlantaga.gov/                 projects and programs which provide the most mobility
citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/Transporta-                 and air quality benefits. The final constrained plan,
tion/Web_Pgs/transportation.htm                                 which will constitute the official Regional Transporta-
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                                                                tion Plan (RTP), is scheduled to be adopted in late 2004.
                                                                (Estimated) Completion Date: See above.
Name: Northwest Atlanta Framework Plan                          Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This
Lead Org(s): City of Atlanta Bureau of Planning                 plan will likely shape Atlanta transportation policy
Description: A broad area planning study for North-             decisions over the next several years, as it will be the
west Atlanta, incorporated into the current CDP. This           most comprehensive transportation planning docu-
plan proposes the creation of medium-density, mixed-            ment yet produced for the region. Its implications for
use development nodes while controlling and limiting            our Study Corridors are at this point unclear, but
strip commercial development. Mixture of multifamily            some details are emerging from some of the other
residential, commercial, office and institutional land          items the ARC has published in preparation for the
uses result in a more efficient use of land and greater         release of the full RTP. These are detailed below.
social vitality.                                                For More Information: http://atlantaregional.com/
Completion Date: September 2000                                 transportationair/2030RTP.html
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The                Atlanta Regional Commission
plan calls for improvements and extensions to existing          40 Courtland Street
trails and road corridors. Many of these projects,              Atlanta, GA 30303
especially along Marietta Road, could present oppor-            Phone: 404-463-3272 • Fax: 404-463-3254
tunities for connectors to and between Study Corridors          E-mail: transportation@atlantaregional.com
1 and 4.                                                                            ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○



For More Information: http://apps.atlantaga.gov/
citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/Plan_Study/                 Name: 2030 Regional Transportation Plan: Trends
Other_Plans/NW_Report.pdf                                       Report
                                                                Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission
                                                                Description: This document was produced to serve as
                                                                a starting point for the 2030 RTP, establishing a
                                                                policy framework based on the evidence comparing
                                                                Atlanta’s transportation efficiency to that of other
                                                                metropolitan areas. It also summarizes the 2025 RTP
                                                                and evaluates it based on its performance in five
                                                                major policy issues.



                                                           56
                                                                                     ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


Completion Date: May 2002
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This                Name: Northwest Connectivity Study
report lays the foundation for policy decisions that             Lead Org(s): Georgia Regional Transportation Author-
focus on alternative modes of transportation. As such,           ity (Jordan, Jones & Goulding)
the statistics contained in the report and the analytic          Description: This document’s purpose is to explore
conclusions will be valuable tools for advocates of trail        transportation connections among activity
conversion along the Study Corridors.                            centers within the I-75 corridor. The corridor is cen-
For More Information: www.atlantaregional.com/                   tered on US41 and bounded by Midtown Atlanta on
transportationair/2030FINALTRENDSREPORT%20.pdf                   the south, Town Center on the north. In addition, the
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                                                                 study examines the impacts of ‘distributor’ systems
                                                                 within the Cumberland/Galleria and Town Center
Name: 2030 Regional Transportation Plan: Transpor-               areas. Distributor systems are transportation systems
tation Planning Briefing Book                                    that would help people get from the major transporta-
Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission                         tion system to their final destinations.
Description: The Briefing Book was initially prepared            (Estimated) Completion Dates: GRTA spent the first
to provide background information to facilitate activi-          half of 2003 refining the three alternatives due to
ties at the ARC Board Work Session in February 2003.             budgetary constraints and public concerns. Two public
The book has also been updated periodically through-             meetings were held in August 2003 to report on what
out the planning process. It essentially serves as the           they heard at the last meeting, review roadway defi-
policy platform upon which the RTP revisions are to              ciencies, and help select the best alternative, which
be based, and outlines strategies for RTP completion             will become the locally preferred alternative (LPA).
and implementation.                                              GRTA staff planned to select and submit the LPA to
Completion Dates: February 2003, revised April 2003              the GRTA Board for approval in December. The LPA
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The                 will then be sent to ARC for inclusion in the Mobility
Briefing Book prescribes the formation of a Bicycle              2030 plan.
and Pedestrian Planning Team and sets general policy             Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: One of
goals for the team to work toward in its evaluation              the alternatives makes use of the CSX trunk line
and revision of the RTP.                                         corridor that leaves downtown to the northwest (11
For More Information: http://atlantaregional.com/                o’clock Line). Any of the three alternatives will likely
transportationair/BRIEFING%20BOOK%20-                            have some degree of interaction with Study Corridor
%20RETREAT%20FINAL2.PDF                                          4, and a multi-use trail on this corridor could be a
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                                                                 crucial part of a “distributor system” for a northwest
                                                                 connector transit corridor.
Name: 2030 Regional Transportation Plan: Issue                   For More Information: www.grta.org/nwcs/
Paper, Bicycling and Walking — Planning for a New                GRTA_Website/whatis.html
Way of Life                                                      www.co.fulton.ga.us/Fulton_County/departments/
Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission                         update_transportation_planning_studies.pdf (page 10)
Description: A two-page summary of the preliminary               Georgia Regional Transportation Authority
conclusions made by the RTP team regarding the                   245 Peachtree Center Ave., NE, Suite 900
conditions for bicycling and walking in the Atlanta              Atlanta, GA 30303-1223
region, and the policy goals hoped to be achieved                Phone: 404-463-3000 • Fax: 404-463-3060
through the implementation of the 2030 RTP.                                          ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


Completion Date: February 2003
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This                Name: Bicycle Transportation and Pedestrian Walkways
document is a brief yet comprehensive overview of                Plan
the key trends and issues involving bicycling and                Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission
walking for the region, the effectiveness of the 2025            Description: In 1979, ARC published a technical
RTP in this area, and the next steps included in the             memorandum titled Bicycle Planning and Implementa-
RTP revision process.                                            tion in the Atlanta Region, an evaluation of then-
For More Information: http://atlantaregional.com/                existing bicycle facilities. In 1993, ARC published its
transportationair/BikePed.pdf                                    Bicycle Transportation and Pedestrian Walkways Plan,
                                                                 a compilation of local plans with little regional coordi-
                                                                 nation or cross-jurisdictional coordination. In 1995,
                                                                 ARC updated the 1993 plan and included a bicycle



                                                            57
and pedestrian section in the 2025 RTP. The Plan is              For More Information: www.grta.org/rtap/
being updated now because of changing federal                    pubs.htm#rtap_plan, www.co.fulton.ga.us/
regulations, the regional transportation plan update,            Fulton_County/departments/
and current needs and priorities in the region. The              update_transportation_planning_studies.pdf (pg 1)
update process includes coordination with ARC’s                  Gail Franklin
Bicycle and Pedestrian Task Force, created in 1992,              Georgia Regional Transportation Authority (GRTA)
the RTP/RDP update, jurisdiction initiatives, and                245 Peachtree Center Avenue, Suite 900
pedestrian/bicycle user groups. The regional plan also           Atlanta, GA 30303
is being coordinated with the statewide Bicycle and              Phone: 404-463-3000 • Fax: 404-463-3056
Pedestrian Plan. The final report will incorporate in its        E-mail: gfranklin@grta.org
recommendations the results of analysis of relevant                                  ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○



problems identified in the Congestion Management
System for specific bicycle/pedestrian corridors includ-         Name: 2025 Regional Transportation Plan (2002
ing heavy pedestrian volumes, too many driveways,                Update)
poor signal timing coordination, poor intersection               Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission
geometrics, and railroad crossings.                              Description: The last update of the RTP.
(Estimated) Completion Dates: See above description;             Completion Date: October 2002
draft completed in January 2002.                                 Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors:
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: It is               For More Information: http://atlantaregional.com/
unclear how much this document will differ from City             transportationair/rtptipdownload.html
of Atlanta bicycle/pedestrian plans as it applies to the
immediate Atlanta area. Because it is relying primarily          DOCUMENTS SPECIFIC TO THE “BELTLINE”
on the Statewide Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, it is              OR INDIVIDUAL “BELTLINE” CORRIDORS
likely to keep the focus on sidewalks and on-road
bicycle accommodations as opposed to multi-use                   Name: BeltLine Atlanta: Design of Infrastructure as a
trails.                                                          Reflection of Public Policy
For More Information: www.grta.org/rtap/pdf_files/               Lead Org(s): Ryan Gravel, Master’s Thesis Project for
Ch_1_3.pdf (page 7)                                              Georgia Institute of Technology City and Regional
                                                                 Planning Department
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


                                                                 Description: This Master’s Thesis project laid out the
Name: Atlanta Regional Transit Action Plan                       idea of a light-rail/greenway corridor circling Atlanta
Lead Org(s): Georgia Regional Transportation                     and explained what the implications of such an invest-
Authority                                                        ment could be for the redevelopment of adjacent
Description: The purpose of this plan is to develop a            parcels and neighborhoods. The paper does not focus
regional comprehensive transit plan                              specifically on the logistics of obtaining the right-of-
that will establish priorities for transportation invest-        way and completing a continuous circle, but does
ments in the region and serve as a blueprint for imple-          demonstrate the opportunities it would present for
menting transit services. The study area encompasses             station sites and neighborhood redevelopment. When
the 13-county nonattainment area including Fulton,               the BeltLine happens, the City will already have in this
Cobb, Cherokee, Douglas, Gwinnett, Dekalb, Forsyth,              paper the framework for a comprehensive transit-
Henry, Rockdale, Fayette, Clayton, Coweta, and                   oriented development plan for the land surrounding
Paulding counties. The RTAP forms the majority of the            the corridor. The document was instrumental in de-
transit portion of Mobility 2030                                 scribing the big picture of what such an infrastructure
(Estimated) Completion Dates: Draft released June                investment could mean for the City of Atlanta, and
2003; final will be included as part of the 2030 RTP             getting others to subscribe to that vision.
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: In                  Completion Date: 1999
addition to proposing various mass transit initiatives           For More Information: www.loftsolutions.com/
on intersecting corridors, the draft plan identifies the         atlanta/beltline.pdf
study corridors making up the “beltline” and desig-              Atlanta City Council President Cathy Woolard
nates them as candidates for “Other Fixed Guideway”              55 Trinity Avenue SW Suite 2900
transit, thus leaving it yet to be determined the mode           Atlanta, GA 30303-3584
and exact alignment for any transit investment. The              Phone: 404-330-6035 • Fax: 404-658-7551
draft plan promotes heavily Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)              cwoolard@atlantaga.gov
systems.



