Pali english

Document Sample
Pali english Powered By Docstoc
					Pali English Pali Primer Contents

Lesson 1 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a.
         Nominative case, singular and plural.
         Present, third, singular and plural verbs.
Lesson 2 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.
         Accusative case, singular and plural.
Lesson 3 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.
         Instrumental case, singular and plural.
Lesson 4 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.
         Ablative case, singular and plural.
Lesson 5 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.
         Dative case, singular and plural.
Lesson 6 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.
         Genitive case, singular and plural.
Lesson 7 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.
         Locative case, singular and plural.
Lesson 8 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.
         Vocative case, singular and plural.
         Declension of neuter nouns ending in -a.
Lesson 9 The Gerund / Absolutive.
         The Infinitive.
         The present participle, masculine and neuter genders.
         Conjugation of Verbs - Present Tense, Active Voice.
Lesson   Conjugation of Verbs - Present Tense, Active Voice,
13       continued.
Lesson   The Further Tense.
         The Optative / Potential Mood.
         The Imperative Mood.
         The Past Tense.
         Declension of feminine nouns ending in -ā.
         The Past Participle.
         Declension of feminine nouns ending in -i and ī.
         The Present Participle, feminine gender.
         The Future Passive Participle.
         The Causative.
         Declension of feminine nouns ending in -u.
         Declension of masculine nouns ending in -i.
         Declension of masculine nouns ending in -ī.
         Declension of masculine nouns ending in -u and -ū.
Lesson   Declension of agent nouns and nouns indicating
28       relationships.
         Declension of neuter nouns ending in -i and -u.
          Declension of adjectives ending in -vantu and -mantu.
          Declension of personal pronouns.
Lesson    Declension of personal pronouns, relative, demonstrative
32        and interrogative.
          List of Pāli Verbs
          Pāli Vocabulary (other than verbs)
          Glossary (English - Pāli)

Paali Primer
Lily de Silva, M.A., PhD.
[This is an online reproduction of the electronic version on the
Chattha Sangayana CD]
This is a book long overdue, as my first Paali teacher, the late Mr.
Julius Berugoda wished me to compile such a one, or translate the
work he did into English, many years ago. I am sorry I was not able
to bring forth this Paali Primer during his lifetime, but I feel I am
discharging a great obligation even at this late stage.
I take no credit for the method used in this book as it was thought out
by my revered Guru. When I first met him in 1949, I asked him how
many cases there are in Paali, as I feared that I would have to
memorise declensions as in Latin. He very tactfully said that there are
no cases. I was surprised and curious, and requested him to start
lessons immediately. Straight away we got down to making
sentences which, lesson after lesson, became longer, more interesting
and complex. These exercises were such fun that I thoroughly
enjoyed learning Paali. Mr. Berugoda compiled a Paali Grammar in
Sinhala called Paali Subodhinii, to teach me and it was later
published in the early 1950's. It has long been out of print and even I
do not possess a copy.
In the early 1980s Mr. Berugoda compiled another Paali Grammar in
Sinhala which he said was an improvement on Paali Subodhinii, and
wished me to translate it into English. Though it was translated with
the help of Prof. P.B. Meegaskumbura of the Department of Sinhala, I
was not satisfied with the arrangement of the lessons. I felt that the
improvements he made in his enthusiasm were counter-productive,
but I did not have the heart to tell him my frank opinion. The book
however could not be published for lack of funds.
The present work is an entirely new effort based on the same
principle of teaching grammar through composition, using a
gradually expanding controlled vocabulary, selected on the basis of
types frequently occurring in the language. Cases are introduced one
by one using only masculine nouns ending in -a at the beginning,
with exercises in sentence formation with present tense, third person,
singular and plural verbs whose bases end in -a. Grammatical forms
such as the gerund/absolutive and the infinitive, which are very
frequent in the language, are soon introduced to enable the student to
form longer and more complex sentences. Once the student has
mastered the basic structure, other grammatical and syntactical forms
are taught one by one, following the principle of introducing forms
which bear a similarity/affinity in morphology to those already
learnt. Translations from and into Paali form an integral part of each
This book is meant for beginners and gives only an introduction to
Paali grammar. It is designed as a convenient stepping stone to more
advanced works such as A.K. Warder's Introduction to Paali.
I have freely drawn from the vocabulary collected by Ven. A.P.
Buddhadatta in The New Paali Course Part I, for which I
acknowledge my indebtedness.
I place on record my sincere thanks to my University Guru Prof. N.A.
Jayawickrema for going through the first draft of this text with
meticulous care and making valuable suggestions.
Lily de Silva
Department of Pāli and Buddhist Studies
University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
11 December, 1991.

Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammaasambuddhassa.
Homage to the Blessed One, the Worthy One, The Fully Self-enlightened One.
Paali Primer
The Alphabet
Paali is not known to have a special script of its own. In countries where Paali is
studied, the scripts used in those countries are used to write Paali: in India the
Naagari, in Sri Lanka the Sinhalese, in Burma the Burmese and in Thailand the
Kamboja script. The Pali Text Society, London, uses the Roman script and now it
has gained international currency.
The Paali alphabet consists of 41 letters, 8 vowels and 33 consonants.
a, aa, i, ii, u, uu, e, o
Gutturals k, kh, g, gh, `n
Palatels c, ch, j, jh, ~n
Cerebrals .t, .th, .d, .dh, .n
Dentals t, th, d, dh, n
Labials p, ph, b, bh, m
Miscellaneous y, r, l, v, s, h, .l, .m
The vowels a, i, u are short; aa, ii, uu are long; e, o are of middle length. They are
pronounced short before double consonants, e.g. mettaa, khetta, ko.t.tha, sotthi;
and long before single consonants, e.g. deva, senaa, loka, odana.
a is pronounced like u in cut
aa is pronounced like a in father
i is pronounced like i in mill
ii is pronounced like ee in bee
u is pronounced like u in put
uu is pronounced like oo in cool
k is pronounced like k in kite
g is pronounced like g in good
`n is pronounced like ng in singer
c is pronounced like ch in church
j is pronounced like j in jam
~n is pronounced like gn in signor
.t is pronounced like t in hat
.d is pronounced like d in good
.n is pronounced like n in now
t is pronounced like th in thumb
d is pronounced like th in they
n is pronounced like n in now
p is pronounced like p in put
b is pronounced like b in but
m is pronounced like m in mind
y is pronounced like y in yes
r is pronounced like r in right
l is pronounced like l in light
v is pronounced like v in vine
s is pronounced like s in sing
h is pronounced like h in hot
.l is pronounced like l in light
.m is pronounced like ng in sing
kh, gh, ch, jh, .th, .dh, th, dh, ph, bh are aspirate consonants which have to be
pronounced with an audible breath.

Paali Primer
Lesson 1
1. Vocabulary
Masculine nouns ending in -a
       Buddha / Tathaagata / Sugata - the Buddha
       manussa - man, human being
       nara / purisa - man, person
       kassaka - farmer - brahmin
       putta - son
       maatula - uncle
       kumaara - boy
       vaa.nija - merchant
       bhuupaala - king
       sahaaya / sahaayaka / mitta - friend
       bhaasati - speaks
       pacati - cooks
       kasati - ploughs
       bhu~njati - eats
       sayati - sleeps
       passati - sees
       chindati - cuts
       gacchati - goes
       aagacchati - comes
       dhaavati - runs
2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a
Nominative case: The case ending -o is added to the nominal base to form the
nominative case singular number. The case ending -aa is added to the nominal
base to form the nominative case plural number. A noun thus inflected is used as
the subject of a sentence.
    1. nara + o = naro
    2. maatula + o = maatulo
    3. kassaka + o = kassako
    1. nara + aa = naraa
    2. maatula + aa = maatulaa
    3. kassaka + aa = kassakaa
3. Conjugation of verbs
In the verbs listed above bhaasa, paca, kasa etc. are verbal bases and -ti is the
present tense, third person, singular termination.
The present tense, third person, plural is formed by adding the termination -nti
to the base.
    1. bhaasati - He speaks
    2. pacati - He cooks
    3. kasati - He ploughs
    1. bhaasanti - They speak
    2. pacanti - They cook
    3. kasanti - They plough
4. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Naro bhaasati - The man speaks.
    2. Maatulo pacati - The uncle cooks.
    3. Kassako kasati - The farmer ploughs.
    1. Naraa bhaasanti - Men speak.
    2. Maatulaa pacanti - Uncles cook.
    3. Kassakaa kasanti - Farmers plough.
The New Pali Course
First Book
The Alphabet
1. The Pali alphabet consists of 41 letters, eight vowels and thirty-three

