English Years 1-10 Syllabus

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					The Anagram-Synonym
Game

A way with words for generating
productive learning from “fill-in” lessons

AATE/ALEA National Conference
Perth July 2010


Garry Collins   gazco48@bigpond.net.au
Executive summary
1. You have the
   handout.

2. Are there any
   questions?

3. Thanks for coming.
  The situation
Fred has just phoned
in sick so I need you
    to take his 9F
 English in Period 1.




                         Sure, no problem.




            Deputy Dan    Tanya Teechwell
                        Bugger! I was relying on
                             that time to:
  The situation         •Finish prep or marking
                        •Get over my hangover

Fred has just phoned
in sick so I need you
    to take his 9F
 English in Period 1.




                                     Sure, no problem.
                        Thanks, Fred!

 The situation        I bet the class will
                        say they have
                        nothing to do.

   Fred has just
phoned in sick so I
 need you to take
 his 9F English in
     Period 1.
  He said they
could just go on
with what they                Sure, no problem.
  were doing
   yesterday.
                      Chances are it‟ll be:

 The situation           A. boring, or
                      B. quite unworkable.


   Fred has just
phoned in sick so I
 need you to take
 his 9F English in
     Period 1.
Here’s the work
he said the class
   should do.                     Thanks.
Situations with your own class
1. Start of term/year – a fun
   based way to review some
   basic concepts
2. End of term – assessment
   complete & it‟s not practical
   to start a new unit
3. When you didn‟t expect to
   have them – eg sports
   carnival or excursion
   cancelled due to weather
In cases like #3
 Is this
  what often
  happens?
                                 What‟ll I do
                                  with 9F?
What‟s needed
 An activity that:
   will engage kids & prevent
    a riot
   requires no preparation,
    copying or AV equipment
   is not just mindless “busy
    work”
   generates worthwhile
    learning – in this case,
    about language
The solution

                        You need
                           the
                       Anagram-
                       Synonym
                         Game.



               With this handy resource,
                you need never fear a
                 “supervision” lesson
                         again.
The Anagram-Synonym Game
 Versions originally compiled
  by a Queensland primary
  school teacher, the late
  Gordon Hale.

 serially published in the
  Queensland Teachers‟ Union
  publication, the
  Queensland Teachers’
  Journal, in the late 1960s
  & early 1970s.

 One of the benefits of union
  membership!
                      There‟s an important
                         caveat for #2.
What we‟ll do now
                 1. Learn how the
                   game works.




                     2. Explore some
                worthwhile learning about
                  language that can be
                   generated from this
                         activity.
Each game
 30 pairs of words –
  mainly short – 1 or 2
  syllables

 Task: form an anagram
  from each word to produce
  30 pairs of synonyms

 An additional clue
  relating to the series of the
  first synonym in each pair,
  eg in alphabetical order
                          A selection could be the
                        basis for a short preliminary

1st half of Game 1             spelling quiz.



    cater       run                vine
1            6              11
    sing        were               dole
    gut         sue                serve
2            7              12
    trains      atter              mope
    wot         veal               vote
3            8              13
    caber       lead               nab
    lucre       ever               live
4            9              14
    roes        later              veil
    untie       evil               weak
5            10             15
    polo        hied               trial
1st five pairs of words
    cater
1
    sing
    gut
2              Examples of what I call
    trains     “the Hop/Hope Rule”
    wot              of spelling
3
    caber
    lucre
4
    roes
    untie
5
    polo
An initial question for students
    What are words?

 Complete this definition:
     Words are . . .



         What about
       meaningful speech
           sounds?
Speech sounds: 2 basic types
 Vowels        Consonants
Speech sounds: 2 basic types
 Vowels                    Consonants

 Air flow unimpeded

 Represented by
  letters: a, e, i, o, u
  & (sometimes) y
  eg fly
Speech sounds: 2 basic types
 Vowels                    Consonants

 Air flow unimpeded        Air flow impeded or
                             (temporarily)
 Represented by             stopped completely
  letters: a, e, i, o, u
  & (sometimes) y           Represented by all
  eg fly                     letters other than:
                             aeio&u
Some quiz questions for kids
                                 How many letters do we
                                  have in our alphabet?


