Docstoc

THE AXIAL SKELETON

Document Sample
THE AXIAL SKELETON Powered By Docstoc
					THE AXIAL SKELETON
CRANIAL BONES
FACIAL BONES
BONES OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
BONES OF THE THORACIC CAGE
THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON
BONES OF THE SHOULDER GIRDLE
BONES OF THE UPPER LIMB
BONES OF THE PELVIC GIRDLE
BONES OF THE LOWER LIMB

Cranial Bones       Comments                         Landmarks
                                                     Supra orbital foramina (notches): allow the
                                                     supraorbital arteries and nerves to pass
                                                     Glabella: The smooth portion between the orbits
                    Forms forehead; superior part
                                                     Supraorbital margin: Thickened superior margins
Frontal (1) view    of orbits and anterior cranial
                                                     of the orbits under the eyebrow that provide
                    fossa; contains sinuses
                                                     protection to the eyes.
                                                     Coronal suture: where the frontal bone articulates
                                                     with the parietal bones.
                    Forms the most superior and       Left and right bones are separated by the sagittal
Parietal (2)view
                    lateral aspects of the skull.    suture.
                                                   Foramen magnum: Allows the brain stem to leave
                                                   the cranium
                                                   Occipital condyles: Articulates with the atlas (first
                                                   vertebra)
                    Forms the posterior aspect and
Occipital (1)view                                  External occipital protuberance and nuchal
                    most of the base of the skull.
                                                   lines: sites of muscle attachments like the
                                                   trapezius.
                                                   Lambdoid suture: where the occipital bone
                                                   articulates with the parietal bones.
                                                      Zygomatic process: helps to form the zygomatic
                                                      arch
                                                      External auditory (acoustic) meatus: Canal
                    Forms the inferolateral aspects leading from the external ear to the eardrum.
                    of the skull and were named       Styloid process: Attachment site for the hyoid
                    after the latin word temporum, bone and several neck muscles
Temporal (2)view
                    meaning time. Grey hairs, a       Mastoid process: Attachment site for muscles such
                    sign of times passing, usually as the sternoclcleidomastoid, longissimus and
                    develop first in the temple area. splenius.
                                                      Mandibular fossa: Articular point of the
                                                      mandibular condyles.
                                                      Squamous suture: where the temporal bone


                                                                                            1
                                                        articulates with the parietal bone.
                                                      Lesser wing: Forms part of the floor of the anterior
                                                      cranial fossa
                                                      Greater wing: Seen on both the inside and outside
                      Butterfly-shaped and often
                                                      of the skull, and forming part of the middle cranial
                      called keystone of the cranium
                                                      fossa.
Sphenoid (1)view      because it articulates with all
                                                      Optic foramen (canal): allows passage of the optic
                      other cranial bones. Forms part
                                                      nerves to the eyes.
                      of the orbit
                                                      Sella Turcica: Named because it looks like a
                                                      "Turk's saddle" Forming a snug seat for the
                                                      pituitary gland.
                                                       Cribriform plate: helps form the anterior cranial
                                                       fossa. The plate is punctured with tiny holes that
                      A very delicate bone that helps
                                                       allow passage to nerve filaments of the olfactory
                      to form the anterior cranial
                                                       nerve (cranial nerve #1)
                      fossa; forms part of the nasal
                                                       Crista galli: Latin meaning "rooster's comb".
Ethmoid (1)view       septum and the lateral walls and
                                                       Attachment site of the dura mater which helps
                      roof of the nasal cavity;
                                                       secure the brain in the cranial cavity.
                      contributes to the medial wall
                                                       Perpendicular plate: forms the superior part of the
                      of the orbit
                                                       nasal septum, which divides the nasal cavity into
                                                       right and left halves.
Malleus (hammer)
                      The three smallest bones in the
(2)
                      body; known as the ear
                      ossicals; found in the tympanic
Incus (anvil)(2)
                      cavity; involved in sound
                      transmission
Stapes (stirrup)(2)
                                                        Coronal suture: where the parietal bones meet the
                                                        frontal bone anteriorly
                                                        Sagittal suture: where the right and left parietal
                                                        bones meet superiorly at the cranial midline
                      "Seams" occurring only
Sutures view                                            Squamous (or squamosal) suture: where the
                      between bones of the skull
                                                        parietal and temporal bone meet on the lateral
                                                        aspect of the skull
                                                        Lambdoidial suture: Where the parietal and the
                                                        occipital bone meet posteriorly



Facial Bones          Comments                          Landmarks
                                                        Mandibular condyle: Articulates with the
                                                        temporal bones (mandibular fossa) in freely
                      The largest and strongest bone of movable joints of the jaw
Mandible (1)          the face that makes up the lower Coronoid processes: insertion points for the
                      jaw                               temporalis muscle
                                                        Mandibular notch: between the mandibular
                                                        condyles and coronoid processes.