a, aa, i, ii, u, uu, e, o

k, kh, g, gh, `n
c, ch, j, jh, ~n
.t, .th, .d, .dh, .n
t, th, d, dh, n
p, ph, b, bh, m
y, r, l, v, s, h, .l, .m
2. Of the vowels a, i, u are short; the rest are long.
Although e and o are included in long vowels they are often`sounded short
before a double consonant, e.g. mettaa, se.t.thii, okkamati, yotta.m[1].
[1] Wide Book II for further treatment of letters.
3. Pronunciation
a is pronounced like a in what or u in hut
aa is pronounced like a in father
i is pronounced like i in mint
ii is pronounced like ee in see
u is pronounced like u in put
uu is pronounced like oo in pool
e is pronounced like a in cage
o is pronounced like o in no
k is pronounced like k in kind
kh is pronounced like kh in blackheath
g is pronounced like g in game
gh is pronounced like gh in big house
`n is pronounced like ng in singer
c is pronounced like ch in chance
ch is pronounced like ch h in witch-hazel
jh is pronounced like dge h in sledge-hammer
~n is pronounced like gn in signore
.t is pronounced like t in cat
.th is pronounced like th in ant-hill
.d is pronounced like d in bad
.dh is pronounced like dh in red-hot
.n is pronounced like kn in know
t is pronounced like th in thumb
th is pronounced like th in pot-herb
d is pronounced like th in then
dh is pronounced like dh in adherent
ph is pronounced like ph in uphill
bh is pronounced like bh in abhorrence
y is pronounced like y in yes
s is pronounced like s in sight
.m is pronounced like ng in sing
j, n, p, b, m, r, l, v and h are pronounced just as they are pronounced in English.
Parts of Speech
4. In English, there are 8 parts of speech. They are all found in Pali, but the Pali
grammarians do not classify them in the same way. Their general classification
     1. Naama = noun
     2. Aakhyaata = verb
     3. Upasagga = prefix
     4. Nipaata = indeclinable particle
Pronouns and adjectives are included in the first group. Adjectives are treated as
nouns because they are declined like nouns.
Conjunctions, prepositions, adverbs and all other indeclinables are included in
the fourth group.
Gender, Number and Case
5. There are in Pali as in English three genders and two numbers.
     1. Pulli`nga = Masculine
     2. Itthili`nga = Feminine
     3. Napu.msakali`nga = Neuter
     1. Ekavacana = Singular
     2. Bahuvacana = Plural
6. Nouns which denote males are masculine; those which denote females are
feminine; but nouns which denote inanimate things and qualities are not always
neuter, e.g. rukkha (tree), canda (moon) are masculine. Nadii (river), lataa (vine),
pa~n~naa (wisdom) are feminine. Dhana (wealth), citta (mind) are neuter.
Two words denoting the same thing may be, sometimes, in different genders; and silaa are both synonyms for a stone, but the former is masculine,
and the latter is feminine. Likewise one word, without changing its form, may
possess two or more genders; e.g. geha (house) is masculine and neuter, kucchi
(belly) is masculine and feminine.
Therefore, it should be remembered that gender in Pali is a grammatical
distinction existing in words, it is called grammatical gender.
7. There are eight cases, namely:
     1. Pa.thamaa = Nominative
     2. Dutiyaa = Accusative
     3. (a) Tatiyaa = Ablative of agent, and
         (b) = Ablative of instrument
     4. Catutthii = Dative
     5. Pa~ncamii = Ablative of separation
     6. Cha.t.thii = Possessive or Genitive
     7. Sattamii = Locative
     8. Aalapana = Vocative
The Ablative in English is here divided into Tatiyaa, and Pa~ncamii. But,
as Tatiyaa and always have similar forms both of them are shown under
"Instrumental". Where only the "Ablative" is given the reader must understand
that all (3) forms of the Ablative are included.
Declension of Nouns
8. Nouns in Pali are differently declined according to their gender and
Nara is a masculine stem, ending in -a.
It is to be declined as follows:-
Case           Singular                        Plural
Nominative     naro = man                      naraa = men
Accusative     nara.m = man                    nare = men
               narena = by, with or through    narebhi, narehi = by, with or
               man                             through men
Dative         naraaya, narassa = to or for man naraana.m = to or for men
               naraa, naramhaa, narasmaa =
Ablative                                       narebhi, narehi = from men
               from man
Genitive       narassa = of man                naraana.m = of men
               nare, naramhi, narasmi.m = on
Locative                                       naresu = on or in men
               or in man
Vocative       nara, naraa = O man             naraa = O men
Some of the stems similarly declined are:-
      purisa = man
      manussa = human being
      hattha = hand
      paada = leg; foot
      kaaya = body
      rukkha = tree = rock; stone
      gaama = village
      Buddha = the Enlightened One
      dhamma = doctrine
      sa`ngha = community
      aaloka = light
        loka = world
        aakaasa = sky
        suriya = sun
        canda = moon
        magga = path
        putta = son
        kumaara = boy
        vaa.nija = merchant
        cora = thief
        mitta = friend
        daasa = slave
        bhuupaala = king
        kassaka = farmer
        lekhaka = clerk
        deva = god; deity
        vaanara = monkey
        vihaara = monastery
        diipa = island; lamp
        ma~nca = bed
        aahaara = food
        siiha = lion
        miga = deer; beast
        assa = horse = ox
        sunakha = dog
        varaaha = pig = bird
        aja = goat
        kaaka = crow
9. Inflections or case-endings of the above declension are:
                     Case           Singular         Plural
                     Nominative     o                aa
                     Accusative     .m               e
                     Instrumental ena                ebhi; ehi
                     Dative         aaya; ssa        aana.m
                     Ablative       aa; mhaa; smaa ebhi; ehi
                     Genitive       ssa              aana.m
                     Locative       e; mhi; smi.m    esu
                    Vocative       a; aa           aa
The last vowel of the stem should be elided before an inflection which begins
with a vowel.
Exercise 1
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Manussaana.m.
   2. Purise.
   3. Hattha.m.
   4. Paadamhi.
   5. Kaayena.
   6. Buddhesu.
   7. Dhamma.m.
   8. Sa`nghamhaa.
   9. Suriye.
   10. Rukkhassa.
   11. Aakaasena.
   12. Bhuupaalebhi.
   13. Devaa.
   14. Canda.m.
   15. Gaamasmaa.
   16. Go.naaya.
   17. Siihaana.m.
   18. Asso.
   19. Sakuna.
   20. Ma~ncasmi.m.
Translate into Pali
   1. The dogs.
   2. Of the hand.
   3. On the men.
   4. From the tree.
   5. In the islands.
   6. With the foot.
   7. By the hands.
   8. To the lion.
   9. Of the oxen.
   10. From the birds.
   11. By the king.
   12. O deity.
   13. To the sun.
   14. In the sky.
   15. Through the body.
    16. On the bed.
    17. Of the moons.
    18. In the world.
    19. The monkey.
    20. Through the light.
Exercise 2
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Purisassa
    2. Manussaana.m hatthaa.
    3. Aakaasamhi saku.naa.
    4. Buddhassa dhammo.
    5. Ma~ncesu manussaa.
    6. Assaana.m paadaa.
    7. Rukkhe
    8. Paasaa.namhi
    9. Lokasmi.m manussaa.
    10. Bhuupaalassa diipaa.
Translate into Pali
    1. The body of the ox.
    2. The bird on the tree.
    3. The island of the world.
    4. With the feet of the man.
    5. By the hand of the monkey.
    6. Of the birds in the sky.
    7. In the doctrine of the Buddha.
    8. The villages of the king.
    9. The birds from the tree.
    10. The horse on the path.
Remark. In translating these into Pali, the articles should be left out. There are no
parallel equivalents to them in Pali. But it should be noted that the pronominal
adjective "ta" (that) may be used for the definite article, and "eka" (one) for the
indefinite. Both of them take the gender, number, and case of the nouns they
qualify. (See §§46 and 48).
Conjugation of Verbs
10. There are three tenses, two voices, two numbers, and three persons in the
conjugation of Pali verbs.
    1. Vattamaanakaala = Present Tense
    2. Atiitakaala = Past Tense
    3. Anaagatakaala = Future Tense
    1. Kattukaaraka = Active Voice
    2. Kammakaaraka = Passive Voice
    1. Pa.thamapurisa = Third Person
    2. Majjhimapurisa = Second Person
    3. Uttamapurisa = First Person
The first person in English is third in Pali.
Numbers are similar to those of nouns.
11. There is no attempt to conjugate the Continuous, Perfect, and Perfect
Continuous tenses in Pali; therefore only the indefinite forms are given here.
Conjugation of the Root Paca (to cook)
12. Indicative, Present Active Voice
     Person Singular                          Plural
     Third     (So) pacati = he cooks         (Te) pacanti = they cook
     Second (Tva.m) pacasi = thou cookest (Tumhe) pacatha = you cook
     First     (Aha.m) pacaami = I cook       (Maya.m) pacaama = we cook
13. The base bhava (to be) from the root bhuu is similarly conjugated.
       Person Singular                       Plural
       Third    (So) bhavati = he is         (Te) bhavanti = they are
       Second (Tva.m) bhavasi = thou art (Tumhe) bhavatha = you are
       First    (Aha.m) bhavaami = I am      (Maya.m) bhavaama = we are
The following are conjugated similarly:-
       gacchati = goes
       ti.t.thati = stands
       nisiidati = sits
       sayati = sleeps
       carati = walks
       dhaavati = runs
       passati = sees
       bhu~njati = eats
       bhaasati = says
       harati = carries
       aaharati = brings
       kii.lati = plays
       vasati = lives
       hanati = kills
       aaruhati = ascends
       hasati = laughs
       yaacati = begs
Exercise 3
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Naraa suriya.m passanti.
   2. Go.naa ti.t.thanti.
   3. Manusso gaame carati.
   4. rukkhe nisiidati.
   5. Buddho dhamma.m bhaasati.
   6. Aha.m diipa.m aaharaami.
   7. Maya.m haraama.
   8. Sa`ngho gaama.m gacchati.
   9. Tva.m siiha.m passasi.
   10. Bhuupaalaa asse aaruhanti.
   11. Devaa aakaasena gacchanti.
   12. Assaa diipesu dhaavanti.
   13. Tva.m paadehi carasi.
   14. Tumhe hatthehi haratha.
   15. Maya.m loke vasaama.
   16. Sunakhaa vaanarehi ki.lanti.
   17. Puriso ma~nce sayati.
   18. Varaahaa ajehi vasanti.
   19. Siihaa hananti.
   20. Sunakhaa gaame caranti.
Translate into Pali
   1. The horse stands on the rock.
   2. The goats walk in the village.
   3. You see the sun.
   4. The moon rises in the sky.
   5. The men sleep in beds.
   6. The oxen run from the lion.
   7. People live in the world.
   8. Thou bringest a lamp.
   9. We live in an island.
   10. Thou art a king.
   11. You see the bird on the tree.
   12. The monkey plays with the pig.
   13. The king kills a lion.
   14. The deity walks in the sky.
   15. Trees are in the island.
   16. He carries the lamp.
   17. We see the body of the man.
   18. We eat with the hands.
Exercise 1
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Bhuupaalo bhu~njati.
    2. Puttaa sayanti.
    3. Vaa.nijaa sayanti.
    4. Buddho passati.
    5. Kumaaro dhaavati.
    6. Maatulo kasati.
    7. Braahma.naa bhaasanti.
    8. Mittaa gacchanti.
    9. Kassakaa pacanti.
    10. Manusso chindati.
    11. Purisaa dhaavanti.
    12. Sahaayako bhu~njati.
    13. Tathaagato bhaasati.
    14. Naro pacati.
    15. Sahaayaa kasanti.
    16. Sugato aagacchati.
Translate into Paali
    1. Sons run.
    2. The uncle sees.
    3. The Buddha comes.
    4. Boys eat.
    5. Merchants go.
    6. The man sleeps.
    7. Kings go.
    8. The brahmin cuts.
    9. Friends speak.
    10. The farmer ploughs.
    11. The merchant comes.
    12. Sons cut.
    13. Uncles speak.
    14. The boy runs.
    15. The friend speaks.
    16. The Buddha sees.
Paali Primer
Lesson 2
1. Vocabulary
Masculine nouns ending in -a
        dhamma - the doctrine, truth
        bhatta - rice
        odana - cooked rice
        gaama - village
        suriya - sun
        canda - moon
        kukkura/sunakha/ - dog
        vihaara - monastery
        patta - bowl
        aavaa.ta - pit
        pabbata - mountain
        yaacaka - beggar
        sigaala - jackal
        rukkha - tree
       harati - carries, takes away
       aaharati - brings
       aaruhati - climbs, ascends
       oruhati - descends
       yaacati - begs
       kha.nati - digs
       vijjhati - shoots
       paharati - hits, strikes
       rakkhati - protects
       vandati - worships, salutes
2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)
Accusative case: The case ending -.m is added to the nominal base to form the
accusative singular number. The case ending -e is added to the nominal base to
form the accusative case plural number. A noun thus inflected is used as the
object of a sentence. The goal of motion is also expressed by the accusative case.
    1. nara + .m = nara.m
    2. maatula + .m = maatula.m
    3. kassaka + .m = kassaka.m
    1. nara + e = nare
    2. maatula + e = maatule
    3. kassaka + e = kassake
3. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Putto nara.m passati - The son sees the man.
    2. maatula.m rakkhati -The brahmin protects the uncle.
    3. Vaa.nijo kassaka.m paharati - The merchant hits the farmer.
    1. Puttaa nare passanti - Sons see men.
    2. Braahma.naa maatule rakkhanti - Brahmins protect uncles.
   3. Vaa.nijaa kassake paharanti - Merchants hit farmers.
Suggested Solutions
Exercise 2
Translate into English
   1. Tathaagato dhamma.m bhaasati.
   2. Braahma.naa odana.m bhu~njanti.
   3. Manusso suriya.m passati.
   4. Kumaaraa sigaale paharanti.
   5. Yaacakaa bhatta.m yaacanti.
   6. Kassakaa kha.nanti.
   7. Mitto gaama.m aagacchati.
   8. Bhuupaalo manusse rakkhati.
   9. Puttaa pabbata.m gacchanti.
   10. Kumaaro Buddha.m vandati.
   11. Vaa.nijaa patte aaharanti.
   12. Puriso vihaara.m gacchati.
   13. Kukkuraa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
   14. Sigaalaa gaama.m aagacchanti.
   15. Braahma.naa sahaayake aaharanti.
   16. Bhuupaalaa sugata.m vandanti.
   17. Yaacakaa sayanti.
   18. Mittaa sunakhe haranti.
   19. Putto canda.m passati.
   20. Kassako gaama.m dhaavati.
   21. Vaa.nijaa rukkhe chindanti.
   22. Naro sigaala.m vijjhati.
   23. Kumaaro odana.m bhu~njati.
   24. Yaacako paharati.
   25. Sahaayakaa pabbate aaruhanti.
Translate into Paali
   1. Men go to the monastery.
   2. Farmers climb mountains.
   3. The brahmin eats rice.
   4. The Buddha sees the boys.
   5. Uncles take away bowls.
   6. The son protects the dog.
   7. The king worships the Buddha.
   8. The merchant brings a boy.
   9. Friends salute the brahmin.
   10. Beggars beg rice.
   11. Merchants shoot jackals.
   12. Boys climb the mountain.
   13. The farmer runs to the village.
    14. The merchant cooks rice.
    15. Sons worship the uncle.
    16. Kings protect men.
    17. The Buddha comes to the monastery.
    18. The men descend.
    19. Farmers dig pits.
    20. The merchant runs.
    21. The dog sees the moon.
    22. Boys climb trees.
    23. The brahmin brings the bowl.
    24. The beggar sleeps.
    25. The king sees the Buddha.
Lesson 3
1. Vocabulary
Masculine nouns ending in -a
        ratha - vehicle, chariot
        saka.ta - cart
        hattha - hand
        paada - foot
        magga - path
        diipa - island, lamp
        saavaka - disciple - recluse, monk
        sagga - heaven
        assa - horse
        miga - deer
        sara - arrow - rock, stone
        kakaca - saw
        khagga - sword
        cora - thief
        pa.n.dita - wise man
2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)
Instrumental case: The case ending -ena is added to the nominal base to form the
instrumental singular. The case ending -ehi is added to form the instrumental
plural; -ebhi is another archaic case ending that is sometimes added. A noun thus
inflected expresses the idea 'by', 'with' or 'through'.
    1. nara + ena = narena (by means of the man)
    2. maatula + ena = maatulena (with the uncle)
    3. kassaka + ena = kassakena (through the farmer)
    1. nara + ehi = narehi (narebhi)
    2. maatula + ehi = maatulehi (maatulebhi)
    3. kassaka + ehi = kassakehi (kassakebhi)
Saddhi.m/saha meaning 'with' is also used with the instrumental case. They are
not normally used with nouns denoting things.
3. Examples in sentence formation
    1. narena saddhi.m gaama.m gacchati.
        The monk goes to the village with the man.
    2. Putto maatulena saha canda.m passati.
        The son sees the moon with his uncle.
    3. Kassako kakacena rukkha.m chindati.
        The farmer cuts the tree with a saw.
    1. Sama.naa narehi saddhi.m gaama.m gacchanti.
        Monks go to the village with men.
    2. Puttaa maatulehi saha canda.m passanti.
        Sons see the moon with uncles.
    3. Kassakaa kakacehi rukkhe chindanti.
        Farmers cut trees with saws.
Exercise 3
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Buddho saavakehi saddhi.m vihaara.m gacchati.
    2. Puriso puttena saha diipa.m dhaavati.
    3. Kassako sarena sigaala.m vijjhati.
    4. Braahma.naa maatulena saha pabbata.m aaruhanti.
    5. Puttaa paadehi kukkure paharanti.
    6. Maatulo puttehi saddhi.m rathena gaama.m aagacchati.
    7. Kumaaraa hatthehi patte aaharanti.
    8. Coro maggena assa.m harati.
    9. Kassako aavaa.ta.m oruhati.
    10. Bhuupaalaa pa.n.ditehi saha passanti.
    11. Pa.n.dito bhuupaalena saha Tathaagata.m vandati.
    12. Puttaa sahaayena saddhi.m odana.m bhu~njanti.
    13. Va.nijo paasaa.nena miga.m paharati.
    14. Sunakhaa paadehi aavaa.te kha.nanti.
    15. puttena saha suriya.m vandati.
    16. Kassako so.nehi saddhi.m rukkhe rakkhanti.
    17. Sugato saavakehi saha vihaara.m aagacchati.
    18. Yaacako pattena bhatta.m aaharati.
    19. Pa.n.ditaa sagga.m gacchanti.
    20. Kumaaraa assehi saddhi.m gaama.m dhaavanti.
    21. Coro khaggena nara.m paharati.
    22. Vaa.nijo saka.tena dipe aaharati.
    23. Assaa maggena dhaavanti.
    24. Sigaalaa migehi saddhi.m pabbata.m dhaavanti.
    25. Bhuupaalo pa.n.ditena saha manusse rakkhati.
Translate into Paali
    1. The recluse sees the Buddha with his friend.
    2. Disciples go to the monastery with the Buddha.
    3. The horse runs to the mountain with the dogs.
    4. The boy hits the lamp with a stone.
    5. Merchants shoot deer with arrows.
    6. Farmers dig pits with their hands.
    7. Boys go to the monastery by chariot with their uncle.
    8. The brahmin cooks rice with his friend.
    9. The king protects the island with wise men.
    10. Kings worship monks with their sons.
    11. Thieves bring horses to the island.
    12. Disciples climb mountains with men.
    13. Merchants cut trees with farmers.
    14. The beggar digs a pit with a friend.
    15. The brahmin sees the moon with his uncles.
    16. The thief hits the horse with a sword.
    17. The son brings rice in a bowl.
    18. Boys run to the mountain with their dogs.
    19. Merchants come to the village by carts with farmers.
    20. Uncles come to the monastery by chariots with their sons.
    21. Jackals run to the mountain along the road.
    22. Dogs dig pits with their feet.
    23. The man carries a saw in his hand.
    24. Recluses go to heaven.
    25. The Buddha comes to the village with his disciples.
Lesson 4
1. Vocabulary
Masculine nouns ending in -a
        dhiivara - fisherman
        maccha - fish
        pi.taka - basket
        amacca - minister
        upaasaka - lay devotee
        paasaada - palace
        daaraka - child
        saa.taka - garment
        rajaka - washerman
        sappa - serpent
        pa~nha - question
        suka/suva - parrot
        sopaana - stairway
        suukara/varaaha - pig
        patati - falls
        dhovati - washes
        icchati - wishes, desires
        .dasati - bites
        pucchati - questions
        pakkosati - calls, summons
        khaadati - eats
        hanati - kills
        otarati - descends
        nikkhamati - leaves, sets out
2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)
Ablative case: Case endings -aa/-mhaa/-smaa are added to the nominal base to
form the ablative singular. Case ending -ehi is added to form the ablative plural;
-ebhi is an archaic ending that is also used.
    1. nara + aa/mhaa/smaa = naraa/naramhaa/narasmaa (From the man)
    2. maatula + aa/mhaa/smaa = maatulaa/maatulamhaa/maatulasmaa
        (From the uncle)
    3. kassaka + aa/mhaa/smaa = kassakaa/kassakamhaa/kassakasmaa (From
        the farmer)
    1. nara + ehi = narehi (narebhi) (From men)
    2. maatula + ehi = maatulehi (maatulebhi) (From uncles)
    3. kassaka + ehi = kassakehi (kassakebhi) (From farmers)
3. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Yaacako naramhaa bhatta.m yaacati.
        The beggar asks for rice from the man.
    2. Putto maatulamhaa pa~nha.m pucchati.
        The son asks a question from the uncle.
    3. Kassako rukkhasmaa patati.
        The farmer falls from the tree.
    1. Yaacakaa narehi bhatta.m yaacanti.
        Beggars ask for rice from men.
    2. Puttaa maatulehi pa~nhe pucchanti.
        Sons ask questions from uncles.
   3. Kassakaa rukkhehi patanti.
       Farmers fall from trees.
Exercise 4
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Coraa gaamamhaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
   2. Daarako maatulasmaa odana.m yaacati.
   3. Kumaaro sopaanamhaa patati.
   4. Maatulaa saa.take dhovanti.
   5. Dhiivaraa pi.takehi macche aaharanti.
   6. Upaasakaa sama.nehi saddhi.m vihaarasmaa nikkhamanti.
