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SLSA Testing Protocals

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									SURF LIF E SA V IN G AUS TRAL IA’S



HIGH
PERFORMANCE
FITNESS
TESTING
PROTOCOLS


CO MP ILED B Y:
SURF LIF E SAV IN G AUS TR AL IA H IGH PERF OR MA NCE
PROGR A M AND THE AUS TR AL IAN INS TITU TE OF SP ORT
                  THE SLSA HIGH PERFORMANCE PROGRAM WISHES T O
                          ACKNOWLEDGE T HE FOLLOWING
                     AUSTRALIAN SPORTS COMMISSION – PRINCIPAL SPONSOR
                                  SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTRALIA
                                 AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF SPORT
              INSTITU TE OF SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE, JAMES COOK UNIVERSITY
                           HIGH PERFORMANCE COACHES AND ATHLETES




PUBLISHED APRIL 2005


CORRESPONDENCE TO:

SURF LI FE SAV ING AUS TRAL IA
LOCKED BAG 2
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026

PHONE: 02 – 9130 7370
www.slsa.asn.au




Photos courtesy of Harvie Allison www.harvpix.com.

All images within this document have been obtained via the Surf Life Saving Australia (www.slsa.asn.au) and
Surf Life Saving Queensland (www.lifesaving.org.au) websites.
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                             ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                               ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                       www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370

                                                         CONT ENT S
                                                                                        Page

       Cover page …………………………………………………………………………...…                                              1

       Acknowledgements .………………………………………………………………….                                             2

       Contents .………………………………………………………………………………..                                               3

       Background on fitness testing ……………………………………………………...                                    4

       Terminology …………………………………………………………………………….                                               5

       Pool testing for swimmers and iron athletes
            •    7 x 200m Incremental Step test ………………………………………………                              6

       Fitness testing for craft disciplines
            •    Surf Ski and Malibu board ………...….……………………………………….                             9

       Fitness testing for beach disciplines
            •    Sprint test ………………………………………………………………….……                                   12
            •    Flag acceleration and speed test ……………………………………………                         14
            •    Standing long jump …………………………………………………………...                               15
            •    Vertical jump ……………………………………………………………………                                   16

       Generic fitness testing for all disciplines
            •    Aerobic or endurance fitness testing
                     -    Multistage Beep test ……………………………………………………                         18
            •    Core body strength testing
                     -    Abdominal strength – 7 Stage Abdominal Strength test ……………        19
                     -    Abdominal endurance test …..…………………………………………                      20

       Body composition assessment
            •    Anthropometry (skinfold assessment) ……………………………………….                       21

       Interpreting the results ……………………………………………………………….                                   22

       Appendix A: Part A – Example Pre-Screening Form ……………………………                          23
                          Part B – Example Results Sheet ………………………………...                    25

       Appendix B: Heart rate and blood lactate interpretation ………………………                    26

       Appendix C: Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale ………………                   27




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                         Page 3 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                    ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                      ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                              www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370


                              BACKG RO UND O N FIT NESS TEST ING
Fitness testing is used to determine an individual’s current level of physical fitness in order to:
   i. Develop an adaptable and suitable exercise program;
  ii. Identify the specific components of physical fitness requiring special attention;
  iii. Monitor and assess the progress of the exercise program and its components; and
 iv. Educate and provide motivation for the athlete.
Fitness testing provides feedback to athletes and coaches on how the athlete is developing their
various components of physical fitness. A coach can then compare the results of the tests to
where they would like their athlete to be at that particular stage of their training program. Fitness
testing can take many forms including field tests (conducted relatively easily in a typical
environment such as on the beach or in a pool) or laboratory based testing (conducted at
Universities or Academies of Sport and usually requiring specialised equipment).
Surf lifesaving is a sport that presents significant opportunities for coaches and athletes to apply
information gained from appropriate fitness testing. There are a number of benefits that can be
obtained from a well-planned testing program. In particular:
     •    Monitoring and assessing the effectiveness of a training program and examining alternative
          preparation strategies
     •    Prescribing various exercise intensities throughout specific phases of an annual program
     •    Constructing an event specific physiological profile (e.g. specific metabolic demands on the
          athlete during an event)
     •    Constructing an individual profile of the key physical fitness components contributing to an
          athletes success
     •    Providing additional information to that which is already available (e.g. surf carnival results,
          general observations) to assist with decisions on team selections
     •    Aids in talent identification
     •    Potentially predict performances
     •    Helps to detect and/or confirm any acute or chronic overtraining syndrome
When preparing a test battery for an athlete there are a few important characteristics to consider:
      •    T EST VALIDITY – Is the test measuring what you need it to test?
      •    T EST RELIABILITY – Does the test produce consistent results between trials?
      •    NORMS FOR COMPARISON – Results from a previous testing session or another group, which
           an athlete or coach can compare their current test results.
      •    ECONOMY – Are the tests easily administered or do they need to be conducted by a Sport
           Scientist with specialised equipment?
The water based tests within this document are prescribed as either pool based or held in bodies
of water that are not influenced by tidal variations, such as dams, so as to control conditions as
much as possible. Although the water based surf sport disciplines are typically held in variable
conditions, conducting the testing in a controlled environment allows greater accuracy in results
obtained from the tests especially between various testing sessions.
This booklet is designed to assist coaches and athletes at a club, branch, state or national level to:
      •    Conduct these fitness tests within their own regions;
      •    Interpret the results from these fitness tests;
      •    Implement these fitness tests into their training programs; and
      •    Compare test results with those obtained from SLSA National High Performance Squads.


SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                               Page 4 of 27
  Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                       ACN 003 147 180
  Locked Bag 2                                                                                         ABN 67 449 738 159
  BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                                 www.slsa.asn.au
  Phone: (02) 9130-7370


                                                       TERM INOLOGY

Aerobic Energy System                     The system within your body which uses oxygen in the breakdown of
                                          carbohydrates and/or fat to generate energy.
Anaerobic Energy System                   There are two anaerobic energy systems: stored ATP and CP, and
                                          anaerobic glycogen breakdown. These systems do not require oxygen to
                                          generate energy. The amount of energy generated is very rapid, but limited
                                          in supply and often produces the nasty metabolic by-product, lactic acid.
Anaerobic Threshold (AT)                  The exercise intensity at which there is a rapid increase in the level of
                                          blood lactate, representing the point at which lactic acid clearance is no
                                          longer capable of keeping up with lactic acid production.
AT Velocity                               Velocity calculated from lactate-velocity relationship graphs. Exercising at
                                          or slightly above AT velocity stresses the AT and has often been referred to
                                          as the optimal training intensity.
                                          NB: If regular blood lactate measurement proves impractical, heart rates and velocities
                                          determined at the initial lactate assessment are suitable for prescribing exercise intensities.

Lactic Acid                               The waste product of glucose breakdown in the lactate or glycolytic
                                          (anaerobic) energy pathways.
                                               q    Units of meas ure are millimoles per litre of whole blood (mM·L -1).