                                  How many of those 26
                                  letters in the alphabet
                                  represent vowel sounds?



                                Therefore, how many of
                                the 26 letters represent
                                consonant sounds?

  A bit of numeracy at work in the English curriculum?
Vowels
 Vowels                     1. Mat, mate
                             2. Bet, beet   Short
 Air flow unimpeded
                                            vowels &
                             3. Sit, site   long
 Represented by             4. Hop, hope   vowels
  letters: a e i o u &
  (sometimes) y eg fly       5. Mut, mute

 Question: How many         6. Car
  different vowel            7. Cow
  sounds are there in
  English?                   8. Boot
 Task: Make a list of 1-     9. Floor
 syllable words containing
 different vowel sounds.
The hop/hope „Rule‟
          Hop                     Hope
1 syllable, short vowel   1 syllable, long vowel
The hop/hope „Rule‟
          Hop                   Hope
1 syllable, short vowel 1 syllable, long vowel
    Adding a suffix beginning with a vowel
  hopped, hopping,
                        hoped, hoping, hoper
        hopper
The hop/hope „Rule‟
          Hop                   Hope
1 syllable, short vowel 1 syllable, long vowel
    Adding a suffix beginning with a vowel
  hopped, hopping,
                        hoped, hoping, hoper
        hopper
 Sit  sitter, sitting   Site  sited, siting
The hop/hope „Rule‟
          Hop                   Hope
1 syllable, short vowel 1 syllable, long vowel
    Adding a suffix beginning with a vowel
  hopped, hopping,
                        hoped, hoping, hoper
        hopper
 Sit  sitter, sitting   Site  sited, siting
  Scrap  scrapped,      Scrape  scraped,
 scrapping, scrapper      scraping, scraper
The Hop/Hope Rule
    cater            Long A vowel
1
    sing          Therefore, not catter
    gut
2            But gut has the short U vowel
    trains
             & we therefore have gutter not
    wot
3                         guter
    caber
    lucre            Long A vowel
4
    roes
                 Therefore, not cabber
    untie
5
    polo
Word structure

    Another aid to spelling & meaning
Word structure

    Another aid to spelling & meaning


    a common pattern in English words


    prefix +   word stem + suffix
Prefixes
    cater
1
    sing
    gut
2            Prefix „un‟ = not, or the
    trains          opposite of
    wot
3
    caber    unload, uncouple, unmask
    lucre      unhappy, undisturbed,
4
    roes      unpleasant, unnecessary
    untie
5
    polo
Syllables: sound segments
 Most words in list of 1 or 2 syllables
 Division of words into syllables useful for
  spelling
   extermination  ex / ter / min / a / tion
   participant  par / ti / ci / pant
 Syllable structure
      C V C – cat, site
                                These words are
      C V – me, far             monosyllables
      V C – am, urn
      V – I, eye, aye
      C - ? Do any English words consist of a
       consonant sound only?
      Syllables don‟t always have a connection with meaning
 Grammar Rank Scale
                          Texts
                        Sentences
                         Clauses
                     Groups & phrases
                          Words
Smallest unit with     Morphemes
a sound-meaning
   relationship
 Rank Scale Analogies
 Education               Armies
   Australian schools        Corps
   School sectors            Divisions
                              Brigades
   Schools
                              Battalions & Regiments
   Houses & Year             Companies & Squadrons
    Levels
                              Platoons
   Classes                   Sections or squads
   Students                  Soldiers
Grammar Rank Scale
                               texts
                           paragraphs
                        (in written texts)




Adapted from Getting started with functional grammar, Droga & Humphrey
Grammar Rank Scale
                               texts
                           paragraphs
                        (in written texts)

                            sentences




Adapted from Getting started with functional grammar, Droga & Humphrey
Grammar Rank Scale
                               texts
                           paragraphs
                        (in written texts)

                            sentences

                            CLAUSES




Adapted from Getting started with functional grammar, Droga & Humphrey
Grammar Rank Scale
                               texts
                           paragraphs
                        (in written texts)