   7. kakacena rukkha.m chindati.
   8. Kumaaraa mittehi saha bhuupaala.m passanti.
   9. Vaa.nijo assena saddhi.m pabbatasmaa oruhati.
   10. Yaacako kassakasmaa yaacati.
   11. Sappaa pabbatehi gaama.m otaranti.
   12. Amaccaa sarehi mige vijjhanti.
   13. Coro gaamamhaa saka.tena saa.take harati.
   14. Bhuupaalo amaccehi saddhi.m rathena paasaada.m aagacchati.
   15. Suukaraa paadehi aavaa.te kha.nanti.
   16. Kumaaro sahaayakehi saha saa.take dhovati.
   17. Sama.naa gaamamhaa upaasakehi saddhi.m nikkhamanti.
   18. Kukkuro pi.takamhaa maccha.m khaadati.
   19. Mitto puttamhaa sunakha.m yaacati.
   20. Buddho saavake pucchati.
   21. Amaccaa pa.n.ditehi pa~nhe pucchanti.
   22. Rajako sahaayena saha saa.taka.m dhovati.
   23. Macchaa pi.takamhaa patanti.
   24. Coraa paasaa.nehi varaahe paharanti.
   25. Amacco paasaadamhaa suva.m aaharati.
Translate into Paali
   1. Horses run from the village to the mountain.
   2. Merchants come from the island to the monastery with lay devotees.
   3. Thieves shoot pigs with arrows.
   4. The lay devotee questions (about) the dhamma from the recluse.
   5. The child falls from the rock with a friend.
   6. The dog bites the child.
   7. Ministers set out from the palace with the king.
   8. The man brings a deer from the island.
   9. The farmer gets down from the tree.
   10. Dogs run along the road with horses.
   11. Boys take away lamps from merchants.
   12. The thief gets down from the stairway.
    13. Merchants bring parrots from mountains.
    14. The horse hits the serpent with its foot.
    15. The uncle, with his friends, sees recluses from the mountains.
    16. Merchants bring horses to the palace from the island.
    17. The minister questions the thief.
    18. The farmer eats rice with the washerman.
    19. The child falls from the stairway.
    20. The fisherman climbs the mountain with his uncle.
    21. The beggar, together with his dog, sleeps.
    22. Kings protect islands with their ministers.
    23. The king worships the Buddha from his palace.
    24. The man kills a serpent with a sword.
    25. Fishermen bring fish to the village in carts.
    26. Pigs run from the village to the mountain.
    27. Lay devotees ask questions from the wise man.
    28. The son brings a parrot from the tree.
    29. Wise men go to the monastery.
    30. Disciples go along the road to the village.
Lesson 5
1. Vocabulary
Masculine nouns ending in -a
        taapasa - hermit
        aacariya - teacher
        vejja - doctor
        siiha - lion
        luddaka - hunter
        aja - goat
        vaanara/makka.ta - monkey
        laabha - profit
        ma~nca - bed
        kuddaala - hoe
        rodati - cries
        hasati - laughs
        labhati - gets, receives
        pavisati - enters
        dadaati - gives
        aadadaati - takes
        kii.lati - plays
        nahaayati - bathes
        aaka.d.dhati - drags
        pajahati - gives up, abandons
2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)
Dative case: Case endings -aaya / -ssa are added to the nominal base to form the
dative singular. The case ending -aana.m is added to form the dative plural.
    1. nara + aaya/ssa = naraaya/narassa (for or to the man)
    2. maatula + aaya/ssa = maatulaaya/maatulassa (for or to the uncle)
    3. kassaka + aaya/ssa = kassakaaya/kassakassa (for or to the farmer)
    1. nara + aana.m = naraana.m (for or to men)
    2. maatula + aana.m = maatulaana.m (for or to uncles)
    3. kassaka + aana.m = kassakaana.m (for or to farmers)
3. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Dhiivaro naraaya maccha.m aaharati.
        The fisherman brings a fish for the man.
    2. Putto maatulassa odana.m dadaati.
        The son gives rice to the uncle.
    3. Vaa.nijo kassakassa aja.m dadaati.
        The merchant gives a goat to the farmer.
    1. Dhiivaraa naraana.m macche aaharanti.
        Fishermen bring fish for men.
    2. Puttaa maatulaana.m odana.m dadanti.
        Sons give rice to uncles.
    3. Vaa.nijaa kassakaana.m aje dadanti.
        Merchants give goats to farmers.
Exercise 5
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Vaa.nijo rajakassa saa.taka.m dadaati.
    2. Vejjo aacariyassa diipa.m aaharati.
    3. Migaa paasaa.namhaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
    4. Manussaa Buddhehi dhamma.m labhanti.
    5. Puriso vejjaaya saka.ta.m aaka.d.dhati.
    6. Daarako hatthena yaacakassa bhatta.m aaharati.
    7. Yaacako aacariyaaya aavaa.ta.m kha.nati.
    8. Rajako amaccaana.m saa.take dadaati.
    9. saavakaanam ma~nce aaharati.
    10. Vaanaro rukkhamhaa patati, kukkuro vaanara.m .dasati.
    11. Dhiivaraa pi.takehi amaccaana.m macche aaharanti.
    12. Kassako vaa.nijaaya rukkha.m chindati.
    13. Coro kuddaalena aacariyaaya aavaa.ta.m kha.nati.
    14. Vejjo puttaana.m bhatta.m pacati.
    15. Taapaso luddakena saddhi.m bhaasati.
   16. Luddako taapasassa diipa.m dadaati.
   17. Siihaa mige hananti.
   18. puttena saha rukkha.m aaruhati.
   19. Sama.naa upaasakehi odana.m labhanti.
   20. Daarakaa rodanti, kumaaro hasati, maatulo kumaara.m paharati.
   21. Vaanaraa pabbatamhaa oruhanti, rukkhe aaruhanti.
   22. Coraa ratha.m pavisanti, amacco ratha.m pajahati.
   23. Aacariyo daarakaaya rukkhamhaa suka.m aaharati.
   24. Luddako pabbatasmaa aja.m aaka.d.dhati.
   25. Taapaso pabbatamhaa siiha.m passati.
   26. Va.nijaa kassakehi laabha.m labhanti.
   27. Luddako vaa.nijaana.m varaahe hanati.
   28. Taapaso aacariyamhaa pa~nhe pucchati.
   29. Patto ma~ncamhaa patati.
   30. Kumaaraa sahaayakehi saddhi.m nahaayanti.
Translate into Paali
   1. Merchants bring horses for ministers.
   2. The hunter kills a goat for the merchant.
   3. The man cuts trees with a saw for the farmer.
   4. Deer run away from the lion.
   5. The king worships the Buddha along with lay devotees.
   6. Thieves run from villages to the mountains.
   7. The washerman washes garments for the king.
   8. The fisherman brings fish in baskets for farmers.
   9. The teacher enters the monastery, sees the monks.
   10. The serpent bites the monkey.
   11. Boys drag the bed for the brahmin.
   12. Thieves enter the palace together with men.
   13. Farmers get fish from fishermen.
   14. Pigs go from the island to the mountain.
   15. The king abandons the palace, the son enters the monastery.
   16. The lion sleeps, the monkeys play.
   17. The teacher protects his sons from the dog.
   18. Hunters shoot deer with arrows for ministers.
   19. Children desire rice from the uncle.
   20. The doctor gives a garment to the hermit.
   21. The merchant brings a goat by cart for the teacher.
   22. Sons see the moon from the mountain.
   23. Wise men get profit from the dhamma.
   24. Monkeys leave the village.
   25. The son brings a parrot for his friend from the mountain.
   26. The doctor enters the monastery.
   27. The jackal runs from the village to the mountain along the road.
    28. The cart falls off the road, the child cries.
    29. The ministers go up the stairway, the doctor comes down the stairway.
    30. Wise men ask questions from the Buddha.
Lesson 6
1. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)
Genitive case: The inflections of the genitive case are very similar to those of the
dative case. The case ending -ssa is added to the nominal base to form the
genitive singular. The case ending -aana.m is added to form the genitive plural.
    1. nara + ssa = narassa (of the man)
    2. maatula + ssa = maatulassa (of the uncle)
    3. kassaka + ssa = kassakassa (of the farmer)
    1. nara + aana.m = naraana.m (of the men)
    2. maatula + aana.m = maatulaana.m (of the uncles)
    3. kassaka + aana.m = kassakaana.m (of the farmers)
2. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Narassa putto bhatta.m yaacati.
        The man's son asks for rice.
    2. Maatulassa sahaayako ratha.m aaharati.
        The uncle's friend brings the vehicle.
    3. Kassakassa suukaro diipa.m dhaavati.
    4. The farmer's pig runs to the island.
    1. Naraana.m puttaa bhatta.m yaacanti.
        Sons of the men ask for rice.
    2. Maatulaana.m sahaayakaa rathe aaharanti.
        Uncles' friends bring vehicles.
    3. Kassakaana.m suukaraa diipe dhaavanti.
        Farmers' pigs run to the islands.
Exercise 6
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Kassakassa putto vejjassa sahaayena saddhi.m aagacchati.
    2. Braahma.nassa kuddaalo hatthamhaa patati.
    3. Migaa aava.tehi nikkhamanti.
    4. Vaa.nijaana.m assaa kassakassa gaama.m dhaavanti.
    5. Maatulassa mitto Thathaagatassa saavake vandati.
    6. Amacco bhuupaalassa khaggena sappa.m paharati.
    7. Vaa.nijaa gaame manussaana.m pi.takehi macche aaharanti.
    8. Coro vejjassa saka.tena mittena saha gaamamhaa nikkhamati.
    9. Upaasakassa puttaa sama.nehi saha vihaara.m gacchanti.
   10. Yaacako amaccassa saa.taka.m icchati.
   11. Mittaana.m maatulaa taapasaana.m odana.m dadanti.
   12. Dhiivarassa kakacena coro kukkura.m paharati.
   13. Bhuupaalassa putto amaccassa assa.m aaruhati.
   14. Pa.n.ditassa puttaa Buddhassa saavakena saha vihaara.m pavisanti.
   15. Suriyo manusse rakkhati.
   16. Vejjassa sunakho aacariyassa sopaanamhaa patati.
   17. Rajakaa rukkhehi oruhanti.
   18. Yaacakassa daarakaa rodanti.
   19. Luddakassa puttaa corassa daarakehi saddhi.m kii.lanti.
   20. Taapaso Tathaagatassa saavakaana.m odana.m dadaati.
   21. Sama.naa aacariyassa hatthena saa.take labhanti.
   22. Coro vaa.nijassa sahaayakasmaa assa.m yaacati.
   23. Upaasakaa Tathaagatassa saavakehi pa~nhe pucchanti.
   24. Paasaa.namhaa migo patati, luddako hasati, sunakhaa dhaavanti.
   25. Vejjassa patto puttassa hatthamhaa patati.
   26. Kumaaro maatulaana.m puttaana.m hatthena odana.m dadaati.
   27. Saraa luddakassa hatthehi patanti, migaa pabbata.m dhaavanti.
   28. Bhuupaalassa putto amaccehi saddhi.m paasaadasmaa oruhati.
   29. Vejjassa kassakassa suukara.m .dasati.
   30. Dhiivaro manussaana.m macche aaharati, laabha.m labhati.
Translate into Paali
   1. The brahmin's sons bathe with the minister's son.
   2. Uncle's friend cooks rice with the farmer's son.
   3. The fisherman brings fish to the king's palace.
   4. The king calls the ministers' sons from the palace.
   5. The merchant's chariot falls from the mountain.
   6. The king's ministers set out from the palace with the horses.
   7. The brahmin's doctor gives garments to the hermits.
   8. The hunter's dogs run from the mountain to the village.
   9. The merchant brings a bed for the doctor's child.
   10. Deer run from the mountain to the village.
   11. The teacher's child falls from the farmer's tree.
   12. The dog eats fish from the fisherman's basket.
   13. The disciples of the Buddha go from the monastery to the mountain.
   14. The hunter kills a pig with an arrow for the minister's friends.
   15. The child gets a lamp from the hands of the teacher.
   16. The doctors' teacher calls the child's uncle.
   17. The boy brings rice in a bowl for the monk.
   18. Men go to the village of the lay devotees.
   19. Pigs run away from jackals.
   20. Monkeys play with the deer.
   21. The wise man comes to the king's island with the merchants.
    22. The farmer's children go to the mountain by their uncles' chariots.
    23. Garments fall from the carts of the merchants.
    24. The recluse gets a bowl from the king's hands.
    25. The washerman brings garments for the man's uncle.
    26. King's ministers eat rice together with the teacher's friends.
    27. Wise men protect the islands of the kings from the thieves.
    28. Boys bring baskets for the fishermen from farmers.
    29. The farmer's horse drags the doctor's vehicle away from the road.
    30. Monks enter the village of the teacher.
Lesson 7
1. Vocabulary
Masculine nouns ending in -a
        naavika - sailor
        aakaasa - sky
        samudda - ocean, sea
        deva/sura - deity, god
        loka - world
        aaloka - light - bird
        kaaka - crow
        nivaasa - house
        sappurisa - virtuous man
        asappurisa - wicked man
        kaaya - body
        duuta - messenger - ox, bull
        aahi.n.dati - wanders
        carati - walks
        nisiidati - sits
        sannipatati - assembles
        viharati - dwells
        vasati - lives
        jiivati - lives
        ti.t.thati - stands
        uppatati - flies, jumps up
        tarati - crosses (water)
        uttarati - comes out (of water)
        pasiidati - becomes glad, is pleased with
2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)
Locative case: Case endings -e/-mhi/-smi.m are added to the nominal base to
form the locative singular. The case ending -esu is added to form the locative
    1. nara + e/mhi/smi.m = nare, naramhi, narasmi.m (in/on/at the man)
    2. maatula + e/mhi/smi.m = maatule, maatulamhi, maatulasmi.m (in/on/at
        the uncle)
    3. kassaka + e/mhi/smi.m = kassake, kassakamhi, kassakasmi.m (in/on/at
        the farmer)
    1. nara + esu = naresu (in/on/at men)
    2. maatula + esu = maatulesu (in/on/at uncles)
    3. kassaka + esu = kassakesu (in/on/at farmers)
3. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Sappo narasmi.m patati.
        The snake falls on the man.
    2. Putto maatulamhi pasiidati.
        The son is pleased with the uncle.
    3. Vaa.nijo kassakasmi.m pasiidati.
        The merchant is pleased with the farmer.
    1. Sappaa naresu patanti.
        Snakes fall on men.
    2. Puttaa maatulesu pasiidanti.
        Sons are pleased with their uncles.
    3. Vaa.nijaa kassakesu pasiidanti.
        Merchants are pleased with farmers.
Exercise 7
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. sahaayakena saddhi.m rathamhi nisiidati.
    2. Asappurisaa corehi saha gaamesu caranti.
    3. Vaa.nijo kassakassa nivaase bhatta.m pacati.
    4. Bhuupaalassa amaccaa diipesu manusse rakkhanti.
    5. Sugatassa saavakaa vihaarasmi.m vasanti.
    6. rukkhamhaa aavaa.tasmi.m patati.
    7. Suriyassa aaloko samuddamhi patati.
    8. Kassakaana.m go.naa gaame aahi.n.danti.
    9. Vejjassa daarako ma~ncasmi.m sayati.
    10. Dhiivaraa samuddamhaa pi.takesu macche aaharanti.
    11. Siiho paasaa.nasmi.m ti.t.thati, makka.taa rukkhesu caranti.
    12. Bhuupaalassa duuto amaccena saddhi.m samudda.m tarati.
    13. Manussaa loke jiivanti, devaa sagge vasanti.
    14. Migaa pabbatesu dhaavanti, saku.naa aakaase uppatanti.
    15. Amacco khagga.m bhuupaalassa hatthamhaa aadadaati.
   16. Aacariyo maatulassa nivaase ma~ncamhi puttena saha nisiidati.
   17. Taapasaa pabbatamhi viharanti.
   18. Upaasakaa sama.nehi saddhi.m vihaare sannipatanti.
   19. Kaakaa rukkhehi uppatanti.
   20. Buddho dhamma.m bhaasati, sappurisaa Buddhamhi pasiidanti.
   21. Asappuriso khaggena naavikassa duuta.m paharati.
   22. Puriso sarena vijjhati, rukkhamhaa aavaa.tasmi.m
   23. Manussaa suriyassa aalokena loka.m passanti.
   24. Kassakassa go.naa magge sayanti.
   25. Go.nassa kaayasmi.m kaako ti.t.thati.
   26. Migaa diipasmi.m paasaa.nesu nisiidanti.
   27. naavikassa hatthamhaa aavaa.tasmi.m patati.
   28. Sappuriso naavikena saha samuddamhaa uttarati.
   29. Kuddaalo luddakassa hatthamhaa aavaa.tasmi.m patati.
   30. Suriyassa aalokena cando bhaasati (shines).
Translate into Paali
   1. The lion stands on the rock in the mountain.
   2. Thieves enter the house of the teacher.
   3. Children run from the road to the sea with friends.
   4. Uncle's oxen wander on the road.
   5. Birds sit on the tree.
   6. The ox hits the goat with its foot.
   7. Jackals live on the mountain.
   8. The king worships the feet of the Buddha with his ministers.
   9. The uncle sleeps on the bed with his son.
   10. The fisherman eats rice in the house of the farmer.
   11. The king's horses live in the island.
   12. The virtuous man brings a lamp for the hermit.
   13. The doctor brings a garment to the teacher's house.
   14. The monkey plays with a dog on the rock.
   15. The garment falls on the farmer's body.
   16. The hunter carries arrows in a basket.
   17. Disciples of the Buddha assemble in the monastery.
   18. The washerman washes the garments of the ministers.
   19. Birds fly in the sky.
   20. The virtuous man comes out of the sea together with the sailor.
   21. Deities are pleased with the Buddha's disciples.
   22. Merchants cross the sea together with sailors.
   23. The good man protects the dog from the serpent.
   24. Crows fly from trees in the mountain.
   25. The pig pulls a fish from the fisherman's basket.
   26. The light of the sun falls on the men in the world.
    27. Deities go through the sky.
    28. Children play with the dog on the road.
    29. The wicked man drags a monkey from the tree.
    30. The king's messenger gets down from the horse.
Lesson 8
1. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)
Vocative case: The uninflected nominal base is used as the vocative singular. The
case ending -aa is added to form the vocative plural.
    1. nara (O man)
    2. maatula (O uncle)
    3. kassaka (O farmer)
    1. nara + aa = naraa (O men)
    2. maatula + aa = maatulaa (O uncles)
    3. kassaka + aa = kassakaa (O farmers)
2. The full paradigm of the declension of masculine nouns ending in -a
              nara = man
                      Singular                       Plural
              Nom. naro                              naraa
              Acc.    nara.m                         nare
              Ins.    narena                         narehi (narebhi)
              Abl.    naraa, naramhaa, narasmaa narehi (narebhi)
              Dat.    naraaya, narassa               naraana.m
              Gen.    narassa                        naraana.m
              Loc.    nare, naramhi, narasmi.m       naresu
              Voc.    nara                           naraa
3. Declension of neuter nouns ending in -a
                        phala = fruit
                                 Singular Plural
                        Nom. phala.m phalaa, phalaani
                        Acc.     phala.m phale, phalaani
                        Voc.     phala    phalaani
The rest is similar to the declension of masculine nouns ending in -a.
4. Vocabulary
Neuter nouns ending in -a
       nayana/locana - eye
       udaka/jala - water
       ara~n~na/vana - forest
       puppha/kusuma - flower
       geha/ghara - house
       aasana - seat - leaf - grass
       khiira - milk
       nagara - city, town
       uyyaana - park
       khetta - field
       bha.n.da - goods
       siila - virtue, precept
       daana - alms, charity
       ruupa - object
       dvaara - door
       vattha - cloth
       vivarati - opens
       naccati - dances
       nikkhipati - puts
       u.t.thahati - gets up
       phusati - touches
       anusaasati - instructs
       ovadati - advises
       sa.mharati - collects
       aasi~ncati - sprinkles
       akkosati - scolds
       bhindati - breaks
       pibati/pivati - drinks
Exercise 8
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Upaasako pupphaani aaharati.
   2. Ara~n~ne migaa vasanti, rukkhesu makka.taa caranti.
   3. Go.naa khaadanti.
   4. Manussaa nayanehi passanti.
   5. vihaarasmi.m aasane nisiidati.
   6. Rukkhamhaa pa.n.naani patanti.
   7. Vaa.nijaa gaamamhaa khiira.m nagara.m haranti.
   8. Bhuupaalo kumaarena saddhi.m uyyaane carati.
   9. Kassako khettamhi kuddaalena aavaa.te kha.nati.
   10. Maatulo puttassa bha.n.daani dadaati.
   11. Upaasakaa sama.naana.m daana.m dadanti, siilaani rakkhanti.
   12. Daarakaa mittehi saddhi.m udakasmi.m kii.lanti.
   13. Kassakaa vaa.nijehi vatthaani labhanti.
   14. Kumaaro uyyaanamhaa maatulassa kusumaani aaharati.
   15. Braahma.nassa ajaa go.nehi saha vane aahi.n.danti, ti.naani khaadanti.
   16. Siiho vanasmi.m rukkhamuule (at the foot of a tree) nisiidati.
   17. Rajakaa udakena aasanaani dhovanti.
   18. Amacco duutena saddhi.m rathena ara~n~na.m pavisati.
   19. Yaacakassa putto udakena pa.n.naani dhovati.
   20. Vaa.nijaa bha.n.daani nagaramhaa gaama.m aaharanti.
   21. Tathaagatassa saavakaa asappurisaana.m putte anusaasanti.
   22. Upaasakaa udakena pupphaani aasi~ncanti.
   23. Kumaaro patta.m bhindati, maatulo akkosati.
   24. Luddakassa putto migassa kaaya.m hatthena phusati.
   25. khette paasaa.namhaa u.t.thahati.
   26. Rajakassa putto saa.take ma~ncasmi.m nikkhipati.
   27. Sugatassa saavako vihaarassa dvaara.m vivarati.
   28. Vejjassa daarakaa gehe naccanti.
   29. Pa.n.dito asappurisa.m ovadati.
   30. Coro aacariyassa saka.ta.m pabbatasmi.m pajahati.
Translate into Paali
   1. Children play in the water with the dog.
   2. The wicked man breaks leaves from the tree.
   3. Kings go in vehicles to the park with their ministers.
   4. Merchants set out from the city with goods.
   5. Virtuous men give alms to monks.
   6. Disciples of the Buddha assemble in the park with lay devotees.
   7. The thief gets down from the tree in the forest.
   8. Wicked men hit the monkeys on the trees with stones.
   9. The doctor's horse eats grass with the ox on the road.
   10. Jackals live in forests, dogs live in villages.
   11. Brahmins sit on seats in the house of the wise man.
   12. The sailor opens the doors of his house.
   13. The sons of fishermen dance with friends in the park.
   14. The merchant puts fish in baskets.
   15. The world gets light from the sun.
   16. Sailors get up from their seats.
   17. The doctor's friend touches the body of the dog with his foot.
   18. The Buddha instructs his disciples in the monastery.
   19. Boys collect flowers from the park, lay devotees sprinkle them with water.
   20. The parrot flies into the sky from the house of the sailor.
    21. The thief cuts a tree with a saw, the farmer scolds (him).