Lactate Threshold (LT)                    The initial increase in blood lactate above resting levels; a good indicator of
                                          how long an athlete can sustain a particular intensity (i.e. the higher the
                                          intensity above LT the less time the athlete would be capable of
                                          maintaining the intensity)
                                               q    Highest exercise intensity possible before lactic acid begins to accumulate and
                                                    reaches 1 mM·L -1 above resting levels.
LT Velocity                               Velocity calculated from lactate-velocity relationship graphs. Exercising at
                                          or above LT velocity provides effective aerobic training with higher
                                          intensities even better
                                          NB: If regular blood lactate measurement proves impractical, heart rates and velocities
                                          determined at the initial lactate assessment are suitable for prescribing exercise intensities.

Maximal Oxygen                            Maximum rate of oxygen consumption an athlete’s body can utilise during
Consumption (VO 2MAX)                     highly intense exercise periods and is a good indicator of cardiorespiratory
                                          fitness and an athlete’s ability to sustain high-intensity exercise.
                                               q    Units of measure are litres of oxygen per minute (L·min -1) or expressed in relation
                                                    to an athlete’s weight as millilitres of oxygen per kilogram body weight per minute
                                                    (mL·kg-1·min -1).

Power                                     The rate of work production; when referring to muscle is the product of
                                          muscular force and the velocity with which the muscle shortens.




  SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                                    Page 5 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                   ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                                     ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                             www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370


              POOL TEST ING FOR S WIM M ERS AND IRON AT HLET ES
AIM
The aim of this test is to provide valuable information on the aerobic or endurance fitness of the
surf swimmer, ironman or ironwoman in a controlled environment.
EQUIPMENT
     •    50m pool (indoor or outdoor but regulated at 27°C or kept standard between sessions)
     •    Stopwatches with stroke rate capabilities
     •    Heart rate monitors
     •    Blood sampling equipment (where possible)
     •    Clipboard, data sheets and pens
ATHLETE PREPARATION
To assist with controlling for the many variables associated with an athlete, the athlete should do
the following prior to their scheduled testing session:
      -    Not participate in high intensity training within the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Go without food or beverages containing caffeine at least 2 hours prior as well as eat a
           typical high carbohydrate-low fat diet for the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Be well rested and without influence of any illness or injury
OVERVIEW
This test involves 7 x graded incremental 200m freestyle stages where cardiovascular (heart rate)
and metabolic (blood lactate) responses to increasing speeds of swimming are measured. The
seven even paced swims are graded from easy to maximal on a 5 min cycle and it is very
important for each swim to be consistently faster than the immediate preceding swim so as to
attain a clean lactate curve to determine LT and AT velocities and heart rate. In swimming, basic
intervals used in various aerobic fitness tests range from 100 to 400m. The longer intervals such
as 300 or 400m are more likely to achieve a physiological ‘steady state’, which is important when
assessing the metabolic cost of swimming. However, despite the need to achieve this steady state,
200m intervals are more specific to the training and competitive requirements of surf lifesavers and
represents a compromise between achieving a steady state in metabolism and swimming speeds
that are more specific to competition levels.



TESTING PROCEDURE
          WARM UP – The athlete should warm up over only 500m using low-to-moderate intensity
          freestyle completed immediately prior to commencing the fitness test.
     1. Target times for each athlete is calculated before the session and then discussed with the
        athlete, coaching and testing staff. Times are calculated using the guidelines below which
        are for a surf swimmer with a best time of 1 min 50 s for 200m freestyle are shown.
          •    Determine the athlete’s 200m personal best time (eg 1 min 50 s)
          •    Add 5 s to account for the push start and training situation, to estimate the time for the
               final maximal effort swim (Swim no. 7) (eg 1 min 50 s + 5 s = 1 min 55 s)
          •    Working in reverse order from the seventh and final swim, add 5 s for each subsequent
               interval to establish the full test protocol, for example:




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                              Page 6 of 27
 Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                ACN 003 147 180
 Locked Bag 2                                                                                  ABN 67 449 738 159
 BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                          www.slsa.asn.au
 Phone: (02) 9130-7370
                       Swim no. 7         = personal best 200m time + 5 s           = 1 min 55 s
                       Swim no. 6         = 1 min 55 s + 5 s                        = 2 min
                       Swim no. 5         = 2 min + 5 s                             = 2 min 5 s
                       Swim no. 4         = 2 min 5 s + 5 s                         = 2 min 10 s
                       Swim no. 3         = 2 min 10 s + 5 s                        = 2 min 15 s
                       Swim no. 2         = 2 min 15 s + 5 s                        = 2 min 20 s
                       Swim no. 1         = 2 min 20 s + 5 s                        = 2 min 25 s
      2. A pre-screening form (Appendix A) is prepared to record all relevant information of each
         individual surf swimmer including: recent and/or current illness; recent and/or current injury;
         recent training absences; the number of weeks completed in the current training cycle; and
         any other information relevant to the interpretation of test performances and results.
      3. Each stage utilises a push start. Emphasis on ‘even pace’ or ‘even splits’ and target times
         should be given before each swim. A common mistake is to go too fast on the first swim.
      4. The time for each 100m is recorded to ensure the athlete is on pace. With manual timing,
         feet leaving the wall are used as the starting time.
      5. Measurement of Heart Rate. Immediately upon completion of each swim, heart rate is
         measured with an electronic heart rate monitor or immediately palpated for 15 s (then
         multiplied by 4 to give beats per minute).
      6. Measurement of Rating of Perceived Exertion. Immediately after the athlete’s heart rate
         has been recorded they should rate the exertion level of the effort. This is read from a 6-20
         visual scale (see Appendix C) with ½ increments allowed.
      7. Measurement of Stroke Rate. Using a compatible stopwatch, stroke rate is measured in
         the final 50m of each stage with the count being as the right hand touches the water. The
         individual measuring stroke rate should be familiar with the correct technique for that
         particular stopwatch.
      8. Measurement of Blood Lactate. After each swim a blood sample is taken as soon as
         possible from the earlobe (or fingertip). Samples need to be drawn rapidly to ensure the
         swimmer can adhere to the 5 min cycle.
           NB: If regular blood lactate measurement proves impractical, heart rates and velocities determined at the initial
           lactate assessment are suitable for prescribing exercise intensities.
      9. All results are recorded on the data sheet for later assessment and discussion with the
         athlete and coaches.