                            sentences

                            CLAUSES

groups & phrases groups & phrases groups & phrases




Adapted from Getting started with functional grammar, Droga & Humphrey
    Groups are                                        Nominal (noun)
extensions of words                                    groups, verb
                                                     groups, adverbial
 Grammar Rank Scale                                     groups etc


                                 texts
                             paragraphs
                          (in written texts)

                              sentences

                              CLAUSES

 groups & phrases groups & phrases groups & phrases

  words       words       words       words        words       words


  Adapted from Getting started with functional grammar, Droga & Humphrey
My usual method
    cater    1) Write first 5 pairs of words on
1               the board
    sing
    gut      2) Explain how the game works
2
    trains
             3) Do some incidental teaching
    wot         about language
3
    caber
             4) Set class to work individually
    lucre       or in small groups
4
    roes
             5) Write rest of game on board
    untie
5
    polo     6) Progressively discuss solutions
Any problem words here?
    cater    wot: verb Archaic first and third person singular
1            present of wit. [Middle English woot, Old English wāt]
    sing
    gut      caber: noun a pole or beam, especially one thrown as
2            a trial of strength in the Scottish Highland game of
    trains   tossing the caber. [Scottish Gaelic cabar pole]
    wot
3
    caber
    lucre
4
    roes
    untie
5
    polo
Any problem words here?
    cater    wot: verb Archaic first and third person singular
1            present of wit. [Middle English woot, Old English wāt]
    sing
    gut      caber: noun a pole or beam, especially one thrown as
2            a trial of strength in the Scottish Highland game of
    trains   tossing the caber. [Scottish Gaelic cabar pole]
    wot
3
    caber    lucre: noun 1. financial gain; –phrase 2. filthy lucre,
             monetary gain viewed as a sordid motivation. [Middle
    lucre    English, from Latin lucrum gain]
4
    roes
             roes: noun (plural roes or, especially collectively,
    untie
5            roe) [Middle English roo, Old English rā, earlier rāha]
    polo
                        Is this a real word?

1st half of Game 1
    cater       run            vine
1            6           11
    sing        were           dole
    gut         sue            serve
2            7           12
    trains      atter          mope
    wot         veal           vote
3            8           13
    caber       lead           nab
    lucre       ever           live
4            9           14
    roes        later          veil
    untie       evil           weak
5            10          15
    polo        hied           trial
“atter”
 Macquarie Dictionary and Thesaurus Online
 Sorry We could not find "atter".

 http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Atter
 At´ter n. Poison; venom; corrupt matter
  from a sore.
 Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary,
  published 1913 by C. & G. Merriam Co.
An important point
                      Just because a
                       letter
                       combination
                       cannot be
                       found in a
                       particular
                       dictionary
                       doesn‟t
                       necessarily
                       mean it‟s not
                       a word.
A useful analogy?
 How many
  people live in
  Perth?

 What would be
  the problems
  with getting an
  accurate count
  for today?
                        Is this a real word?

1st half of Game 1
    cater       run            vine
1            6           11
    sing        were           dole
    gut         sue            serve
2            7           12
    trains      atter          mope
    wot         veal           vote
3            8           13
    caber       lead           nab
    lucre       ever           live
4            9           14
    roes        later          veil
    untie       evil           weak
5            10          15
    polo        hied           trial
“hied”
 Macquarie
  Dictionary and
  Thesaurus Online
   hie
    verb (i) (hied,
    hieing) to hasten;
    speed; go in haste.
   [Middle English; Old
    English hīgian
    strive. Compare
    Dutch hijgen pant]
  Hie = to hurry (archaic)
 William Shakespeare
 King Henry VI, Part 2
  (Quarto edition)
 Act 3, Scene 2
 Queen:
 No more. Sweet Suffolk
  hie thee hence to
  France,
 Or live where thou wilt
  within this world‟s globe,
  Hie = to hurry (archaic)
 William Shakespeare           Sir Walter Scott
 King Henry VI, Part 2         The Lay of the Last
  (Quarto edition)               Minstrel
 Act 3, Scene 2                “Now, hie thee hence,''
 Queen:                         the Father said,
 No more. Sweet Suffolk        ``And when we are on
  hie thee hence to              death-bed laid,
  France,                       O may our dear Ladye,
 Or live where thou wilt        and sweet St. John,
  within this world‟s globe,    Forgive our souls for the
                                 deed we have done!''
Anyway, back to the game
               The first step is to form
                 an anagram from
                      each word.