                                                            58
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○                                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




Name: BeltLine/C-Loop Transit Feasibility Study                  Name: Using GIS’s for EIS’s: Atlanta’s Proposed Cul-
Lead Org(s): Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit                  tural Ring
Authority (URS Corporation)                                      Lead Org(s): Chip Burger and Kathryn Frank, Class
Description: The BeltLine concept originated from the            Project for Georgia Institute of Technology City and
thesis developed by Ryan Gravel, and then gained                 Regional Planning Department
support from Atlanta City Council President, Cathy               Description: This class project for an Environmental
Woolard, who requested support from the MARTA                    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) course demon-
Board to pay for the study. The C-Loop concept origi-            strates the use of GIS in the preparation of a mock
nated from the efforts of Representatives McKinney               Environmental Impact Statement for the proposed
and Lewis. These were combined into one study for a              “Cultural Ring” transportation project. The “Cultural
total cost of $2.5M. This study most closely parallels           Ring” refers to an initiative that was proposed during
our work in this report, but is focused primarily on the         preparations for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games
feasibility of light rail or some other form of transit          that would use portions of Study Corridors 1, 2, and 3
within the corridors as opposed to focusing on the               as a transit loop and focus of redevelopment, essentially
feasibility of a multi-use trail. The C-Loop incorporates        comprising the southern semicircle of the complete
Study Corridor 3 and part of Study Corridor 4.                   BeltLine. Although the project was a methodological
(Estimated) Completion Dates: The project timeline is            exercise rather than a comprehensive look at the project
as follows:                                                      itself, it provides a useful framework for a complete
• Data Collection and Analysis — late August 2003                environmental impact analysis for actions taken in-
• Define Study Alternatives — February 2004                      volving the relevant Study Corridors. It is perhaps
• Evaluate Alternatives — May 2004                               most valuable for our purposes in its presentation of
• Plan Implementation — Oct 2004                                 several different overlays of data (demographic, geo-
For More Information: www.itsmarta.com/news-                     graphic, and environmental) in relation to the corridors.
room/fallnews.htm                                                Completion Date: Fall 2000
MARTA — Atlanta Inner Core Transit Feasibility Study             For More Information: http://csat.gatech.edu/csat/
(BeltLine/C-Loop)                                                education/cp6567/group3p/home.htm
c/o PEQ                                                                              ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○



4405 Mall Boulevard, Suite 420
Union City, GA 30291                                             Name: District Two Rail Corridor Inventory and
Fax: 770-306-7754                                                Assessment
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                                                                 Lead Org(s): City of Atlanta Bureau of Planning
                                                                 Description: The purpose of this inventory and assess-
Name: Transportation Alternatives for a Sustainable              ment was to examine the large parcels of undeveloped
City (BeltLine Summary)                                          and/or underdeveloped industrial zoned properties
Lead Org(s): Atlanta City Council President Cathy                along the Norfolk Southern rail corridor within the City
Woolard, with Ryan Gravel, Architect                             of Atlanta Council District Two (the southern portion
Description: This piece for the Southface Journal of             of Study Corridor 3). Of any portions of the various
Sustainable Building (published by the Southface                 Study Corridors, this one has been perhaps the most
Energy Institute) summarizes the BeltLine redevelop-             thoroughly analyzed. This assessment contains exten-
ment concept and the planning process. It is perhaps             sive information about the land uses surrounding this
the best quick summary of the idea and includes a                corridor segment as well as detailed maps. The study
map with proposed stations and redevelopment sites.              recommendations focus on the adjacent parcels, but
Completion Date: Published Spring 2002                           the study does briefly mention the future of the
For More Information: www.southface.org/home/                    corridor itself. It recommends the following:
sfpubs/sfjv102/sfjv102transportation.html                        “Preserve the linear railroad right of way and expand
www.cathyatlanta.com/work/issues                                 its uses to maintain and reinforce its historic impor-
belt_line_transit.html                                           tance in the city. In addition to Amtrak and commuter
Atlanta City Council President Cathy Woolard                     rail service, create opportunities for a pedestrian/
55 Trinity Avenue SW Suite 2900                                  bicycle path, a linear park and greenway, incorporat-
Atlanta, GA 30303-3584                                           ing natural storm water management, local streets for
Phone: 404-330-6035 • Fax: 404-658-7551                          access, and recreation spaces.”
cwoolard@atlantaga.gov                                           Completion Date: February 2001




                                                            59
For More Information: http://apps.atlantaga.gov/                 For More Information: http://greenway.usigis.com/
citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/Plan_Study/                  CleanWaterAtlanta/GreenwayPlan/default.htm
Other_Plans/dist2-rail_corridor_2001.pdf                         Project Hotline: (404) 529-9211
City of Atlanta Department of Planning and Commu-                Susan Rutherford
nity Development, Bureau of Planning                             Department of Watershed Management
55 Trinity Ave. Suite 3350                                       City of Atlanta
Atlanta, GA 30303                                                55 Trinity Avenue, SW, Suite 5400
Phone: 404-330-6145 • Fax: 404-658-7491                          Atlanta, GA 30335-0310
                                                                 Phone: 404-330-6081
ADDITIONAL COMPREHENSIVE DOCUMENTS                               Katherine Moore
RELATED TO GREENSPACE AND BICYCLE/                               USInfrastructure, Inc.
PEDESTRIAN PLANNING                                              3500 Piedmont Road, N.E., Suite 612
Name: City of Atlanta Greenway Acquisition Plan                  Atlanta, GA 30305
Lead Org(s): City of Atlanta (USInfrastructure, Inc.)            Phone: 770-640-6652
Description: The City of Atlanta Greenway Acquisition                                 ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




Project is a $25 million program to acquire and protect
properties adjacent to selected rivers and creeks within         Name: Open Space Acquisitions and Management
the Metro Atlanta area. The project was undertaken               Opportunities in the City of Atlanta and Adjacent
in connection with the settlement of an enforcement              Jurisdictions
action taken jointly by the United States Environmental          Lead Org(s): Research Atlanta, Inc. (Georgia State
Protection Agency (EPA) the Georgia Environmental                University, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies)
Protection Division (EPD), and Upper Chattahoochee               Description: This study essentially identifies the ob-
Riverkeeper Fund, Inc., the Chattachoochee                       stacles to acquiring and maintaining open and green
RiverKeeper Inc., and W. Robert Hancock, Jr., for                spaces in the metro Atlanta region, as well as present-
violations of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act            ing the opportunities for such undertakings. The
and the Georgia Water Quality Control Act. The                   authors advocate a second phase of study to begin to
Greenway Acquisition Plan is the document, along                 identify critical pieces of property in the region that
with the Consent Decree, that guides the City of                 should be protected from development.
Atlanta Greenway Acquisition Plan implementation.                Completion Date: May 2003
The Greenway Acquisition Plan was prepared in accor-             Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The
dance with the requirements of Section VIII of the               study discusses large parks, nature preserves, active
Consent Decree as entered with the U.S. District                 recreation areas, and multi-use trails, citing a need for
Court on September 24, 1998.                                     all four types in the region. Although it does not
During the time period of January 1999 to March                  identify specific parcels or areas as acquisition targets,
2001, the City, with assistance from a 10-member                 the study presents a fairly comprehensive and useful
citizens’ advisory committee (SAC) and the public,               overview of open space preservation efforts underway
developed a Greenway Acquisition Plan to guide the               in the region as well as strategies for carrying forward
land acquisition and management efforts along                    these efforts. It could serve as a valuable “toolbox”
selected stream segments of “Designated Streams.”                document for efforts to acquire the Study Corridors
Completion Date: March 2001 (approved by EPA)                    and surrounding properties.
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: Many                For More Information: www.researchatlanta.org/
of the properties targeted for acquisition, currently in         FullReports/03_OpenSpace.pdf
negotiations, or already acquired through this project
directly interact with the Study Corridors. Although it
is unclear what legal hurdles might stand in the way
of putting multi-use trails within these properties, they
provide many opportunities for connectors as well as
ways to avoid Challenge Areas. This is especially true
for Challenge Area C, for which one proposed alterna-
tive in our report would make use of the corridor
formed by a tributary of Peachtree Creek.




                                                            60
                   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


                                                               the design and construction stages.
Name: DeKalb County Trail Master Plan                          Completion Dates: Approved August 1997, updated
Lead Org(s): PATH Foundation                                   July 1998
Description: This plan includes routes for 124 miles of        Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: Two of
pathways traversing DeKalb County. Plan maps incor-            the 14 identified routes (35 and 45) enter the down-
porate existing greenways and connecting on-road               town Atlanta area and would connect to one or more
pathways as well as proposed improvements and                  Study Corridors
additions.                                                     For More Information: www.dot.state.ga.us/dot/plan-
Completion Date: 1999                                          prog/planning/projects/bicycle/index.shtml
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The               Amy Goodwin
plan includes the existing Stone Mountain/Atlanta              State Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordinator
Greenway Trail and On-Street Bike Routes along and             2 Capitol Square
near Freedom Parkway in the vicinity of the MLK and            Atlanta, GA 30334
Carter Centers, which would intersect with a green-            Phone: 404-657-6692
way constructed on Study Corridor 3, as well as on-            Amy.Goodwin@dot.state.ga.us
street portions of the Trolley Line Greenway trail
south of that area along Wylie Street that traverse            ADDITIONAL COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING
Challenge Area B. The extensive network of pathways            DOCUMENTS NOT SPECIFICALLY RELATED
in DeKalb County outlined by this plan would serve as          TO THE ATLANTA CDP OR THE MOBILITY
efficient feeders to a BeltLine route.                         2030 RTP
For More Information: www.pathfoundation.org/
trails/atldek.cfm                                              Name: Comprehensive Transportation Plan
PATH Foundation                                                Lead Org(s): Fulton County
PO Box 14327                                                   Description: Developed in conjunction with County
Atlanta, GA 30324                                              land use plans, development policies and transporta-
Phone: 404-875-PATH (7284) • Fax: 404-875-3242                 tion studies, the CTP is part of an overall effort to
E-mail: info@pathfoundation.org                                develop a comprehensive and planned approach to
                                                               transportation issues and investments in the County
                                                               and to ensure that the appropriate County infrastruc-
                   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




Name: Georgia Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan: Statewide           ture is developed to meet future needs. The plan was
Route Network                                                  designed to provide the foundation for an ongoing
Lead Org(s): Georgia Department of Transportation              comprehensive planning process with yearly updates
Description: The plan focuses on the goal of develop-          in order to provide current and accurate data for
ing a statewide primary route network while address-           County staff, regional and state agencies and the
ing the additional goal of promoting non-motorized             citizens of Fulton County.
transportation as a means of congestion mitigation,            Completion Dates: The Comprehensive Transporta-
environmental improvement, and economic develop-               tion Plan (CTP) was initiated in April 1999 and
ment. The network contains 14 routes totaling 2,943            adopted by the Fulton County Board of Commission-
miles. A statewide advisory committee consisting of            ers on January 3, 2001.
staff from GDOT Districts, the Federal Highway                 Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The
Administration, Metropolitan Planning Organizations,           CTP is produced in partnership with the ARC, GRTA,
Regional Development Centers, the Association of               GDOT, and MARTA, and contains little related to the
County Commissioners of Georgia, the Georgia                   Study Corridors not already described in documents
Municipal Association, local planning departments,             produced by those agencies. The County has also been
bicycle clubs, and other state agencies evaluated each         involved in several project-specific studies and plans as
proposed corridor and defined routes. At the present           part of its CTP process, including the Regional Transit
time, GDOT does not anticipate dedicating funds                Action Plan.
exclusively for physical improvements such as repaving         For More Information: www.co.fulton.ga.us/
or widening outside travel lanes specifically to accom-        Fulton_County/publicwksfiles/
modate bicyclists nor improving sidewalks and cross-           Transportation_Planning_Web_Info_Page.pdf
walks for pedestrians. Rather, GDOT will implement             Fulton County Department of Public Works
internal procedures so that designers incorporate              141 Pryor Street, S.W. Suite 6001
bicycle and pedestrian friendly elements into pro-             Atlanta, Georgia 30303
grammed improvement projects as they move through              Phone: 404-730-4000