    22. The wise man advises the merchant, the merchant is pleased with the wise
    23. The king's messenger comes out of the sea with the sailor.
    24. Merchants bring clothes for farmers from the city.
    25. Gods protect virtuous men. Good men protect virtues.
    26. Men see objects with their eyes with (the help of) the light of the sun.
    27. Leaves from the trees fall on the road.
    28. Lay devotees place flowers on altars (pupphaasana).
    29. Goats drink water from pits in the field.
    30. The lions get up from the rock at the foot of the tree (rukkhamuula)
Lesson 9
1. The Gerund, the Absolutive or the Indeclinable Participle
The suffix -tvaa is added to the root of the verb or verbal base* with or
sometimes without the connecting vowel -i- to form the gerund, absolutive or the
indeclinable participle.
        pac + i + tvaa = pacitvaa = having cooked
        khaad + i + tvaa = khaaditvaa = having eaten
        gam + tvaa = gantvaa = having gone
        han + tvaa = hantvaa = having killed
The suffix -ya is sometimes added to roots with a prefix.
        aa + gam + ya = aagamma (with assimilation) = having come
        aa + daa + ya = aadaaya = having taken
        aa + ruh + ya = aaruyha (with metathesis) = having climbed
        ava + ruh + ya = oruyha (with metathesis) = having descended
2. Attention may be paid to the following forms:
        bhu~njati - bhu~njitvaa, bhutvaa
        aagacchati - aagantvaa, aagamma
        hanati - hanitvaa, hantvaa
        dadaati - daditvaa, datvaa
        nahaayati - nahaayitvaa, nahaatvaa
        ti.t.thati - .thatvaa
        nikkhamati - nikkhamitvaa, nikkhamma
        pajahati - pajahitvaa, pahaaya
        passati - passitvaa; but disvaa is more commonly used from the root d.rś
        to see, instead of passitvaa.
        u.t.thahati - u.t.thahitvaa, u.t.thaaya
3. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Kassako khettamhaa aagantvaa bhatta.m bhu~njati.
        The farmer, having come from the field, eats rice.
    2. Vaanaraa rukkha.m aaruyha phalaani khaadanti.
        Having climbed the tree, monkeys eat fruits.
   3. Daarako bhatta.m yaacitvaa rodati.
       Having asked for rice, the child cries.
   4. Buddha.m passitvaa vandati.
       Having seen the Buddha, the recluse worships (him).
* The root is the simplest element of a verb without prefixes, suffixes or
terminations. These are normally given in Sanskrit in grammars by Western
scholars. The base is formed by adding a suffix to the root before a termination.
For example:
       pac is the root; paca is the base
       khaad is the root; khaada is the base
       bhuj is the root; bhu~nja is the base
       gam is the root; gaccha is the base
Exercise 9
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Upaasako vihaara.m gantvaa sama.naana.m daana.m dadaati.
   2. Saavako aasanamhi nisiiditvaa paade dhovati.
   3. Daarakaa pupphaani sa.mharitvaa maatulassa datvaa hasanti.
   4. Yaacakaa uyyaanamhaa aagamma kassakasmaa odana.m yaacanti.
   5. Luddako hatthena sare aadaaya ara~n~na.m pavisati.
   6. Kumaaraa kukkurena saddhi.m kii.litvaa samudda.m gantvaa nahaayanti.
   7. Vaa.nijo paasaa.nasmi.m .thatvaa kuddaalena sappa.m paharati.
   8. Sappuriso yaacakassa putte pakkositvaa vatthaani dadaati.
   9. Daarako aavaa.tamhi patitvaa rodati.
   10. Bhuupaalo paasaadamhaa nikkhamitvaa amaccena saddhi.m bhaasati.
   11. Sunakho udaka.m pivitvaa gehamhaa nikkhamma magge sayati.
   12. Sama.naa bhuupaalassa uyyaane sannipatitvaa dhamma.m bhaasanti.
   13. Putto nahaatvaa bhatta.m bhutvaa ma~nca.m aaruyha sayati.
   14. Vaa.nijaa diipamhaa nagara.m aagamma aacariyassa gehe vasanti.
   15. Rajako vatthaani dhovitvaa putta.m pakkosati.
   16. Vaanaraa rukkhehi oruyha uyyaane aahi.n.danti.
   17. Migaa vanamhi aahi.n.ditvaa pa.n.naani khaadanti.
   18. Kumaaro nayanaani dhovitvaa suriya.m passati.
   19. Naavikassa mittaa nagarasmaa bha.n.daani aadaaya gaama.m
   20. Daarako khiira.m pivitvaa gehamhaa nikkhamma hasati.
   21. Sappurisaa daanaani datvaa siilaani rakkhitvaa sagga.m gacchanti.
   22. Suukaro udakamhaa uttaritvaa aavaa.ta.m oruyha sayati.
   23. Taapaso Tathaagatassa saavaka.m disvaa vanditvaa pa~nha.m pucchati.
   24. Asappuriso yaacakassa patta.m bhinditvaa akkositvaa geha.m gacchati.
   25. Saku.naa gaame rukkhehi uppatitvaa ara~n~na.m otaranti.
   26. Pa.n.dito aasanamhaa u.t.thahitvaa taapasena saddhi.m bhaasati.
   27. Daarako gehaa nikkhamma maatula.m pakkositvaa geha.m pavisati.
    28. Devaa sappurisesu pasiiditvaa te (them) rakkhanti.
    29. Kumaarassa sahaayakaa paasaada.m aaruyha aasanesu nisiidanti.
    30. Go.naa khettamhi aahi.n.ditvaa khaaditvaa sayanti.
Translate into Paali
    1. Having gone out of the house the farmer enters the field.
    2. Having preached (deseti) the doctrine, the Buddha enters the monastery.
    3. The king having been pleased with the Buddha, abandons the palace and
        goes to the monastery.
    4. Having climbed down from the stairway, the child laughs.
    5. Having hit the serpent with a stone the boy runs into the house.
    6. Having gone to the forest the man climbs a tree and eats fruits.
    7. Having washed the clothes in the water, the washerman brings (them)
    8. The lion having killed a goat, eats having sat on a rock.
    9. The doctor having seen the merchants' goods leaves the city.
    10. Having broken (into) the house thieves run to the forest.
    11. Having roamed in the field the pig falls into a pit.
    12. The fisherman brings fish from the sea for farmers.
    13. Having taken goods from the city, the teacher comes home.
    14. Having stood on a mountain, the hunter shoots birds with arrows.
    15. The oxen having eaten grass in the park, sleep on the road.
    16. The king having got down from the chariot speaks with the farmers.
    17. The man having given up his house enters the monastery.
    18. Fishermen give fish to merchants and receive profits.
    19. The lay devotee having asked a question from the monk sits on his seat.
    20. The disciples of the Buddha, having seen the wicked men, admonish.
    21. The brahmin, having scolded the child, hits (him).
    22. The deities, having asked questions from the Buddha, become glad.
    23. The dog, having bitten the teacher's foot, runs into the house.
    24. The monkey, having played with the goat on the road, climbs a tree.
    25. The hermit, having come from the forest, receives a cloth from the good
    26. Having drunk water, the child breaks the bowl.
    27. Having advised the farmers' sons, and having risen from the seats, the
        monks go to the monastery.
    28. The sailor, having crossed the sea, goes to the island.
    29. The child calls the uncles and dances in the house.
    30. Having washed clothes and bathed, the farmer gets out of water.
Lesson 10
1. The Infinitive
The suffix -tu.m is added to the root of the verb or the verbal base with or
sometimes without the connecting vowel -i- to form the infinitive.
        pac + i + tu.m = pacitu.m = to cook
        khaad + i + tu.m = khaaditu.m = to eat
        gam + tu.m = gantu.m = to go
        daa + tu.m = daatu.m = to give (Skt sthaa)
        .thaa + tu.m = .thaatu.m = to stand
        paa + tu.m = paatu.m/pivitu.m = to drink
2. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Kassako khetta.m kasitu.m icchati.
        The farmer wishes to plough the field.
    2. Daarako phalaani khaaditu.m rukkham aaruhati.
        The child climbs the tree to eat fruits.
    3. Manussaa sama.nehi pa~nhe pucchitu.m vihaara.m aagacchanti.
        Men come to the monastery to ask questions from the recluses.
    4. Kumaaraa kii.litu.m mittehi saha samudda.m gacchanti.
        Boys go to the sea with friends to play.
Exercise 10
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Kumaaraa vanamhi mittehi saha kii.litvaa bhatta.m bhu~njitu.m geha.m
    2. Migaa khaaditvaa udaka.m paatu.m pabbatamhaa uyyaana.m
    3. Vaa.nijassa putto bha.n.daani aaharitu.m rathena nagara.m gacchati.
    4. Yaacako maatulassa kuddaalena aavaa.ta.m kha.nitu.m icchati.
    5. Amaccaa bhuupaala.m passitu.m paasaadamhi sannipatanti.
    6. Go.naa uyyaane aahi.n.ditvaa kassakassa khetta.m aagacchanti.
    7. Upaasakaa sama.naana.m daana.m daatu.m vihaara.m pavisanti.
    8. Rathena nagara.m gantu.m puriso gehasmaa nikkhamati.
    9. vejjena saddhi.m nahaayitu.m udaka.m otarati.
    10. Coro amaccassa geha.m pavisitu.m uyyaane aahi.n.dati.
    11. Siiho pabbatamhi sayitvaa u.t.thaaya miga.m hantu.m oruhati.
    12. Udaka.m otaritvaa vatthaani dhovitu.m rajako putta.m pakkosati.
    13. Tathaagata.m passitvaa vanditu.m upaasako vihaara.m pavisati.
    14. Khetta.m kasitu.m kassako kuddaala.m aadaaya gehaa nikkhamati.
    15. Sarehi mige vijjhitu.m luddakaa sunakhehi saha ara~n~na.m pavisanti.
    16. Naraa gaamamhaa nikkhamitvaa nagare vasitu.m icchanti.
    17. passitu.m amaccaa kumaarehi saha pabbata.m aaruhanti.
    18. Pabbatasmaa rukkha.m aaka.d.dhitu.m vaa.nijena saha kassako gacchati.
    19. Phalaani khaaditu.m makka.taa rukkhesu caranti.
    20. Pa.n.dito sugatassa saavakehi saddhi.m bhaasitu.m icchati.
    21. Samudda.m taritvaa diipa.m gantvaa vatthaani aaharitu.m vaa.nijaa
    22. Pupphaani sa.mharitvaa udakena aasi~ncitu.m upaasako kumaare
    23. Ajassa kaaya.m hatthehi phusitu.m daarako icchati.
    24. Braahma.nassa gehe aasanesu nisiiditu.m rajakassa puttaa icchanti.
    25. Paatu.m udaka.m yaacitvaa daarako rodati.
Translate into Paali
    1. Goats roam in the park to eat leaves and drink water.
    2. The wicked man wishes to hit the dog with his foot.
    3. Friends go to the park to play with their dogs.
    4. The lay devotee wishes to come home and instruct his sons.
    5. The deity wishes to go to the monastery and speak to the Buddha.
    6. The good man wishes to protect virtues and give alms.
    7. Pigs run from the village to enter the forest.
    8. The farmer asks for a hoe from the merchant to dig pits in his field.
    9. Lay devotees assemble in the monastery to worship the Buddha.
    10. The uncle comes out of the house to call the fisherman.
    11. Farmers wish to get oxen; merchants wish to get horses.
    12. The king wishes to abandon his palace.
    13. Men take baskets and go to the forest to collect fruits for their children.
    14. The farmer wanders in the forest to cut grass for his oxen.
    15. Men wish to live in houses in the city with their sons.
    16. Having stood on the rock, the child sees flowers on the trees.
    17. Having received a garment from the teacher the doctor is pleased.
    18. The hunter calls a friend to drag a goat from the forest.
    19. The sailor calls merchants to cross the sea.
    20. Having risen from the seat the good man wishes to speak with the monk.
    21. Children wish to get down to the water and bathe.
    22. The minister mounts the horse to go to the forest to shoot deer.
    23. The boy wishes to cook rice for his uncle's friends.
    24. Jackals leave the forest to enter the farmers' fields.
    25. Men wish to see objects with their eyes by the light of the sun.
Lesson 11
1. Vocabulary
Neuter nouns ending in -a - shop, bazaar
        pu~n~na - merit
        paapa - evil, sin
        kamma - deed, action
        kusala - good
        akusala - evil
        dhana - wealth
        dha~n~na - corn
        biija - seed
        dussa - cloth
        ciivara - robe
        muula - root, money
        rukkhamuula - foot of a tree
        tu.n.da - beak
        vetana - wage, pay
        paduma - lotus
        giita - song - gold
        sacca - truth
        paaniiya - drinking water
        citta - mind
       pariyesati - searches, seeks
       aarabhati - begins
       ussahati - tries
       upasa`nkamati - approaches
       adhigacchati - understands, attains
       gaayati - sings
       aamasati - touches, strokes
       bhaayati - fears
       cavati - departs, dies
       uppajjati - is born
       khipati - throws
       vapati - sows
       aaka`nkhati - hopes
       sibbati - sows
2. The Present Participle
Present participles are formed by adding -nta/maana to the verbal base. They
function as adjectives and agree in gender, number and case with the nouns they
qualify. They are declined like -a ending nouns in the masculine and neuter. (As
the feminine gender has not been introduced so far, the feminine gender of the
present participle will be explained in Lesson 21).
       paca + nta/maana = pacanta/pacamaana = cooking
       gaccha + nta/maana = gacchanta/gacchamaana = going
       bhu~nja + nta/maana = bhu~njanta/bhu~njamaana = eating
       ti.t.tha + nta/maana = ti.t.thanta/ti.t.thamaana = standing
       vihara + nta/maana = viharanta/viharamaana = dwelling
3. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Bhatta.m pacanto/pacamaano puriso hasati. (Nom. case)
       The man who is cooking rice laughs.
    2. Vejjo bhatta.m pacanta.m/pacamaana.m purisa.m pakkosati. (Acc. case)
       The doctor calls the man who is cooking rice.
   3. Vejjo bhatta.m pacantena/pacamaanena purisena saha bhaasati.
       The doctor speaks with the man who is cooking rice.
   1. Bhatta.m pacantaa/pacamaanaa purisaa hasanti. (Nom. case)
       The men who are cooking rice laugh.
   2. Vejjo bhatta.m pacante/pacamaane purise pakkosati. (Acc. case)
       The doctor calls the men who are cooking rice.
   3. Vejjo bhatta.m pacantehi/pacamaanehi purisehi saha bhaasati. (
       The doctor speaks with the men who are cooking rice.
Similarly, the present participle can be declined in all cases to agree with the
nouns they qualify.
Exercise 11
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Paaniiya.m yaacitvaa rodanto daarako ma~ncamhaa patati.
   2. Vatthaani labhitu.m icchanto vaa.nijo gacchati.
   3. Upaasako padumaani aadaaya vihaara.m gacchamaano Buddha.m disvaa
   4. tu.n.dena phala.m haranto rukkhasmaa uppatati.
   5. Ciivara.m pariyesantassa sama.nassa aacariyo ciivara.m dadaati.
   6. Ara~n~ne aahi.n.danto luddako dhaavanta.m miga.m passitvaa sarena
   7. Uyyaane aahi.n.damaanamhaa kumaaramhaa padumaani
   8. Rathena gacchamaanehi amaccehi saha aacariyo hasati.
   9. Daana.m dadaamaanaa siilaani rakkhamaanaa manussaa sagge
   10. Dha~n~na.m aaka`nkhantassa purisassa dhana.m daatu.m vaa.nijo
   11. hanantaa rukkhe chindantaa asappurisaa dhana.m sa.mharitu.m
   12. Vihaara.m upasa`nkamanto Buddho dhamma.m bhaasamaane saavake
   13. Rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa giitaani gaayantaa kumaaraa naccitu.m
   14. labhitu.m ussahantaa manussaa pabbatasmi.m aavaa.te
   15. Udaka.m paatu.m icchanto siiho udaka.m pariyesamaano vanamhi carati.
   16. Vetana.m labhitu.m aaka`nkhamaano naro rajakaaya dussaani dhovati.
   17. Sama.nehi bhaasantaa upaasakaa sacca.m adhigantu.m ussahanti.
   18. Magge sayanta.m sunakha.m udakena si~ncitvaa daarako hasati.
   19. Siila.m rakkhantaa sappurisaa manussalokaa cavitvaa devaloke
   20. Dhana.m sa.mharitu.m ussahanto vaa.nijo samudda.m taritvaa diipa.m
       gantu.m aarabhati.
   21. pariyesamaano vane aahi.n.danto kassako siiha.m disvaa bhaayati.
   22. Rukkhesu nisiiditvaa phalaani bhu~njamaanaa kumaaraa giita.m
   23. Citta.m pasiiditvaa dhamma.m adhigantu.m ussahantaa naraa sagge
   24. Tu.n.dena pi.takamhaa maccha.m aaka.d.dhitu.m icchanto kaako
       sunakhamhaa bhaayati.
   25. Khetta.m kasitvaa biijaani vapanto kassako dha~n~na.m labhitu.m
   26. Suriyassa aalokena locanehi ruupaani passantaa manussaa loke jiivanti.
   27. Rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa ciivara.m sibbantena sama.nena saddhi.m
       upaasako bhaasati.
   28. Rukkhamuule sayantassa yaacakassa kaaye pa.n.naani patanti.
   29. Vaa.nijassa muula.m datvaa asse labhitu.m amacco ussahati.
   30. Khiira.m pivitvaa hasamaano daarako patta.m ma~ncasmi.m khipati.
Translate into Paali
   1. The man washing clothes speaks with the boy going on the road.
   2. The brahmin sees the deer coming out of the forest to drink water.
   3. Goats in the park eat leaves falling from the trees.
   4. Wicked men wish to see hunters killing deer.
   5. The farmer sees birds eating seeds in his field.
   6. Recluses who enter the city wish to worship the Buddha dwelling in the
   7. Standing on the stairway the child sees monkeys sitting on the tree.
   8. Boys give rice to fish moving in the water.
   9. The sailor wishing to cross the sea asks for money from the king.
   10. Men see with their eyes the light of the moon falling on the sea.
   11. Lay devotees try to give robes to monks living in the monastery.
   12. Wishing for merit virtuous men give alms to the monks and observe
       (rakkhanti) the precepts.
   13. The man walks on the leaves falling from the trees in the forest.
   14. The uncle gives a lotus to the child searching for flowers.
   15. Having given the beggar some corn the fisherman enters the house.
   16. The minister gives seeds to the farmers who plough their fields.
   17. The dog tries to bite the hand of the man who strokes his body.
   18. The Buddha's disciples question the child crying on the road.
   19. The uncle's friend calls the boys singing songs seated under the tree.
   20. Virtuous men give food to the monks who approach their houses.
   21. Wise men who wish to be born in heaven practise (rakkhanti) virtue.
    22. Seeing the jackal approaching the village the farmer tries to hit it with a
    23. Speaking the truth lay devotees try to understand the doctrine.
    24. Having washed the bowl with water the hermit looks for drinking water.
    25. Wise men who observe the precepts begin to understand the truth.
Lesson 12
1. Conjugation of Verbs
The Present Tense, Active Voice
So far only the present tense, active voice, third person singular and plural have
been introduced. This lesson gives the conjugation in full.
               Singular                    Plural
         3rd (So) pacati = He cooks        (Te) pacanti = They cook
         2nd (Tva.m) pacasi = You cook (Tumhe) pacatha = You cook
         1st   (Aha.m) pacaami = I cook (Maya.m) pacaama = We cook
2. Examples in sentence formation
    1. So bhatta.m pacati = He cooks rice.
    2. Tva.m bhatta.m pacasi = You (sg.) cook rice.
    3. Aha.m bhatta.m pacaami = I cook rice.
    1. Te bhatta.m pacanti = They cook rice.
    2. Tumhe bhatta.m pacatha = You (pl.) cook rice.
    3. Maya.m bhatta.m pacaama = We cook rice.
Exercise 12
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Tva.m mittehi saddhi.m rathena aapa.namhaa bha.n.daani aaharasi.
    2. Aha.m udakamhaa padumaani aaharitvaa vaa.nijassa dadaami.
    3. Tumhe sama.naana.m daatu.m ciivaraani pariyesatha.
    4. Maya.m sagge uppajjitu.m aaka`nkhamaanaa siilaani rakkhaama.
    5. Te dhamma.m adhigantu.m ussahantaana.m sama.naana.m daana.m
    6. So ara~n~namhi uppatante passitu.m pabbata.m aaruhati.
    7. Maya.m sugatassa saavake vanditu.m vihaarasmi.m sannipataama.
    8. Aagacchanta.m taapasa.m disvaa so bhatta.m aaharitu.m geha.m pavisati.
    9. Aha.m udaka.m oruyha braahma.nassa dussaani dhovaami.
    10. Tva.m gehassa dvaara.m vivaritvaa paaniiya.m pattamhaa aadaaya pivasi.
    11. Aha.m hira~n~na.m pariyesanto diipamhi aavaa.te kha.naami.
    12. Phalaani khaadantaa tumhe rukkhehi oruhatha.
    13. Paasaa.nasmi.m .thatvaa tva.m canda.m passitu.m ussahasi.
    14. Maya.m manussalokamhaa cavitvaa sagge uppajjitu.m aaka`nkhaama.
   15. Tumhe ara~n~ne vasante mige sarehi vijjhitu.m icchatha.
   16. Maya.m uyyaane carantaa sunakhehi saddhi.m kii.lante daarake
   17. Tva.m rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa aacariyassa daatu.m vattha.m sibbasi.
   18. Maya.m pu~n~na.m icchantaa sama.naana.m daana.m dadaama.
   19. Tumhe sacca.m adhigantu.m aarabhatha.
   20. Tva.m giita.m gaayanto rodanta.m daaraka.m rakkhasi.
   21. Maya.m hasantehi kumaarehi saha uyyaane naccaama.
   22. So paaniiya.m pivitvaa patta.m bhinditvaa maatulamhaa bhaayati.
   23. Paasaada.m upasa`nkamanta.m disvaa bhuupaalassa citta.m
   24. Maya.m ara~n~na.m pavisitvaa ajaana.m pa.n.naani sa.mharaama.
   25. Khetta.m rakkhanto so aavaa.te kha.nante varaahe disvaa paasaa.nehi
Translate into Paali
   1. I call the child who is stroking the dog's body.
   2. We try to learn the truth speaking with the monks who assemble in the
   3. Sitting in the park you (pl.) eat fruits with friends.
   4. You drink milk seated on a chair.
   5. We set out from home to go and see the deer roaming in the forest.
   6. I wish to understand the doctrine.
   7. Standing on the mountain we see the moonlight falling on the sea.
   8. I drag the farmer's cart away from the road.
   9. You (pl.) sit on the seats, I bring drinking water from the house.
   10. We wander in the fields looking at the birds eating seeds.
   11. I advise the wicked man who kills pigs.
   12. You (sg.) get frightened seeing the snake approaching the house.
   13. I ask questions from the men who come out of the forest.
   14. Seeing the crying child we call the doctor going on the road.
   15. I protect virtues, give alms to the monks and live in the house with
   16. Good men who fear evil deeds are born in heaven.
   17. Expecting to get profit we bring goods from the city.
   18. We stand under the tree and sprinkle water on the flowers.
   19. I wash the bowls with water and give (them) to the doctor.
   20. Searching for the truth I give up the house and enter the monastery.
   21. Wishing to see the monks you (pl.) assemble in the park.
   22. I see a fruit falling from the crow's beak.
   23. You (sg.) cross the sea and bring a horse from the island.
   24. I set out from home to bring a lamp from the market.
   25. Having taken a basket I go to the field to collect corn.
Lesson 14