                 To do that we need to
               know what anagrams are.
Anagrams
 The Macquarie Dictionary (online version)
 anagram
   (say 'anuhgram)
    noun a transposition of the letters of a word or
    sentence to form a new word or sentence, as
    caned is an anagram of dance.
    --verb (t), verb (i) (anagrammed,
    anagramming)
    [New Latin anagramma, backformation from
    Greek anagrammatismos transposition of
    letters]
Another question for students
    Why do so many words
      have anagrams?



Is it because:
•all words have vowel sounds;
•and only 6 of the 26 letters in the
alphabet are used to represent
them?
Step 1: form anagrams
•   cater      sing

•   crate

•   trace

•   react

•   caret
               Let‟s consider these
•   carte
Homophones
 Homophones: same pronunciation, different
  meaning.

 A caret is a symbol (^) to indicate where
  something needs to be inserted.

 Effective motivational programs involve
  more carrot than stick.

 A fifty carat diamond.
Is „carte‟ an English word?
 The hotel restaurant has a set price buffet
  but a la carte dining is also available.
 You have carte blanche; solve the
  problem however you see fit.
 Borrowings from other languages, in this
  case, French.
 rendezvous, entrepreneur, savoir faire,
  deju vu, aide de camp, au fait, avant
  garde, bon voyage, concierge, coup d‟etat,
  crepe, croissant, cul-de-sac, faux pas, etc
      Why do we find so many French words in English?
Draft Australian Curriculum
 Languages are constantly evolving
  due to social, cultural and geographic
  factors, movements of people and
  technological innovation (E8LNG1)

 A brief history of how aspects of
  spoken and written English have
  evolved (E10LNG1)
Inter-language borrowings

  The problem with the
 French is that they don't
     have a word for
     entrepreneur.
Step 1: form anagrams
•   cater      sing

•   crate      sign
•   trace
               gins
•   react
               snig
•   caret

•   carte
                                 The hop/hope rule at work


Is „snig‟ a word?
 The Macquarie Dictionary (online version)
 snig
   (say snig)
    verb (t) (snigged, snigging)
    1. to drag (a long object) along the ground after
    first raising one end clear (used of logs, etc.): *I
    had to stay in and get chains round them all /
    for the bullock teams to snig them ashore for re-
    loading. --LES MURRAY, 1998.
    2. to trim (fallen timber); remove small
    branches, leaves, etc. [British dialect]
                                            Not used as a
                                             verb here
Snig: verb, to drag
 Bullock teams snigged the logs right to the
  top of the shoot. Here each log was canted
  over the edge by a man using a cant hook,
  a sharp hook that swivelled on a toothed
  crowbar-like lever. When in position the log
  was uncoupled from the snig chain to start
  its descent. There are stories of a whole
  team of bullocks plunging to their death
  still attached to a runaway log.
   http://www.timbertown.com.au/pages.asp?code=111
Nominal (Noun) Group Structure
                   Head Word
Pre-modification                 Post-modification
                   (main noun)
 Nominal (Noun) Group Structure
                                            Head    Post-
          Pre-modification
                                            Word    mod

Deictic Numerative   Epithet   Classifier   THING Qualifier
which                 what                  Main    further
        how many             what type
 one                 quality                noun      info
 Nominal (Noun) Group Structure
                                                 Head     Post-
             Pre-modification
                                                 Word     mod

Deictic Numerative         Epithet     Classifier THING Qualifier
which                       what        what     Main     further
          how many
 one                       quality      type     noun       info