                                                          61
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                                                                For More Information: www.atlreg.com/mobilityair/
Name: Regional Development Plan                                 modeling/cms.html
Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission                        Atlanta Regional Commission
Description: The RDP forms the foundation for exam-             40 Courtland Street
ining future water supply and water quality issues,             Atlanta, GA 30303
provides insight into population growth and the                 Phone: 404-463-3272 • Fax: 404-463-3254
implications for delivery of human services programs,           E-mail: transportation@atlantaregional.com
and outlines the future regional requirements for job                              ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




skills training and economic development programs.
The 1999 RDP update includes 14 newly revised                   Name: A Common Sense Approach to Transportation
policies to better manage land consumption while                in the Atlanta Region
encouraging continued quality growth and develop-               Lead Org(s): Georgia Public Policy Foundation
ment. The policies represent a fundamentally new                Description: The GPPF presents an alternative view to
approach to public and private development and                  the Regional Transportation Plan, asserting that tran-
investment decisions that, if undertaken now, could             sit improvements and other spending that diverts
help secure a healthy, sustainable pattern of growth            funds from roadway infrastructure is inefficient and
for the Atlanta region.                                         inequitable.
Completion Dates: 1997, updated in May 1999                     Completion Date: 2000
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The                Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: Pro-
RDP sets out a series of “best practices” for land use,         vides insight into a likely source of opposition to
transportation, environmental and housing. As such, it          projects aimed at converting the Study Corridors for
is yet another study emphasizing sustainable develop-           trail and/or transit use.
ment practices including non-motorized transportation.          For More Information: www.grta.org/rtap/pdf_files/
For More Information: www.atlantaregional.com/                  Ch_1_3.pdf (page 18)
qualitygrowth/materials/rdp.html                                www.gppf.org
                                                                The Georgia Public Policy Foundation
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


                                                                6100 Lake Forrest Drive Suite 110
Name: Atlanta Region Congestion Management                      Atlanta, GA 30328
System (CMS) Report                                             Phone: 404/256-4050 • Fax: 404/256-9909
Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission                                           ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




Description: The Atlanta metropolitan area, as part of
the transportation planning process in accordance               Name: Atlanta Neighborhood Change Report 1980–
with Federal regulation, is required to develop and             2000
maintain a fully operation Congestion Management                Lead Org(s): Georgia Institute of Technology City and
System (CMS). The vision of the Atlanta regional                Regional Planning Department
CMS is based on an on-going process that provides a             Description: A demographic report that sheds light on
forum for the identification of congested locations, as         the dynamism of Atlanta neighborhoods, providing
well as the problems and causes that make these                 information about the City of Atlanta’s 24 Neighbor-
locations congested. The process also identifies appro-         hood Planning Units and 139 neighborhoods.
priate congestion mitigation strategies that focus on           Completion Date: 2002
improving transportation system efficiency, and pro-            Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The
viding modal choice alternatives to single-occupant             level of detail provided in this report is tremendously
vehicles.                                                       useful in reaching an understanding of the neighbor-
(Estimated) Completion Dates: Updated biennially;               hoods bisected and connected by the Study Corridors.
latest update 2002                                              For More Information: www.arch.gatech.edu/~dapa/
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This               reports/atlneighchg/index.html#HOME
report lends even more support to the idea of creating          City and Regional Planning Program
transportation alternatives to alleviate traffic conges-        College of Architecture
tion in the Atlanta area, and as such can be a valuable         Georgia Institute of Technology
advocacy tool.                                                  245 4th St., Room. 204
                                                                Atlanta, GA 30332-0155
                                                                Phone: 404-894-2350 • Fax: 404-894-1628
                                                                crp@coa.gatech.edu




                                                           62
ADDITIONAL RAIL-SPECIFIC PLANNING                                Completion Dates: 1997, update presented March
DOCUMENTS FOR THE ATLANTA AREA                                   2003
(GENERAL OR SPECIFIC CORRIDORS)                                  Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The
                                                                 ultimate decisions regarding the prioritization, fund-
The Georgia Rail Passenger Program is the Primary
                                                                 ing, and routing of commuter rail and freight rail on
Contact for all unless otherwise noted.
                                                                 the long-distance corridors coming in and out of
Name: Georgia Rail Passenger Plan (1995 Commuter                 Atlanta will dictate the circumstances of the rail corri-
Rail Plan, 1997 Intercity Rail Plan)                             dor segments within the city, including the Study
Lead Org(s): Georgia Department of Transportation                Corridors. It is quite possible that the Georgia DOT
Description: The Georgia Rail Passenger Plan combines            will not allow the Study Corridors to be converted to
the results of two studies, the 1995 Commuter Rail               alternative uses until these issues have been finally
Plan and the 1997 Intercity Rail Plan, on specific               and definitively resolved.
corridors. In 1993, the Georgia Department of Trans-             For More Information: www.garail.com/Pages/pdf/
portation (GDOT) initiated a detailed analysis of the            grpp2003overallfactsheet.pdf
potential for commuter rail in northern Georgia.                 www.garail.com/Pages/pdf/
Fifty counties around Atlanta were included in the               grpp2003Updaterpmcrev2.pdf
overall study area. GDOT established 12 corridors to             Please see the following Web page for an organiza-
be analyzed for commuter rail feasibility. The study             tional chart of the Georgia Rail Passenger Program
team was charged with a number of tasks including                and corresponding contact information:
developing a detailed understanding of the travel                www.garail.com/Pages/Org.html
behavior of the region’s residents; gathering current                                 ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




and future socio-economic projections; developing
analytical tools for assessing the impacts of commuter           Name: Concept Design Report for the Multi-Modal
rail; estimating the capital improvements and operat-            Passenger Terminal, Georgia Rail Passenger Program
ing costs; and recommending those lines that appear              Lead Org(s): Georgia Rail Consultants (Moreland
cost effective and feasible. Commuter rail was found             Altobelli Associates, Parsons Brinckerhoff, SYSTRA
to be feasible in six of the corridors. Staged implemen-         Consulting, Inc.); sponsored by GDOT, GRTA, GRPA
tation was recommended with three lines in the first             Description: A concept design for the proposed Multi-
phase (service to Athens, Senoia and Bremen) and                 Modal Passenger Terminal that would be located west
three lines in the second phase (service to Madison,             of the Five Points area of Downtown Atlanta. This
Gainesville and Canton).                                         terminal would serve as a central transit node includ-
In 1994, GDOT initiated an assessment of the potential           ing a bus terminal, Amtrak rail station, and pedestrian
for serving longer distance rail passenger trips. The            connections to the Five Points MARTA station. Next
Intercity Rail study focused on trips defined as those           steps include a schematic design leading to a final
greater than 60 miles long in Georgia and adjacent               design which will be used to determine ultimate
states. Recommendations included improving intercity             project feasibility.
rail corridors to allow passenger trains to operate at           Completion Date: February 2002
speeds of 125 m.p.h. or more; fare level of $0.22 per            Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: For our
mile; and two phases of implementation for seven                 Study Corridors, the implications of this report and
corridors. First-priority corridors were Atlanta-Macon           the larger question of the construction of a new multi-
via Griffin, Savannah-Jacksonville via Jessup, Macon-            modal facility downtown involve the potential for the
Savannah via either Vidalia or Eastman and Jessup,               rerouting of Amtrak trains to serve this new station as
and Macon-Albany via Americus. Second-priority                   opposed to the Peachtree Station north of downtown.
corridors were: Atlanta-Augusta via Madison, Atlanta-            This would most likely involving routing Amtrak trains
Columbus via Griffin, and Atlanta-Greenville via                 along Study Corridor 3, with profound implications on
Gainesville and Toccoa. The study also recommended               the feasibility of shared greenway/light rail use of that
that GDOT take steps to protect the rights-of-way that           corridor. There may also be cascading effects on the
would be used for intercity rail service especially from         routing of freight rail traffic in and around Atlanta,
the threat of abandonment, where land often reverts              which could have additional impacts on the Study
to the prior owners or their successors because it is no         Corridors.
longer used for railroads, or when the railroad sells off        For More Information: http://apps.atlantaga.gov/
the land piecemeal, which opens it up to residential or          citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/Transporta-
commercial development that blocks future intercity              tion/Docs/mmpt.pdf
service.



                                                            63
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○                                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




Name: Athens-Atlanta Transportation Corridor Major               Name: Georgia Rail Freight Plan
Investment Study/Georgia Rail Passenger Program                  Lead Org(s): Georgia Rail Consultants (Moreland
Preferred Alternative                                            Altobelli Associates, Parsons Brinckerhoff, SYSTRA
Lead Org(s): Georgia Rail Passenger Authority                    Consulting, Inc.); sponsored by GDOT, GRTA, GRPA
Description: The Georgia Rail Passenger Authority                Description: The State Rail Freight Plan Update fulfills
(GRPA) commissioned this Major Investment Study                  Federal Railroad Administration requirements that the
(MIS) to examine options for improving travel within             state establish, update, and revise a Rail Plan at peri-
the Athens-Atlanta corridor. Prior studies in various            odic intervals in order to receive Local Rail Freight
portions of the corridor have suggested the need for             Assistance funds. The Georgia Department of Trans-
widening existing highways, for increasing HOV lanes,            portation first published the State Rail Freight Plan in
and for enhancing/introducing transit services. The              1978 to address a series of rail line abandonments
Georgia Department of Transportation’s 1995 Com-                 experienced in the state since the 1960s. Subsequent
muter Rail Plan identifies the Athens to Atlanta rail            updates were published in 1980, 1985 and 1989.
line as one of the initial routes for implementation.            Completion Date: March 2001 (Draft)
Completion Dates: Study completed 1999, Preferred                Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This
Alternative adopted December 2001, Draft Environ-                plan is the best source of background information on
mental Assessment Completed May 2003.                            freight rail traffic, routing, and finances. Its appendix
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The                 includes information about abandoned railroad corri-
preferred alternative calls for commuter rail along the          dors in Georgia, including the portions of the Study
CSX corridor between Atlanta and Athens. This in-                Corridors which are abandoned.
cludes the portion of Study Corridor 4 through North             For More Information: www.garail.com/Pages/Re-
Decatur/Druid Hills.                                             ports/freightplanintro.htm
For More Information: www.garail.com/Pages/                                          ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○



Rprts.html
www.garail.com/Pages/athenseaguide.htm                           Name: Atlanta-Chattanooga MagLev Deployment
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                                                                 Study
                                                                 Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission
Name: Macon-Atlanta Transportation Corridor Major                Description: The U.S. Congress approved the study of
Investment Study/Georgia Rail Passenger Program                  multiple transportation corridors across the country
Preferred Alternative                                            for possible construction of a magnetic levitation
Lead Org(s): Georgia Department of Transportation                demonstration project. The Atlanta-Chattanooga
Description: The Environmental Assessment for the                corridor was one of seven selected to compete for
project addresses the potential environmental impacts            two-thirds federal funding for the project and the
that would result from the construction and operation            Atlanta Regional Commission was designated as the
of the Georgia Rail Passenger Program Macon to                   grantee for the study. The study completed for the
Atlanta commuter rail and express bus project. Acqui-            June 2000 competition described a transportation
sition of land outside of that operated by the Norfolk           corridor between Hartsfield Atlanta International
Southern Railroad Company will be limited to station             Airport to Lovell Field in Chattanooga, with a first
sites, property associated with restoring the north leg          stage between Hartsfield Atlanta and Town Center in
of the Edgewood wye in Macon, and the Griffin                    Cobb County. The project description detailed specific
layover track facility. Operations will primarily utilize        features of the service, included a draft environmental
the existing Norfolk Southern S-line Railroad.                   assessment, and program of public/private partnership
Completion Date: 2001                                            that would be the cornerstone of the effort required
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: Would               to move the project from study to operation. Although
intersect Study Corridor 2 at point of photo #28                 not selected in the competition, ARC received addi-
For More Information: www.garail.com/Pages/                      tional funding from the Federal Railroad Administra-
Rprts.html                                                       tion, matched by the Georgia Department of Trans-
www.garail.com/Pages/pdf/                                        portation, to continue the study and to position the
MaconFONSINov2001.pdf                                            Atlanta-Chattanooga corridor for some type of high-
                                                                 speed rail in the future. The new funding was used to
                                                                 study the northern segment of the corridor from
                                                                 Town Center to Chattanooga, focusing on feasible
                                                                 alignment and technology options.