                                                                                              2
                                                      Mental foramen: allows for nerves and blood
                                                      vessels to pass to the skin of the chin and lower
                                                      lip (located on the body of the mandible)
                                                      Mental protuberance (or mandibular
                                                      symphysis): is the line of fusion of the two
                                                      mandibular bones during infancy
                                                      Mandibular foramen: permits the nerves that are
                                                      responsible for sensation of the teeth in the lower
                                                      jaw; Dentists inject this area to numb the teeth.
                                                      Located on the ramus of the mandible.

                Keystone bones of the face; form      Infraorbital foramen: allows passage of the
                the upper jaw and parts of the        infraorbital nerve to skin of face
Maxilla (2)
                hard palate, orbits, and nasal        Palatine processes: form the anterior part of the
                cavity walls                          bony roof of the mouth (hard palate)
                commonly called the "cheek        Temporal process: helps form the zygomatic
Zygomatic (2)   bone"; form the cheek and part of arch by connecting with the zygomatic process of
                the orbit                         the temporal bone
                Thin, rectangular bones that are
Nasal (2)       fused together to form the bridge
                of the nose
                Form part of the medial orbit       Lacrimal foramen (or fossa): houses the
Lacrimal (2)    wall; allows tears to drain from lacrimal sac, which helps to drain tears into the
                the eye surface to the nasal cavity nasal cavity
                Forms the posterior part of the
                bony roof of the mouth (hard
Palatine (2)
                palate) and a small part of the
                nasal cavity and orbit walls
                Slender and plow-shaped; forms
                part of the nasal septum; best
Vomer (1)
                viewed on the inferior aspect of
                the skull
                Though not really part of the
                skull, the hyoid lies just inferior
                to the mandible in the anterior
                neck. The hyoid bone is the only
                bone of the body that does not
Hyoid (1)       articulate directly with any other
                bone. The hyoid bone acts as a
                base for the tongue and has neck
                muscle attachments that raise and
                lower the larynx during
                swallowing and speech.




                                                                                           3
Vertebrae       Comments                             Landmarks
                                                     Transverse process: lateral projection on each
                                                     side
                                                     Transverse foramen: opening for blood vessels
                The body is small; spinous           and nerves
                process is short, bifid and projects Spinous process: project posteriorly, C2-6 have
                directly posteriorly; Transverse     bifid (notched) spinous processes
                processes contain foramina; has      Vertebral foramen: opening for spinal cord.
                the greatest range of movement of Body: thick disk-shaped anterior portion
Cervical (7)
                all regions of spine. C-1 and C-2 Lamina: portion between the spinous process
                are known as Atlas and Axis.         and the and transverse process
                The axis has a unique feature        Pedicle: portion between body and transverse
                called the Dens or Odontoid          process
                process.                             Superior articular process: articulates with the
                                                     vertebrae above it
                                                     Inferior articular process: articulates with the
                                                     vertebrae below it
                                                    Transverse process: bear facets for ribs (except
                                                    T11 and T12)
                                                    Spinous process: sharper, slopes downward
                                                    Vertebral foramen:
Thoracic (12)   All articulate with the ribs        Body: bear demifacets (half facets)for ribs
                                                    Lamina:
                                                    Pedicle: same as for cervical
                                                    Superior articular process:
                                                    Inferior articular process:
                                                    Transverse process:
                                                    Spinous process: thicker, blunted
                                                    Vertebral foramen:
                Largest of the vertebrae; thicker   Body:
Lumbar (5)
                bodies; blunted spinous process     Lamina:
                                                    Pedicle:
                                                    Superior articular process:
                                                    Inferior articular process:
                                                    Base: superior part, from ala to ala, has body
                                                    Ala: similar to the transverse process of the
                                                    vertebrae, upper sides
                                                    Superior articular process: articulates with the
                                                    L5 of the vertebral column
                                                    Auricular (or articulating) surface: on the
                five fused vertebrae; shapes the
Sacrum (1)                                          sides, articulates with the ilium (sacroiliac joint)
                posterior wall of the pelvis
                                                    Sacral canal: opening for spinal cord
                                                    Sacral foramina: allows passage of nerves and
                                                    blood vessels
                                                    Medial sacral crest: fused spinous processes of
                                                    the sacral vertebrae (posterior side)
                                                    Transverse lines: site of vertebral fusion