VELOCITY CALCULATIONS
LT and AT velocities represented throughout this booklet have been determined via the heart rate-
velocity and lactate-velocity curves discussed on page 22. For all other calculations, the following
formula can be used:
     Velocity      =                  distance (in m)                         = metres per second
                         time taken to cover that distance (in sec)
For example, if a surf swimmer completed the 200m time trial in 2 min 9 sec then their velocity would
be calculated as follows:
     Velocity = 200 m = 1.55 metres per second                    NB: Velocity in relation to the pool testing is represented
                129 s                                                 as seconds per 100m as this is how results are
                                                                      typically expressed in swimming. To convert the 1.55
                                                                      metres per second into seconds per 100m, simply
                                                                      divide 100m by 1.55 = 64.5 seconds per 100m




 SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                              Page 7 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                               ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                                                 ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                                         www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370



COMPARATIVE DATA FROM SLSA NATIONAL HIGH PERFORMANCE SQUADS
Averages for female and male squad surf swimmers and ironmen and women:
                                          Female Athletes                          Male Athletes

Time (secs)                              134.04       ±    4.66                    126.57       ±     6.98
Lactate (mM·L -1)                          10.5       ±    2.5                       11.2       ±     2.3
Heart Rate (b·min-1)                        182       ±    9                          183       ±     10
Stroke Rate (s·min -1)                       43       ±    3                           43       ±     5
Velocity (sec per 100m)                   67.02       ±    2.33                     63.28       ±     3.49
LT Velocity (sec per 100m)                77.38       ±    3.55                     75.26       ±     3.61
LT Heart Rate (b·min-1)                     146       ±    12                         146       ±     14
AT Velocity (sec per 100m)                71.47       ±    2.23                     68.56       ±     3.15
AT Heart Rate (b·min-1)                     174       ±    12                         174       ±     12

                            (data courtesy of the Australian Institute of Sport)



Normative scales for surf swimmers, ironmen and women based on the averages obtained from
SLSA National High Performance squads:

                                        Rating                         Total Time                          Velocity
                                                                         (secs)                         (sec per 100m)

                                   Excellent                     Less than 127.05                      Less than 63.53
               FEMALE            Above Average                   131.70 to 127.06                       65.85 to 63.54
              ATHLETES              Average                      136.36 to 131.71                       68.18 to 65.86
                                 Below Average                   141.02 to 136.37                       70.51 to 68.19
                                     Poor                       Greater than 141.03                   Greater than 70.52

                                   Excellent                     Less than 116.10                      Less than 58.05
                M ALE            Above Average                   123.07 to 116.11                       61.53 to 58.06
              ATHLETES              Average                      130.05 to 123.08                       65.02 to 61.54
                                 Below Average                   137.03 to 130.06                       68.51 to 65.03
                                     Poor                       Greater than 137.04                   Greater than 68.52
                                               (data courtesy of the Australian Institute of Sport)




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                                           Page 8 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                      ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                        ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370

                       FIT NESS TEST ING FO R CRAFT DISCIPLINES
SURF SKI AND M ALIBU BOARD
AIM
The aim of this test is to provide valuable information on the aerobic or endurance fitness of the
craft competitor, ironman or ironwoman on a surf ski and Malibu board in a controlled environment.
EQUIPMENT
     •    1000m body of water not influenced by tidal variations
          - An alternative is using an area with minimal exposure provided subsequent testing
              sessions are held in the same location under similar tidal conditions. Environmental
              conditions can also contribute to the performance of the athlete and their craft so try to
              ensure testing is held at the same time of day
     •    Buoys positioned at 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000m
     •    Stopwatches with stroke rate capabilities
     •    Heart rate monitors
     •    Blood sampling equipment (where possible)
     •    Clipboard, data sheets and pens
ATHLETE PREPARATION
To assist with controlling for the many variables associated with an athlete, the athlete should do
the following prior to their scheduled testing session:
      -    Not participate in high intensity training within the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Go without food or beverages containing caffeine at least 2 hours prior as well as eat a
           typical high carbohydrate-low fat diet for the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Be well rested and without influence of any illness or injury
      -    Provide their own craft (preferably their racing craft) in good condition
OVERVIEW
These tests involve 2 graded incremental stages where cardiovascular (heart rate) and metabolic
(blood lactate) responses to increasing speeds of paddling are measured. Due to the need to
achieve a steady state (as discussed in the pool testing protocol), 500m and 1000m intervals are
used for the board and ski respectively which are specific to the training and competitive
requirements of craft paddlers.


TESTING PROCEDURE
          SURF SKI –
                    Two 1000m efforts on a 20 min cycle (i.e. begin the next repetition every 20 mins)
                              Effort 1 – at a self-selected pace, to be used as a warm-up
                              Effort 2 – MAXIMAL EFFORT
TESTING PROCEDURE
          MALIBU BOARD –
                    Two 500m efforts on a 20 min cycle (i.e. begin the next repetition every 20 mins)
                              Effort 1 – at a self-selected pace, to be used as a warm-up
                              Effort 2 – MAXIMAL EFFORT



SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                 Page 9 of 27
    Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                               ACN 003 147 180
    Locked Bag 2                                                                                                 ABN 67 449 738 159
    BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                                         www.slsa.asn.au
    Phone: (02) 9130-7370
    Two even paced efforts graded from light to maximal on a 20 minute cycle are undertaken.
         1. Target heart rates for each athlete are calculated before the session to ascertain maximal
            efforts by paddlers after their second effort and are then discussed with the athlete,
            coaching and testing staff. Heart rates should be calculated using the following guidelines
            to ascertain the paddler has reached their maximal performance for the final effort.
              •    If a true maximum heart rate is known, then values can be calculated using that figure
              •    If a true maximum heart rate is unknown then the value can be predicted using the
                   formula 220 beats per minute minus the athlete’s age in years
         2. A pre-screening form (Appendix A) is prepared to record all relevant information of each
                                  i
            individual paddler ncluding: recent and/or current illness; recent and/or current injury;
            recent training absences; the number of weeks completed in the current training cycle; and
            any other information relevant to the interpretation of test performances and results.
         3. Each athlete will progress down the course separated by a minimum of one minute. This
            will avoid the negative effects of the previous athlete’s wash.
         4. The athlete should attempt to even pace each effort as this will ensure a true steady state
            in heart rate and blood lactate values.
         5. Measurement of Heart Rate. Immediately upon completion of each swim, heart rate is
            measured with an electronic heart rate monitor or immediately palpated for 15 s (then
            multiplied by 4 to give beats per minute).
         6. Measurement of Rating of Perceived Exertion Immediately after the athlete’s heart rate
            has been recorded they should rate the exertion level of the effort. This is read from a 6-20
            visual scale (see Appendix C) with ½ increments allowed.
         5. Measurement of Stroke Rate. Using a compatible stopwatch, stroke rate is measured in
            the final 250m for the Surf Ski and the final 100m for the Malibu board. The individual
            measuring stroke rate should be familiar with the correct technique for that particular
            stopwatch, with the first count being as the blade or hand touches the water.
         6. Measurement of Blood Lactate. After each paddling stage, a blood sample is taken as
            soon as possible from the earlobe (or fingertip).
              NB: If regular blood lactate measurement proves impractical, heart rates and velocities determined at the initial
              lactate assessment are suitable for prescribing exercise intensities.
         7. The athlete then has a short break (depending on the time taken to extract the blood
            sample) before paddling back to the start area and commencing the next effort exactly 20
            min after the start of the preceding effort.
         8. All results are recorded on the data sheet for later assessment and discussion with the
            athlete and coaches.