                                                            64
                                                                                     ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


Completion Dates: 2000, continuation study com-
pleted 2002                                                      Name: Northwest Transit Corridor Refinement Study
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This is             Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission
not a short-term possibility, but depending on the               Description: The Northwest Transit Corridor Refine-
alignment used, could have an impact on Study Corri-             ment Study provided a transitional analysis of fixed
dors 2 and 4, which it would cross. The current pre-             guideway transit service in two areas, from Midtown
ferred alignment follows I-75. Next steps, which are             Atlanta to downtown Marietta and from I-75/I-285
dependent upon the TEA-21 reauthorization process                (at the Cumberland Galleria area) to Dunwoody (the
for funding, would include a full Environmental Impact           Perimeter Mall area).
Statement, and further study of the stage between                Completion Date: 1992
the airport and Town Center.                                     Mention of/Implications for BeltLine: A predecessor
For More Information: www.acmaglev.com/                          to some of the studies regarding individual corridors
overview.htm                                                     in the northwest part of the Atlanta area, including
Atlanta Regional Commission                                      corridors that intersect or otherwise interact with
40 Courtland Street                                              Study Corridor 4.
Atlanta, GA 30303                                                For More Information:
Phone: 404-463-3272 • Fax: 404-463-3254                          Atlanta Regional Commission
E-mail: transportation@atlantaregional.com                       40 Courtland Street
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                                                                 Atlanta, GA 30303
                                                                 Phone: 404-463-3272 • Fax: 404-463-3254
Name: South DeKalb-Lindbergh Corridor Major Invest-              E-mail: transportation@atlantaregional.com
ment Study (MIS)
Lead Org(s): Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit                  SELECTED NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT
Authority (MARTA)                                                PLANS FOR AREAS ADJACENT TO OR NEAR
Description: The overall study purpose was to assess             STUDY CORRIDORS
the feasibility of transit improvements within the
South DeKalb-Lindbergh corridor that would accom-                Name: Plan for Glenwood Park
modate current and future mobility needs, as well as             Lead Org(s): Green Street Properties
continued growth and economic development. The                   Description: A redevelopment plan for the 28-acre
MIS concluded that there was no strong, broad-based              Vulcan Concrete site, just south of I-20 and just west of
support for any of the expansion alternatives from the           Moreland Avenue. The plan calls for a walkable,
businesses, elected officials or the affected communi-           mixed-use development.
ties. The only strong support for the rail concepts was          (Estimated) Completion Dates: The plan was com-
from the institutions and stakeholders along Clifton             pleted in March 2002. The groundbreaking took place
Road and from business groups in the South DeKalb                on January 27, 2003. The first buildings should begin
area — and their endorsement was strongly opposed                construction at the end of February 2004. The first
by residents of the communities through which the                phase of single family houses and townhouses are
rail alignment would pass. While many residents of               expected to be ready in Summer 2004. The first
those areas support the need for more transit oppor-             phase of condos and retail are expected to be ready in
tunities, they do not want their communities to be               the 4th quarter of 2004.
divided by a new rail line. Based in part on this report,        Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This
rather than proceed with planning a rail extension to            property lies within Challenge Area 2, immediately to
South DeKalb, MARTA’s Board of Directors has in-                 the east of the former alignment of the rail corridor
structed MARTA staff to determine the most appropri-             that was converted into a road during the widening of
ate transit service extension and improvements to this           Interstate 20.
area. MARTA recently began a new study of the I-20               For More Information: http://glenwoodpark.com/
East Corridor.                                                   greenstreet/
Completion Date: 2000                                            Green Street Properties, LLC
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This                1175 Peachtree Street, N.E., Suite 400
project would have potentially involved interaction              Atlanta, GA 30361
with and possible use of portions of Study Corridor 4            Phone: 404-879-2230 • Fax: 404-879-2234
within DeKalb County
For More Information: www.grta.org/rtap/pdf_files/
Ch_1_3.pdf (page 20)



                                                            65
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○                                   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




Name: Lindbergh City Center                                     Name: Livable Centers Initiative (funds individual
Lead Org(s): Carter and Associates (development);               community planning studies)
MARTA, Cooper Carry (design)                                    Lead Org(s): Atlanta Regional Commission
Description: Billed as “the nation’s first true Transit-        Description: To help foster greater livability in these
Oriented Development,” the Lindbergh City Center is             activity and employment centers in our region, the
springing up around the Lindbergh MARTA Station.                Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) developed the
(Estimated) Completion Dates: Phase 1 of the project            Livable Centers Initiative (LCI). LCI provides seed
was completed in August 2002; additional buildings              money to communities that are working to enhance
are currently under construction.                               livability and mobility for their residents. In May of
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: This               1999, ARC adopted polices in the 25-year Regional
development is situated just north of Study Corridor            Transportation Plan that provide $1 million per year
4, along Piedmont Avenue. It is intended to be a                for five years for LCI planning grants to regional com-
pedestrian-oriented environment with good auto-free             munities. To back this these planning studies up, ARC
connections to its surroundings, so it could be a good          also has $350 million available for implementation for
connection for a multi-use trail along Study Corridor           the more innovative ideas generated from these plans.
4.                                                              (Estimated) Completion Dates: 1999 (on-going for
For More Information: www.carterusa.net/                        five years)
atlantaproperties/lindbergh_brochure.pdf                        Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The
Carter and Associates                                           eight communities within the Atlanta region that
1275 Peachtree Street, N.E.                                     received seed money from the LCI and have been
Atlanta, GA 30309                                               developing livability plans are: Bolton/Moores Mill,
Phone: 404-888-3088 • Fax: 404-888-3217                         Buckhead, Midtown, JSA-McGill, City Center, H.E.
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                                                                Holmes, West End, and Greenbriar. Of these, the
                                                                Bolton/Moores Mill LCI area includes Study Corridor
Name: Atlantic Station/17th Street Bridge                       5 and portions of Study Corridor 3, and the West End
Lead Org(s): Atlantic Steel Redevelopment                       LCI area abuts Study Corridor 2. These plans include
Description: Billed as “the national model for smart            streetscape improvements and bicycle/pedestrian
growth and sustainable development,” the Atlantic               accommodations.
Station plan calls for a mixed use development just             For More Information: http://apps.atlantaga.gov/
southwest of the I-75/I-85 split north of downtown              citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/Plan_Study/
Atlanta.                                                        LCI/livable_centers_initiative.htm
(Estimated) Completion Dates: Ground was broken in              City of Atlanta Department of Planning and Commu-
June of 2003.                                                   nity Development, Bureau of Planning
Mention of/Implications for Study Corridors: The site           55 Trinity Ave Suite 3350
does not interact directly with any of the study corri-         Atlanta, GA 30303
dors, but will provide some impetus for development             Phone: 404-330-6145 • Fax: 404-658-7491
of light rail (which is called for in the development
plan) along the adjacent Norfolk Southern trunk line,
which could have implications for connecting corridors
and the rerouting of Amtrak trains.
For More Information: www.atlanticstation.com
Atlantic Station, L.L.C.
Two Midtown Plaza
1349 West Peachtree St., NE, Suite 1770
Atlanta, GA 30309
Phone (404) 876-2616 • Fax (404) 876-8628
info@atlanticstation.com




                                                           66
APPENDIX C: GEORGIA LEGAL REVIEW

This memo addresses the law in Georgia affecting the ownership of rail trails and the liability of trail mangers.

                       I. STATE LAW AFFECTING OWNERSHIP OF RAIL CORRIDORS

A. General Background

Where a railroad corridor cannot be railbanked under federal law (16 U.S.C. § 1247(d)), the ability to convert a
railroad corridor into a trail depends on the interpretation of the applicable deeds under state law, and the public
policy (either statutory or common law) of the state concerning preservation of rail corridors. In general, in deter-
mining whether a rail corridor can be converted to trail use under state law, there are three basic questions that
must be addressed: First, a determination must be made about the nature of the railroad’s ownership interest (fee
versus easement). If easement, the next question is whether the easement has been abandoned. Third, whether
the terms of the easement are sufficiently broad to encompass trail use.

If the railroad acquired title in fee simple, then the railroad has the right to transfer the corridor for any purpose,
including trail use. Trail interests are also protected if the corridor was acquired by the railroad through federal
land grants. The railroad’s fee interest may also be construed as a defeasible fee interest (i.e., a fee estate subject
to a retained future interest by the grantor), that provides for a right of reentry or reverter if the corridor ceases
to be used for railroad purposes. In the case of a defeasible fee, the question is whether such a right of re-entry
has been extinguished by a marketable title law, designed to permit defeasible fees to ripen into full fee simple
title upon the passage of time and/or the failure of the holder of the reversionary interest to record that interest.

If the railroad acquired only an easement interest, the ability to convert the easement to a trail depends on
whether the railroad has abandoned the easement, and whether the language of the easement, interpreted in
light of the applicable public policy of state, is broad enough to encompass trail use.

As will be discussed below, there is case law in Georgia that suggests that if railbanking is not prohibited by
statute, it may be found to be a permissible use of an estate limited to railroad purposes, such as a railroad ease-
ment, if railbanking is found to be necessary or convenient to the operation of a railroad. The Georgia courts
have not specifically ruled on the question of whether the interim use of railroad corridors as trails is within the
scope of easements granted for railroad purposes, and there are no statutes which specifically prohibit
railbanking.

B. Fee v. Easement.

“In determining whether the interest conveyed is an easement or fee, the crucial test is the intention of the par-
ties.” Swanberg v. City of Tybee Island, 518 S.E.2d 114,116 (Ga. 1999).

“And in ascertaining the intention of the parties, . . . the ‘recitals in the deed, the contract, the subject-matter,
the object, purpose, and the nature of restrictions or limitations, and the attendant facts and circumstances of
the parties at the time of making the deed’” will be considered. Swanberg, 518 S.E.2d at 116 (quoting Rogers v.
Pitchford, 181 Ga. 845, 847, 184 S.E. 623 (1936)).

As will be discussed below, the use of the words “in fee simple” or “for railroad purposes” in a conveyance does
not conclusively determine the type of estate in land created. Jackson v. Rogers, 54 S.E.2d 132, 136-37 (Ga.
1949). Although the language used in a habendum clause is significant and may help a court determine the
intent of the parties, the habendum clause will not be viewed in isolation.1

The court will examine the language used in the conveyance as a whole. For example, in Swanberg, the Georgia



1
  The habendum clause is “[t]he clause usually following the granting part of the premises of a deed, which de-
fines the extent of ownership in the thing granted to be held and enjoyed by the grantee.” BLACK’S LAW DIC-
TIONARY (Deluxe 3rd ed. 1944).