Pointer     Counter        Describer




        Terms like these
         could be useful
 Nominal (Noun) Group Structure
                                             Head          Post-
           Pre-modification
                                             Word          mod

Deictic   Numerative   Epithet   Classifier THING Qualifier
which                   what      what       Main      further
          how many
 one                   quality    type       noun        info
                                                      of the
 the                                         rime     ancient
                                                      mariner


                                        Prepositional
                                     phrase as Qualifier
 Nominal (Noun) Group Structure
                                           Head     Post-
           Pre-modification
                                           Word     mod

Deictic   Numerative   Epithet   Classifier THING Qualifier
which                   what      what     Main    further
          how many
 one                   quality    type     noun      info

 the                               snig    chain
 Nominal (Noun) Group Structure
                                           Head     Post-
           Pre-modification
                                           Word     mod

Deictic   Numerative   Epithet   Classifier THING Qualifier
which                   what      what     Main    further
          how many
 one                   quality    type     noun      info

 the                               snig    chain

  a                    heavy       snig    chain
 Nominal (Noun) Group Structure
                                               Head       Post-
           Pre-modification
                                               Word       mod

Deictic   Numerative    Epithet    Classifier THING Qualifier
which                     what       what      Main       further
          how many
 one                     quality     type      noun         info

 the                                 snig      chain

                                                         lying in
  a         single       rusty       snig      chain     the long
                                                         grass

                       An embedded clause as Qualifier
Logging in the Nambour area
 Logging crews moved into the area in the
  1880s, and cleared a network of tracks
  through the scrub. The teamsters snigged
  the logs along these to the loading ramps.
  There they loaded the logs onto bullock
  waggons, and hauled them down the
  ridges. The waggons made their way down
  a track to the Rafting Grounds on the
  Maroochy River at Dunethin Lake, or to the
  limit of navigation of Eudlo Creek, where
  the logs were tipped into the water, tied
  together to form rafts, and floated down
  the river to Cottontree.

 http://www.starfieldobservatory.com/MapletonTramway/4ToDulong.htm
Synonyms (Wikipedia)                              ?
 Synonyms are different words (or
  sometimes phrases) with identical or very
  similar meanings.

 Words that are synonyms are said to be
  synonymous, and the state of being a
  synonym is called synonymy.

 The word comes from Ancient Greek syn
  (σύν) ("with") and onoma (ὄνομα) ("name").

 The words car and automobile are synonyms.
        Cf antonyms – words of opposite meaning
Using synonyms
 John‟s work during    The painting was:
  the semester was:         good
     good                  polished
     excellent             marvellous
     meritorious           exquisite
     outstanding           masterful
     brilliant             gorgeous
     splendid              incomparable
     superior              fantastic
     first-rate            exceptional
Thesauruses
 Thesaurus noun (plural thesauruses or
  thesauri)
 1. a storehouse or repository, as of words
  or knowledge.
 2. a reference work in which the entries are
  arranged not in alphabetical order, but in
  groups, each item being notionally related
  to the others in the same group.
 3. a dictionary of synonyms and antonyms.
  [Latin, from Greek thēsauros treasure,
  treasury]

              Macquarie Dictionary online
Thesauruses
 Thesaurus noun (plural thesauruses or
  thesauri)
 1. a storehouse or repository, as of words
  or knowledge.
 2. a reference work in which the entries are
  arranged not in alphabetical order, but in
  groups, each item being notionally related
  to the others in the same group.
 3. a dictionary of synonyms and
  antonyms. [Latin, from Greek thēsauros
  treasure, treasury]

              Macquarie Dictionary online
The original




               Dr Mark Peter Roget
                   1779-1869
Synonyms - connotations
  Negative            Neutral              Positive
connotations          meaning            connotations
    stink                                    perfume
   stench               smell                 aroma
    pong                                    fragrance
  problem                                   challenge
                    complication
  nuisance                                 opportunity

 pig-headed           stubborn               resolute

    Here these words are nouns but they can be verbs.
Who is this bloke?            A bit of TPT




   Which English literary figure is
     depicted in this painting?
                   Sir, you
                    smell.