    COMPARATIVE DATA FROM SLSA NATIONAL HIGH PERFORMANCE SQUADS
    Averages for female and male squad craft paddlers and ironmen and women:
                                                        Surf Ski                                                  Malibu Board
                                  Female Athletes                    Male Athletes                 Female Athletes           Male Athletes

Time (secs)                          296.18   ±   15.70            257.36       ±   18.13           208.60   ±   9.16       200.95    ±   11.37
Lactate (mM·L -1)                       8.2   ±   3.1                 8.4       ±   2.8                7.8   ±   2.2           8.2    ±   1.8
Heart Rate (b·min-1)                    176   ±   11                  182       ±   8                  177   ±   11            182    ±   9
Stroke Rate (s·min -1)                   47   ±   11                   50       ±   5                   74   ±   8              73    ±   10
Velocity (m·sec-1)                     3.38   ±   0.17               3.90       ±   0.25              2.40   ±   0.11         2.50    ±   0.14
LT Velocity (m·sec-1)                  2.81   ±   0.18               3.17       ±   0.27              2.09   ±   0.23         2.26    ±   0.60
LT Heart Rate (b·min-1)                 127   ±   15                  127       ±   15                 129   ±   7             127    ±   16
AT Velocity (m·sec-1)                  3.23   ±   0.10               3.62       ±   0.24              2.35   ±   0.16         2.41    ±   0.95
AT Heart Rate (b·min-1)                 156   ±   12                  156       ±   15                 152   ±   16            144    ±   17

                                                  (data courtesy of the Australian Institute of Sport)




    SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                                          Page 10 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                               ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                                                 ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                                         www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370
SURF SKI
                                       Rating                         Total Time                           Velocity
                                                                        (secs)                       (metres per second)

                                   Excellent                   Less than 272.64                       Greater than 3.67
               FEMALE            Above Average                 288.33 to 272.65                         3.47 to 3.66
              ATHLETES              Average                    304.02 to 288.34                         3.30 to 3.46
                                 Below Average                 319.72 to 304.03                         3.14 to 3.29
                                     Poor                     Greater than 319.73                      Less than 3.13

                                   Excellent                   Less than 230.18                       Greater than 4.34
                M ALE            Above Average                 248.30 to 230.19                         4.03 to 4.33
              ATHLETES              Average                    266.42 to 248.31                         3.76 to 4.02
                                 Below Average                 284.54 to 266.43                         3.52 to 3.75
                                     Poor                     Greater than 284.55                      Less than 3.51




M ALIBU BOARD
                                       Rating                         Total Time                           Velocity
                                                                        (secs)                       (metres per second)

                                   Excellent                   Less than 194.87                       Greater than 2.56
               FEMALE            Above Average                 204.02 to 194.88                         2.45 to 2.55
              ATHLETES              Average                    213.17 to 204.03                         2.36 to 2.44
                                 Below Average                 222.32 to 213.18                         2.25 to 2.35
                                     Poor                     Greater than 222.33                      Less than 2.24

                                   Excellent                   Less than 183.90                       Greater than 2.72
                M ALE            Above Average                 195.26 to 183.91                         2.56 to 2.71
              ATHLETES              Average                    206.62 to 195.27                         2.43 to 2.55
                                 Below Average                 217.98 to 206.63                         2.30 to 2.42
                                     Poor                     Greater than 217.99                      Less than 2.29
                                              (data courtesy of the Australian Institute of Sport)




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                                            Page 11 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                             ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                               ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                       www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370

                      FIT NESS TEST ING FO R BE AC H DISC IPLINES
SPRINT TEST
AIM
This test will give an indication of an athlete’s start, acceleration, speed and speed endurance
phases on sand and track over the distances assessed.
EQUIPMENT
     •    Electronic Timing Gates or stopwatches (for timing at 10, 30, 60 and 90 metre intervals)
     •    Marker cones or poles
     •    Measuring tape
     •    Clipboard, data sheets and pens
ATHLETE PREPARATION
To assist with controlling for the many variables associated with an athlete, the athlete should do
the following prior to their scheduled testing session:
      -    Not participate in high intensity training within the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Go without food or beverages containing caffeine at least 2 hours prior as well as eat a
           typical high carbohydrate-low fat diet for the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Be well rested and without influence of any illness or injury
OVERVIEW
Athlete start, acceleration, speed and speed endurance are assessed with timing gates or
stopwatches at different distances. Sprinters are allowed to dig starting blocks in the sand or use
starting blocks on the track in order to perform a racing start and should be encouraged to sprint
5m past the final timing gate or finish line to ensure the quickest time and most accurate time is
recorded.
TESTING PROCEDURE
          WARM UP – The athlete should complete their typical competition warm up immediately prior
          to commencing the fitness test.
     1. Set timing gates at intervals of 0, 10, 30, 60 and 90 metres
             - If timing gates are unavailable, station other coaching assistants or helpers at each
                 interval with a stopwatch. Their role is to time from the start to that point ONLY
     2. A pre-screening form (Appendix A) is prepared to record all relevant information of each
        individual athlete including: recent and/or current illness; recent and/or current injury; recent
        training absences; the number of weeks completed in the current training cycle; and any
        other information relevant to the interpretation of test performances and results
     3. Mark a starting line (0m) using cones in the sand
     4. The starting position is a crouch start behind the line (optional for iron athletes)
     5. The athlete may start when a starters pistol discharges or the command “GO” is given,
        following the usual set of commands for preparation (e.g. “You are in the starters hands”,
        “On your marks and get set”, “GO”)
     6. The athlete sprints as fast as possible through to the finish line, making sure not to slow
        down before the finish gate
             - Instructing the athlete to sprint to a cone placed 5m past the final timing gate or
                 timekeeper will assist in ensuring the athlete sprints the entire distance
     7. Split times (at 10, 30 and 60m) and final time (90m) for the three trials are recorded on the
        data sheets to the nearest 0.01 sec for later assessment and discussion
     8. The best times for 10, 30, 60 and 90m are used as the final result even if these times come
        from different trials. Also an average of the times at each interval can be taken.



SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                        Page 12 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                              ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                                ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                        www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370




                                       Figure 1: Handheld stopwatch sprint test set up




                                      Figure 2: Electronic timing gate sprint test set up




Figure 1 shows the set up of a sprint test at either the beach or track with the use of stopwatches.
It can be seen that an assistant is placed at each interval and are responsible for timing from the
start to their interval only. Figure 2 shows the setup of a sprint test at either the beach or track with
the use of timing gates. It also details the various phases of a typical beach sprint race.
These sprint tests are designed to monitor the improvements made by the athletes as the season
progresses. Some important points to monitor are as follows:
     1.   Track times decreasing in all segments;
     2.   Beach times decreasing in all segments;
     3.   The difference between track and beach times should also reduce.

NOTE: Hand held times are 0.24 s faster than electronic times. For example a hand held time of
11.00 s would equate to a time of 11.24 s electronic. When looking at hand held segment splits,
do not add the 0.24 s to the various segment times. For example if you require a segment time
between 30 and 60m, at that split and then simply subtract the 30m time from the 60m time.