                                                          67
Supreme Court affirmed a lower court decision that a deed created a fee simple estate rather than an easement
when it used the following words “To have and to hold the said right-of-way . . . in fee simple,” in its habendum
clause. Swanberg, 518 S.E.2d at 115. The absence of a clause stating that the property would revert to the
grantor upon failure to use the right of way was indicative of the intent to create a fee simple absolute estate
rather than a conditional fee. Swanberg, 518 S.E.2d at 116. By the same token, the presence of a right of rever-
sion in the grantor may indicate that an easement was created even though the “fee simple” words are used in the
instrument. Id. However, if the reverter clause is found to be null and void, fee simple title may vest in the
grantee. Id. See also State Highway Dept. v. C.F. Williams Lumbar Co., 148 S.E.2d 426,428 (Ga. 1966) (finding a
reversion clause in a deed to be “too indefinite” and ambiguous to be enforceable).

In Gaston v. Gainesville & Dahlonega Electric Railway Co., 48 S.E. 188,189 (Ga. 1904), and Jackson v. Rogers, 54
S.E.2d 132, (Ga. 1949), the court reached different conclusions as to the estate created even though the haben-
dum clauses contain almost identical language, based on other language and factors in the conveyance. In both
cases, the habendum clause used the following language: “To have and to hold said tract or parcel of land [unto
said railroad company], for railroad purposes, forever in fee simple.” However in Gaston, the court found that an
easement had been created, whereas in Jackson, the court found that a fee simple estate had been created.

Specifically, while the court in Jackson v. Rogers, supra agreed that the words “for railroad purposes” in the
habendum clause should be given some weight in determining the type of estate created, the court found that
the words “for railroad purposes” by themselves did not conclusively signify that an easement rather than a fee
estate had been created. Jackson, 54 S.E.2d at 137. Likewise the use of the words “forever in fee simple” did not
automatically indicate that a fee simple estate had been created. Id at 136. In holding that a fee interest was
conveyed, the court found that the conveyance did not use the words from which an intent to create an ease-
ment could be inferred, such as “right of way” or “easement.” Id. The court specifically pointed out several refer-
ences to the conveyance of “land” in the deed. Id.

By contrast, in Gaston v. Gainesville & Dahlonega Electric Railway Co., supra, the court found that the deed
conveyed an easement limited to “railroad purposes,” even though the words “fee simple” were used in the ha-
bendum clause. Factors considered by the court in reaching its decision include the reservation of mineral and
timber rights by the grantor, the absence of any indication to terminate the easement upon “the non-perfor-
mance of any condition subsequent,” and the absence of a reverter clause. While the factors listed above helped
the court determine that an easement had been created in Gaston, in other cases these factors may be indicative
of an intent to create another type of estate. For example, the absence of a reverter clause may lead a court to
conclude that a fee simple absolute was created.

Likewise in Askew v. Spence, 79 S.E.2d 531 (Ga. 1954), the court held that an easement rather than a fee estate
had been created where “the grantee [was] given the right to cut timber, move stones, earth, timber, gravel, etc.,
and make any other disposition of said land right and proper for railroad purposes.” Askew, 79 S.E.2d at 532.
The court reasoned that if a fee estate had been created, the language granting the grantee the right to take the
items listed above would not have been necessary. Id. The court also considered several other factors including,
the consideration paid ($1), the width of the conveyance (between 100 and 200 feet), the reservation by the
grantor to cultivate the land that did not interfere with the railroad company’s use, a provision for reversion to
the grantor if the grantee did not begin work on the railroad within a certain time frame, the lack of a habendum
clause, and a clause in the conveyance that said the property was to be used for railroad purposes. Id.

Thus Jackson may be distinguished from Gaston and Askew on the basis that the instrument in Gaston conveyed
a right to use the land for railroad purposes, while the instrument in Jackson was found to be a conveyance of
the land itself. Another distinguishing feature of the Jackson conveyance was the absence of any reservation of
rights, such as mineral, timber, or land cultivation by the grantor. Jackson, 54 S.E.2d at 132 .

As the foregoing demonstrates, deed interpretation in Georgia can be quite complex. Determining whether a fee
estate or easement has been created will often rest on the particular facts and circumstances of each conveyance.
The courts may also place more emphasis on the presence or absence of certain words in different cases. The
Georgia Supreme Court reached different results in the Gaston and Jackson cases discussed above. In Jackson,
the court found the absence of the terms “easement” and “right of way” to be indicative of the grantor’s intent
to create a fee simple estate. However, the Gaston conveyance also lacked both those terms, yet the court




                                                        68
reached a different result. Examination of the entire deed and the particular factors in each case, may explain the
different results in cases where relatively similar language is used and why in certain cases the court found the
use of certain words to be indicative of an intent to create an easement, but not in others. It seems unlikely that
a court will find a fee simple absolute estate to have been created where a conveyance contains a valid reverter
clause; however, a court may find an easement to have been created even in the absence of a reverter clause.

C. Fee Simple Determinable/Limitation v. Fee Simple Subject to Condition Subsequent

In Georgia, the future interest associated with a fee simple subject to a limitation (fee simple determinable) is a
possibility of reverter. Franks v. Sparks, 121 S.E.2d 27, 30 (Ga. 1961). The future interest associated with a fee on
condition subsequent is a right of reentry. Franks v. Sparks, 121 S.E.2d at 30. While both are conditional estates,
the future interest in a condition subsequent rests in the grantor or his heirs and cannot be alienated, while the
future interest associate with a limitation is alienable and can be assigned to a stranger. Id. at 30-33. Additionally,
if a limitation is created, the land automatically reverts to the grantor without any further action on the part of
the grantor if a condition occurs or fails to occur, while a condition subsequent requires the grantor to take some
form of action, such as court action, before the grantor can take possession of the estate, even after the condi-
tion which defeats the present interest occurs. Georgia, Ashburn, Sylvester & Camilla Railway Co. v. Johnson, 174
S.E.2d 895, 897 (1970).

Determining whether a limitation or a condition subsequent has been created can be difficult. The intent of the
parties will determine the type of estate created. Although there are no exact words required to create either
estate, “[w]ords of time such a ‘so long as,’ ‘while,’ ‘until,’ ‘during,’ usually denote limitation . . . [ while] [w]ords
of qualification or condition such as ‘provided,’ ‘upon condition,’ are most often used to create conditions subse-
quent.” Franks v. Sparks, 121 S.E.3d at 31 (citing 26 C.J.S. 920-921, “Deeds, ” § 110).

The use of the term “assign” in a conveyance may be indicative of an intent to create a determinable fee (limita-
tion) since an “assign” can take advantage of a determinable fee (limitation), but is unable to take advantage of a
condition subsequent. Johnson, 174 S.E.2d at 897. In the absence of any “express words of defeasancy, forfeiture,
or reversion,” words that impose conditions in a conveyance will be interpreted as covenants rather than condi-
tional fee estates. Fulford v. Fulford, 165 S.E.2d 848, 851 (Ga. 1969). If a covenant is created, then the remedy
for a breach of the covenant will be an action for damages rather than forfeiture of the estate. Id.

Georgia does not have a marketable title act governing future interests in defeasible fee estates. Therefore a
limitation or condition associated with a fee simple estate may trigger a reversion of the corridor upon the occur-
rence of the limitation or condition.

D. Abandonment

If a fee simple absolute estate is created, then the adjacent landowners have no property interest in the estate
even if abandonment occurs. Swanberg, 518 S.E.2d at 117. If a conveyance creates a determinable fee or an
easement, then the estate holder no longer has an interest to convey once it abandons the property or fails to
satisfy the conditions in the conveyance. See Giddens v. Barrentine, 448 S.E.2d 441,443 (Ga. 1994) (holding that
where the underlying instrument created either an easement or a fee simple determinable, the railroad company
no longer had a property interest to transfer once it abandoned its railroad right of way and the subsequent
conveyance attempt of the property at issue by the railroad company after abandonment occurred was void).

Under statutory law in Georgia, “An easement may be lost by abandonment or forfeited by nonuse if the abandon-
ment or nonuse continues for a term sufficient to raise the presumption of release or abandonment.” O.C.G.A §
44-9-6 (2002). “Abandonment is largely a question of intent [and it can be inferred] from the acts of the parties,
interpreted in the light of all the circumstances.” Gaston v. Gainesville & Daholonega Electric Railway Company,
48 S.E. at 189. “Abandonment is a mixed question of law and fact.” Gaston, 48 S.E. at 189. “Where an easement
has been acquired by grant, mere nonuser, without further evidence of an intent to abandon it, will not constitute
an abandonment.” Tietjen v. Meldrim, 151 S.E. 349,357 (Ga. 1930). See also Gaston, 48 S.E. at 189.

In cases where an easement is acquired from use (i.e. prescription) instead of by grant or deed, mere non-user
may operate to terminate the easement in certain situations. Id. In these cases, the period of nonuse necessary to
establish abandonment must not be less than the period necessary to perfect the easement by prescription. Id;




                                                           69
see also Executrix of the Estate of Seamans v. True, 279 S.E.2d 447, 448 (Ga. 1981) (noting that although mere
nonuser of an easement does not constitute abandonment, nonuser for a twenty five year period may give rise to
a rebuttable presumption of extinguishment even in the absence of an intent to abandon the easement). Transfer
for railroad purposes will not result in abandonment. Gaston, supra, at 189. However, the parties can specify in
the deed what factors will constitute abandonment. See Atlantic Coast Line Railroad v. Sweat, 171 S.E. 123 (Ga.
1933).

E. Georgia Law Relating to the Conversion of Rail Corridors for Non Railroad Purposes

Georgia has no case law directly addressing whether trail use of railroad corridors is a permissible use of railroad
easements or conditional estates limited to railroad purposes. However, Georgia case law suggests that trail use
would be permissible in the absence of a statute specifically prohibiting railbanking, or if such use is found to be
convenient or necessary to the operation of a railroad. See Tompkins v. Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, 96
S.E.2d 603, 605 (Ga. 1957) (upholding a lower court order denying an injunction to a plaintiff who was contest-
ing the right of a railroad company to erect signs, operate sidetracks and allow trucks to deliver and receive
freight since no such use was contained in the railroad’s grant or charter, or by statute).

Although Georgia does not have a statue that specifically addresses the use of railroad corridors as trails, the
Georgia Scenic Trails Act (the Act) GA CODE ANN. § 12-3-111 et seq. promotes the creation of a Georgia Scenic
Trail System. The Act empowers the Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Transportation to
establish a state trail system “on lands acquired through purchase, easement, lease or donation.” Id. §§ 12-3-113,
12-3-115 (a). The Act is not meant to prevent private organizations from constructing or managing their own
bicycle trails in the state. Id. § 12-3-115(b).

                         II. LIABILITY OF TRAIL MANAGERS UNDER GEORGIA LAW

Under the common law of most states, the liability of owners and occupiers of land is defined by the extent to
which one person owes a “duty of care” to the person who sustained an injury. Generally, in Georgia, the “duty
of care” owed to persons who enter their property depends on whether the person who sustained the injury is
considered a “trespasser,” a “licensee,” or an “invitee.” See Lipham v. Federated Dep’t Stores, Inc., 440 S.E.2d 193
(Ga. 1994).

