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					   Project Management
Quality Management and Control
What is the quality
   ISO gives a vague definition of quality as
    ―the totality of characteristics of an entity
    that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or
    implied needs‖
What is the quality
   Good quality
       Conformance to requirements
            The project delivers in accordance to written
       Fitness to use
            The product can be used as it is intended to be
   Project team must communicate to key
    customers to understand what the quality
    means for them
Quality control/ management
   The objective
       The product must meet the requirements
       It also must meet the time and cost
       Performing quality control means in fact
        periodical evaluation of the overall project
Quality management processes
   Quality planning
   Performing quality assurance
   Performing quality control
Quality planning
   Decide about the standards
   Introduce quality requirements and metrics
   Quality checklists
       MS Excel spreadsheet used to track quality
        requirements implementation
   Planning the process of quality assurance
    and control
Quality planning
   Identify relevant quality standards
       Current standards are developed by
        International Standards Organization (ISO).
        For IT this is a series of ISO 9000
       Service Level Agreement (SLA) defines
        quality requirements from a customer
        perspective in terms of reliability and usability
Quality planning
   Design quality into the products of the
   Design quality into the project
    management processes
Quality planning
   Design of experiments
       Quality planning technique used to identify
        which variables have the most influence on
        the outcome
       In project management this can be used to
        analyze various issues, such as cost and
        schedule trade-offs, cost and security trade-
        offs, etc.
Quality planning
   Communicating the correct actions for
    ensuring quality to the development team
   Focus on particular statements of the
    product and project description which
    affect quality
   Formalize them as the quality criteria list
    and the quality baseline
Quality planning
   Quality criteria apply to
       Functionality
            What functions must be implemented
       System outputs (GUI, reports, etc)
            How the outputs must look to provide high level
             usability for a customer
       Performance
            Response time, the volume of data and
             transactions, number of concurrent users
Quality planning
   Quality criteria apply to
       Reliability
          Ability of the product to perform as expected under
           normal circumstances
          Data accuracy, availability as defined by SLA

       Maintainability
            Cost and simplicity of maintenance and operation
       Scalability
            Ability to scale when the business or technology
             requirements change
Quality assurance
   This is the process that runs from start to
    end of the project
   It assumes tracking of the quality
    requirements implementation both by fact
    and by process
   System Development Lifecycle (SDLC)
    methodology and supporting
    documentation create a foundation of the
Quality assurance
   SDLC can be implemented for example as
    the gate-based process where:
       each gate assumes completion of a particular
        deliverables and
       A deliverable goes through solution review
        performed by a designated organizational
        body. Normally this is an assembled team of
        subject matter experts (SME)
Quality assurance
   Techniques used in quality assurance
       Design of experiments
       Benchmarking
            Comparing specific project practices or product
             characteristics to the Best Industry Practice
       Quality audit
          Structure review of specific quality management
           activities in practice
          Examine and evaluate factual information
Quality Assurance
   Processes, standards, organizational
    requirements, and other documents that
    outline the company Information
    Technology development and operational
    practice must be consolidated into a
    library, known as Information Technology
    Infrastructure Library (ITIL)
   A librarian must maintain the library up-to-
Performing quality control
   Quality control process outcomes
       Acceptance decisions
         Determines if a project will be accepted or rejected
         If a project, or a part of it, is rejected it must be
       Rework
         This is an action taken to bring rejected part to
          compliance with the quality requirements.
         Often results in change requests, can be very
Performing quality control
   Quality control process outcomes
       Process adjustments
         Correct or prevent further quality problems based
          on quality control measurements
         Updates to the quality control baseline,
          organizational processes, and the project
          management plan
Quality control tools
   Special tools used to monitor project parameters to
    ensure that they are compliant with the relevant quality
   Seven Basic Tools of Quality
       Cause-and-effect diagrams, aka fishbones
       Control charts
       Run charts
       Scatter diagrams
       Histograms
       Pareto chart
       Flowchart
Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
   Cause-and-effect diagrams trace complaints about
    quality problems back to the responsible production
   They help you find the root cause of a problem
   Also known as fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams

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                     Management, Sixth Edition            20
Figure 8-2. Sample Cause-and-Effect

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                         Sixth Edition                21
Quality Control Charts
   A control chart is a graphic display of data that illustrates the results
    of a process over time
   The main use of control charts is to differentiate issues that are
    caused by random problems from ones that are systemic
   Quality control charts allow you to determine whether a process is in
    control or out of control
      When a process is in control, any variations in the results of the
        process are created by random events; processes that are in
        control do not need to be adjusted
      When a process is out of control, variations in the results of the
        process are caused by non-random events; you need to identify
        the causes of those non-random events and adjust the process to
        correct or eliminate them

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                                          Edition                               22
Figure 8-3. Sample Quality
Control Chart