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                         Page 13 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                         ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                           ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                   www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370
FLAG ACCELERAT ION AND SPEED T EST
AIM
This test will give an indication of an athlete’s strength and explosive acceleration on sand over the
distance of the beach flag event.
EQUIPMENT
     •    Electronic Timing Gates or stopwatches (number required depends on desired splits)
     •    Marker cones
     •    Measuring tape
     •    Clipboard, data sheets and pens
ATHLETE PREPARATION
To assist with controlling for the many variables associated with an athlete, the athlete should do
the following prior to their scheduled testing session:
      -    Not participate in high intensity training within the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Go without food or beverages containing caffeine at least 2 hours prior as well as eat a
           typical high carbohydrate-low fat diet for the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Be well rested and without influence of any illness or injury
OVERVIEW
Athlete acceleration, speed and power are assessed with timing gates placed at different
distances. Sprinters are allowed to use the lying down position for flag starts and, on the signal,
sprinters get up, turn and sprint the full 20 metres.

TESTING PROCEDURE
          WARM UP – The athlete should complete their typical competition warm up immediately prior
          to commencing the fitness test.
     1. Set timing gates at two intervals of 2 and 20 metres
              - If timing gates are unavailable, station other coaching assistants or helpers at each
                 interval with a stopwatch. Their role is to time from the start to that point ONLY.
     2. A pre-screening form (Appendix A) is prepared to record all relevant information of each
         individual athlete including: recent and/or current illness; recent and/or current injury; recent
         training absences; the number of weeks completed in the current training cycle; and any
         other information relevant to the interpretation of test performances and results.
     3. Mark a starting line (0m) using cones in the sand
     4. The starting position is the normal flag starting position
     5. The athlete may start when a starters pistol discharges or the command “GO” is given,
         following the usual set of commands for preparation (e.g. “You are in the starters hands”,
         “Heads down”, “GO”)
     6. The athlete sprints as fast as possible through to the finish line, making sure not to slow
         down before the finish gate
              - Instructing the athlete to sprint to a cone placed 5m past the final timing gate or
                 timekeeper will assist in ensuring the athlete sprints the entire distance
     7. Timing at the 2m mark should be taken from the top of the head and the chest at the 20m.
     8. Both the split time (at 2m) and final time (20m) for the three trials are recorded on the data
         sheets to the nearest 0.01 sec for later assessment and discussion
     9. The best times for 2 and 20m are used as the final result even if these times come from
         different trials
     10. Video footage can be taken at the start and end of the 20m to review initial acceleration and
         form throughout the sprint




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                    Page 14 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                  ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                    ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                            www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370


ST ANDING LONG JUMP
AIM
This test will give an indication of an athlete’s explosive leg power in a horizontal direction in their
competitive environment.
EQUIPMENT
     •    Marker cones
     •    Measuring tape
     •    Clipboard, data sheets and pens
ATHLETE PREPARATION
To assist with controlling for the many variables associated with an athlete, the athlete should do
the following prior to their scheduled testing session:
      -    Not participate in high intensity training within the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Go without food or beverages containing caffeine at least 2 hours prior as well as eat a
           typical high carbohydrate-low fat diet for the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Be well rested and without influence of any illness or injury
OVERVIEW
The test is very simple to administer and appears to be sensitive to training induced adaptations in
anaerobic p  ower. This test relates to the athlete’s ability to project themselves in a forward
direction.
TESTING PROCEDURE
          WARM UP – The athlete should complete their typical competition warm up immediately prior
          to commencing the fitness test.
     1. Mark a starting line in the sand with cones.
     2. A pre-screening form (Appendix A) is prepared to record all relevant information of each
        individual athlete including: recent and/or current illness; recent and/or current injury; recent
        training absences; the number of weeks completed in the current training cycle; and any
        other information relevant to the interpretation of test performances and results.
     3. Allow the athlete to dig out and smooth sand as required.
     4. The athlete places their toes on the back of the starting line.
     5. With a simultaneous arm swing, crouch and then leap the athlete jumps as far forward as
        possible.
     6. The distance is measured from the front toe at the start line to the back of the back heel at
        the landing site.
     7. Three trials are completed with the best value recorded on the data sheets for later
        assessment and discussion with the athlete and coaches.




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                             Page 15 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                      ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                        ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370


VERT ICAL JUMP
AIM
This test will give an indication of an athlete’s explosive leg power in a vertical direction.
EQUIPMENT
     •    Vertical jump apparatus
          -    Similar results can be obtained from using powdered chalk or marker against a wall or taping a
               tape measure to a flat wall
     •    Measuring tape
     •    Vertical wall if using powdered chalk or marker pens
     •    Clipboard, data sheets and pens
ATHLETE PREPARATION
To assist with controlling for the many variables associated with an athlete, the athlete should do
the following prior to their scheduled testing session:
      -    Not participate in high intensity training within the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Go without food or beverages containing caffeine at least 2 hours prior as well as eat a
           typical high carbohydrate-low fat diet for the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Be well rested and without influence of any illness or injury
OVERVIEW
Absolute and relative jumping ability incorporating arm swing is assessed during the vertical jump
test. Where reactive power tests try and isolate leg power by eliminating the use of the arms,
vertical jump tests are used to measure vertical power in a specific movement.
TESTING PROCEDURE
          WARM UP – The athlete should complete their typical competition warm up immediately prior
          to commencing the fitness test.
     1. It is recommended that athlete’s standing reach height be recorded by having the athlete
        displace as many vanes on the jump device as possible while standing flat-footed and side
        on to the apparatus or read straight from the tape measure. Athlete should maximally
        extend their preferred hand displacing vanes on the vertical jump apparatus or marking the
        wall with the chalk.
     2. Starting from an upright position the athlete should stand side-on to the apparatus.
     3. With feet together and using a simultaneous arm-swing and crouch, the athlete performs a
        vertical jump for maximal height; at the peak of the jump the athlete moves vanes on
        apparatus out of the way or marks the wall with their maximally outstretched fingers.
     4. Athlete should perform 3 trials.
     5. Record the absolute jump height achieved for each jump (read straight from the vanes or
        tape measure). Calculate relative vertical jump height by subtracting standing reach height
        from highest absolute jump height.


EXAMPLE
An athlete has a standing reaching height of 5cm. Following their three jumps they record absolute
jump heights of 57, 59 and 61cm. These absolute heights are either read from the marks on the
wall or using the displaced vanes on the vertical jump apparatus. From these results, the athlete
has achieved the following relative vertical jump heights:
Jump 1 = 57 – 5cm = 52cm; Jump 2 = 59 – 5cm = 54cm; and Jump 3 = 61 – 5cm = 56cm
Therefore their greatest jump height would be recorded as 56cm.


SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                 Page 16 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                                   ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                                                     ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                                             www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370



COMPARATIVE DATA FROM SLSA NATIONAL HIGH PERFORMANCE SQUADS
Averages for female and male squad beach athletes:
SPRINT T EST
                                                                                 Female Athletes                         Male Athletes

                                   10m split time (secs)                           1.70      ±       0.13                    1.61   ±   0.03

                                   30m split time (secs)                           4.10      ±       0.34                    3.81   ±   0.03

                                   60m split time (secs)                           8.23      ±       0.89                    7.74   ±   0.16
                                                                      (data courtesy of the Australian Institute of Sport)




VERTICAL J UMP AND STANDING L ONG J UMP
                                       Rating                       Vertical Jump                     Standing Long Jump
                                                                         (cm)                                (cm)

                                   Excellent                     Greater than 56.9                     Greater than 243.6
               FEMALE            Above Average                     53.9 to 56.8                          230.9 to 243.5
              ATHLETES              Average                        51.1 to 53.8                          218.4 to 230.8
                                 Below Average                     48.1 to 51.0                          205.8 to 218.3
                                     Poor                         Less than 48.0                        Less than 205.7

                                   Excellent                     Greater than 79.8                     Greater than 297.5
                M ALE            Above Average                     75.6 to 79.7                          280.7 to 297.4
              ATHLETES              Average                        71.6 to 75.4                          270.0 to 280.6
                                 Below Average                     67.4 to 71.5                          247.1 to 263.9
                                     Poor                         Less than 67.3                        Less than 247.0
                                              (data courtesy of the Australian Institute of Sport)




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                                                 Page 17 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                        ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                                          ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                                  www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370


               GENERIC FIT NESS TEST ING FO R ALL DISC IPLINES
AEROBIC OR ENDURANCE FITNESS TEST ING
     •    MULTISTAGE BEEP TEST – “BEEP TEST”
AIM
This test provides an indication of an athlete’s aerobic or endurance fitness.
EQUIPMENT
     •    At least 25m of non-slip surface
     •    Measuring tape
     •    Marker cones
     •    CD/tape player and “Multistage Beep test” CD/Tape
               - The Multistage Beep Test compilation is available from the Australian Sports Commission (www.ausport.org.au)
     •    Clipboard, data sheets and pens
ATHLETE PREPARATION
To assist with controlling for the many variables associated with an athlete, the athlete should do
the following prior to their scheduled testing session:
      -    Not participate in high intensity training within the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Go without food or beverages containing caffeine at least 2 hours prior as well as eat a
           typical high carbohydrate-low fat diet for the preceding 24-36 hours
      -    Be well rested and without influence of any illness or injury
OVERVIEW
Athletes are required to run back and forth between two cones that are placed 20 metres apart to a
cadence set by a compact disc/cassette tape that emits a single bleep at regular intervals. They
are required to run between the cones and to have reached one end or the other by the time they
hear the bleep. At the end of each minute the time interval between bleeps will decrease so that
the athlete’s running speed will need to increase. Athletes are required to run until they reach
volitional exhaustion or fail to make the line on 2 successive occasions.
TESTING PROCEDURE
          WARM UP – The athlete should complete a typical low-moderate intensity (slow jogging and
          stretching leg muscles) warm up immediately prior to commencing the fitness test
     1. On a non-slip surface, mark parallel 20m lines with marker cones.
     2. Brief athletes on termination criteria (volitional withdrawal or two consecutive lines missed).
     3. Commence CD or tape and follow instructions.
     4. Each level lasts approximately one minute with a triple bleep indicating an increase in level
        and therefore running speed. The time frame between b          leeps decreases resulting in an
        increased running speed as time progresses.
     5. Athletes are encouraged to keep running for as long as possible with verbal
        encouragement to assist the athlete performing their maximal effort.
     6. The test ceases once an athlete voluntarily withdraws or they fail to make the line for 2
        consecutive occasions.
     7. All results are recorded on the data sheet for later assessment and discussion with the
        athlete and coaches.
Important technique points:
   • If an athlete completes a lap early, ensure they wait for the next bleep before commencing
       the next lap.
   • Ensure athletes have one foot on or behind the line at the sound of each bleep.



SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                                     Page 18 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                       ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                         ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                 www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370
CORE BODY ST RENGTH TEST ING
     •     ABDOMINAL STRENGTH – 7 STAGE ABDOMINAL STRENGTH TEST
AIM
This test provides an indication of an athlete’s abdominal strength.
EQUIPMENT
     •     Carpeted area or aerobic mats
     •     2.5 and 5kg weights
     •     Clipboard, data sheets and pens
ATHLETE PREPARATION
To assist with controlling for the many variables associated with an athlete, the athlete should do
the following prior to their scheduled testing session:
       -   Not participate in high intensity training within the preceding 24-36 hours
       -   Be well rested and without influence of any illness or injury
OVERVIEW
Each of the seven stages of the test become progressively more difficult as the positions on the
hands and arms are modified indicating an athlete’s ability to perform tasks requiring abdominal
muscle contraction. The athlete is not allowed to have his or her feet held for them by an assistant.
TESTING PROCEDURE
     1.    The athlete must lie flat on the ground with their legs at 90°.
     2.    All movements need to be conducted in a smooth and controlled manner.
     3.    Athlete’s fail if their buttocks or feet leave the ground during attempts of any of the levels.
     4.    Each stage is conducted as follows - maximum of 3 attempts allowed per stage:

Stage       Finishing Position                                       Technique
   1        Palms on knees                 Start with arms straight and hands resting on thighs then slide
                                           hands along thighs until the fingers are touching the kneecap.
   2        Elbows on knees                Start with arms straight and hands resting on thighs then slide
                                           hands along thighs until elbows are touching the kneecap.
   3        Forearms on thighs             Start with arms crossed and resting on the stomach with hands
                                           holding the opposite elbows. Raise self until the forearms are
                                           touching mid-thighs.
   4        Elbows at mid-thigh            Start with arms crossed and resting on the stomach with hands
                                           holding the opposite shoulders and then move forward until the
                                           elbows are touching mid-thighs.
   5        Chest on thighs                Start with arms crossed behind the head with hands holding
                                           opposite shoulders then move forward until chest touches thighs.
   6        Chest on thighs with Start with arms crossed behind the head with hands holding a
            2.5kg weight         2.5kg weight and then move forward until chest touches thighs.
   7        Chest on thighs with Start with arms crossed behind the head with hands holding a 5kg
            5kg weight           weight and then move forward until chest touches thighs.

     5. All results are recorded on the data sheet for later assessment and discussion with the
        athlete and coaches.




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                  Page 19 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                                     ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                                                       ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                                               www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370
     •     ABDOMINAL ENDURANCE TEST
AIM
This test provides an indication of an athlete’s abdominal muscular endurance.
EQUIPMENT
     •     Carpeted area or aerobic mats
     •     Clipboard, data sheets and pens
ATHLETE PREPARATION
To assist with controlling for the many variables associated with an athlete, the athlete should do
the following prior to their scheduled testing session:
      -     Not participate in high intensity training within the preceding 24-36 hours
      -     Be well rested and without influence of any illness or injury
OVERVIEW
The athlete completes as many sit-ups as possible in 60 seconds in accordance with level 4 on the
7-Stage Abdominal Strength Test (page 18). During this test, athlete’s ARE permitted to have his or
her feet held by an assistant. The purpose of this test is to grade the endurance capacity of the
athlete to perform tasks requiring repetitive abdominal muscle contractions.
TESTING PROCEDURE
     1. The athlete must lie flat on the ground with their legs at 90°.
     2. A partner holds their feet and counts the completed sit ups. A sit-up is considered complete
        once the athlete’s elbows touch their mid-thighs.
     3. Athletes who fail to have their elbows touching their mid-thighs at the end of a sit-up are
        immediately instructed that their sit-up did not count towards their final score.
     4. Athletes should aim to accomplish as many completed sit-ups as possible in the 60sec.
     5. All results are recorded on the data sheet for later assessment and discussion with the
        athlete and coaches.
Aerobic capacity and abdominal strength and endurance test averages all disciplines in the SLSA
National High Performance squads:

                                                    Female Athletes                                    Male Athletes

         Swim Athletes
         Beep Test    (mL·kg-1·min-1)                      49.9 ± 4.8                                    53.1 ± 4.9
                                              approx Level 10.10                              approx Level 11.10
         7 stage Abdominal test                             6.2 ± 1.1                                     5.7 ± 1.5
         Abdominal Endurance                               45.1 ± 6.8                                    54.2 ± 6.9

         Beach Athletes
         Beep Test    (mL·kg-1·min-1)                      44.4 ± 8.0                                    56.0 ± 1.6
                                                 approx Level 9.4                              approx Level 12.8
         7 stage Abdominal test                             6.5 ± 0.7                                     6.1 ± 0.7
         Abdominal Endurance                               54.4 ± 6.3                                    63.8 ± 4.4

         Ironmen/women
         Beep Test    (mL·kg-1·min-1)                      51.9 ± 3.8                                    57.7 ± 5.0
                                                approx Level 11.6                              approx Level 13.2
         7 stage Abdominal test                             5.7 ± 1.1                                     5.5 ± 1.1
         Abdominal Endurance                               50.6 ± 7.4                                    59.0 ± 8.4
                                              (data courtesy of the Australian Institute of Sport)


BODY COMPOSIT ION ASSESSMENT
SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                                                Page 20 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                              ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                                                ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                                        www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370
     •    ANTHROPOMETRY (SKINFOLD ASSESSMENT)
OVERVIEW
Anthropometry is concerned with making various measurements on the human body via skinfold
thicknesses as well as measuring breadths, lengths and girths. From these measurements,
estimations of body fat percentages as well as muscle and bone densities can be calculated via
numerous mathematical equations relevant to age, gender, sites assessed and physical activity
levels to name a few. Skinfold assessment estimations of body fat have proven to be acceptable
and accurate although research acknowledges that the distribution of fatty tissue is not constant
throughout the body and therefore can only approximate body fat mass.
Assessing various sites across the body allows regional comparisons of skinfold thickness to be
made between tests. For example, if the athlete’s previous test indicated the skinfold at their
abdominals was 20.4 mm and the subsequent assessment (perhaps following training or weight
loss strategies) was 18.7 mm, then the athlete has lost 1.7 mm on their abdominals. This
assessment is most accurate with the same person conducting the assessments each time and is
best used for comparing body composition between various training phases and identifying the
distribution of weight gained or lost. Therefore it is recommended that athletes and coaches utilise
a qualified Anthropometry technician (such as some dieticians, sport scientists, personal trainers or
gym trainers).
A typical index used with athletes is the “Sum of 7” measurement. This measurement is simply the
total of the 7 skinfold sites typically assessed including: triceps, biceps, back, hips, abdominals,
thigh and calf. Body composition can then be calculated by using these values in a         ppropriate
equations.

Anthropometric characteristics for the various disciplines associated with the SLSA National High
Performance squads:

                                                           Female Athletes                           Male Athletes

                  Swim Athletes
                  Height (cm)                              175.5 ± 6.2                                182.8 ± 4.8
                  Weight (kg)                               71.9 ± 5.4                                 86.4 ± 9.9
                  Sum of 7 Skinfolds          (mm)          85.3 ± 52.7                                50.2 ± 30.9

                  Beach Athletes
                  Height (cm)                              172.5 ± 3.5                               181.45 ± 1.19
                  Weight (kg)                               64.2 ± 3.7                                79.38 ± 5.78
                  Sum of 7 Skinfolds          (mm)          76.7 ± 23.6                               38.92 ± 14.81

                  Ironmen/women
                  Height (cm)                              172.4 ± 4.3                                183.7 ± 4.6
                  Weight (kg)                               67.9 ± 3.7                                 81.9 ± 5.3
                  Sum of 7 Skinfolds          (mm)          73.6 ± 33.1                                47.9 ± 20.3
                                              (data courtesy of the Australian Institute of Sport)




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                                         Page 21 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                      ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                        ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370

                                      INT ERPRET ING T HE RES ULT S
WH AT DOES ALL T HIS MEAN ?
You can now conduct the same fitness testing that the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) conducts
on the SLSA National High Performance squad each season. Results from your testing sessions
can also be compared to averages obtained from the testing conducted by the AIS for the SLSA
National High Performance squads from 1999 to 2005.
It is important to note that fitness testing is best utilised when comparing results on an individual
athlete to monitor their progression through a prescribed training program. To assist with the
interpretation of your testing results, coaches and athletes should consider the following:
   •       Was the final result an improvement on previous testing sessions?
   •       What recent medical history may have influenced the results?
   •       How has the structure of current training sessions influenced performance?
   •       Were there minimal external influences on the testing sessions (e.g. influence of wind or tidal
           variations)?
   •       Were there technical influences that may have influenced results?
   •       How did the athlete rate their efforts on the tests (rating of perceived exertion)?
These questions can assist an athlete or coach to understand the atmosphere in which the tests
were conducted and factors that may have influenced the results of the testing. Therefore should a
decrement in performance be identified, the athlete or coach is provided with indicators to assist
identifying the specific cause. Conversely, if performances are improved, the athlete or coach can
identify which aspect of their training program has been successful thereby evaluating their annual
program as well as the individual athlete’s response to that program.


ADDIT IONAL FITNESS TEST ING T IPS
       •    Ideally, results should be kept somewhere safe and used for comparisons with results
            obtained from subsequent testing sessions.
       •    Each coach should try to collect their own results and convert them into normative scales
            for their regional level athletes, state level athletes and national level athletes. This will
            allow continuous comparisons for their squad and when used in conjunction with
            competition results, may assist to identify potential talent, select teams or adapt training.
       •    As with all fitness testing, results are worthless if the athlete or coach cannot interpret them.
            Results should be expressed in terms that provide meaning to the results. For example, a
            result on the Multistage beep test of reaching level 10.11 corresponds to a predicted
            VO2MAX of 50.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 which may hold little relevance to an athlete or coach.
            Therefore when reporting and comparing results, the level of performance, level 10.11,
            would be the best form of reporting the results to the athlete and coach.