Trail managers, as a particular class a landowners, receive special protection from liability by state-enacted Recre-
ational Use Statutes (RUS). Recreational Use Statutes, which are in effect in some form in all 50 states, alter
common law tort principles regarding landowner liability to invitees, licensees, and trespassers by narrowing or
obviating the owner’s duty of care toward recreational users. Instead, RUS’s limit the liability of certain landown-
ers who allow the public free use of their land for recreational purposes.

Georgia’s equivalent of a RUS is its Recreational Property Act (RPA), GA. CODE. ANN. § 51-3-20 et seq., which
is applicable to both private and public landowners. See Ekarika v. City of East Point, 420 S.E.2d 391, 392 (Ga.
App. 1992) (noting that “[t]he Recreational Property Act is a general immunity statute, limiting liability of both
public and private landowners”); see also City of Tybee Island v. Godinho, 511 S.E.2d 517, 519 (Ga. 1999) (apply-
ing the RPA to a suit against a municipality for a sidewalk used for recreational purposes, rather than another
statute which governed liability against municipalities for defects in sidewalks because the sidewalk was used for
recreational purposes).

Under the RPA, liability is limited for landowners who make their property available to the public for recreational
use. O.C.G.A. § 51-3-20. Per § 51-3-22 “an owner of land owes no duty of care to keep the premises safe for
entry or use by others for recreational purposes or to give any warning of a dangerous condition, use, structure,
or activity on the premises to persons entering for recreational purposes.” Section 51-3-21(4) provides a nonexclu-
sive list of activities which are considered recreational purposes. The activities include swimming, hiking, and
winter sports. O.C.G.A. § 51-3-21 (4). Liability is not limited for “willful or malicious failure to guard or warn
against a dangerous condition, use, structure, or activity.” Id. at § 51-3-25 (1). And except in cases where the
land is leased to the state or subdivision, limited liability does not apply if the owner charges or receives a fee from
people who use the land for recreational purposes. Id. at § 51-3-25 (2). A “charge” is defined as the admission
price or fee asked in return for invitations or permission to enter or go upon the land.” Id. at § 51-3-21 (1). The
receipt of consideration on the part of the owner will not be considered a charge for the purposes of the Code. Id.


                                                          70
at § 51-3-25 (2).

For the RPA to apply, “one must permit the free use of his facilities or land by the public generally or by a particu-
lar class of the public, such as Little Leaguers, Boy Scouts, etc., and permitting free use by classes of individuals is
not sufficient.” Herring v. Hauk, 165 S.E.2d 198, 199 (Ga. App. 1968) (italics in original). The Georgia Supreme
Court found the RPA inapplicable in a case where a boy drowned where a sign stating “‘Danger. For your own
safety please keep out. Rough waters.’” had been posted. Georgia Power Company v. McGruder, 194 S.E.2d 440,
441(Ga. 1972).

Section 12-3-116(a) of the Georgia Scenic Trails Act also limits owner liability towards people who go onto the
landowner’s property for activities such as hiking, fishing, swimming and camping without paying a fee “or with
the payment of monetary consideration directly or indirectly on his behalf by an agency of the state or federal
government action” 12-3-116(a). The landowner does not have to give “assurance that the premises is safe for
such purpose.” Id. The landowner does not assume liability for injuries caused on the premises by the actions or
lack of actions of other people using the premises. Id. Section 12-3-116(b) notes that liability is not limited for
injuries “persons or property caused by the malicious or illegal acts of the owner or occupant.”




                                                          71
APPENDIX D: GEORGIA TRAIL AND GREENWAY FUNDING



     FEDERAL FUNDING SOURCES:
                                                                                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




                                                                NATIONAL RECREATIONAL TRAILS FUNDING
THE TRANSPORTATION EQUITY ACT FOR THE 21ST
                                                                PROGRAM
CENTURY (TEA-21)
                                                                The Recreational Trails Program provides funds for
TEA-21 is federal transportation legislation that pro-
                                                                both motorized and non-motorized trail development.
vides for funding to enhance communities including
                                                                Through this program, federal gasoline taxes paid on
improvement of non-motorized transport, trails and
                                                                non-highway, recreation fuel for off-road and camping
greenways. While TEA-21 is federal legislation, the
                                                                vehicles is transferred from the highway trust fund.
Georgia Department of Transportation makes funding
                                                                This program is part of TEA-21 and has annual fund-
decisions for Arkansas-based projects. The total TE
                                                                ing of $30 million for FY 1998, $40 million for FY
funds made available (apportioned) over the life of
                                                                1999 and $50 million per year for each remaining
ISTEA and TEA-21, as of September 2003, is
                                                                year of the bill. States can grant these funds to private
$235,556,630 or $19,713,052.5 on average per year.
                                                                individuals, organizations, city and county govern-
Over that same period, $199,457,905 has been
                                                                ments and other government entities. Grant recipients
obligated to date. The Program, to be reauthorized in
                                                                are generally required to provide 20 percent of the
2004, will provide for the next six years. This program
                                                                total project cost. In Georgia, the Department of
is a prime source of greenway funding for the follow-
                                                                Natural Resources’ Parks, Recreation and Historic Sites
ing categories: building facilities for bicycles and
                                                                Division administers the Recreational Trails Program.
pedestrians; providing safety and educational activities
                                                                Permissible uses of Recreational Trails Program funds
for pedestrians and bicyclists; converting abandoned
                                                                include:
railroad corridors into bicycle and pedestrian paths;
                                                                  • State administrative costs
preserving historic sites; acquiring scenic or historic
                                                                  • Environmental and safety education programs
sites; sponsoring scenic or historic highway programs;
                                                                  • Development of urban trail linkages
beautifying roadsides; rehabilitating historic buildings
                                                                  • Maintenance of existing trails
or facilities to serve a transportation need; performing
                                                                  • Restoration of areas damaged by trail use
archeological research, such as excavations; removing
                                                                  • Development of trail facilities
outdoor advertising signs; mitigating water pollution
                                                                  • Provision of access for people with disabilities
caused by road runoff; and establishing transportation
                                                                  • Acquisitions of easements
museums. Eligible project applicants include all gov-
                                                                  • Fee simple title for property and construction
ernmental entities that receive fuel tax revenues, such
                                                                     of new trails
as city and village road agencies, road commissions,
transit agencies, the state Department of Transporta-           CONTACT:
tion and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources’           Eric Hunter, Grants Project Officer
Parks, Recreation and Historic Sites Division for rail-         Parks, Recreation and Historic Sites Division
trail projects. The project sponsor must pay at least           2 Martin Luther King Drive SE, Suite 1352
20 percent of a project’s cost. Project expenses have           Atlanta, GA 30334
ranged from a few thousand dollars to $1 million.               Phone: 404-656-3830 • Fax 404-651-5871
CONTACT:
                                                                E-mail: eric_hunter@mail.dnr.state.ga.us
                                                                www.serve.com/bike/georgia/trails
Ronda Britt, Transportation Enhancements
Coordinator                                                                         ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




Division of Planning & Programming
                                                                SCENIC BYWAYS PROGRAM
Georgia Department of Transportation
                                                                TEA-21 authorizes the use of federal funds to identify
#2 Capitol Square
                                                                and designate federal, state and local scenic byways.
Atlanta, GA 30334
                                                                These byways, typically back roads, are intended to
Phone: 404-657-6914 • Fax: 404-463-5033
                                                                showcase areas of great beauty and rich history. Funds
E-mail: ronda.britt@dot.state.ga.us
                                                                may be spent on the construction of facilities for
                                                                pedestrians and bicyclists along these designated
                                                                highways.



                                                           72
                                                                                     ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○



CONTACTS:
Jordan Hoffman, Office of Planning                               URBAN AND COMMUNITY FORESTRY PROGRAM
Georgia Department of Transportation                             Yearly, more than $300,000 is awarded to communi-
ATTN: Scenic Byways Program                                      ties across the state of Georgia through the Urban
Number 2 Capitol Square                                          and Community Forestry (U&CF) Grant Assistance
Atlanta, GA 30334                                                Program. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest
Phone: 404-651-7603 • Fax: 404-657-5228                          Service provides the funds for U&CF, which is adminis-
jordan.hoffman@dot.state.ga.us                                   tered by the Georgia Forestry Commission — in coop-
                                                                 eration with the Georgia Urban Forest Council — with
National Scenic Byways Program                                   the goal of supporting projects that stimulate and
U.S. Department of Transportation                                enhance urban and community forest resources within
Federal Highway Administration                                   the state of Georgia.
HEPN-50, Room 3232
                                                                 CONTACTS:
400 Seventh Street, SW
                                                                 Georgia Forestry Commission
Washington, DC 20590
                                                                 5645 Riggins Mill Road
Phone: 1-800-4BYWAYS (1-800-429-9297), option 3
                                                                 Dry Branch, GA 31020
202-366-1929
                                                                 Phone: 1-800-GATREES or 478-751-3500
www.byways.org
                                                                 www.gfc.state.ga.us/Services/UCF/
Scenic America                                                   FinancialAssistanceProgram.cfm
801 Pennsylvania Ave., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20003
Phone: 202-543-6200 • Fax: 202-543-9130                          OTHER FEDERAL FUNDING SOURCES
www.scenic.org
                                                                 NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○

                                                                 CONTROL GRANTS
                                                                 The Georgia Environmental Protection Division admin-
LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND (LWCF)
                                                                 isters this Environmental Protection Agency Program.
The Land and Water Conservation Fund is a National
                                                                 Grants are provided to county or local units of govern-
Park Service program that is administered in the state
                                                                 ment, Cooperative Extension Service agencies, soil
of Georgia by the Georgia Department of Natural
                                                                 conservation districts, regional planning commissions,
Resources’ Parks, Recreation and Historic Sites Division.
                                                                 lake boards and water management districts. Program
LWCF funds the planning, acquisition and develop-
                                                                 priorities are established for each fiscal year. Examples
ment of land for federal and non-federal (state-side)
                                                                 of previous priorities include projects that demonstrate
outdoor recreation. This program has recently been
                                                                 new or innovative technical and institutional approaches,
re-opened after a period of dormancy. For FY 2004,
                                                                 watershed restoration activities and groundwater
Congress has appropriated $91,902,000 for stateside
                                                                 protection activities.
assistance through this program. State agencies and
municipalities are eligible for stateside LWCF funds             CONTACT:
which can generally be used to acquire land, build and           Georgia Environmental Protection Division
repair recreation or park facilities, provide biking and         ATTN: Amber Greer
hiking trails, enhance recreational access and provide           Water Protection Branch
wildlife and hunting areas. The program matches up               4220 International Parkway, Suite 101
to 50 percent of the cost of a project.                          Atlanta, GA 30354
CONTACT:                                                         Phone: 404-657-5947 or 888.373.5947 (toll free
                                                                 outside metro Atlanta)
Parks, Recreation and Historic Sites
                                                                 www.ganet.org/dnr/environ
Department of Natural Resources
205 Butler Street SE, Suite 1352
Atlanta, GA 30334
Phone: 404-656-6534
www.nps.gov/ncrc/programs/lwcf