No madam, you
 smell, I stink.       Dr Samuel Johnson
                          1709 - 1784
Synonyms - Force
Weak                                   Strong

   like      prefer        love        adore

  warm         hot      sweltering

   cool       cold       freezing

 annoyed      angry      enraged     apoplectic

discomfort   distress     pain        agony
Using synonyms
 We are here today to honour the courage
  and bravery shown by the original ANZACs
  and all those who have subsequently
  served in the nation‟s defence.
Using synonyms
 We are here today to honour the courage
  and bravery shown by the original ANZACs
  and all those who have subsequently
  served in the nation‟s defence.

 courage, bravery, valour, daring, gallantry,
  heroism

 Tautology: pointless repetition

 guts, balls
Using synonyms
 Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought
  forth on this continent a new nation conceived in
  liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men
  are created equal.
 Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing
  whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so
  dedicated can long endure.
 We are met on a great battlefield of that war.
 We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a
  final resting place for those who here gave their lives
  that that nation might live.
 It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do
  this.
 But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot
  consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground.

   President Abraham Lincoln‟s Gettysburg Address, Nov 1863
Using synonyms
 Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought
  forth on this continent a new nation conceived in
  liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men
  are created equal.
 Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing
  whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so
  dedicated can long endure.
 We are met on a great battlefield of that war.
 We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a
  final resting place for those who here gave their lives
  that that nation might live.
 It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do
  this.
 But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot
  consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground.

   President Abraham Lincoln‟s Gettysburg Address, Nov 1863
Step 2: match up synonyms
•   cater      sing

•   crate      sign
•   trace
               gins
•   react
               snig
•   caret

•   carte
Step 2: match up synonyms
•    trace                      sign

1.   The police could find
     no trace of the
     missing man.

2.   The fish could not bite
     through the trace
     wire to which the
     hook was attached.

3. Trace the outline on
   your paper.
Step 2: match up synonyms
•    trace                      sign

1.   The police could find     1. There was no sign of
     no trace of the              a struggle
     missing man.

2.   The fish could not bite   2. Sign your name on
     through the trace            the dotted line.
     wire to which the
     hook was attached.        3. The car stopped at the
                                  „give way‟ sign.
3. Trace the outline on
   your paper.
Step 2: match up synonyms
•    trace                        sign

1.   The police could find       1. There was no sign of
     no trace of the                a struggle
     missing man.

2.   The fish could not bite     2. Sign your name on
     through the trace              the dotted line.
     wire to which the
     hook was attached.          3. The car stopped at the
                                    „give way‟ sign.
3. Trace the outline on
   your paper.

     Synonyms will be the same word class (part of speech)
Word Classes   (parts of speech)

Open Classes

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Adverbs
       Vocabulary words


 Word Classes                   (parts of speech)

 Open Classes Closed Classes

 Nouns                      Pronouns (I, me, it, them)

 Verbs                      Prepositions (in, to, of)

 Adjectives                 Conjunctions (and, but, if)

 Adverbs                    Articles (a/an, the)

