Bjorn Asheim by niusheng11


									   Towards a broad based regional innovation
     policy: Combining knowledge bases,
       modes of innovation and regional
              innovation systems

    Professor Bjørn Asheim, Deputy Director,
  CIRCLE (Centre for Innovation, Research and
     Competence in the Learning Economy),
            Lund University, Sweden.
Keynote lecture at the 4th International Seminar on
  Regional Innovation Policies, Edinburgh, 2009
     CIRCLE (Centre for Innovation, Research and
     Competence in the Learning Economy)

    New multidisciplinary centre of excellence in research on
     innovation and entrepreneurship at Lund University
    (established in July 2004)
    CIRCLE is financed by the Swedish Agency for Innovation
     Systems (VINNOVA), Lund University and Blekinge Technical
     University 2004-2010, and from 2006 for 10 years by the
     Swedish Research Council (Linnaeus grant)
    In autumn 2007 co-location of research and teaching in
     innovation and entrepreneurship together with LUIS (Lund
     University Innovation System) at LUCIE (Lund University Centre
     for Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
    Becoming one of the largest centres in Europe of its kind with 35
     researchers employed

                            Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       Origins of the innovation system

    Freeman, SPRU, University of Sussex:
1.   OECD work in 1982 (’Science, Technology and
     Competitiveness’) developing an alternative to
     mainstream, static economic’s view on international
     competitiveness as based on ’relative wages’.
     Instead a dynamic perspective on innovation and
     learning in the promotion of economic growth with
     an active role of government was proposed.
2.   Book on Japan (1987): Technology policy and
     Economic Performance: Lessons from Japan.

                          Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       Origins of the innovation system

   Lundvall, Aalborg university: Work during the last part
    of 1980s (also with Freeman). Edited book from 1992
    on ’National Systems of Innovation: Towards a theory
    of innovation and interactive learning’
   Nelson, Colombia university. Edited book from 1993
    on ’National Innovation Systems: A Comparative
   Edquist: Edited book from 1997 on ’Systems of
    Innovation: Technologies, Institutions and

                           Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       Positive impacts of the innovation
       system approach

   New view on what constitutes ’international
    competitiveness’ from relative wages (low
    road or weak competition) to non-price
    competitiveness national policies of promoting
    innovation and learning (high road or strong
   The ’system’ dimension of the IS concept
    moved attention from linear to interactive
    thinking of innovation (from science and
    technology policies to innovation policy)
                       Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       Definitions of innovation and

   Innovation: Invention based on new
    combinations (and new knowledge) brought to
    the market + process of diffusion and use
   Product, process, organisational, market and
    raw materials. Making a distinction between
    technical (product and process) and
    organisational innovations important
   System: Innovation networks involving an
    intricate interplay between micro and macro
                      Bjørn Asheim, 2009
      Different modes of innovation

    ’How Europe’s Economies Learn. Coordinating
     Competing Models’ : Different modes of innovation
     and forms of work organisation (Lorenz and
     Lundvall, 2006)
1.   STI (Science, Technology, Innovation) – high-tech
     (science push/supply driven)
2.   DUI (Doing, Using, Interacting) – Competence
     building and organisational innovations (learning
     work organisation) market/demand/user driven

                      Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       Differentiated knowledge bases

   Characterise the nature of the critical knowledge which
    the innovation activity cannot do without (hence the term
    ’knowledge base’ understood as an ideal type)
   Makes it less relevant to classify some types of
    knowledge as more advanced, complex, and
    sophisticated than other knowledge (e.g. to consider
    science based (analytical knowledge) as more important
    for innovation and competitiveness of firms and regions
    than engineering based (synthetic) knowledge or artistic
    based (symbolic) knowledge). Different knowledge
    bases should rather be looked upon as complementary
    assets                Bjørn Asheim, 2009
Differentiated knowledge bases: A typology

Analytical (science          Synthetic (engineering          Symbolic (artistic based)
based)                       based)
Developing new know-         Applying or combining           Creating meaning, desire,
ledge about natural          existing knowledge in new       aesthetic qualities, affect,
systems by applying          ways; know how                  intangibles, symbols,
scientific laws; know why                                    images; know who

Scientific knowledge,        Problem-solving, custom         Creative process
models, deductive            production, inductive

Collaboration within and     Interactive learning with       Learning-by-doing, in
between research units       customers and suppliers         studio, project teams

Strong codified              Partially codified knowledge,   Importance of interpretation,
knowledge content,           strong tacit component, more    creativity, cultural
highly abstract, universal   context-specific                knowledge, sign values,
                                                             implies strong context
Meaning relatively           Meaning varies substantially    Meaning highly variable
constant between places      between places                  between place, class and

Drug development             Mechanical engineering          Cultural production, design,
                                    Bjørn Asheim, 2009
     Some empirical observations I

   Economic performance: Global
               2004 2005 2006-7             2007-8

   Finland:   1         1              2    6
   Sweden:    3         3              3    4
   Denmark:   5         4              4    3