1. The Future Tense

The future tense is formed by adding -ssa to the root/verbal base with, or in
some cases without, the connecting vowel -i-; the terminations are the same as
those in the present tense.

                                   Base: paca = to cook

       Singular                               Plural
 3rd (So) pacissati = He will cook            (Te) pacissanti = They will cook
 2nd (Tva.m) pacissasi = You will cook (Tumhe) pacissatha = You will cook
 1st   (Aha.m) pacissaami = I will cook (Maya.m) pacissaama = We will cook

                                   Base: core = to steal

                        Singular               Plural
                  3rd (So) coressati           (Te) coressanti
                  2nd (Tva.m) coressasi        (Tumhe) coressatha
                  1st   (Aha.m) coressaami (Maya.m) coressaama

                                   Base: ki.naa = to buy

                        Singular               Plural
                  3rd (So) ki.nissati          (Te) ki.nissanti
                  2nd (Tva.m) ki.nissasi       (Tumhe) ki.nissatha
                  1st   (Aha.m) ki.nissaami (Maya.m) ki.nissaama

2. Irregular forms

Attention may be paid to the following forms:

       gacchati - gamissati = he will go
       aagacchati - aagamissati = he will come
       dadaati - dadissati/dassati = he will give
       ti.t.thati - .thassati = he will stand
      karoti - karissati = he will do

Exercise 14

Suggested Solutions

Translate into English

   1. So pabbatamhaa udenta.m canda.m passitu.m paasaada.m aaruhissati.
   2. Bhuupaalo corehi diipa.m rakkhitu.m amaccehi saha mantessati.
   3. Aha.m samudda.m taritvaa diipa.m paapu.nitvaa bha.n.daani
   4. Tumhe vihaara.m upasa`nkamantaa magge pupphaani vikki.nante
       manusse passissatha.
   5. Udaka.m otaritvaa vatthaani dhovanto kassako nahaayitvaa geha.m
   6. Gaame viharanto tva.m nagara.m gantvaa ratha.m aanessasi.
   7. Pu~n~na.m kaatu.m icchantaa tumhe sappurisaa paapamitte ovadissatha.
   8. Dhamma.m sotu.m uyyaane nisiidantaana.m upaasakaana.m aha.m
       paaniiya.m dassaami.
   9. Maya.m bhuupaalaa dhammena diipe paalessaama.
   10. Rukkha.m paatetvaa phalaani khaaditu.m icchanta.m asappurisa.m aha.m
   11. Daana.m dadamaanaa siila.m rakkhantaa maya.m sama.nehi dhamma.m
   12. Dhaavantamhaa saka.tamhaa patanta.m daaraka.m disvaa tva.m vejja.m
   13. Sacca.m adhigantu.m ussahanto taapaso Tathaagata.m passitu.m
   14. Buddhe pasiiditvaa upaasako devaputto hutvaa saggaloke uppajjati.
   15. Udenta.m suriya.m disvaa gehaa nikkhamma vandati.
   16. Diipa.m pappotu.m aaka`nkhamaanaa maya.m samudda.m taritu.m
       naavika.m pariyesaama.
   17. Amaccassa duuta.m pahi.nitu.m icchanto bhuupaalo aha.m asmi.
   18. Pu~n~nakammaani karontaana.m vaa.nijaana.m dhana.m atthi.
   19. Maya.m giitaani gaayante naccante kumaare olokessaama.
   20. Paapa.m parivajjetvaa kusala.m karonte sappurise devaa puujessanti.
   21. Sacca.m bhaasantaa asappurise anusaasantaa pa.n.ditaa upaasakaa
   22. Tva.m dha~n~nena patta.m puuretvaa aacariyassa dassasi.
   23. Rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa ciivara.m sibbanta.m aha.m
   24. Aha.m sayantassa puttassa kaaya.m aamasanto ma~ncasmi.m nisiidaami.
   25. Uyyaanesu rukkhe ropetu.m sama.naa manusse anusaasanti.

Translate into Paali

   1. Having learnt the dhamma from the Buddha I will live righteously
       (dhammena) in the world.
   2. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his ministers.
   3. Keeping the garment on the seat the child will enter the water to bathe.
   4. Having heard the doctrine you (pl.) will become pleased with the
   5. They who are walking in the forest collecting fruits will desire to drink
   6. Farmers approaching the city will look at vehicles running on the road.
   7. The rising sun will illuminate the world.
   8. The trees in the park will bathe in the light of the moon.
   9. You (sg.) will be pleased seeing your sons asking questions from the wise
   10. The children will like to see the parrots eating fruits on the trees.
   11. We are doctors coming from the island, you are teachers going to the
   12. He will take money and go to the shop to buy goods.
   13. Having filled the bowl with drinking water the child will give it to the
       beggar eating rice.
   14. Men wishing to get merit will plant trees for people in the world.
   15. Searching for wealth wicked men will oppress farmers living righteously
       in villages.
   16. There are fruits on the trees in the mountains.
   17. Good men doing meritorious deeds will learn the dhamma from monks.
   18. Wise men instruct kings governing the islands.
   19. You will buy fish from fishermen coming from the sea.
   20. Wishing to learn the dhamma we approach the Buddha.
   21. Seeing the jackal coming to the park the children will get frightened.
   22. They will go to see the king coming to the village with the ministers.
   23. You are a good man who lives righteously.
   24. I see a parrot picking a fruit with its beak.
   25. We will become good men practising virtue.