                                                                                          4
                                                           (anterior)
                     Often known as the tail bone,
Coccyx (3-5 fused)   slight support given for organs of
                     the pelvis




THE THORACIC
                     Comments                              Landmarks
CAGE
                     Commonly called the                   Jugular (or sternal) notch: top, on manubrium
                     "breastbone" ; Results from the       Clavicular notches: on manubrium
Sternum (1)          fusion of three bones: the            Costal notches: on the body
                     manubrium, the body, and the          Sternal angle: the sternal angle is a handy
                     xiphoid process                       reference point for finding the second rib
                                                         Sternal end: flat end, attaches to costal cartilage
                                                         Body (or shaft): main part of the rib
                     1-7 are called true ribs because
                                                         Intercostal groove: inner surface of body,
                     they attach directly to the
                                                         inferior.
                     sternum. 8-10 are called false
                                                         Angle: where body curves
Ribs (12 pairs)      ribs because they indirectly attach
                                                         Tubercle: Knob like projection where the neck
                     to the sternum. 11and 12 ribs are
                                                         joins the body
                     called floating ribs because they
                                                         Neck: just lateral to the head
                     have no anterior attachment
                                                         Head: posterior, attaches to vertebrae
                                                         Articular facets: two on head , one on tubercle


Shoulder Girdle
                     Comments                             Landmarks
Bones
                     Clavicles ("little keys") more
                                                          Sternal end: Cone shaped end that attaches to the
                     commonly called the collarbones
                                                          manubrium (sternum)
                     act as braces to hold the
                                                          Acromial end: Flattened lateral end that attaches
                     scapulae and arms out laterally.
                                                          to the scapula
Clavicle (2)view     The curves of the clavicle
                                                          Conoid tubercle: small "lump" on inferior side,
                     increase the chances that if
                                                          lateral
                     fractured, the clavicle will
                                                          Costal tuberosity: roughened "lump" on sternal
                     collapse anteriorly, away from
                                                          end
                     the subclavian artery.
                                                      Medial Border: closest to the vertabrae also
                                                      called the vertebral border
                     Scapula derives from a word
                                                      Lateral Border: closest to the arm pit also called
                     meaning spade or shovel since in
                                                      the axillary border
                     ancient times the scapula of an
Scapula (2)view                                       Superior Border: On top
                     animal was used for digging.
                                                      Angles: superior and inferior
                     Commonly known as the
                                                      Subscapular fossa: on the anterior side of the
                     shoulder blades
                                                      scapula. Attachment site for the subscapularis
                                                      muscle



