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					   Project Management
           Methodology
Quality Management and Control
What is the quality
   ISO gives a vague definition of quality as
    ―the totality of characteristics of an entity
    that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or
    implied needs‖
What is the quality
   Good quality
       Conformance to requirements
            The project delivers in accordance to written
             requirements
       Fitness to use
            The product can be used as it is intended to be
   Project team must communicate to key
    customers to understand what the quality
    means for them
Quality control/ management
   The objective
       The product must meet the requirements
       It also must meet the time and cost
        constraints
       Performing quality control means in fact
        periodical evaluation of the overall project
        performance
Quality management processes
   Quality planning
   Performing quality assurance
   Performing quality control
Quality planning
   Decide about the standards
   Introduce quality requirements and metrics
   Quality checklists
       MS Excel spreadsheet used to track quality
        requirements implementation
   Planning the process of quality assurance
    and control
Quality planning
   Identify relevant quality standards
       Current standards are developed by
        International Standards Organization (ISO).
        For IT this is a series of ISO 9000
       Service Level Agreement (SLA) defines
        quality requirements from a customer
        perspective in terms of reliability and usability
Quality planning
   Design quality into the products of the
    project
   Design quality into the project
    management processes
Quality planning
   Design of experiments
       Quality planning technique used to identify
        which variables have the most influence on
        the outcome
       In project management this can be used to
        analyze various issues, such as cost and
        schedule trade-offs, cost and security trade-
        offs, etc.
Quality planning
   Communicating the correct actions for
    ensuring quality to the development team
   Focus on particular statements of the
    product and project description which
    affect quality
   Formalize them as the quality criteria list
    and the quality baseline
Quality planning
   Quality criteria apply to
       Functionality
            What functions must be implemented
       System outputs (GUI, reports, etc)
            How the outputs must look to provide high level
             usability for a customer
       Performance
            Response time, the volume of data and
             transactions, number of concurrent users
Quality planning
   Quality criteria apply to
       Reliability
          Ability of the product to perform as expected under
           normal circumstances
          Data accuracy, availability as defined by SLA

       Maintainability
            Cost and simplicity of maintenance and operation
       Scalability
            Ability to scale when the business or technology
             requirements change
Quality assurance
   This is the process that runs from start to
    end of the project
   It assumes tracking of the quality
    requirements implementation both by fact
    and by process
   System Development Lifecycle (SDLC)
    methodology and supporting
    documentation create a foundation of the
    process
Quality assurance
   SDLC can be implemented for example as
    the gate-based process where:
       each gate assumes completion of a particular
        deliverables and
       A deliverable goes through solution review
        performed by a designated organizational
        body. Normally this is an assembled team of
        subject matter experts (SME)
Quality assurance
   Techniques used in quality assurance
       Design of experiments
       Benchmarking
            Comparing specific project practices or product
             characteristics to the Best Industry Practice
       Quality audit
          Structure review of specific quality management
           activities in practice
          Examine and evaluate factual information
Quality Assurance
   Processes, standards, organizational
    requirements, and other documents that
    outline the company Information
    Technology development and operational
    practice must be consolidated into a
    library, known as Information Technology
    Infrastructure Library (ITIL)
   A librarian must maintain the library up-to-
    date
Performing quality control
   Quality control process outcomes
       Acceptance decisions
         Determines if a project will be accepted or rejected
         If a project, or a part of it, is rejected it must be
          reworked
       Rework
         This is an action taken to bring rejected part to
          compliance with the quality requirements.
         Often results in change requests, can be very
          intensive
Performing quality control
   Quality control process outcomes
       Process adjustments
         Correct or prevent further quality problems based
          on quality control measurements
         Updates to the quality control baseline,
          organizational processes, and the project
          management plan
Quality control tools
   Special tools used to monitor project parameters to
    ensure that they are compliant with the relevant quality
    standards
   Seven Basic Tools of Quality
       Cause-and-effect diagrams, aka fishbones
       Control charts
       Run charts
       Scatter diagrams
       Histograms
       Pareto chart
       Flowchart
Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
   Cause-and-effect diagrams trace complaints about
    quality problems back to the responsible production
    operations
   They help you find the root cause of a problem
   Also known as fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams




                   Information Technology Project
                     Management, Sixth Edition            20
Figure 8-2. Sample Cause-and-Effect
Diagram




         Information Technology Project Management,
                         Sixth Edition                21
Quality Control Charts
   A control chart is a graphic display of data that illustrates the results
    of a process over time
   The main use of control charts is to differentiate issues that are
    caused by random problems from ones that are systemic
   Quality control charts allow you to determine whether a process is in
    control or out of control
      When a process is in control, any variations in the results of the
        process are created by random events; processes that are in
        control do not need to be adjusted
      When a process is out of control, variations in the results of the
        process are caused by non-random events; you need to identify
        the causes of those non-random events and adjust the process to
        correct or eliminate them

                     Information Technology Project Management, Sxth
                                          Edition                               22
Figure 8-3. Sample Quality
Control Chart




                Information
             Technology Project
             Management, Sixth
                  Edition         23
Run Chart
   A run chart displays the history and
    pattern of variation of a process over time
   It is a line chart that shows data points
    plotted in the order in which they occur
   Can be used to perform trend analysis to
    forecast future outcomes based on
    historical patterns