Lesson 15
1. The Optative or the Potential Mood
The optative expresses mainly probability and advice, and ideas such as those
conveyed by if, might, would, etc. It is formed by adding -eyya to the verbal base
before terminations.
Base: paca = to cook
      Singular                            Plural
3rd (So) paceyya = If he would cook       (Te) paceyyu.m = If they would cook
      (Tva.m) paceyyaasi = If you would   (Tumhe) paceyyaatha = If you would
      cook                                cook
      (Aha.m) paceyyaami = If I would     (Maya.m) paceyyaama = If we would
      cook                                cook
It should be observed that the terminations of the second and first persons are
similar to those of the present tense.
2. Particle
The following particles are useful for construction of sentences.
        sace/yadi = if
        ca = and
        pi = too, also
        na = not
        viya = like, similar
3. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Sace so bhatta.m paceyya, aham bhu~njeyyaami.
        If he would cook rice I will eat.
    2. Sace tva.m iccheyyaasi, aha.m cora.m puccheyyaami.
        If you would like, I will question the thief.
    3. Yadi aha.m nagare vihareyyaami, so pi nagara.m aagaccheyya.
        If I dwell in the city, he too would come to the city.
    1. Sace te bhatta.m paceyyu.m, maya.m bhu~njeyyaama.
        If they cook rice we will eat.
    2. Sace tumhe iccheyyaatha, maya.m core puccheyyaama.
        If you so wish, we will question the thieves.
    3. Yadi maya.m nagare vihareyyaama, te pi nagara.m aagaccheyyu.m.
        If we dwell in the city, they too will come to the city.
Exercise 15
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Sace tva.m dhamma.m su.neyyaasi, addhaa (certainly) tva.m Buddhassa
        saavako bhaveyyaasi.
    2. Yadi te giitaani gaayitu.m ugga.nheyyu.m, aha.m pi ugga.nheyyaami.
    3. Sace tva.m biijaani pahi.neyyaasi, kassako taani (them) khette vapeyya.
    4. Sace tumhe padumaani ocineyyaatha, kumaaraa taani Buddhassa
    5. Sace tva.m muula.m ga.nheyyaasi, aha.m dussa.m aadadeyyaami.
   6. Yadi maya.m bhuupaalena saha manteyyaama amaccaa na
   7. Sace tumhe rukkhe ropeyyaatha daarakaa phalaani bhu~njeyyu.m.
   8. Sace maya.m sappurisaa bhaveyyaama, puttaa pi sappurisaa bhaveyyu.m.
   9. Sace bhuupaalaa dhammena diipe paaleyyu.m, maya.m bhuupaalesu
   10. Sace kassako vikki.neyya, vaa.nijo ta.m ki.neyya.
   11. Sace manusse pii.lentaa asappurisaa gaama.m aagaccheyyu.m aha.m te
   12. Yadi amaccaa paapa.m parivajeyyu.m, manussaa paapa.m na kareyyu.m.
   13. Sace tumhe pabbata.m aaruheyyaatha, aahi.n.dante mige ca rukkhesu
       carante makka.te ca u.d.dente ca passeyyaatha.
   14. Sace tva.m pattena paaniiya.m aaneyyaasi pipaasito (thirsty) so piveyya.
   15. Kusalakammaani katvaa tumhe manussaloke uppajitu.m ussaheyyaatha.
   16. Sace so vejjo bhaveyya, aha.m ta.m (him) rodanta.m daaraka.m passitu.m
   17. Yadi putto paapa.m kareyya aha.m ta.m (him) ovadeyyaami.
   18. Sace amacco pa.n.dita.m aacariya.m aaneyya maya.m dhamma.m
   19. Sace aha.m hatthena suva.m phusitu.m ussaheyyaami so gehaa
   20. Yadi so vejja.m pakkositu.m iccheyya aha.m ta.m (him) aaneyyaami.
Translate into Paali
   1. If you cover the evil deeds your sons do, they will become thieves.
   2. If you (pl.) want to become virtuous men avoid evil.
   3. If we look with our eyes we will see objects in the world, if we look with
       our minds we will see good and evil.
   4. If you (sg.) start singing a song, the children will start dancing.
   5. If we depart from the human world we will not fear to be born in the
       human world.
   6. If gods are born in the human world they will do meritorious deeds.
   7. If you search for the truth you will approach the Buddha living in the
   8. If you admonish the merchant he will become a virtuous man.
   9. If I invite the monk he will come home to preach the dhamma.
   10. If you are a good man you will not kill oxen roaming in the forest.
   11. If you do work in the field you will get wealth and corn.
   12. If the king wishes to govern the island righteously he will discuss with
       wise men and ministers.
   13. If you work in the field you will see farmers ploughing.
   14. I see boys playing in the park with a monkey.
   15. If they want to see birds singing they will go to the park.
   16. If you listen to the dhamma you will be able to live righteously.
    17. If you avoid evil friends (paapamitte) you will become a good man.
    18. If the minister is not a good man we will not approach him.
    19. If there are fruits on the tree I will climb to pick them (taani).
    20. If I pick fruits you will eat them with friends.
Lesson 17
1. The Past Tense
Conjugation of verbs with the base ending in -a
Base paca = to cook
      Singular                             Plural
3rd (So) apaci, paci = He cooked           (Te) apaci.msu, paci.msu = They cooked
                                           (Tumhe) apacittha, pacittha = You
2nd (Tva.m) apaci, paci = You cooked
      (Aha.m) apaci.m, paci.m = I          (Maya.m) apacimha, pacimha = We
      cooked                               cooked
It should be noted that a- in apaci, apaci.msu etc. is not a negative prefix. It is the
augment (optional) denoting the past tense. Verbs whose bases end in -naa are
also conjugated in the past tense as above.
Conjugation of verbs with the base ending in -e
Base core = to steal
      Singular                               Plural
3rd (So) coresi, corayi = He stole           (Te) coresu.m, corayi.msu = They stole
2nd (Tva.m) coresi = You stole               (Tumhe) corayitha = You stole
1st   (Aha.m) coresi.m, corayi.m = I stole (Maya.m) corayimha = We stole
2. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Bhuupaalo diipe cari/acari - The king wandered in the island. dhamma.m desesi - The monk preached the dhamma.
    2. Tva.m bha.n.daani - You sold goods.
       Tva.m pupphaani puujesi - You offered the flowers.
    3. Aha.m pabbata.m aaruhi.m - I climbed the mountain.
       Aha.m diipa.m jaalesi.m/jaalayi.m - I lit the lamp.
    1. Bhuupaalaa diipesu cari.msu/acari.msu - Kings wandered in the islands.
       Sama.naa dhamma.m desesu.m/desayi.msu - Monks preached the
    2. Tumhe bha.n.daani vikki.nittha - You sold goods.
       Tumhe pupphaani puujayittha - You offered flowers.
    3. Maya.m pabbate aaruhimha - We climbed mountains.
       Maya.m diipe jaalayimha - We lit lamps.
Exercise 17
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Kassako khetta.m kasitvaa nahaayitu.m udaka.m otari.
   2. Ugga.nhantaana.m daarakaana.m daatu.m aacariyaa kusumaani
   3. Upaasakaa aasanehi u.t.thahitvaa dhamma.m desetu.m
       upasa`nkamanta.m vandi.msu.
   4. Nagaresu kammaani katvaa vetane labhitu.m aaka`nkhamaanaa naraa
       gaamehi nikkhami.msu.
   5. Aacariyo aasana.m dussena chaadetvaa nisiiditu.m nimantesi.
   6. Kumaaro dvaara.m vivaritvaa rukkhamhaa oruhante vaanare
       passamaano a.t.thaasi (stood).
   7. Pa.n.dito coretvaa akusala.m karonte nare pakkositvaa ovadi.
   8. Yaacakassa puttaa rukkhehi patantaani phalaani sa.mharitvaa
   9. Kassako dha~n~na.m minitvaa vaa.nijassa vikki.nitu.m
   10. Dhamma.m ugga.nhitvaa bhavitu.m aaka`nkhamaano amacco
       aacariya.m pariyesamaano Buddha.m upasa`nkami.
   11. Sace tumhe gaama.m paapu.neyyaatha mitte olokeyyaatha.
   12. Pa.n.ditamhaa pa~nhe pucchitvaa sacca.m jaanitu.m maatulo ussahi.
   13. Paasaa.namhi .thatvaa aja.m khaadanta.m siiha.m disvaa vaanaraa
   14. Rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa gitaani gaayantaana.m kumaaraana.m kaayesu
       pa.n.naani ca pupphaani ca pati.msu.
   15. Tumhe dhana.m sa.mharamaanaa maa samudda.m taritvaa diipa.m
   16. Aapa.nasmi.m bha.n.daani vikki.nantassa vaa.nijassa ratho atthi.
   17. Aha.m puttassa daatu.m dussa.m sibbanto giita.m gaayi.m.
   18. Suukaraa ca sunakhaa ca khette aavaa.te
   19. Purisaa rukkhamuule nisiiditvaa taapasena bhaasamaana.m
   20. Luddakena saddhi.m vane aahi.n.dante putte aamantetvaa kassakaa
   21. Maa tva.m suva.n.napatta.m vikki.nitvaa khagge ki.naahi.
   22. So bha.n.daani ca khetta.m ca ca puttaana.m da.tvaa geha.m
       pahaaya bhavitu.m cintesi.
   23. Dhammena jiivantaa sappurisaa mige na maaresu.m.
   24. Aha.m sopaana.m aaruhi.m, te sopaanamhaa oruhi.msu.
   25. Sahaayakaa udaka.m otaritvaa nahaayantaa padumaani ocini.msu.
Translate into Paali
   1. The child sprinkled the lotuses with water and honoured the Buddha with
   2. Having received the pay the men went to the market and bought goods.
    3. The fisherman brought fish from the sea and sold them to the farmers.
    4. If you go to bathe wash the clothes of the children.
    5. The parrots and the crows flew into the sky from the trees.
    6. Do not scold the children playing under the tree with the dog.
    7. I spoke to the people sitting in the park having assembled to see the king.
    8. We got frightened seeing a serpent enter the house.
    9. I gave water to my son eating rice together with his friend.
    10. Do not do evil, do good to enter heaven after departing from the human
Lesson 18
1. Declension of feminine nouns ending in -aa
              vanitaa = woman
                     Singular                 Plural
              Nom. vanitaa                    vanitaa, vanitaayo
              Voc.   vanite                   vanitaa, vanitaayo
              Acc.   vanita.m                 vanitaa, vanitaayo
              Ins.   vanitaaya                vanitaahi (vanitaabhi)
              Abl.   vanitaaya                vanitaahi (vanitaabhi)
              Dat.   vanitaaya                vanitaana.m
              Gen.   vanitaaya                vanitaana.m
              Loc.   vanitaaya, vanitaaya.m vanitaasu
2. Vocabulary
The following nouns are similarly declined: (Most nouns ending in -aa are
       ka~n~naa/daarikaa - girl
       ga`ngaa - river Ganges
       naavaa - ship
       ammaa - mother
       pa~n~naa - wisdom
       saalaa - hall
       bhariyaa - wife
       sabhaa - assembly
       kathaa - speech
       lataa - creeper
       guhaa - cave
       chaayaa - shadow
       vaalukaa - sand
       ma~njuusaa - box
        maalaa - garland
        suraa - liquor
        saakhaa - branch
        devataa - deity
        parisaa - retinue
        saddhaa - faith, devotion
        giivaa - neck
        jivhaa - tongue
        pipaasaa - thirst
        khudaa - hunger
3. Vocabulary - Verbs
        sakkoti - can, is able
        parivaareti - accompanies, surrounds
        nivaareti - prevents
        anubandhati - follows, chases after
        kujjhati - gets angry
        namassati - salutes, worships
        poseti - brings up, nourishes
        vaayamati - tries
        niliiyati - hides
        sallapati - engages in conversation
        modati - is happy, enjoys
        sukha.m vindati - experiences joy
        dukkha.m vindati - experiences suffering
        pa.tiyaadeti - prepares
        pakkhipati - puts, places, deposits
Exercise 18
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Sace sabhaaya.m ka~n~naayo katheyyu.m aham pi kathessaami.
    2. Daarikaayo pupphaani ocinitvaa saalaaya.m nisiiditvaa maalaayo
    3. Vanitaa rukkhassa saakhaayo chinditvaa aaka.d.dhi.
    4. Bhariyaa ma~njuusaasu vatthaani ca ca .thapesi.
    5. Daarikaa paasaadassa chaayaaya.m nisiiditvaa vaalukaaya
    6. Bhariyaaya katha.m sutvaa pasiiditvaa kassako sappuriso abhavi.
    7. Devataayo pu~n~naani karonte dhammena jiivante manusse rakkhantu.
    8. Pabbatasmi.m guhaasu vasantaa siihaa vaalukaaya kii.lante mige
    9. Ammaa daarikaaya kujjhitvaa hatthena pahari.
    10. Vanitaayo saddhaaya bhatta.m pacitvaa vihaara.m netvaa sama.naana.m
    11. Tumhe maa sura.m pivatha, maa gilaanaa (sick) bhavitu.m ussahatha.
    12. Dhammena dhana.m sa.mharamaanaa pa~n~naaya putte posentaa naraa
        manussaloke sukha.m vindanti.
    13. Sace tumhe naavaaya ga`nga.m tareyyaatha diipasmi.m vasante taapase
        disvaa aagantu.m sakkissatha.
    14. Parisa.m parivaaretvaa paasaadamhaa nikkhamanta.m bhuupaala.m
        disvaa vanitaayo modanti.
    15. Ka~n~naayo saalaaya.m sannipatitvaa kumaarehi saddhi.m sallapi.msu.
    16. Khudaaya pii.lenta.m gilaana.m yaacaka.m disvaa ammaa bhatta.m
    17. Guhaaya.m niliiyitvaa sura.m pivantaa coraa siiha.m passitvaa
    18. Varaahe maaretvaa jiivanto naro gilaano hutvaa dukkha.m vindati.
    19. Vaa.nijassa ma~njuusaaya.m muula.m (money) atthi.
    20. Sama.naa manusse paapaa nivaaretvaa sappurese kaatu.m vaayamanti.
Translate into Paali
    1. The man stood on the road asking my mother the way to go to the
    2. Having prepared rice with faith for the monks, the woman took it to the
    3. You can live righteously and seek wealth.
    4. Sitting in the shade of the house the girls cut branches from the creeper.
    5. Wicked men did not advise their sons who drink liquor.
    6. Taking the basket and money the girl went to the market to buy corn.
    7. If you light lamps the lay devotees will see the objects in the monastery.
    8. O good men, you learn the dhamma and try to live righteously.
    9. If you try, you can avoid evil and do good.
    10. Having seen the lion sleeping in the cave the woman ran.
Lesson 19
1. The Past Participle
Past participles are mostly formed by adding -ta to the root with or without the
connecting vowel -i-.
        pacati - pac + i + ta = pacita = cooked
        bhaasati - bhaas + i + ta = bhaasita = spoken
        yaacati - yaac + i + ta = yaacita = begged
        deseti - dis' + i + ta = desita = preached
        puujeti - puuj + i + ta = puujita = honoured
        gacchati - gam + ta = gata = gone
        hanati - han + ta = hata = killed
        nayati/neti - nii + ta = niita = led
The past participle is also formed from some roots by adding -na.
        chindati - chid + na = chinna = cut
        bhindati - bhid + na = bhinna = broken
        nisiidati - ni + sad + na = nisinna = seated
        tarati - ti + na = = crossed
2. Passive meanings
Past participles have a passive meaning when they are formed from transitive
verbs, but from intransitive verbs they have an active meaning. They are
declined in the three genders, as -a ending nouns in the masculine and the
neuter, and -aa ending nouns in the feminine. Pacati, chindati, nimanteti are
transitive verbs. Therefore:
        pacito odano = the rice that is cooked (passive meaning);
        chinna.m = the leaf that is cut (passive meaning);
        nimantitaa ka~n~naa = the girl who is invited (passive meaning).
But gacchati, patati, ti.t.thati are intransitive verbs. Therefore:
        manusso gato (hoti) = the man has gone (active meaning);
        puppha.m patita.m (hoti) = the flower has fallen (active meaning);
        ka~n~naa .thitaa (hoti) = the girl has stood (active meaning).
3. Examples
The following are some past participles
        kasati - kasita, ka.t.tha
        pucchati - pucchita, pu.t.tha
        pacati - pacita, pakka
        .dasati - da.t.tha
        phusati - phu.t.tha
        pavisati - pavi.t.tha
        aamasati - aamasita, aama.t.tha
        labhati - laddha, labhita
        aarabhati - aaraddha
        bhavati - bhuuta
        bhu~njati - bhu~njita, bhutta
        vapati - vutta
        vasati - vuttha
        aasi~ncati - aasitta
        khipati - khitta
        dhovati - dhovita, dhota
        pajahati - pahiina
        vivarati - viva.ta
        pivati - piita
        cavati - cuta
        hanati - hata
        nikkhamati - nikkhanta
        jaanaati - ~naata
        su.naati - suta
        minaati - mita
        ga.nhaati - gahita
        ki.naati - kiita
        paapu.naati - patta
        karoti - kata
        ti.t.thati - .thita
        harati - ha.ta
        kujjhati - kuddha
        dadaati - dinna
        pasiidati - pasanna
        (passati) - di.t.tha, (d.rś)
        mu~ncati - mutta
4. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Upaasakehi vihaara.m pavi.t.tho Buddho di.t.tho hoti.
        The Buddha who entered the monastery was seen by the lay devotees.
    2. Te Buddhena desita.m dhamma.m
        They listened to the dhamma preached by the Buddha.
    3. Daarikaaya aaha.taani bha.n.daani ammaa pi.takesu pakkhipi.
        The mother put in baskets the goods brought by the girl.
    4. Vaanijo patitassa rukkhassa saakhaayo chindi.
        The merchant cut the branches of the fallen tree.
    5. Maya.m udakena aasittehi pupphehi Buddha.m puujema.
        We may worship the Buddha with flowers sprinkled with water.
    6. Kassakena kasite khette suukaro sayati.
        A pig sleeps in the field ploughed by the farmer.
Exercise 19
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Ammaaya ma~njuusaaya.m pakkhitta.m daarikaa na ga.nhi.
    2. Dhotaani vatthaani gahetvaa bhariyaa udakamhaa uttari.
    3. Kassakehi uyyaane ropitesu rukkhesu phalaani bhavi.msu.
    4. Buddhaa devehi ca narehi ca puujitaa honti.
    5. Udakena puurita.m patta.m gahetvaa vanitaa geha.m aagataa hoti.
    6. Adhammena (unrighteously) diipa.m paalentena bhuupaalena pii.litaa
        manussaa kuddhaa honti.
    7. Pakka.m (ripe) phala.m tu.n.dena gahetvaa u.d.denta.m suva.m aha.m
    8. Udento suriyo braahma.nena namassito hoti.
    9. Ammaaya jaalita.m diipa.m aadaya putto vihaara.m pavi.t.tho hoti.
    10. Vanitaaya dussena chaadite aasane nisiiditvaa sannipatitaaya
        parisaaya dhamma.m desesi.
    11. Kassakena khetta.m aaniitaa go.naa khaadantaa aahi.n.di.msu.
    12. Vaa.nijaa ma~njuusaasu .thapitaani dussaani na
    13. Sace tva.m sacca.m jaaneyyaasi maa putta.m akkosa.