                   Bjørn Asheim, 2009
    Some empirical observations II

 Promoting Innovation Systems approach:
- Finland: Science and Technology Policy
  Council and TEKES
- Sweden: VINNOVA (Swedish Governmental
  Agency for Innovation Systems)
 Share of R&D:

- Finland: 3.7%
- Sweden: 4.0%
                 Bjørn Asheim, 2009
      Nordic innovation strategies

   Finland: Science-driven high tech strategy focusing
    on radical product innovations, with NOKIA as the
    champion (STI mode of innovation)
   Sweden: Technology-based strategy of process
    innovations and complex product improvements,
    through R&D investments in large industries
    (STI mode of innovation)
   Denmark: Market (user)-driven entrepreneurialism
    characterized by non-R&D based, incremental
    product innovations especially within consumer goods
    sectors (DUI mode of innovation)

                      Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       Finland’s National Innovation
       Strategy: New proposal

   In order to meet global challenges, innovation policy
    must be broad-based and comprehensive:
   Innovation activity in a world without borders
   Demand and user-driven innovation policy (DUI mode
    of innovation) to complement the
   Systemic approach of science and technology policy
    (STI mode of innovation)
   Innovative individuals and communities (creative

                          Bjørn Asheim, 2009
     Key governance policy measures

 The central government’s corporate steering renewed
  for the purpose of becoming a worldwide pioneer of
  systemic reforms:
 The Science and Technology Policy Council to
  become a wider Research and Innovation Council
  (STI & DUI)
 Content-oriented (strategic centres of science,
  technology and innovation) and regional centres of
  innovation (strategic strenghts of regions) driving
  renewal is to be formed (top down/bottom-up)

                       Bjørn Asheim, 2009

           Principles of   Indirect,                      Direct,               Direct,
                           general                        general               specific
Types of
                           (framework cond.)
Science policy                                           Basic research in
                                                         universities and
                                                         research institutes/
                                                         (T-H) - IPR policy
Technology                                               Specific ‘strategic’
                                                         technologies and
                                                         sectors - public
                                                         procurement policy

Innovation                 Tax relief policy -                                  Finland’s new
                           Norway                                               innovation policy

                                    Bjørn Asheim, 2009
        Policy challenges: Institutionally thin
        (peripheral) and old industrial (lock-in)
   Institutionally thin regions            Lock-in regions
   Less innovative in                      Overspecialised in mature
    comparison to more                       industries experiencing
    agglomerated regions                     decline (negative lock-in in
   Less R&D intensity and                   specialised localisation
    innovation                               economies)
   A less developed knowledge              Few R&D activities, mature
    infrastructure (universities             technological trajectories,
    and R&D institutions)                    cognitive lock-in
   Suffering from institutional            University and public
    thinness                                 research oriented at
                                             traditional industries /

                              Bjørn Asheim, 2009
                                             Source: Tödtling & Trippl (2005)
        Policy challenges: Fragmented
        metropolitan and networked regions

   Fragmented regions                       Networked regions
   Many and diverse industries/             Regions with cutting edge
    business services                         technologies and a high level
   Lack of dynamic clusters of               of R&D as well as high
    (local) innovative firms and              connectivity in RIS)
    knowledge spill-overs                    Exposed to new challenges
    (unrelated variety of                     and competition from
    urbanisation economies)                   emergent economies
   R&D departments and                      Diversify into new but related
    headquarters of large firms               industries (related
   Many and high quality                     variety/differentiated
    universities and public                   knowledge bases)
    research organisation but                New ways of continuous
    weak industry-university links            innovation support
    (weak connectivity in RIS)

                               Bjørn Asheim, 2009
                                              Source: Tödtling & Trippl (2005)
      Regional Innovation Policies: A
      Classification of Policy Instruments

                   Support: Financial      Behavioural
                   and technical           change: Learning
                                           to innovate

                   Financial support
                                           Mobility schemes
Firm-focused       Brokers

                   Technology              Regional
System-focused     centres                 innovation

                      Bjørn Asheim, 2009
    What is Regional Innovation
    Systems (RIS) – narrow definition:

   A RIS is constituted by two sub-systems and the
    systemic interaction between them (and with non-
    local actors and agencies):
   The knowledge exploration and diffusing sub-system
    (universities, technical colleges, R&D institutes,
    corporate R&D, technology transfer agencies)
   The knowledge exploitation sub-system (firms in
    regional clusters as well as their support industries)
   STI (Science, Technology, Innovation) mode of
    innovation – science driven; radical innovations

                        Bjørn Asheim, 2009
     What is a RIS - broad defintion :

   A wider system of organisations and
    institutions supporting learning and
    innovation, and their interactions with local
   Developmental (creative) learning: learning
    work organisations, interactive learning (user-
    producer relationships), inter-firm networks
   DUI (Doing, Using, Interacting) mode of
    innovation – market/demand/user driven;
    incremental innovations
                     Bjørn Asheim, 2009
     Varieties of Regional Innovation
     Systems (RIS)

