Reading

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					Reading
Four levels of reading
 Recreational reading
 Overview reading
 Thorough reading
 Comparative reading
Recreational reading
 Read newspapers or magazines to be entertained or stay
  updated on current evens.
 Read short stories, poetry, or fiction for pleasure
Overview reading
 Skim, scan, or survey textbooks, chapters, essays, or articles
  to create a BIG PICTURE (schema) or framework before
  reading.
 Read through difficult material uninterrupted and without
  stalling to become familiar with the topic before beginning
  thorough reading for comprehension.
Thorough reading
 Read slowly and systematically to allow your brain time to
    acquire and process new information and systems.
   Read to understand information resented in sentences,
    paragraphs, and sections of information (headings,
    subheadings or chapters)
   Read carefully and adjust your reading strategies for different
    levels of reading difficulty.
   Use elaborative rehearsal to understand, analyze, associate,
    and encode information for long-term memory.
   Use textbook annotation and note-taking strategies to reflect
    important information.
Comparative reading
 Read two or more articles, excerpts, or books on the same
  subject and then compare or contrast the information.
 Organize the information and analyze similarities and
  differences in points of view, rationale, implications,
  interpretations, modes, or approaches.
Are you an active reader?
 Engages your mind with the ultimate goal of
   Understanding
   Learning
   Using or applying information
 Active reading is an essential skill for academic success!
 Places heavy demands on your working memory to
  understand printed information.
 It also requires you to associate it with previously earned
  information.
 It expands existing schemas in long-term memory by adding
  new information.
Strategies for active reading
 Have a pen in your hand when you study.
 Take notes, write questions, or jot down lists of information
    you need to learn.
   Use markers to highlight important information in the text
    OR in your notes.
   Talk out loud (recite) as you study to activate your auditory
    channel. This helps improve concentration AND
    comprehension.
   Write summaries, make study tools (mapping, cards, charts).
   Quiz yourself on the material. Write questions/answers.
By doing some of these …
 You will prevent yourself from slipping into automatic pilot.
 You will develop multi-sensory strategies to encode and
  imprint information in your long-term memory.
 You will increase your reading comprehension.
 You will feel less stress.
 You will select the strategies for specific types of reading
  materials.
How do you read a textbook?
 I skim through or preview the front and back sections of new
    textbooks before I begin the first reading assignment.Y/N
   I adjust my reading strategies for different kinds of textbooks
    and different levels of difficulty.                      Y/N
   When I begin reading a new chapter, I always open the book
    to the first page and read straight through to the end of the
    chapter.                                                 Y/N
   I read the chapter review question sand the summary before I
    start reading the chapter.                               Y/N
   I write my own study questions for each heading and
    subheading in the chapter.                               Y/N
More questions…
 I sometimes postpone reading a new chapter because it
    appears to be difficult or uninteresting.         Y/N
   I often finish reading a chapter only to find out that I
    remember very little of what I have just read. Y/N
   After I read a short section, I stop to highlight, underline, or
    take notes.                                       Y/N
   When I study, I am quiet because I do all my practicing or
    reviewing in my head.                             Y/N
   I am confident in my ability to read all kinds of textbooks
    without many difficulties.                         Y/N
Essential strategies for text reading
 Begin with a clear intention to understand what you read.
 Use an organized system for reading textbook chapters.
 Be inquisitive.
 Relate new information to existing schemas in your long-
    term memory.
   Manage your textbook reading time effectively.
   Use spaced practice or spaced studying.
   Include some form of feedback as you study.
   Encode information from ordinary words into new sensory
    codes.
First step: Survey the textbook
 When you get a new textbook, get to know it!
 Read the Title page, Copyright Page, and Table of Contents.
 Read the introductory information – you know those pages
    that are titled “To the Student…” READ them!
   In the back of the textbook, there might be an Appendix. This
    contains supplementary materials that should help you.
   Check to see if there is a Glossary or Definition section.
   Is there a References or Bibliography section.You may want
    to use these sources if you need to write a research paper.
   The Index will save you time!
SQ4R (great strategy)
 Created in 1941 … proven effective when reading.
 Survey the chapter.
 Write questions for each heading and subheading.
 Read the information, one paragraph at time.
 Select a form of note-taking to record information.
 Recite the important information from the paragraph.
 Review the information learned in the chapter.
Step 1: Surveying a chapter
 Read the introductory materials carefully.
 Read the headings and the subheadings.
 Look at visual materials such as charts, graphs, or pictures.
 Read marginal notes.
 Read the end-of-chapter materials, including any conclusion,
  summary, or chapter review questions.
Step 2: Write questions
 Write questions before you read the printed material.
 It takes about ten minutes.
 Formulate a variety of questions using
   What, where, when, who, why, how (reporter’s questions)
 Write these questions in your text, in your notes, on flash
  cards, in Cornell note-taking system format.
Step 3: Read carefully
 Do NOT feel the urge to read quickly.
 Read one paragraph at a time.
 If the text is exceptionally difficult, take the time to read
  slowly.
 If the text is very easy, your pace will pick up.
 Most textbooks are written for the average student, so read
  one paragraph at a time and ask yourself, “Do I understand
  what I just read?”
Step 4: Record information
 Reading comprehension involves finding main ideas and
    recognizing supporting details.
   Take notes of important information.
   These notes should be condensed or paraphrased.
   Use your own language.
   Taking notes puts you in the active phase of reading.
Step 5: Recite
 Before you move to the next paragraph, stop and speak out
    loud, using your own words and in complete sentences what
    you just read!
   For math and science chapters with formulas, recite the steps
    used to solve problems or apply formulas.
   Convert symbols in equations into English words.
   Reciting helps you encode the information for memory and
    creates retrieval cues.
   Reciting helps hold information longer in your working
    memory.
Step 6: Review
 After you finish the SQ3R, add the fourth R: REVIEW!
 Answer questions at the end of the chapter.
 Answer the questions you posed in the QUESTION step.
 Study and recite the notes you took during RECORD step.
 Write a summary of the information in the chapter.
 Personalize information: How can this information be used?
  How does the lecture from class fit in with this information?
 Create index cards, study tapes, visual maps.
 Copy math/science problems from book. Work the
  problems.
Reading thoughts
 Reading may or may not be something you love.
 Reading will boost your vocabulary (guaranteed).
 Reading takes time.
 Reading comprehension takes even more time.
 Reading is a fact of life when you are a college student.
 Reading should not cease once you graduate.
 The more you read, the better a writer you will become.You
  will speak with greater ease and you will discover that the
  time spent reading was worth the effort.

				
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posted:8/24/2011
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