                                                                                              5
                                                    Supraspinous fossa: Superior to the spine of the
                                                    scapula. Attachment site for the supraspinatus
                                                    muscle
                                                    Infraspinous fossa: inferior to the spine of the
                                                    scapula. Attachment site for the infraspinatus
                                                    muscle
                                                    Glenoid fossa (cavity): Articulated with the head
                                                    of the humerus
                                                    Scapular spine: Posterior side of the scapula
                                                    Acromion process: Meaning "point of the
                                                    shoulder" attaches to the acromial end of the
                                                    clavicle
                                                    Coracoid process: insertion for the pectoralis
                                                    minor,and origin for the coracobrachialis and short
                                                    head of the biceps brachii.
                                                    Supra glenoid tubercle: attachment site for the
                                                    long head of the biceps brachii
                                                    Infra glenoid tubercle: Attachment site for the
                                                    long head of the triceps brachii
                                                    Suprascapular notch: area for nerve passage
                                                    Head: proximal hemispherical end that fits into
                                                    the glenoid cavity of the scapula
                                                    Anatomical neck: immediately inferior to the
                                                    head
                                                    Greater tubercle: Large bump inferior and lateral
                                                    to the anatomical neck
                                                    Lesser tubercle: Smaller bump medial to the
                                                    greater tubercle
                                                    Intertubercular (bicipital) groove: Space
                                                    between the two tubercles where the tendon of the
                                                    long head of the biceps brachii passes
                                                    Surgical neck: distal to the tubercles. Most
                  The largest and longest bone of   frequently fractured part of the humerus
                  the upper limb that articulates   Deltoid tuberosity: midway down the shaft on the
Humerus (2)view
                  with the scapula, radius and      lateral side. This V-shaped area is the attachment
                  ulna.                             site for the deltoid muscle
                                                    Medial and lateral supracondylar ridges:
                                                    Flattened ridges on the distal end
                                                    Medial and Lateral Epicondyles: most medial
                                                    and lateral projections at the distal end
                                                    Trochlea: the medial condyle of the humerus,
                                                    articulates with the ulna
                                                    Capitulum: the lateral condyle of the humerus,
                                                    articulates with the radius
                                                    Coronoid fossa: on the anterior surface superior
                                                    to the trochlea
                                                    Olecranon fossa: on the posterior surface that
                                                    allows the olecranon process of ulna to move



                                                                                         6
                                                          freely
                                                          Radial fossa: Smallest fossa on the anterior
                                                          humerus superior to the capitulum


Bones of the upper
                        Comments                           Landmarks
limb
                                                           Head: thin round proximal(superior) end
                                                           Neck: narrow area below head
                                                           Radial tuberosity: roughened projection inferior
                                                           to the head. Insertion point for the biceps muscle
Radius (2)
                                                           Ulnar notch: distal end where the radius
                                                           articulates with the ulna
                                                           Styloid process: pointy projection on the distal
                                                           end (can be felt at your wrist)
                                                           Olecranon process: Large proximal end that
                                                           makes the pointy bump on the posterior part of
                                                           your elbow
                                                           Coronoid process: projection distal to the
                                                           trochlear notch
                        ul'nah: "elbow" on the proximal
                                                           Trochlear notch: concave area between the two
Ulna (2)                end looks like the end of a
                                                           processes
                        monkey wrench
                                                           Radial notch: small depression on the proximal
                                                           lateral side where the radius articulates
                                                           Head: Smaller distal knoblike end of shaft
                                                           Styloid process: pointy projection on the distal
                                                           end
                        Navicuular bone is also called the
Carpals:(2 each)
                        Scaphoid bone. There are eight
navicular, lunate,
                        carpal bones, four in each row.    Hook of Hamate: anterior hooked end of the
triquetral, pisiform,
                        An easy way to remember these is hamate
trapezium, trapezoid,
                        the saying "Sarah Left The Party
capitate, hamate
                        To Take Chuck Home"
                        These small long bones form the Base: Proximal end
                        palm of the hand and are not
Metacarpals: (10)       named, but instead are numbered Shaft: middle
                        1 to 5 from the thumb to little
                        finger                          Head: (knuckles) Distal end
                        Each hand contains 14 miniature
                        long bones called Phalanges.
Phalanges:(28)          Each finger has three phalanges,
                        distal middle and proximal. The
                        thumb has no middle phalanx



Bones of the Pelvic      Comments                         Landmarks



                                                                                               7
Girdle
                                                     Iliac crest: When you rest your hands on your hips
                                                     you are resting them on the iliac crests
                                                     Anterior superior iliac spine: Attachment site for
                                                     the sartorius and tensor fascia latae muscles
                     The ilium is part of the os     Anterior inferior iliac spine: Attachment site for
                     coxae (hip bone). The female the rectus femoris muscle
Ilium (2)view        pelvis tends to be wider,       Posterior superior iliac spine:
                     shallower, lighter, and rounder Posterior inferior iliac spine:
                     to accommodate child bearing Greater sciatic notch: This allows passage for the
                                                     sciatic nerve
                                                     Auricular surface: This means ear-shaped. This
                                                     is were the ilium articulates with the sacrum
                                                     Iliac fossa: Anterior internal surface of the iliac
                                                     Ischial tuberosity: Attachment site for the
                                                     hamstring muscles.
                                                     Ischial spine: Projects medially into the pelvic
                     Posterior inferior portion of
                                                     cavity
Ischium (2)view      the os coxae. This is the bone
                                                     Obturator foramen: Opening where nerves and
                     that you sit on, or "seat" bone
                                                     blood vessels pass through
                                                     Ramus of ischium: Connects with the inferior
                                                     ramus of the pubis
                                                      Superior ramus: upper portion or bridge
                                                      Inferior ramus: lower, joins with ramus of ishium
                                                      Pubic crest and tubercle: Attachment site for
                                                      muscles of the abdomen
                     Anterior inferior portion of the Symphysis pubis: Not really a bony landmark, in
Pubis (2)view
                     os coxae                         fact it is a fibrocartilage disk between the two
                                                      pubic bones
                                                      Pubic arch: When the two pubic bones a put
                                                      together the inferior portion forms an inverted V-
                                                      shaped arch
                     Not really a bone; in fact it is a
                     landmark of the hip socket
Acetabulumview
                     where the ilium, ischium and
                     pubis fuse together. Tea cup.