    14. Naavaaya nikkhantaa naraa samudda.m taritvaa diipa.m paapu.nitvaa
        bhariyaahi saddhi.m kathentaa modanti.
   15. Magge .thite vaa.nijassa saka.te aha.m ka~n~naaya aaniitaani bha.n.daani
   16. Dhammena laddhena dhanena putte posetvaa jiivantaa manussaa
       devataahi rakkhitaa honti.
   17. Saavakehi ca upaasakehi ca parivaarito Buddho vihaarassa chaayaaya
       nisinno hoti.
   18. Ammaaya paapehi nivaaritaa puttaa sappurisaa hutvaa dhamma.m
   19. Kassake pii.lentaa coraa pa.n.ditena anusaasitaa sappurisaa bhavitu.m
       vaayamantaa upaasakehi saddhi.m uyyaane rukkhe ropenti.
   20. Vanitaa puttaaya pa.tiyaaditamhaa bhattamhaa khudaaya pii.litassa
       yaacakassa thoka.m (little) datvaa paaniiya.m ca dadi/adaasi.
   21. Sabhaaya.m nisiiditvaa daarikaaya gaayita.m giita.m sutvaa ka~n~naayo
   22. Amaccena nimantitaa purisaa saalaaya.m nisiiditu.m asakkontaa (unable)
       uyyaane sannipati.msu.
   23. Kassakehi khettesu vuttehi biijehi thoka.m (little) saku.naa khaadi.msu.
   24. Kumaarehi rukkhamuule niliiyitvaa sayanto sappo di.t.tho hoti.
   25. Vaa.nijena diipamhaa aaha.taani vatthaani ki.nitu.m vanitaayo icchanti.
   26. Sace bhuupaalo dhammena manusse rakkheyya te kammaani katvaa
       daarake posentaa sukha.m vindeyyu.m.
   27. Puttena yaacitaa ammaa mittaana.m odana.m pa.tiyaadesi.
   28. Amaccena pu.t.tha.m pa~nha.m adhigantu.m asakkonto coraana.m duuto
       cintetu.m aarabhi.
   29. Corehi guhaaya.m niliiyitaani bha.n.daani passitvaa vaanaraa taani (them)
       aadaaya rukkhe aaruhi.msu.
   30. Aha.m pariyesita.m dhamma.m adhigantvaa modaami.
Translate into Paali
   1. The man who came to the assembly could not speak with the ministers.
   2. The child ran to the shop taking the money given by the mother.
   3. The king is seated in the chariot drawn by horses.
   4. Having discussed with the wise man the farmers sent a messenger to the
   5. The children went out of the open door.
   6. The women who got down to the water washed clothes and bathed.
   7. Buddhas and their disciples are worshipped by gods and men.
   8. The merchant sold the clothes sewn by women.
   9. I did not take the flowers and fruits brought by the girl from the forest.
   10. Being chased by the dog, the girls quickly (siigha.m) ran home.
   11. The teacher having seen the evil deed done by the girl advised her.
   12. We did not light the lamps prepared by the women.
   13. You do not drag the branches cut by the farmer from the mountain.
   14. Without getting the pay for the work done, the woman is angry.
    15. Do not ask for fruits from the boy sitting on the branch.
    16. The woman who is scolded by the brahmin cries, seated at the door.
    17. The girl being called by the mother ran home to eat rice.
    18. The men who tried to cut the creepers started pulling the branches.
    19. The farmer who makes a living righteously, ploughing his fields
        experiences happiness with his wife and children.
    20. Deities who have departed from the world of gods and are born in the
        human world rejoice listening to the dhamma preached by the Buddha.
    21. The thieves who were instructed by the monk became good men.
    22. There were no fruits on the trees planted by the farmer.
    23. Bitten by the dog the girl ran home and cried.
    24. The minister is not known to the doctor.
    25. Seated under the tree the girls played with sand.
    26. Sons, do not drink liquor.
    27. Mothers prevent children from evil.
    28. I gave water to the dog oppressed with thirst.
    29. Seeing the hunter coming we hid among the trees.
    30. We prepared alms with faith and gave to the monks.
Lesson 20
1. Declension of feminine nouns ending in -i
           bhuumi = earth, ground
                  Singular                   Plural
           Nom. bhuumi                       bhuumii, bhuumiyo
           Voc.   bhuumi                     bhuumii, bhuumiyo
           Acc.   bhuumi.m                   bhuumii, bhuumiyo
           Ins.   bhuumiyaa                  bhuumiihi (bhuumiibhi)
           Abl.   bhuumiyaa                  bhuumiihi (bhuumiibhi)
           Dat.   bhuumiyaa                  bhuumiina.m
           Gen.   bhuumiyaa                  bhuumiina.m
           Loc.   bhuumiyaa, bhuumiya.m bhuumiisu
Feminine nouns ending in -ii are also similarly declined with the only exception
being the nominative and vocative singular which end in -ii.
2. Vocabulary
Feminine nouns ending in -i
       a`nguli - finger
       a.tavi - forest
       ratti - night - boat
       yuvati - maiden
       ya.t.thi - walking stick
       asani - thunderbolt - unit of measure
       rasmi - ray
       iddhi - psychic power
       sammajjani - broom
Feminine nouns ending in -ii
       nadii - river
       naarii/itthii - woman
       taru.nii - young woman
       bhaginii - sister
       vaapii - tank
       pokkhara.nii - pond
       kadalii - banana
       braahma.nii - brahmin woman
       gaavii - cow
       raajinii/devii - queen
       kumaarii - girl
3. Verbs
       vyaakaroti - explains
       pattheti - aspires
       vissajjeti - spends
       aaroceti - informs
       mu~ncati - releases
       niihareti - takes out
       peseti - sends
       pa.ticcaadeti - conceals
       ve.theti - wraps
       vihe.theti - harasses
Exercise 20
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Bhuupaalo raajiniyaa saddhi.m naavaaya nadi.m taranto udake carante
       macche olokento amaccehi saddhi.m katheti.
    2. Paaniya.m pivitvaa daarikaaya bhuumiya.m nikkhitto patto bhinno hoti.
    3. Kassakaana.m gaaviyo a.taviya.m aahi.n.ditvaa khetta.m aagami.msu.
    4. Rattiyaa samuddasmi.m patitaa candassa rasmiyo oloketvaa taru.niyo
    5. Upaasakaa iddhiyaa aakaase gacchanta.m taapasa.m disvaa pasannaa
    6. Bhaginiyaa saddhi.m pokkhara.niyaa tiire (bank) .thatva so padumaani
       ocinitu.m vaayami.
    7. Naariyo vaapiisu nahaayitu.m vaa (or) vatthaani dhovitu.m vaa na
    8. Yuvatiyaa pu.t.tha.m pa~nha.m vyaakaatu.m asakkonto aha.m taaya
        (with her) saddhi.m sallapitu.m aarabhi.m.
    9. Asappurisena puttena kata.m paapakamma.m pa.ticchaadetu.m ammaa
        na ussahi.
    10. Bhaginiyaa dussena ve.thetvaa ma~ncasmi.m .thapita.m bha.n.da.m itthii
        ma~njuusaaya.m pakkhipi.
    11. Maa tumhe magge sayanta.m kukkura.m vihe.thetha.
    12. Sappuriso amacco dhana.m vissajjetvaa yaacakaana.m vasitu.m saalaayo
        gaamesu karitvaa bhuupaala.m aarocesi.
    13. Kumaaro suva.m hatthamhaa mu~ncitvaa ta.m u.d.denta.m passamaano
        rodanto rukkhamuule a.t.thaasi.
    14. Saddhaaya daana.m dadamaanaa kusala.m karontaa sappurisaa
        puna(again) manussaloke uppajjitu.m patthenti.
    15. Kumaaro ma~njuusa.m vivaritvaa saa.taka.m niiharitvaa ammaaya pesesi.
Translate into Paali
    1. There are lotuses and fishes in ponds in the king's park.
    2. The young women picked lotuses from the tank and kept them on the
    3. The queen spoke with her sisters who came having crossed the river by
    4. I saw the dog chasing the cow in the field.
    5. Women and girls did not climb trees to pick fruits and flowers.
    6. You (pl.) went to the river to bathe and got frightened hearing the peal of
        thunder (asanisadda.m).
    7. You (pl.) do not conceal the evil committed with your friends.
    8. If you spent money to buy clothes, inform your mother.
    9. Send the lotuses wrapped in lotus leaves to the young girls seated in the
    10. We can explain the questions asked by the women in the assembly.
Lesson 21
1. The Present Participle (contd.)
This lesson is a continuation of Lesson 11 and should be studied together with
that lesson. It was learnt in Lesson 11 that -nta/-maana are added to the base of
verbs which end in -a, to form the present participle masculine and neutuer
genders. e.g.:
        paca + nta = pacanta
        paca + maana = pacamaana
They are declined like -a ending nouns in these two genders. Further it should be
noted that with verbs whose base ends in -e/-aya, -nta is usually added to the
base ending in -e; and -maana is added to the base ending in -aya. e.g.:
       core + nta = corenta
       coraya + maana = corayamaana
With verbs whose base ends in -naa both -nta/-maana are generally added, but
the -naa is shortened to -na. e.g.:
       ki.naa + nta = ki.nanta
       ki.naa + maana = ki.namaana
       su.naa + nta = su.nanta
       su.naa + maana = su.namaana
Present participles ending in -nta occur more frequently in Paali literature than
those ending in -maana.
2. The Present Participle (Feminine)
The present participle feminine gender is formed by adding -ntii/-maanaa to the
verbal base. e.g.:
       paca + ntii = pacantii
       paca + maanaa = pacamaanaa
       core + ntii = corentii
       coraya + maanaa = corayamaanaa
       ki.naa + ntii = ki.nantii
       ki.naa + maanaa = ki.namaanaa
When -ntii is added, the present participle feminine is declined like feminine
nouns ending in -ii. When -maanaa is added it is declined like feminine nouns
ending in -aa.
            Declension of pacantii
                   Singular                  Plural
            Nom. pacantii                    pacantii, pacantiyo
            Voc.   pacantii                  pacantii, pacantiyo
            Acc.   pacanti.m                 pacantii, pacantiyo
            Ins.   pacantiyaa                pacantiihi (pacantiibhi)
            Abl.   pacantiyaa                pacantiihi (pacantiibhi)
            Dat.   pacantiyaa                pacantiina.m
            Gen.   pacantiyaa                pacantiina.m
            Loc.   pacantiyaa, pacantiya.m pacantiisu
3. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Ammaa bhatta.m pacantii ka~n~naaya saddhi.m katheti.
       Cooking rice the mother speaks with the girl.
    2. Ka~n~naa bhatta.m pacanti.m amma.m passati.
       The girl sees the mother cooking rice.
   3. Ka~n~naa bhatta.m pacantiyaa ammaaya udaka.m deti.
       The girl gives water to the mother cooking rice.
   1. Bhatta.m pacantiyo ammaayo ka~n~naahi saddhi.m kathenti.
       Cooking rice mothers speak with girls.
   2. Ka~n~naayo bhatta.m pacantiyo ammaayo passanti.
       Girls see mothers cooking rice.
   3. Ka~n~naayo bhatta.m pacantiina.m ammaana.m udaka.m denti.
       Girls give water to mothers cooking rice.
Similarly, the present participle can be declined in all cases to agree in gender,
number and case with the nouns they qualify.
Exercise 21
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Khette phalaani corentii daarikaa kassaka.m disvaa bhaayitvaa
       dhaavitu.m aarabhi.
   2. Buddhassa saavakena desita.m dhamma.m sutvaa yuvati sacca.m
       adhigantu.m icchantii ammaaya saddhi.m mantesi.
   3. Sayanta.m sunakha.m aamasantii kumaarii gehadvaare nisinnaa hoti.
   4. Raajinii naariihi pu.t.the pa~nhe vyakarontii sabhaaya.m nisinnaa
       parisa.m aamantetvaa katha.m kathesi.
   5. A.tavi.m gantvaa rukkha.m chinditvaa saakhaayo aaka.d.dhantiyo itthiyo
       sigaale disvaa bhaayi.msu.
   6. Gehadvaare nisiiditvaa dussa.m sibbantii bhaginii giita.m gaayati.
   7. Asappuriso paapakammaani pa.ticchaadetvaa upaasakehi saddhi.m
       sallapanto vihaarasmi.m aasane nisinno hoti.
   8. Saatakena ve.thetvaa niliiyita.m passitu.m aaka`nkhamaanaa
       yuvati ovarakassa (room) dvaara.m vivari.
   9. Sace tva.m mula.m vissajjetu.m iccheyyaasi, maa vattha.m ki.naahi.
   10. Sace tumhe bhuupaalassa duuta.m pesetha amacce pi aarocetha.
   11. Kassako chinnaa sakhaayo khettamhaa niiharitvaa a.taviya.m pakkhipi.
   12. Pokkara.niyaa tiire (bank) .thatvaa kadaliphala.m khaadantii ka~n~naa
       bhaginiyaa dinna.m paduma.m ga.nhi.
   13. Amhaaka.m (our) hatthapaadesu viisati (twenty) a`nguliyo santi.
   14. Rattiyaa gehaa nikkhamitu.m bhaayantii ka~n~naa dvaara.m na vivari.
   15. Sace tva.m ya.t.thiyaa kukkura.m pahareyyaasi so .daseyya.
   16. Maya.m sappurisaa bhavitu.m aaka`nkhamaanaa upasa`nkamma
       dhamma.m sutvaa kusala.m kaatu.m aarabhimha.
   17. Paapakammehi anubandhitaa asappurisaa coraa niraye (purgatory)
       uppajjitvaa dukkha.m vindanti.
   18. Maa pu~n~na.m parivajjetvaa paapa.m karotha, sace kareyyaatha
       manussalokamhaa cavitvaa dukkha.m vindissatha.
   19. Sace tumhe sagge uppajjitvaa moditu.m patthetha pu~n~naani karotha.
   20. Sacca.m ~naatu.m ussahantaa braahma.naa sahaayakehi saha
   21. Naariyaa pa~njare (cage) pakkhittaa sukaa kadaliphala.m khaadantaa
       nisinnaa honti.
   22. vihe.thetu.m na icchanto vaa.nijo saka.tamhaa bha.n.daani
       niiharitva bhuumiya.m nikkhipitvaa kassaka.m aarocesi.
   23. A.taviya.m viharantaa migaa ca go.naa ca varaahaa ca siihamhaa
   24. Sama.naa saddhaaya upaasakehi dinna.m bhu~njitvaa sacca.m
       adhigantu.m vaayamantaa siilaani rakkhanti.
   25. Rattiyaa nikkhantaa nadi.m taritvaa pabhaate (in the morning)
   26. Gehassa chaayaaya .thatvaa daarikaaya bhuumiya.m nikkhitta.m odana.m
       sunakho khaaditu.m aarabhi.
   27. Bhariyaaya naa.liyaa mita.m dha~n~na.m aadaaya kassako
       gato hoti.
   28. U.d.dente kaake disvaa vaalukaaya ca udakena ca kii.lantii daarikaa
       hasamaanaa dhaavi.
   29. Ratha.m paajetu.m (to drive) ugga.nhanto puriso dakkho (clever)
       rathaacariyo bhavitu.m vaayami.
   30. Viva.tamhaa dvaaramhaa nikkhantaa kumaaraa pa~njarehi muttaa
       saku.naa viya (like) uyyaana.m dhaavi.msu.
Translate into Paali
   1. Seated on the bed the girl drank the milk given by her mother.
   2. Taking the pots (gha.te) and talking the women went to the river to bring
   3. Without wishing to harass the bird the woman released him from the cage
   4. Unable (asakkoti) to pick the fruits from the tree the young girl called the
   5. There is no (natthi) milk in the bowl of the crying child.
   6. The girls who were singing under the tree started dancing.
   7. Being chased by the hunter and his dogs the deer ran into the forest.
   8. Wishing to get profit the women sold garments in shops.
   9. In order to buy oil (tela) to light lamps the boy went from shop to shop.
   10. I gave the box to the girl sitting in the shade of the tree.
   11. The girls laughed pulling the creeper from the tree.
   12. They who oppress women and children are wicked men.
   13. We see with our eyes the rays of the sun falling on the ground.
   14. Hitting with a stick the woman killed the serpent entering the house.
   15. Putting fruits and flowers in boxes sisters sat at the open door.
   16. If you will come out of water and protect the child I will step into the
       pond and bathe.
    17. We got angry with the women committing evil and left the hall.
    18. Do not shoot the cows and deer roaming in the park, the king and queen
        will get angry.
    19. May the king and his ministers not oppress the people living in the island.
    20. I gave rice to the starving dogs walking on the road
Lesson 22
1. The Future Passive Participle
The future passive participle or the potential participle as it is sometimes called,
is formed by adding -tabba/-aniiya to the base of the verb; -tabba is mostly
added with the connecting vowel -i-. These participles are declined like a-ending
nouns in the masculine and neuter genders, and like aa-ending nouns in the
feminine. They express ideas such as 'must,' 'should be' and 'fit to be.'
        pacati - pacitabba/pacaniiya
        bhu~njati - bhu~njitabba/bhojaniiya
        karoti - kaatabba/kara.niiya
2. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Ammaa pacitabbam/pacaniiya.m ta.n.dula.m (raw rice) pi.take .thapesi.
        The mother kept the (raw) rice which is to be cooked in the basket.
    2. Daarikaaya bhu~njitabba.m/bhojaniiya.m odana.m aha.m na
        I will not eat the rice which should be eaten by the girl.
    3. Kassakena kaatabba.m/kara.niiya.m kamma.m kaatu.m tva.m icchasi.
        You wish to do the work that should be done by the farmer.
Exercise 22
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Upaasakehi sama.naa vanditabbaa honti.
    2. Ma~njuusaaya.m nikkhipitabba.m maa ma~ncasmi.m
    3. Sappurisaa puujaniiye puujenti, asappurisaa tathaa (likewise) na karonti.
    4. Bhuupaalena rakkhitabba.m diipa.m amaccaa na sammaa (well) paalenti.
    5. Manussehi dhammo ugga.nhitabbo, sacca.m adhigantabba.m hoti.
    6. Kumaariihi aaha.taani pupphaani udakena aasi~ncitabbaani honti.
    7. Corena gahita.m bhaginiyaa dhana.m pariyesitabba.m hoti.
    8. Uyyaane ropitaa rukkhaa na chinditabbaa honti.
    9. Dhotabbaani dussaani gahetvaa yuvatiyo hasamaanaa
    10. Sama.nehi ovaditabbaa kumaaraa vihaaram na gami.msu.
    11. Kassakena kasitabba.m khetta.m vikki.nitu.m vaa.nijo ussahi.
    12. Aapa.nesu .thapitaani vikki.nitabbaani bha.n.daani ki.nitu.m te na
    13. Ammaa khaadaniiyaani ca bhojaniiyaani ca pa.tiyaadetvaa daarakaana.m
    14. Manussehi daanaani daatabbaani, siilaani rakkhitabbaani, pu~n~naani
    15. Go.naana.m daatabbaani ti.naani kassako khettamhaa aahari.
    16. Migaa paaniiya.m udaka.m pariyesantaa a.taviya.m aahi.n.di.msu.
    17. Darikaaya daatu.m phalaani aapa.naaya vaa (or) khettamhaa vaa
        aaharitabbaani honti.
    18. Kathetabba.m vaa akathetabba.m* vaa ajaananto asappuriso maa
        sabhaaya.m nisiidatu.
    19. Tumhe bhuupaalaa amaccehi ca pa.n.ditehi ca sama.nehi ca
        anusaasitabbaa hotha.
    20. Upaasakena pu.t.tho pa~nho pa.n.ditena vyaakaatabbo hoti.
    21. Bhuupaalassa uyyaane vasantaa migaa ca sakunaa ca luddakehi na
        hantabbaa honti.
    22. Kusala.m ajaanitvaa paapa.m karontaa kumaaraa na akkositabbaa, te
        sama.nehi ca pa.n.ditehi ca sappurisehi ca anusaasitabbaa.
    23. Asappurisaa parivajjetabbaa, maa tumhe tehi saddhi.m (with them)