                                                            73
                      ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


                                                                     value of the land and 100 percent of the restoration
STATE WETLANDS PROTECTION DEVELOPMENT                                costs for restoring the wetlands. The 30-year ease-
GRANT PROGRAM                                                        ment payment is 75 percent of what would be pro-
This Environmental Protection Agency program pro-                    vided for a permanent easement on the same site and
vides grants to state and local governments for devel-               75 percent of the restoration cost. The voluntary
oping new or enhancing existing wetlands protection                  agreements are for a minimum 10-year duration and
programs. Funding priority is focused on Wetland/                    provide for 75 percent of the cost of restoring the
Watershed Protection Approach Demonstration                          involved wetland. Easements and restoration cost-
Projects and River Corridor and Wetland Restoration                  share agreements establish wetland protection and
Projects.                                                            restoration as the primary land use for the duration of
CONTACTS:
                                                                     the easement or agreement. In all instances, landown-
                                                                     ers continue to control access to their land.
Gail Harrison
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4                       CONTACT:
Sam Nunn Atlanta Federal Center                                      Leonard Jordan, Georgia State Conservationist
61 Forsyth Street, SW                                                U.S. Department of Agriculture
Atlanta, GA 30303-3104                                               Natural Resources Conservation Service
Phone: 404-562-9900                                                  355 East Hancock Ave, Stop Number 200
harrison.gail@epa.gov                                                Athens, GA 30601
www.epa.gov/region4/water/wetlands/grants/                           Phone: 706-546-2272 • Fax: 706-546-2120
guidance2004.html                                                    www.ga.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/wrp.html
                                                                                         ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                      ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM (CRP)                                   WATERSHED PROTECTION AND FLOOD PREVEN-
The Conservation Reserve Program reduces soil ero-                   TION (SMALL WATERSHED PROTECTION GRANTS)
sion, protects the nation’s ability to produce food and              The Small Watershed Program works through local
fiber, reduces sedimentation in streams and lakes,                   government sponsors and helps participants solve
improves water quality, establishes wildlife habitat,                natural resource and related economic problems on a
and enhances forest and wetland resources. It encour-                water shed basis. Projects include watershed protection,
ages farmers to convert highly erodible cropland or                  flood prevention, erosion and sediment control, water
other cropland or other environmentally sensitive                    supply, water quality, fish and wildlife habitat enhance-
acreage to vegetative cover, such as tame or native                  ment, wetlands creation and restoration, and public
grasses, wildlife plantings, trees, filterstrips, or riparian        recreation in water sheds of 250,000 or fewer acres.
buffers. Farmers receive an annual rental payment for                CONTACT:
the term of the multi-year contract. Cost sharing is                 Leonard Jordan, Georgia State Conservationist
provided to establish the vegetative cover practices.                U.S. Department of Agriculture
CONTACT:                                                             Natural Resources Conservation Service
Leonard Jordan, Georgia State Conservationist                        355 East Hancock Ave, Stop Number 200
U.S. Department of Agriculture                                       Athens, GA 30601
Natural Resources Conservation Service                               Phone: 706-546-2272 • Fax: 706-546-2120
355 East Hancock Ave, Stop Number 200                                www.ga.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/wffp.html
Athens, GA 30601                                                                         ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




Phone: 706-546-2272 • Fax: 706-546-2120
www.ga.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/crp.html                               BROWNFIELDS REVITALIZATION GRANTS
                      ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                                                                     The Brownfields Revitalization and Environmental
                                                                     Restoration Act, signed into law in early 2002, provides
WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM (WRP)                                       $200 million nationwide for brownfields assessment
The Wetlands Reserve Program is a voluntary program                  and clean up. Greenways, habitat restoration, parks
to restore wetlands. Participating landowners can                    and other “green activities” are eligible purposes for
establish conservation easements of either permanent                 these grants. The program is administered by the U.S.
or 30-year duration, or can enter into restoration cost-             Environmental Protection Agency and has an initial
share agreements where no easement is involved. In                   grant deadline of December 16,2002. If reviewed
exchange for establishing a permanent easement, the                  favorably, the final grant deadline is March 5, 2003.
landowner receives payment up to the agricultural                    Local governments and nonprofit organizations are
                                                                     eligible to apply.


                                                                74
                                                                                     ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○



CONTACT:
Ralph Robinson, Grants Specialist                               LOCAL DEVELOPMENT FUND
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4                  The Local Development Fund is a state appropriated
Sam Nunn Atlanta Federal Center                                 grant program administered by the Georgia Depart-
61 Forsyth Street, SW                                           ment of Community Affairs that provides matching
Atlanta, GA 30303-3104                                          grants to fund community improvement activities.
Phone: 404-562-8418                                             Examples of eligible activities include: downtown
robinson.ralph@epa.gov                                          development projects, public parking facilities, historic
www.epa.gov/region4/waste/bf                                    preservation projects, tourism and related marketing
                                                                activities, recreation improvements, community facilities
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


                                                                (such as museums, community centers etc.), limited
TARGETED WATERSHED GRANTS PROGRAM                               solid waste activities (such as recycling and multi-
The Targeted Watershed Grants Program (formerly                 county planning), activities implementing approved
known as the Watershed Initiative) was conceived to             comprehensive plans, and preservation improvements
encourage successful community-based approaches to              to historic public buildings such as courthouses and
restore, preserve, and protect the nation’s watersheds.         city halls. Examples of ineligible grant activities are
This new competitive grant program is a bold approach           general improvements or renovations to non-historic
to watershed management in that it will provide                 public buildings, or water and sewer activities. The
needed resources to those watershed organizations               annual total funding level is $617,500. The maximum
whose restoration plans are ripe, and who are anxious           grant amount is $10,000 for single community
to achieve quick, yet tangible environmental change.            projects and $20,000 for multi-community projects.
CONTACT:                                                        CONTACT:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency                            Cynthia Easley, Local Development Fund
Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds (4503T)              Georgia Department of Community Affairs
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW                                     60 Executive Park South, N.E.
Washington, DC 20460                                            Atlanta, GA 30329
Phone: 202-566-1155                                             Phone: 404-679-4789
www.epa.gov/owow/watershed/initiative                           ceasley@dca.state.ga.us
                                                                www.dca.state.ga.us/grants/developfund.html#

   S TATE-LEVEL FUNDING SOURCES
                                                                      PRIVATE FUNDING SOURCES
GEORGIA COMMUNITY GREENSPACE PROGRAM
The Georgia General Assembly created the Georgia                LAND TRUSTS
Greenspace Program during the 2000 legislative                  National, state, regional, county and local private land
session. The statute assigns responsibility for program         trusts (or conservancies) can purchase land for resale
administration to the Department of Natural Resources           to public agencies, buy options to protect land tempo-
and creates a five-member Georgia Greenspace, which             rarily, receive land donations, put together land deals
reviews and approves community greenspace programs              and provide technical assistance. As private entities,
submitted by eligible counties. The statute defines             land trusts can often act more quickly than public
greenspace as permanently protected land and water,             agencies.
including agricultural and forestry land, that is in its                             ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


undeveloped, natural state or that has been developed
only to the extent consistent with, or is restored to be        FOUNDATIONS
consistent with, one or more listed goals for natural           Private foundations are nongovernmental, non-profit
resource protection or informal recreation.                     organizations having principal funds managed by
CONTACT:                                                        trustees and directors, and established to maintain or
Georgia Community Greenspace Program                            aid charitable, educational, religious or other activities
Georgia Department of Natural Resources                         serving the public good, primarily by making grants to
Greenspace Commission                                           other nonprofit organizations. The overwhelming
2 Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive, Suite 1454                     majority of foundation grants are awarded to nonprofit
Atlanta, GA 30334                                               organizations that qualify for public charity status
Phone: 404-656-5165                                             under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue
www.ganet.org/dnr/greenspace                                    Code.



                                                           75
    DIRECTORIES OF FOUNDATION                                  giving small grants, donating copying or renting ser-
         FUNDING SOURCES                                       vices or giving free or reduced-fee use of the
                                                               company’s special services. For example, a law firm
Guide to Foundation Grants for Rivers, Trails, and             might provide pro bono legal advice or an accounting
Open Space Conservation, 2nd edition: Prepared by              firm might donate staff time to assist in developing a
National Center for Recreation and Conservation,               simple bookkeeping system.
National Park Service, June 1996. Available from NPS                               ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




(330-657-2378). This guide lists information about
selected foundations that may have interest in green-          FRIENDS GROUPS
way projects.                                                  We all need friends, and this holds true for greenway
                                                               projects as well. In fact, the long-term success of a
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


                                                               project can well depend on the formation of an on-
The Foundation Directory, and The Foundation                   going private “Friends of the Trail” organization.
Directory Part 2: Prepared by the Foundation Center.           Friends groups can provide a number of services
Available from libraries and the Foundation Center             including physical labor through Adopt-a-Trail mainte-
(212-620-4230). www.fdncenter.org.                             nance or construction activities, fundraising, user
These directories describe the programs of thousands           education, promotion and surveillance of the facility.
of large foundations throughout the U.S., and are              These groups are important in all project phases:
updated annually.                                              planning, acquisition, development and operation.
                                                                                   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




The Foundation Grants Index: Prepared by the Foun-             OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
dation Center. Available from libraries and the Foun-          Civic groups and school groups can play an important
dation Center (212-620-4230).                                  role in support of a greenway project. They might
www.fdncenter.org.                                             help with trail development and maintenance, fund-
This index lists recent foundation grants and is up-           ing, promotion and hosting of events. These activities
dated annually.                                                can be separate from, or in conjunction with, a friends
                                                               group.
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




                                                                                   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




CREATING PUBLIC FUNDING FOR PARKS AND
CONSERVATION                                                   INDIVIDUALS
The Trust for Public Land’s (TPL) Conservation Fi-             Willing individuals can donate money, land, ease-
nance Program assists land trusts, communities, and            ments and services. The vast majority of money do-
states in creating and expanding sources of public             nated to trail and greenway projects in this country
funding for land conservation. Since 1996, TPL has             comes from individuals. In many cases, the financial
helped communities pass 192 local and state ballot             contribution of a single individual has meant the
measures that have generated more than $35 billion             success of a trail or greenway project.
in new conservation-related funding, including $18
billion for land acquisition and restoration. A recent
example of a successful Conservation Ballot Measure
in Georgia was the March 18, 2003, passing in
Forsyth County of a special one percent sales and use
tax over a 5-year period that will help fund parks,
open space, historic preservation, road improvements
and public facilities in this county. For more informa-
tion, please call 617-367-6200 or see the TPL Web
site at www.tpl.org.
                    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○




BUSINESSES
Most towns have public-spirited companies. These
firms have a history of helping worthy projects by
providing meeting rooms in a company building,




                                                          76
APPENDIX E: RAILS-WITH-TRAILS — EXECUTIVE SUMMARY



                                              RAILS-WITH-TRAILS
      Design, Management and Operating Characteristics of 61 Trails Along Active Railroads
                          Project Management: Hugh Morris, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy.
                                Research: Jamie Bridges, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy.
                          Text: Richard Smithers, Bicycle Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
           in cooperation with National Park Service Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program