These represent the world        These are grammatical words
What word classes do we have?
    cater       run          vine
1            6          11
    sing        were         dole
    gut         sue          serve
2            7          12
    trains      atter        mope
    wot         veal         vote
3            8          13
    caber       lead         nab
    lucre       ever         live
4            9          14
    roes        later        veil
    untie       evil         weak
5            10         15
    polo        hied         trial
Nouns?
    cater       run          vine
1            6          11
    sing        were         dole
    gut         sue          serve
2            7          12
    trains      atter        mope
    wot         veal         vote
3            8          13
    caber       lead         nab
    lucre       ever         live
4            9          14
    roes        later        veil
    untie       evil         weak
5            10         15
    polo        hied         trial
                  These words can be nouns.
Nouns
    cater       run                vine
1            6                11
    sing        were               dole
    gut         sue                serve
2            7                12
    trains      atter              mope
    wot         veal               vote
3            8                13
    caber       lead               nab
    lucre       ever               live
4            9                14
    roes        later              veil
    untie       evil               weak
5            10               15
    polo        hied               trial
Verbs?
    cater       run          vine
1            6          11
    sing        were         dole
    gut         sue          serve
2            7          12
    trains      atter        mope
    wot         veal         vote
3            8          13
    caber       lead         nab
    lucre       ever         live
4            9          14
    roes        later        veil
    untie       evil         weak
5            10         15
    polo        hied         trial
                  These words can be verbs.
Verbs
    cater       run                vine
1            6                11
    sing        were               dole
    gut         sue                serve
2            7                12
    trains      atter              mope
    wot         veal               vote
3            8                13
    caber       lead               nab
    lucre       ever               live
4            9                14
    roes        later              veil
    untie       evil               weak
5            10               15
    polo        hied               trial
Nouns & Verbs
Adjectives?
    cater       run          vine
1            6          11
    sing        were         dole
    gut         sue          serve
2            7          12
    trains      atter        mope
    wot         veal         vote
3            8          13
    caber       lead         nab
    lucre       ever         live
4            9          14
    roes        later        veil
    untie       evil         weak
5            10         15
    polo        hied         trial
Adjectives
    cater       run          vine
1            6          11
    sing        were         dole
    gut         sue          serve
2            7          12
    trains      atter        mope
    wot         veal         vote
3            8          13
    caber       lead         nab
    lucre       ever         live
4            9          14
    roes        later        veil
    untie       evil         weak
5            10         15
    polo        hied         trial
Adverbs?
    cater       run          vine
1            6          11
    sing        were         dole
    gut         sue          serve
2            7          12
    trains      atter        mope
    wot         veal         vote
3            8          13
    caber       lead         nab
    lucre       ever         live
4            9          14
    roes        later        veil
    untie       evil         weak
5            10         15
    polo        hied         trial
                        Didn‟t we say this was

Adverbs                     an adjective?



    cater       run                    vine
1            6                  11
    sing        were                   dole
    gut         sue                    serve
2            7                  12
    trains      atter                  mope
    wot         veal                   vote
3            8                  13
    caber       lead                   nab
    lucre       ever                   live
4            9                  14
    roes        later                  veil
    untie       evil                   weak
5            10                 15
    polo        hied                   trial
Later
 He had to catch a        The mountain
  later train,              sheep are sweeter,
  (adjective)              But the valley
                            sheep are fatter;
 I‟ll finish that job     We therefore
  later. (adverb)           deemed it meeter
                           To carry off the
 An example of the         latter.
  HOP/HOPE Rule
                           “The War Song of Dinas Vawr”
                         Thomas Love Peacock, 1785-1866
All open word classes
 nouns            cater       run          vine
               1            6          11
                   sing        were         dole
 verbs            gut         sue          serve
               2            7          12
                   trains      atter        mope
 adjectives
                   wot         veal         vote
               3            8          13
                   caber       lead         nab
 adverbs
                   lucre       ever         live
               4            9          14
Why might          roes        later        veil
 that be?
                   untie       evil         weak
               5            10         15
                   polo        hied         trial
Word Classes                        (parts of speech)

Open Classes Closed Classes

Nouns                           Pronouns (I, me, it, them)

Verbs                           Prepositions (in, to, of)

Adjectives                      Conjunctions (and, but, if)

Adverbs                         Articles (a/an, the)

Potential for „word families‟        These are grammatical words
Word families
Open Classes

Noun           weakness

Verb           weaken

Adjective      weak

Adverb         weakly
Word families
Open Classes

Noun           weakness   service

Verb           weaken     serve

Adjective      weak       serviceable

Adverb         weakly     serviceably
Full open class „word families‟
 nouns            cater       run          vine
               1            6          11
                   sing        were         dole
 verbs            gut         sue          serve
               2            7          12
                   trains      atter        mope
 adjectives
                   wot         veal         vote
               3            8          13
                   caber       lead         nab
 adverbs
                   lucre       ever         live
               4            9          14
                   roes        later        veil
                   untie       evil         weak
               5            10         15
                   polo        hied         trial
Now, back to the game again
                  So much for that
                     digression.