Bones of the Lower
                     Comments                             Landmarks
Limb
                                                     Head: Ball-like end
                                                     Fovea capitis: Small pit on the head where a
                                                     ligament secures the femur to the acetabulum
                     The largest, longest, strongest
Femur: (2)view                                       Neck: Just below the head of the femur, weakest
                     bone in the body
                                                     part of the femur
                                                     Greater Trochanter: Attachment site for the
                                                     vastus lateralis and gluteus minimus


                                                                                          8
                                                         Lesser trochanter: attachment site for muscles
                                                         Intertrochanteric line: Anterior line that connects
                                                         the greater and lesser trochanters
                                                         Intertrochanteric crest: Posterior crest that
                                                         connects the greater and lesser trochanters
                                                         Linea aspera: Line that runs up the posterior shaft
                                                         of the femur, attachment site for muscles
                                                         Medial and lateral condyles: Articulates with the
                                                         tibia
                                                         Medial and lateral epicondyles: Site for muscle
                                                         and ligament attachments
                                                         Intercondylar fossa (notch): Attachment site for
                                                         the cruciate ligaments
                                                         Patellar surface: Anterior smooth portion
                                                         Popliteal surface: Posterior, distal aspect of the
                                                         femur
                         This is a sesamoid bone
                                                         Anterior surface: Rounded convex portion
                         contained in the quadriceps
Patella: (2)view                                         Articular surface: Posterior side that has two
                         tendon that improves the
                                                         concave indentations for the femoral condyles
                         leverage of the thigh muscles

                                                         Medial and lateral condyles: Conacave part of
                                                         the tibia that articulates with the femoral condyles
                                                         Intercondylar eminence: Projection that separates
                                                         the tibial condyles
Tibia: (2)view view                                      Tibial tuberosity: Attachment site for the
                                                         quadriceps muscles
                                                         Anterior crest: "Shin"
                                                         Medial malleolus: Prominent bump at the ankle
                                                         Fibular facet: proximal end just below the lateal
                                                         tibial condyle. This is were the fibular head
                                                         articulates
                                                         Fibular notch: Part of the distal tibiofemoral joint
                                                         Head: Proximal end
                                                         Shaft:
                                                         Lateral malleolus: Prominent bump at the ankle
Fibula: (2)view view                                     on the outside
                                                         Malleolar fossa: This landmark will help identify
                                                         left or right fibula since it is on the distal end and
                                                         always faces posterior in anatomical position
Tarsals: (2 each) talus,
calcaneus, navicular,
                                                          The talus articulates with the tibia and fibula and
first cuneiform, second
                         These are the bones in your     is known as the "ankle bone." The calcaneus is
cuneiform, third
                         ankle.                          just inferior to the talus and is commonly known as
cuneiform, and cuboid
                                                         the "heel bone"
view



                                                                                                 9
                        These small long bones form   Base: Proximal end
                        the mid foot and are not
Metatarsals: (10)view   named, but instead are        Shaft: middle
                        numbered 1 to 5 from the
                        medial side to the lateral    Head: Distal end
                        Each foot contains 14
                        miniature long bones called   Each toe has three phalanges: distal, middle, and
Phalanges: (28)view
                        Phalanges. These are the      proximal. The big toe has no middle phalanx
                        bones in your toes.




                                                                                        10

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:29
posted:8/24/2011
language:English
pages:10