                                                       November 2000


                                             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Every day thousands of Americans safely use and                      RANGE OF DESIGNS: Rails-with-trails are operating
enjoy trails located along active rail lines. The number             successfully under a wide variety of conditions. Some
of “rails-with-trails” is steadily increasing as communi-            are very close to rail tracks and others further away.
ties throughout the United States work with local                    Some use extensive separating fences or barriers.
railroads to take advantage of the opportunities that                Some are next to high-speed, high-frequency train
rail corridors provide for creating valuable trails.                 services. Others are on industrial branch lines or
                                                                     tourist railroads with slower trains operating only a
GROWTH: The growth and popularity of rails-with-
                                                                     few times per week. Some have at-grade crossings
trails appears to parallel the growth of traditional rail-
                                                                     while others use underpasses or overpasses.
trails. This report analyzes 61 existing rails-with-trails.
This is up from the 37 rails-with-trails that were identi-           RAILROADS: While railroad companies are under-
fied in Rails-to-Trails Conservancy’s first rails-with-trails        standably cautious of such projects, this report found
report in March 1996. At least another 20 rails-with-                that 20 out of 61 trail managers described the atti-
trails are being planned.                                            tude of the railroad involved with their trail as sup-
                                                                     portive, positive or good (and in one case, “great!”).
DUAL BENEFIT: Constructing a trail along an active
                                                                     Only five trail managers reported the railroad com-
railroad doubles the value a community derives from
                                                                     pany initially opposed their trail. Rail-with-trail benefits
the rail corridor and provides citizens with an extra
                                                                     for the railroads can include corridor beautification,
transportation choice. In many places it is difficult to
                                                                     potential reduction of trespassing on train tracks,
find land on which trails can be built so using an
                                                                     reduced vandalism and increased transit ridership.
existing rail corridor can be a good option. In some
cases, trails support railways by providing enhanced                 LIABILITY: The survey revealed the vast majority of
access for transit riders to stations.                               rails-with-trails are insured by existing state, county or
                                                                     city insurance coverage in a similar manner to other
SAFETY: Despite fears that rails-with-trails expose
                                                                     trails. An increasing number of railroad companies are
users to greater danger by their proximity to active rail
                                                                     requiring trail managers to indemnify them against
lines, rails-with-trails appear to be just as safe as other
                                                                     liability. The report found only three claims made
trails. Our survey of trails found only one accident
                                                                     against trail managing agencies. Two of these cases
between a trail user and a train. This is the same
                                                                     were settled (one for a human injury and one for a
single accident identified in the March 1996 report
                                                                     farm animal). According to the survey results, no
that occurred on a trail otherwise operating safely for
                                                                     claims were made against railroad companies.
34 years. In fact, using a rail-with-trail may well be
significantly safer than walking or cycling next to a
busy main road and it may serve to keep people from
walking on active rail tracks.




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APPENDIX F:
ADVISORY COMMITTEE LIST AND CONTACTS RELATED TO STUDY

                                      ADVISORY COMMITTEE



Raquel Clement                                     Brian McHugh
City of Atlanta                                    Transportation Planner, Planning Department
Bureau of Planning                                 City of Atlanta
Phone: 404-330-6961                                Phone: 404-330-6911
rclement@atlantaga.gov                             bmchugh@ci.atlanta.ga.us

Charlotte Gillis
                                                   Andy Scott
NPS-RTCA Program
                                                   Attorney
Phone: 888-333-1791 x531
                                                   Phone: 404-240-4289
charlotte_gillis@nps.gov
                                                   ascot@laborlawyers.com
Crew Heimer
Georgia Regional Transportation Authority          Lamar Willis
Phone: 404-463-3054                                Councilmember
crew@grta.org                                      Atlanta City Council, Post 3-At Large
                                                   Phone: 404-330-6041
Mathew Hicks                                       hlwillis@ci.atlanta.ga.us
Office of Cathy Woolard
President, Atlanta City Council                    Cathy Woolard
Phone: 404-330-6035                                President, Atlanta City Council
mhicks@atlantaga.gov                               Phone: 6035-6035-6035
                                                   cwoolard@ci.atlanta.ga.us
Ed McBrayer
Executive Director, PATH Foundation
Phone: 404-875-7284
pathf@ix.netcom.com




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     INVENTORY                                                    End Point 1                        End Point 2                                          Counties                                  Length
     OPEN TRAILS
     Augusta Canal Trail                                       Stevens Creek Elementary School       Turning Basin                                        Richmond                                    8.5
     Chattahoochee Riverwalk (Columbus)                        Bibb City through downtown Columbus   Ft. Benning                                          Muscogee                                     22
     Heritage Park Trail                                       Rome                                  Rome                                                 Floyd                                         6
     McQueens’s Island Historic Trail                          Savannah                              McQueen’s Island                                     Chatham                                       6
                                                                                                                                                                                                             APPENDIX G:




     Moultrie Trail (Tom “Babe” White Linear Park)             Lower Meigs Road                      Municipal Airport                                    Colquitt                                    5.2
     Savannah & Ogeechee Canal Trail                           Savannah (Ft. Argyle Road)            Savannah (Ogeechee River)                            Chatham                                     0.5
     Silver Comet Trail                                        Smyrna                                Rockmart                                             Cobb; Paulding; Polk                       37.5
     Simms Mountain Trail (Pinhoti Trail)                      Lavender                              Armuchee                                             Chattooga; Floyd                            4.5
     Tallulah Falls Rail-Trail                                 Tallulah Gorge State Park             Tallulah Gorge State Park                            Rabun                                       1.7
     Trolley Line Trail                                        Atlanta (the King Center downtown)    Decatur (Agnes Scott College)                        DeKalb; Fulton                                7
     TRAIL PROJECTS
     Albany                                                    Albany                                                                                     Dougherty; Lee                              3.4
     Altamaha River to Vidalia                                 Hester to Vidalia                     Vidalia to Kirby                                     Emanuel; Jeff Davis; Montgomery; Toombs    43.6
     Ansley Park to Poncey-Highland (Atlanta)                  Ansley Park                           Poncey-Highland                                      Fulton                                      3.5
     Cedartown to AL border (Silver Comet Trail)               Cedartown                             Alabama line                                         Polk                                        8.5
     Columbus Trail                                            Columbus (downtown rail yard)         Psalmond Rd (near Harris County border)              Muscogee                                   10.6
     Riceboro to Woodbine (part of Coastal Georgia Greenway)   Riceboro                              Woodbine                                             Liberty; McIntosh; Glynn; Camden           56.7
     Savannah & Ogeechee Canal Trail Extension                 Savannah                                                                                                                              11.3




79
     Savannah to Hardeeville                                   Savannah                              Hardeeville, SC                                      Chatham; Jasper                            14.2
     Silver Comet Trail Extension                              Rockmart                              Cedartown                                            Polk                                         11
     Thomas Square Linear Corridor                             Savannah                                                                                   Chatham
     PRELIMINARY PROJECTS
     Athens to East Athens                                     Athens                                East Athens                                          Clarke                                      1.9
     Atlanta                                                   Wheeler Street                        Simpson Street                                       Fulton                                     0.58
     Atlanta Service Lane                                      Memorial Drive                        Wylie Street                                         Fulton                                     0.35
     Augusta                                                   Augusta (6th & Broad Streets)         near warehouse to the east (parallels Savannah R.)   Richmond                                    1.6
     Senoia to Griffin                                         Senoia                                Griffin, near UGA Experiment Station                 Coweta, Fayette, Spalding                    19
     INACTIVE PROJECTS
     Augusta to Midville Rail with Trail                       Augusta (6th Street)                  Midville                                             Richmond; Burke                              50
     Bladen to Seals                                           Bladen                                Seals                                                Glynn; Camden                              25.2
     Blue Ridge to White Path                                  Blue Ridge                            Ellijay                                              Fannin; Gilmer                              8.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                             GEORGIA RAIL-TRAIL INVENTORY — OPEN AND PROJECT STATUS




     Bridgeboro to Camilla                                     Bridgeboro                            Camilla                                              Mitchell; Worth                              18
     Cave Spring Trail                                         Cave Spring (Mill Street)             Rome                                                 Floyd                                        16
     Chickasawhatchee Railway Project                          Albany                                Sasser                                               Dougherty; Lee; Terrell                   13.62
     Cochran to Hawkinsville                                   Cochran                               Hawkinsville                                         Bleckley; Pulaski                          9.53
     Cornelia to Franklin, NC                                  Cornelia                              Franklin, NC                                         Habersham; Rabun; Macom                      58
     Douglas                                                   Douglas                                                                                    Coffee                                      4.5
     Pearson to Sylvester                                                                                                                                 Atkinson; Berrien; Tift; Worth               68
     Simms Mountain Trail Extension                                                                                                                       Chatooga; Floyd
     Waverly to Woodbine                                       Waverly                               Woodbine                                             Camden                                      10
APPENDIX H: ABOUT RAILS-TO-TRAILS CONSERVANCY



Founded in 1986, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (RTC) was created to breathe new life into abandoned rail lines by
converting them to multi-use trails for public use nationwide. Prior to that time, there were only 200 open rail-
trails in the country and more than half of the nation ’s 300,000-mile railroad network laid unused or abandoned.
Since its founding, RTC has helped convert more than 12,000 miles of abandoned railroad corridors into
America’s newest parklands, enjoyed by more than 100 million users a year: places like the Cape Cod Rail-Trail,
Nebraska ’s Cowboy Trail, the San Diego Bay Shore Bikeway, the Illinois Prairie Path, the Capital Crescent Trail in
Washington, D.C. and hundreds of others. Now 18 years old, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy has become the largest
and most widely respected trails organization in America. In addition, Rail-to-Trails Conservancy is the only
national group devoted to preserving railroad corridors by converting them to multi-use trails.

RTC is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization with: 43 employees distributed among six regional offices in California,
Florida, Massachusetts (serving New England), Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and headquarters in Washington,
D.C.; more than 100,000 members and supporters nationwide; a 13-member board of directors that meets three
times a year; an operating budget of $6 million dedicated to trail building, corridor preservation, open space
protection, public education and advocacy; five national and three international Trails and Greenways Conferences
to date, the most recent in June 2003 in Providence, Rhode Island, attended by more than 500 trail activists; a
full-color quarterly magazine, Rails to Trails, and a highly-visited family of linked Web sites (accessible at
www.railtrails.org) addressing a broad range of information from trail finder databases for the everyday user to
technical counsel on trail purchase and construction; recognition from a diverse mix of interests, including health,
environment, government and recreation, such as:

    •    Lead private sector partner in the White House Millennium Trails Program that identified and
         celebrated 16 National Millennium Trails, 51 Millennium Legacy Trails and more than 1,000
         Millennium Community Trails;

    •    The Presidential Award for Sustainable Development by The President ’s Council of Sustainable
         Development;

    •    The Biennial Trails Service Award from American Trails;

    •    Sponsorship from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to bring public health officials to our
         2001 and 2003 conferences to create an exchange and address a common agenda between the
         trail and health communities;

    •    The American Greenways Dupont Award from the Conservation Fund, Dupont Corporation and
         the National Geographic Society.




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                       TRAILDART
                     TR AIL D EVELOPMENT A SSISTANCE R ESPONSE T EAM
                     TRAIL

                            A Service of Rails-to-Trails Conservancy




Rails-to-Trails Conservancy • 1100 Seventeenth Street N.W., 10th Floor • Washington, D.C. 20036
                  Tel: 202-331-9696 • Fax: 202-331-9680 • www.railtrails.org

								
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