        gaame aahi.n.datha.
    24. Suraa na paatabbaa, sace piveyyaatha tumhe gilaanaa bhavissatha.
    25. Dhammena jiivantaa manussaa devehi rakkhitabbaa honti.
* akathetabba.m: a- here is a negative prefix.
Translate into Paali
    1. At night people should light lamps.
    2. The merchant brought horses to be sold to the farmers.
    3. Objects should be seen with eyes, tastes (rasaani) should be enjoyed with
        the tongue.
    4. The dog should not be hit with sticks and stones.
    5. People in the island should be protected by the king and his ministers.
    6. Flowers should not be picked by men walking in the park.
    7. The corn should be measured by the farmer with his wife.
    8. Men should not do evil.
    9. Grass and water should be given to oxen and goats.
    10. The assembly should be addressed by the teacher's sister.
    11. The lions sleeping in the caves should not be approached by men.
    12. The mother's clothes should be washed by the girl.
Lesson 23
1. The Causative
Causative verbs are formed by adding -e/-aya/-aape/-aapaya to the root or
verbal base. Sometimes the vowel in the root is strengthened when the suffixes
are added. Verbal bases ending in -e/-aya invariably take the suffixes -ape/-
aapaya to form the causative.
        pacati - paaceti/paacayati/pacaapeti/paacaapayati
        bhu~njati - bhojeti/bhojaapeti
        coreti - coraapeti/coraapayati
        kinaati - ki.naapeti/ki.naapayati
        karoti - kaareti/kaaraapayati
        dadaati/deti - daapeti/daapayati
In sentences with causative verbs the agent carrying out the action is expressed
by the accusative or the instrumental case.
2. Examples in sentence formation
    1. Ammaa bhagini.m bhatta.m pacaapeti.
        Mother gets the sister to cook rice.
    2. Bhuupaalo ca yaacake ca bhojaapesi.
        The king fed the recluses and beggars.
    3. Coro mittena kakaca.m coraapetvaa vana.m dhaavi.
        The thief ran having got a friend to steal a saw.
    4. Vejjo puttena aapa.namhaa khiira.m ki.naapesi.
        The doctor got his son to buy milk from the market.
    5. Upaasakaa amaccena sama.naana.m vihaara.m kaaraapesu.m.
        Lay devotees got the minister to build a monastery for the monks.
    6. Yuvati bhaginiyaa aacariyassa muula.m daapetvaa sippa.m ugga.nhi.
        The maiden got the sister to give money to the teacher and learnt an art.
    7. cora.m/corena sacca.m bhaasaapetu.m vaayami.
        The brahmin tried to make the thief speak the truth.
Exercise 23
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Ammaa sama.nehi asappurise putte anusaasaapesi.
    2. Tumhe manusse pii.lente core aamantaapetvaa ovadatha.
    3. Vaa.nijo kassakena rukkhe chindaapetvaa/chedaapetvaa saka.tena
        nagara.m netvaa
    4. upaasake sannipaataapetvaa dhamma.m desesi.
    5. Maatulo kumaarehi pupphaani ca phalaani ca ocinaapesi.
    6. Daarikaa sunakha.m otaraapesi.
    7. Amacco vaa.nije ca kassake ca pakkosaapetvaa pucchissati.
    8. Ka~n~naahi aaha.taani pupphaani vanitaayo aasi~ncaapesu.m.
    9. Bhaariyaaya kaatabba.m kamma.m aha.m karomi.
    10. Luddako mittena miga.m vijjhitvaa maaraapesi.
    11. aacaariyena kumaari.m dhamma.m ugga.nhaapesi.
    12. Ammaa daarika.m khiira.m paayetvaa ma~nce sayaapesi.
    13. Vaa.nijaa assehi bha.n.daani gaahaapetva vikki.nitu.m nagara.m
    14. Vanitaa sahaayakena rukkhassa saakhaayo aaka.d.dhaapetvaa geha.m
    15. Ammaa puttena geha.m aagata.m vandaapesi.
    16. Upaasakaa aasanesu nisiidaapetvaa bhojaapesu.m.
    17. Bhaginii bhinnapattassa kha.n.daani (pieces) aamasantii rodantii
        gehadvaare a.t.thaasi.
    18. Udaka.m aaharitu.m gacchantiyo naariyo sallapantiyo rukkhamuulesu
        patitaani kusumaani oloketvaa modi.msu.
    19. Luddako tu.n.dena phala.m ocinitu.m vaayamanta.m suva.m sarena vijjhi.
    20. Sappurisena kaaraapitesu vihaaresu sama.naa vasanti.
Translate into Paali
    1. The wicked man gets his sons to shoot birds.
    2. The lay devotees will get the monk to preach the doctrine.
    3. Women get their children to honour the Buddha's disciples.
    4. The young woman will get her sister to speak at the assembly.
    5. The farmer caused the tree to fall into the pit.
    6. You (pl.) will get the flowers sprinkled with water.
    7. The king got his ministers to build a monastery.
    8. The queen will live in the palace which the king got built.
    9. The merchant got his wife to put the goods in boxes.
    10. The brahmin got the Buddha's disciple to preach to his people.
Lesson 24
1. Declension of Feminine Nouns Ending in -u
             dhenu = cow
                    Singular                Plural
             Nom. dhenu                     dhenuu, dhenuyo
             Voc.   dhenu                   dhenuu, dhenuyo
             Acc.   dhenu.m                 dhenuu, dhenuyo
             Ins.   dhenuyaa                dhenuuhi (dhenuubhi)
             Abl.   dhenuyaa                dhenuuhi (dhenuubhi)
             Dat.   dhenuyaa                dhenuuna.m
             Gen.   dhenuyaa                dhenuuna.m
             Loc.   dhenuyaa, dhenuya.m dhenuusu
2. Vocabulary
Some nouns similarly declined are as follows:
      yaagu - gruel
      kaasu - pit
      vijju - lightning
      rajju - rope
      daddu - eczema
      ka.neru - cow-elephant
      dhaatu - element, relic
        sassu - mother-in-law
        vadhu - daughter-in-law
3. Vocabulary - Verbs
        thaketi - shuts, closes
        naaseti - destroys
        sammajjati - sweeps
        obhaaseti - illuminates
        bhajati - keeps company
        bandhati - ties
        vibhajati - divides, distributes
        bha~njati - breaks
        maapeti - builds, creates
        vihi.msati - harms
        cha.d.deti - throws
        pattharati - spreads
Exercise 24
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
    1. Vadhuu sassuyaa dhenu.m rajjuyaa bandhitvaa khetta.m nesi.
    2. Ammaa yaagu.m pacitvaa daarakaana.m datvaa ma~nce nisiidi.
    3. Yuvatiyaa hattesu ca a.nguliisu ca daddu atthi.
    4. Maya.m a.taviya.m carantiyo ka.neruyo apassimha.
    5. Itthii yuvatiyaa bhatta.m pacaapetvaa daarikaana.m thoka.m thoka.m
    6. Tumhe vijjuyaa aalokena guhaayam sayantam siiha.m passittha.
    7. Yuvatiyaa hatthesu kumaarehi dinnaa maalaayo santi.
    8. Vadhuu khette kaasuusu patitaani phalaani sa.mhari.
    9. Buddhassa dhaatuyo vibhajitvaa bhuupaalaana.m
    10. Vadhuu sassuyaa paade vandi.
    11. Yuvatiyaa geham sammajjitabba.m hoti.
    12. Devataayo sakala.m (entire) vihaara.m obhaasentiyo Buddha.m
    13. A.taviisu vasantiyo ka.neruyo saakhaayo bha~njitvaa khaadanti.
    14. Aha.m rukkhassa chaayaaya.m nisinnaana.m dhenuuna.m ca go.naana.m
        ca ti.naani adadi.m/adaasi.m.
    15. Itthii magge gacchanti.m amma.m passitvaa rathamhaa oruyha ta.m
        vanditvaa rathasmi.m aaropetvaa geha.m nesi.
    16. Vadhuu gehassa dvaaram thaketvaa nahaayitu.m nadi.m
        upasa`nkamitvaa yuvatiihi saddhi.m sallapantii nadiyaa tiire a.t.thaasi.
    17. Bhuupaalo manusse vihi.msante core naasetvaa dipa.m paalesi.
    18. Ammaa asappurise bhajamaane putte sama.nehi ovaadaapesi.
    19. Sappurisena ki.nitvaa aaha.tehi bha.n.dehi cha.d.detabba.m natthi.
    20. Maa tumhe gaame vasante kassake vihi.msatha.
Translate into Paali
    1. The mother took the gold kept in the box and gave it to the daughter.
    2. The daughter-in-law honoured the gods with garlands and fruits.
    3. If you dig holes, I will plant trees.
    4. You (pl.) go to the field and bring the corn home.
    5. Cow-elephants wandered in the forest eating plantain trees.
    6. I looked at the girls crossing the river by boat.
    7. Young women pulled the branches fallen in the pit.
    8. The rays of the sun illuminate the world.
    9. Singing songs the sisters went to the tank to bathe.
    10. The woman tied the cow with a rope and brought it to the field.
    11. The daughter-in-law went to Anuraadhapura with the mother-in-law to
        honour the relics of the Buddha.
    12. May virtue and wisdom illuminate the minds of men in the world.
Lesson 25
1. Declension of Masculine Nouns Ending in -i
            aggi = fire
                   Singular                      Plural
            Nom. aggi                            aggii, aggayo
            Voc.   aggi                          aggii, aggayo
            Acc.   aggi.m                        aggii, aggayo
            Ins.   agginaa                       aggiihi (aggiibhi)
            Abl.   agginaa, aggimhaa, aggismaa aggiihi (aggiibhi)
            Dat.   aggino, aggissa               aggiina.m
            Gen.   aggino, aggissa               aggiina.m
            Loc.   aggimhi, aggismi.m            aggiisu
2. Masculine nouns ending in -i
      muni/isi - sage
      kavi - poet
      ari - enemy
      bhuupati - king
      pati - husband, master
      gahapati - householder
      adhipati - lord, leader
      atithi - guest
      vyaadhi - illness
      udadhi - ocean
       nidhi - (hidden) treasure
       viihi - paddy
       kapi - monkey
       ahi - serpent
       diipi - leopard
       ravi - sun
       giri - mountain - gem
       asi - sword
       raasi - heap - hand
       kucchi - belly
       mu.t.thi - fist, hammer
Exercise 25
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Munayo siila.m rakkhantaa girimhi guhaasu vasi.msu.
   2. Aacariyena saddhi.m viharanto kavi isi hoti.
   3. Bhuupati asinaa ari.m paharitvaa maaresi.
   4. Pati bhariyaaya pa.tiyaadita.m odana.m bhu~njitvaa khetta.m agami.
   5. Sappurisaa gahapatayo bhariyaahi ca puttehi ca gehesu vasantaa sukha.m
   6. Nidhi.m pariyesanto adhipati sahaayakehi saddhi.m diipa.m agacchi.
   7. Atithiina.m odana.m pacantii itthii aggi.m jaalesi.
   8. Vyaadhinaa pii.lito naro ma~nce sayati.
   9. Gahapati viihiina.m raasi.m minanto bhariyaaya saddhi.m kathesi.
   10. Daarikaa girimhaa udenta.m ravi.m olokentii hasanti.
   11. Bhuupatino mu.t.thimhi ma.nayo bhavanti.
   12. Ari kavino ya.t.thiyaa paharitvaa dhavi.
   13. Kavi patinaa dinna.m paa.ninaa ga.nhi.
   14. Naariyo patiihi saddhi.m udadhi.m gantvaa nahaayitu.m aarabhi.msu.
   15. Adhipati atithi.m khaadaniiyehi ca bhojaniiyehi ca bhojaapesi.
   16. Bhuupatinaa kattabbaani kammaani adhipatayo na karissanti.
   17. Muniihi pariyesitabba.m dhamma.m aham pi ugga.nhitu.m icchaami.
   18. Aha.m diipa.m jaaletvaa udakena aasittaani padumaani Buddhassa
   19. Tva.m girimhi vasante diipayo oloketu.m luddakena saha giri.m aaruhasi.
   20. Devii parisaya saha sabhaaya.m nisinnaa hoti.
   21. Gahapatayo pa~nhe pucchitu.m aaka`nkhamaanaa isi.m
   22. Gahapatiihi pu.t.tho isi pa~nhe vyaakari.
   23. Naariyaa dhotaani vatthaani ga.nhante kapayo disvaa kumaaraa
       paasaa.nehi te (them) pahari.msu.
   24. Uyyaane aahi.n.ditvaa khaadantiyo gaaviyo ca go.naa ca ajaa ca
       a.tavi.m pavisitvaa diipi.m disvaa bhaayi.msu.
   25. Gahapatiihi munayo ca atithayo ca bhojetabbaa honti.
   26. Ammaa ma~njuusaaya pakkhipitvaa rakkhite ma.nayo daarikaaya ca
       vadhuyaa ca adadi/adaasi.
   27. Yadi tumhe bhuupati.m upasankameyyaatha maya.m ratha.m
   28. Gahapati cora.m giivaaya gahetvaa paadena kucchi.m pahari.
   29. Saku.nehi kataani kulaavakaani (nests) maa tumhe bhindatha.
   30. Giita.m gaayantii yuvati gaavi.m upasa`nkamma khiira.m duhitu.m (to
       milk) aarabhi.
   31. Buddhassa dhaatuyo vanditu.m maya.m vihaara.m gamimha.
   32. Maya.m ka~n~naayo dhammasaala.m sammajjitvaa kila~njaasu (on mats)
       nisiiditvaa dhamma.m su.nimha.
   33. Maya.m locanehi ruupaani passaama, sotehi (with ears) sadda.m (sound)
       su.naama, jivhaaya rasa.m saadiyaama (we taste).
   34. Te a.taviyaa aahi.n.dantiyo gaaviyo rajjuuhi bandhitvaa khettam
   35. Bhariyaa vyaadhinaa pii.litassa patino hattha.m aamasantii ta.m (him)
       samassaasesi (comforted).
   36. Gahapati atithinaa saddhi.m sallapanto saalaaya nisinno hoti.
   37. Muni sacca.m adhigantvaa manussaana.m dhamma.m desetu.m
       pabbatamhaa oruyha gaame vihaare vasati.
   38. Rajjuyaa bandhitaa gaavii tattha tattha (here and there) aahi.n.dfitu.m
       asakkontii rukkhamuule khaadati.
   39. Devii bhuupatinaa saddhi.m rathena gacchantii anataraamagge (on the
       way) kasante kassake passi.
   40. Maa tuhme akusala.m karotha, sace kareyyaatha sukha.m vinditu.m na
Translate into Paali
   1. The husbands brought gems from the island for their wives.
   2. Sicknesses oppress people living in the world.
   3. Sitting on the ground the woman measured paddy with a
   4. Householders who do evil do not worship sages.
   5. If you dig up the treasure you will get gems.
   6. I washed the clothes which were to be washed by the wife.
   7. We drank the gruel which was prepared by our mother.
   8. You kindle the fire to cook rice and gruel for the guests coming from the
   9. The householder hit with a sword the thief who entered the house.
   10. The young girl gave grass to the cows standing in the shade of the tree.
   11. Monkeys dwell on trees, lions sleep in caves, serpents move on the
    12. If you buy goods from the city and bring, I will sell them (taani) to
    13. O wicked man, if you do merit you will experience happiness.
    14. There are gems and gold in the boxes in my mother's house.
    15. The sage preached the doctrine to the king's retinue seated on the ground.
    16. Recluses, sages and poets are honoured by virtuous men.
    17. We will get the treasure which is protected by the leader.
    18. Do not cut branches of the trees planted in the park.
    19. Being released from the cage the birds flew into the sky.
    20. We did not see sages crossing the river through psychic power.
Lesson 26
1. Declension of Masculine Nouns Ending in -ii
      pakkhii = bird
             Singular                                Plural
      Nom. pakkhii                                   pakkhii, pakkhino
      Voc.   pakkhii                                 pakkhii, pakkhino
      Acc.   pakkhina.m, pakkhi.m                    pakkhii, pakkhino
      Ins.   pakkhinaa                               pakkhiihi (pakkhiibhi)
      Abl.   pakkhinaa, pakkhimhaa, pakkhismaa pakkhiihi (pakkhiibhi)
      Dat.   pakkhino, pakkhissa                     pakkhiina.m
      Gen.   pakkhino, pakkhissa                     pakkhiina.m
      Loc.   pakkhini, pakkhimhi, pakkhismi.m        pakkhiisu
It should be noted that this declension differs from the aggi declension only in
the nominative, vocative and accusative cases. The rest agrees with it, the only
exception being pakkhini in the locative singular, for which there is no
corresponding form in the aggi declension.
2. Masculine nouns ending in -ii
       hatthii/karii - elephant
       saamii - lord, husband
       se.t.thii - banker
       sukhii - one who is happy
       mantii - minister
       sikhii - peacock
       paa.nii - living being
       daa.thii - tusker
       diighajiivii - one with long life
       balii - powerful one
       va.d.dhakii - carpenter
       saarathii - charioteer
       ku.t.thii - leper
       paapakaarii - evil doer
Exercise 26
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
   1. Pakkhii gaayanto saakhaaya.m nisiidati.
   2. Gaavi.m rajjuyaa mu~ncamaanaa ammaa khette .thitaa hoti.
   3. Ka~n~naayo sabhaaya.m naccantiyo gaayi.msu.
   4. Se.t.thii mahanta.m (much) dhana.m vissajjetvaa sama.naana.m vihaara.m
   5. Hatthino ca ka.neruyo ca a.taviya.m aahi.n.danti.
   6. Paapakaarii paapaani pa.ticchaadetvaa sappuriso viya (like) sabhaaya.m
       nisinno se.t.thinaa saddhi.m kathesi.
   7. Sappurisaa diighajiivino hontu, puttaa sukhino bhavantu.
   8. Vaa.nijo nagaramhaa bha.n.daani ki.nitvaa pi.takesu pakkhipitvaa
       rajjuyaa bandhitvaa pesesi.
   9. Saarathinaa aaha.te rathe va.d.dhakii nisinno hoti.
   10. Sabbe (all) paa.nino diighajiivino na bhavanti/honti.
   11. Ammaa va.d.dhakinaa geha.m kaaraapetvaa daarikaahi saha tattha (there)
   12. Maya.m ma.nayo vatthena ve.thetvaa ma~njuusaaya.m nikkhipitvaa
       bhariyaana.m pesayimha.
   13. Muni paapakaari.m pakkosaapetvaa dhamma.m desetvaa ovadi.
   14. Balinaa bhuupatino dinna.m kari.m oloketu.m tumhe sannipatittha.
   15. Aha.m se.t.thii ku.t.thi.m pakkosaapetvaa bhojana.m (food) daapesi.m.
   16. Sace girimhi sikhino vasanti, te (them) passitu.m aha.m giri.m aaruhitu.m
   17. Bhuupati sappuriso abhavi/ahosi; mantino paapakaarino
   18. Balinaa kaaraapitesu paasaadesu se.t.thino puttaa na vasi.msu.
   19. Sabbe paa.nino sukha.m pariyesamaanaa jiivanti, kammaani karonti.
   20. Saamii ma.nayo ca ca ki.nitvaa bhariyaaya adadi/adaasi.
   21. Asanisadda.m (sound of thunder) sutvaa girimhi sikhino naccitu.m
   22. Maa balino paapakaarii hontu/bhavantu.
   23. Sappurisaa kusala.m karontaa, manussehi pu~n~na.m kaarentaa, sukhino
   24. Kavi asinaa ari.m pahari; kavi.m paharitu.m asakkonto ari kuddho ahosi.
   25. Kapayo rukkhesu carantaa pupphaani ca chindi.msu.
Translate into Paali
   1. Followed by the evil hunter the elephants ran in the forest.
   2. The leper took the garments given by the husband.
3. Leopards living in the forest do not fear lions living in the caves.
4. Singing a song, the boys danced with the girls in the hall.
5. Mothers with their daughters spread lotuses on the flower altar
6. If the boys drink liquor, the girls will become angry and will not sing.
7. The farmer got angry with the evil doer (use gen.) who harassed the cows
    grazing in the field.
8. The banker got the carpenter to build a mansion for his sons.
9. May the deities protect the good king governing the island righteously.
10. May all (sabbe) living beings live long happily.