                 Information Technology Project
                   Management, Sixth Edition      24
Figure 8-4. Sample Run Chart




               Information
            Technology Project
            Management, Sixth
                 Edition         25
Scatter Diagram
   A scatter diagram helps to show if there
    is a relationship between two variables
   The closer data points are to a diagonal
    line, the more closely the two variables are
    related



                       Information
                    Technology Project
                    Management, Sixth
                         Edition                   26
Figure 8-5. Sample Scatter Diagram




                Information
             Technology Project
             Management, Sixth
                  Edition            27
Histograms
   A histogram is a bar graph of a
    distribution of variables
   Each bar represents an attribute or
    characteristic of a problem or situation,
    and the height of the bar represents its
    frequency

                       Information
                    Technology Project
                    Management, Sixth
                         Edition                28
Figure 8-6. Sample Histogram




               Information
            Technology Project
            Management, Sixth
                 Edition         29
Pareto charts
   A histogram that can help to identify and
    prioritize problem areas
   The diagram collect stats of a problem
    occurrences
   Use Bar Charts to indicate most common
    quality problem causes—address these
    first (taking severity into account of
    course)

Pareto Charts
   A Pareto chart is a histogram that can
    help you identify and prioritize problem
    areas

   Pareto analysis is also called the 80-20
    rule, meaning that 80 percent of problems
    are often due to 20 percent of the causes
                       Information
                    Technology Project
                    Management, Sixth
                         Edition                31
Figure 8-7. Sample Pareto Chart




               Information
            Technology Project
            Management, Sixth
                 Edition          32
Flowcharts
   Flowcharts are graphic displays of the
    logic and flow of processes that help you
    analyze how problems occur and how
    processes can be improved
   They show activities, decision points, and
    the order of how information is processed

                       Information
                    Technology Project
                    Management, Sixth
                         Edition                 33
Figure 8-8. Sample Flowchart




               Information
            Technology Project
            Management, Sixth
                 Edition         34
Quality control tools
   Statistical sampling
       Based on stats collected during sufficient period of time
       Validity of statistical data is critical
       Consult with an expert when using statistical analysis
Quality control tools - Six Sigma
   Cannot separate quality from how you run
    the business
   Addresses quality by addressing business
    processes
       Key is to reduce variation in process outputs
   Five phase improvement process
       Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control
   Toyota, Motorola, GE
DMAIC
   DMAIC stands for:
      Define: define the problem/opportunity, process, and
       customer requirements
      Measure: define measures, then collect, compile, and
       display data
      Analyze: scrutinize process details to find improvement
       opportunities
      Improve: generate solutions and ideas for improving the
       problem
      Control: track and verify the stability of the improvements
       and the predictability of the solution

                      Information Technology Project
                        Management, Sixth Edition                37
Six Sigma Projects Use Project Management
   The training for Six Sigma includes many project
    management concepts, tools, and techniques

   For example, Six Sigma projects often use business
    cases, project charters, schedules, budgets, and so
    on

   Six Sigma projects are done in teams; the project
    manager is often called the team leader, and the
    sponsor is called the champion

                   Information Technology Project
                     Management, Sixth Edition          38
Six Sigma Projects
   Focus on Customer
   Drive out waste
   Raise quality levels
       By reducing variation!
   Improve financial performance
Quality Assurance - Testing
   Define testing ―strategy‖
       Unit
       Regression
       Integration
       System
       User Acceptance
   Frameworks, Standards
Figure 8-10. Testing Tasks in the
Software Development Life Cycle




                Information
             Technology Project
             Management, Sixth
                  Edition           41
Quality Control Metrics
   The Cost of Quality

The Cost of Quality
   The cost of quality is the cost of conformance plus the
    cost of nonconformance
      Conformance means delivering products that meet
        requirements and fitness for use
      Cost of nonconformance means taking
        responsibility for failures or not meeting quality
        expectations
   A study reported that software bugs cost the U.S.
    economy $59.6 billion each year and that one third of the
    bugs could be eliminated by an improved testing
    infrastructure

                    Information Technology Project
                      Management, Sixth Edition                 43
    Five Cost Categories Related to Quality

   Prevention cost: cost of planning and executing a project so it
    is error-free or within an acceptable error range
   Appraisal cost: cost of evaluating processes and their outputs
    to ensure quality
   Internal failure cost: cost incurred to correct an identified
    defect before the customer receives the product
   External failure cost: cost that relates to all errors not detected
    and corrected before delivery to the customer
   Measurement and test equipment costs: capital cost of
    equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities

                     Information Technology Project Management,
                                     Sixth Edition                  44
Maturity Models

   Maturity models are frameworks for helping
    organizations improve their processes and systems

       The Software Quality Function Deployment Model
        focuses on defining user requirements and planning
        software projects

       The Software Engineering Institute’s Capability
        Maturity Model Integration is a process improvement
        approach that provides organizations with the essential
        elements of effective processes


              Information Technology Project Management, Sixth Edition   45
CMM for the processes
   Maturity Definition
      None – process does not exist
      Initial – process is ad-hoc and disorganized

      Repeatable – process follows a regular pattern

      Documented – process is documented and
       communicated in a standard, company-wide way
      Optimized – process is designed to bring added value
       to security requirements understanding
   Project Management and SDLC processes must be at
    the level 4 to comply with the best industry practice

				
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posted:8/24/2011
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