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             Management, Sixth
                  Edition         23
Run Chart
   A run chart displays the history and
    pattern of variation of a process over time
   It is a line chart that shows data points
    plotted in the order in which they occur
   Can be used to perform trend analysis to
    forecast future outcomes based on
    historical patterns

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                   Management, Sixth Edition      24
Figure 8-4. Sample Run Chart

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            Management, Sixth
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Scatter Diagram
   A scatter diagram helps to show if there
    is a relationship between two variables
   The closer data points are to a diagonal
    line, the more closely the two variables are

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                    Management, Sixth
                         Edition                   26
Figure 8-5. Sample Scatter Diagram

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             Management, Sixth
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   A histogram is a bar graph of a
    distribution of variables
   Each bar represents an attribute or
    characteristic of a problem or situation,
    and the height of the bar represents its

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                    Management, Sixth
                         Edition                28
Figure 8-6. Sample Histogram

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            Management, Sixth
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Pareto charts
   A histogram that can help to identify and
    prioritize problem areas
   The diagram collect stats of a problem
   Use Bar Charts to indicate most common
    quality problem causes—address these
    first (taking severity into account of
Pareto Charts
   A Pareto chart is a histogram that can
    help you identify and prioritize problem

   Pareto analysis is also called the 80-20
    rule, meaning that 80 percent of problems
    are often due to 20 percent of the causes
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                    Management, Sixth
                         Edition                31
Figure 8-7. Sample Pareto Chart

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            Management, Sixth
                 Edition          32
   Flowcharts are graphic displays of the
    logic and flow of processes that help you
    analyze how problems occur and how
    processes can be improved
   They show activities, decision points, and
    the order of how information is processed

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                    Management, Sixth
                         Edition                 33
Figure 8-8. Sample Flowchart

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            Management, Sixth
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Quality control tools
   Statistical sampling
       Based on stats collected during sufficient period of time
       Validity of statistical data is critical
       Consult with an expert when using statistical analysis
Quality control tools - Six Sigma
   Cannot separate quality from how you run
    the business
   Addresses quality by addressing business
       Key is to reduce variation in process outputs
   Five phase improvement process
       Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control
   Toyota, Motorola, GE
   DMAIC stands for:
      Define: define the problem/opportunity, process, and
       customer requirements
      Measure: define measures, then collect, compile, and
       display data
      Analyze: scrutinize process details to find improvement
      Improve: generate solutions and ideas for improving the
      Control: track and verify the stability of the improvements
       and the predictability of the solution

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                        Management, Sixth Edition                37
Six Sigma Projects Use Project Management
   The training for Six Sigma includes many project
    management concepts, tools, and techniques

   For example, Six Sigma projects often use business
    cases, project charters, schedules, budgets, and so

   Six Sigma projects are done in teams; the project
    manager is often called the team leader, and the
    sponsor is called the champion

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                     Management, Sixth Edition          38
Six Sigma Projects
   Focus on Customer
   Drive out waste
   Raise quality levels
       By reducing variation!
   Improve financial performance
Quality Assurance - Testing
   Define testing ―strategy‖
       Unit
       Regression
       Integration
       System
       User Acceptance
   Frameworks, Standards
Figure 8-10. Testing Tasks in the
Software Development Life Cycle

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             Management, Sixth
                  Edition           41
Quality Control Metrics
   The Cost of Quality
The Cost of Quality
   The cost of quality is the cost of conformance plus the
    cost of nonconformance
      Conformance means delivering products that meet
        requirements and fitness for use
      Cost of nonconformance means taking
        responsibility for failures or not meeting quality
   A study reported that software bugs cost the U.S.
    economy $59.6 billion each year and that one third of the
    bugs could be eliminated by an improved testing

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                      Management, Sixth Edition                 43
    Five Cost Categories Related to Quality

   Prevention cost: cost of planning and executing a project so it
    is error-free or within an acceptable error range
   Appraisal cost: cost of evaluating processes and their outputs
    to ensure quality
   Internal failure cost: cost incurred to correct an identified
    defect before the customer receives the product
   External failure cost: cost that relates to all errors not detected
    and corrected before delivery to the customer
   Measurement and test equipment costs: capital cost of
    equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities

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                                     Sixth Edition                  44
Maturity Models

   Maturity models are frameworks for helping
    organizations improve their processes and systems

       The Software Quality Function Deployment Model
        focuses on defining user requirements and planning
        software projects

       The Software Engineering Institute’s Capability
        Maturity Model Integration is a process improvement
        approach that provides organizations with the essential
        elements of effective processes

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CMM for the processes
   Maturity Definition
      None – process does not exist
      Initial – process is ad-hoc and disorganized

      Repeatable – process follows a regular pattern

      Documented – process is documented and
       communicated in a standard, company-wide way
      Optimized – process is designed to bring added value
       to security requirements understanding
   Project Management and SDLC processes must be at
    the level 4 to comply with the best industry practice

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