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                 Page 22 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                 ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                                   ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                           www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370

AP PE ND IX A
                           Part A - EXAMPLE PRE-SCREENING FORM

Name: ________________________________________ Date: _________________

Address: ______________________________________________________________

              ______________________________________________________________

Date of Birth: ________________________

Height (cm): _____________                    Weight (kg): ________________


Recent Training Information –
Complete the following:
Your current training phase:                                            Number of weeks in current phase:
Completed weeks of current phase:                                Date of last recovery week:
Recent absences from training due to illness: Yes ( )                   No ( )
Symptoms :
Most recent carnival date:                                                  Next carnival date:
Other relevant information:


Past Medical History –
Have you ever had any of the following and if so, when?
                                 Date                                                    Date
Rheumatic Fever         ( )  __________ Lung Disease                        (   )   ___________
High Cholesterol        ( )  __________ Operations                          (   )   ___________
High Blood Pressure ( )      __________ Diabetes                            (   )   ___________
Any heart trouble       ( )  __________ Epilepsy                            (   )   ___________
Disease of the arteries ( )  __________ Asthma                              (   )   ___________
Varicose Veins          ( )  __________
Please give details:________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Family History –
Have any of your close relatives had any of the following?
                          Age Relative                            Age Relative
Heart Attack         ( ) ____________ Congenital Heart Disease ( ) ____________
High Blood Pressure ( ) ____________ Heart Operations          ( ) ____________
High Cholesterol     ( ) ____________ Other                    ( ) ____________
Diabetes             ( ) ____________
Please give details: _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________


SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                            Page 23 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                             ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                               ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                       www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370

Recent Injury History –
Have you had any of the following in the last 12 months?

Injuries to:        Ankle ( )            Hips ( )            Knees ( )     Shoulders ( )
                    Back ( )             Legs ( )            Elbows ( )    Wrists    ( )

Please give details: _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Present Symptoms Review –
Have you recently had any of the following, if so when?

Chest Pain                    (   )   _____________          Coughing of blood ( ) _____________
Shortness of Breath           (   )   _____________          Back Pain               ( ) _____________
Heart Palpitations            (   )   _____________          Swollen, stiff, painful
Cough on exertion             (   )   _____________          joints                  ( ) _____________

Please give details: ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Medication –
Are you currently taking any medication?          YES         NO
       If yes, what medication are you taking? ________________________________
       What is this medication for? _________________________________________

Exercise –
Have you ever been told NOT to exercise?       YES         NO
      If YES, for what reason?     _________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Is there any present reason why you should not be able to exercise at a moderate to vigorous pace
under monitored conditions?                                 YES            NO
        If YES, why?




Your weekly training sessions:

                    DAY                             MORNING                         AFTERNOON
                 Monday
                 Tuesday
                 Wednesday
                 Thursday
                 Friday
                 Saturday
                 Sunday


SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                           Page 24 of 27
    Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                                ACN 003 147 180
    Locked Bag 2                                                                                  ABN 67 449 738 159
    BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                                          www.slsa.asn.au
    Phone: (02) 9130-7370
                                      Part B - EXAMPLE RESULTS SHEET
    NOTE: It is recommended that coaches devise their own personalized results sheets to allow
    familiarity of recording results and taking notes.


    Athlete:                                                                        Date:

    Conditions:


   BEACH TESTS                         NOTES                     FIRST TRIAL    SECOND TRIAL                    THIRD TRIAL
Vertical Jump
Standing Long Jump
                                                            2m         20m     2m           20m            2m             20m
Flag Acceleration test
10m split
30m split
60m split
90m split

   CRAFT T ESTS                           HR                         RPE              TIME                  STROKE RATE
Malibu Board
Surf Ski

  SWIM          T ARGET TIME                        HR                   RPE                TIME                STROKE RATE
  TEST
PB + 35s
PB + 30s
PB + 25s
PB + 20s
PB + 15s
PB + 10s
PB + 5s

                  TEST                                        RESULT
Multistage Beep Test                                Level
7-Stage Abdominal Strength Test                     Level
Abdominal Endurance – 60s Sit Ups


    NOTES :




    SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                                              Page 25 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                                  ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                                    ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                                            www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370

AP PE ND IX B
     •    HE ART RAT E AND BLOOD LACT AT E INT ERPRET AT ION
At the High Performance camps, results are processed using standard computer software for the
generation of heart rate-velocity and lactate-velocity curves. Heart rate and blood lactate
responses to sub-maximal exercise are sensitive indicators of endurance fitness, and blood lactate
responses are related to training induced adaptations occurring within skeletal muscle. In practice,
improvements in fitness are indicated by characteristic changes in the heart rate-velocity and
lactate-velocity relationships.
These curves are used for two main purposes:
     1. To prescribe training speeds and intensities; and
     2. Monitor longitudinal changes in aerobic fitness over time with training.
Training speeds can be identified from the heart rate-velocity and lactate-velocity curves by simply
reading off the scales displayed in the figure below. Training thresholds can also be determined
from these curves to allow coaches to adopt during training. Lactate threshold (LT) represents the
initial increase in blood lactate above resting levels and represents how long an athlete can sustain
a particular intensity. From a coaching perspective, exercising at or above an athlete’s LT provides
beneficial aerobic training although higher intensities have proven even better while exercising at
or slightly above anaerobic threshold (AT) is often referred to as the optimal training intensity.
Assessment for changes in heart rate and blood lactate interpretation should be undertaken on an
individual basis as responses can be influenced by age, training background, immediate training
history, injury and motivation. The corresponding heart rates and velocities associated with LT and
AT determined via the blood lactate assessment provide a convenient indicator for coaches to
prescribe and monitor appropriate exercise intensities. Ideally coaches aim to stress the LT and AT
of their athletes in order to increase their thresholds, allowing the athlete to perform at higher
intensities for longer periods of time (endurance).

                                                                    Interpreting the diagram:
                                                                    Points A and B represent the point at which
                                                                    lactate accumulation exceeds lactate
                                                                    removal from the system resulting in a rapid
                                                                    rise in lactate levels – anaerobic threshold.
                                                                         A – for the Sep 25 2003 results (?)
                                                                         B – for the Oct 29 2004 results (¦ )

                                                                    From these points, training intensities can be
                                                                    determined by reading from the horizontal
                                                                    velocity scale. To determine heart rate on
                                                                    the heart rate-velocity curves, find the AT
                                                                    velocity, draw a line straight up and where
                                                                    this intersects with the curve will determine
                                                                    the AT heart rate.

                                                                    When you compare the 2 sets of results in
                                                                    the figure, the velocity (i.e. training intensity)
                                                                    required to attain AT in Sept 2003 was higher
                                         B            A             than that required in Oct 2004.

                                                                    This indicates that the athlete was capable of
                                                                    performing at higher intensities in 2003 than
                                                                    in 2004, therefore representing that the
                                                                    athlete performed better in the 2003 results.




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S                              Page 26 of 27
Surf Life Saving Australia Ltd                                   ACN 003 147 180
Locked Bag 2                                                     ABN 67 449 738 159
BONDI BEACH NSW 2026                                             www.slsa.asn.au
Phone: (02) 9130-7370

AP PE ND IX C
     •    BORG’S RAT ING OF PERCEIVED EXERT ION (RPE) SCALE



            6
            7                VERY VE RY LIG HT
            8
            9                VERY LIG HT
          10
          11                 LIGHT
          12
          13                 SOM EWHAT HE AVY ( HARD)
          14
          15                 HEAVY ( HARD)
          16
          17                 VERY HE AVY ( HARD)
          18
          19                 VERY VE RY HE AVY ( HARD)
          20




SLSA HI GH PER F OR M AN C E FI TN ESS TES TI N G PR OTOC OL S              Page 27 of 27

								
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