    Territorially embedded RIS (’grassroots RIS’) – demand/user
     driven (less systemic university-industry relations) – broad
     definition of IS (learning regions) mainly doing incremental
     innovations (knowledge exploitation)
    Regionalised national innovation systems
    (’dirigiste RIS’) – science/supply driven – narrow definition of IS
     (technopolis, science parks) mainly focusing on generating
     radical innovations (knowledge exploration)
    Regional networked innovation systems (’network RIS’) – mixed
     supply/demand interaction (combined narrow and broad
     definition) carrying out a combination of radical and incremental
     innovation (knowledge exploration as well as exploitation)

                             Bjørn Asheim, 2009

         Type of        Analytical/                  Synthetic/              Symbolic/
            knowledge   science based                engineering based       artistic based
Type of RIS

Territorially                                        IDs in Emilia-          ’Advertising
embedded                                             Romagna                 village’ – Soho
(grassroots RIS)                                     (machinery)             (London)
Networked               Regional clusters –   Regional clusters –            Barcelona as the
(network RIS)           regional university   regional technical             design city
                        (wireless in Aalborg) university
                                              (mechanical in
Regionalised            Science parks/               Large industrial
national                technopolis                  complex
(dirigiste RIS)         (biotech, IT)                (Norwegian oil and
                                                     gas related industry)

                                Bjørn Asheim, 2009
    Modes of innovation and
    knowledge bases

   Lundvall argues that the STI mode of
    innovation could be associated with the
    analytical knowledge base, while
   The DUI mode of innovation could be related
    to the synthetic (and symbolic) knowledge
   However, is this dichotomisation to simplistic?

                     Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       Modes of innovation and
       knowledge bases

   The STI mode of innovation does not only represent
    basic research based on analytical (scientific)
    knowledge but also
   Applied research based on synthetic, engineering
    (and symbolic) knowledge base(s) as is carried out at
    technical universities. Engineering firms needs to do
    systematic knowledge creation and innovation in
    collaboration with universities and R&D institutes
    (technological development), and cannot only rely on
    interactive learning in user-producer relationships with
    customers and suppliers as part of the DUI mode of
    innovation (application development)
                           Bjørn Asheim, 2009
     Different forms of learning (DUI
     mode of innovation)

    Also the DUI mode of innovation is broader than
     normally understood as learning can be divided into:
1.   Developmental (creative) learning – the ’logic’ of
     knowledge exploration – learning work organisation
2.   Reproductive (adaptive) learning – the ’logic’ of
     knowledge exploitation
    DUI mode also found in analytical knowledge based
     industries (e.g. Biotech) making use of synthetic
     knowledge and interactive learning in specific phases
     of their innovation processes

                        Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       The combination of STI and DUI
       modes of innovation

   Research has shown that a combination of
    the two modes of innovation improve the
    performance of firms (Berg Jensen et al.
   Research has also shown that broad sourcing
    for knowledge for innovation (i.e. not only
    collaborating with R&D institutions or basing
    innovation only on experience based
    knowledge) makes firms more innovative
    (Laursen and Salter, 2006)
                       Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       The combination of STI and DUI
       modes of innovation

   Cognitive distance has to be reduced and absorptive
    capacity increased to achieve such a combination
   The STI mode including synthetic and symbolic
    knowledge bases as well as the DUI mode also
    present in the STI mode represent bridging
    mechanism reducing the cognitive distance
   Internal competence building through developmental
    learning in learning work organisations and
    organisational changes increase absorptive capacity
   Needs both narrow and broad RIS to be implemented

                         Bjørn Asheim, 2009
      What can be achieved at the regional
      level – the role of RIS narrowly defined

   Competitive research and innovation
    environments can only be established in a
    limited number of regions
   Such regions must have strong research
    universities, competitive industries and proactive
    regional governments building RIS
   These regions will be able to serve R&D
    intensive domestic industry as well as to attract
    R&D units from MNCs

                       Bjørn Asheim, 2009
     What about the ordinary industries in the
     ordinary regions – the role of RIS broadly

   RIS have other tasks than only supporting R&D
    intensive industries, as regions have other types of
    industries that are in need of innovation support from
    RIS (firms based on the DUI mode of innovation)
   Knowledge creation and innovation in all types of
    industries with different knowledge bases
   Easier to achieve optimal combinations of science
    and user driven innovation (STI and DUI mode of
    innovations) on the regional level due to spatial and
    social proximity especially favouring the DUI mode of
    innovation (interactive learning)

                        Bjørn Asheim, 2009
       Summing up: Broad-based
       innovation policy

   User-driven innovation in addition to science and
    technology driven (DUI+STI) – ‘Combined and
    complex mode of innovation’ (Isaksen and Karlsen)
   Exploitation of different modes of innovation and
    forms of learning
   Knowledge creation and innovation in all types of
    industries with different knowledge bases
   Resolve the potential contradiction between
    competition and social and regional cohesion

                         Bjørn Asheim, 2009

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