                In each game there is an
                     additional clue.
Answer sequence
       Original
#                                     Synonyms
      word pairs
     cater                 trace, react, create
1.
     sing                  gins, snig, sign
     gut
2.
     trains
     wot
3.
     caber
 Additional clue: series of 1st anagrams in alphabetical order
Answer sequence
       Original
#                                     Synonyms
      word pairs
     cater                 trace, react, create
1.
     sing                  gins, snig, sign
     gut                   tug        Sometimes there will
2.                                    be only one anagram
     trains                strain     from each word.

     wot
3.
     caber
 Additional clue: series of 1st anagrams in alphabetical order
Answer sequence
       Original
#                                     Synonyms
      word pairs
     cater                 trace, react, create
1.
     sing                  gins, snig, sign
     gut                   tug
2.
     trains                strain
     wot                   two, tow        How are „two‟ &
3.                                         „brace‟ synonyms?
     caber                 brace
 Additional clue: series of 1st anagrams in alphabetical order
     Multiple meanings – brace (noun)
1. something that holds parts together or in place, as a clasp or
      clamp.
2.   anything that imparts rigidity or steadiness.
3.    Machinery a device for holding and turning tools for boring or
      drilling.
4.    Building Trades a piece of timber, metal, etc., used to support or
      position another piece or portion of a framework.
5.    Nautical (on a square-rigged ship) a rope by which a yard is
      swung about and secured horizontally.
6.    Music leather loops sliding upon the tightening cords of a drum
      to change their tension and therewith the pitch.
7.    Canoeing a steadying stroke made with the paddle to prevent
      capsizing.
8.   (often plural) Dentistry a round or flat metal wire placed against
      surfaces of the teeth, and used to straighten irregularly
      arranged teeth.
Multiple meanings – brace (noun)
9. Medicine an appliance for supporting a weak joint or
   joints.
10. (plural) straps or bands worn over the shoulders for
   holding up the trousers.
11. a pair; a couple.
12. a. See bracket (def. 6a). b. (plural) Mathematics →
   bracket (def. 7a).
13. Music connected staves.
14. a defence or protection for the arm, especially one
   used in archery.
   verb (braced, bracing)
                               cf score = 20; dozen = 12
Brace = 2
 The highwayman
  was armed with a
  rapier and a brace
  of pistols.

 He had shot a
  brace of rabbits
  for dinner.

 I‟ll be with you in a
  brace of shakes.
Words about the world
        Open Word
         Classes

          nouns

          verbs

        adjectives

         adverbs
New words are added
New words    Open Word
are coined    Classes

               nouns

               verbs

             adjectives

              adverbs
Words: coming & going
                           Disused words
New words    Open Word
                          become archaic &
are coined    Classes         drop out

               nouns

               verbs

             adjectives

              adverbs
  Multiple meanings – brace (verb)
15. to furnish, fasten, or strengthen with or as with a brace.
16. to fix firmly; make steady.
17. to make tight; increase the tension of.
18. to act as a stimulant to.
19. Nautical to swing or turn round (the yards of a ship) by
   means of the braces.
--phrase 20. brace up, to rouse one's strength or vigour:
   *`Brace up now, Jack, and keep your wits about you,'
   whispered Andy to me just before they came in. --HENRY
   LAWSON, 1901.
21. in a brace of shakes, Colloquial immediately. [Middle
   English brase(n) from Old French bracier embrace, from
   brace the two arms (compare def. 11), from Latin
   brāchia]
Dictionary Word Entries
 Information to be gleaned
  1. Spelling
  2. Pronunciation
  3. Alternate forms (eg plural)
  4. Word class
  5. Meaning/s
  6. Word origin (etymology)
Dictionary Word Entries
 Information to be gleaned
  1. Spelling
  2. Pronunciation
  3. Alternate forms (eg plural)
  4. Word class
  5. Meaning/s
  6. Word origin (etymology)
Extra activity: homophones
 Locate words in
  the original list
  that have
  homophones
Extra activity: homophones
 Locate words in
  the original list
  that have
  homophones

  Homophones are words
   that sound the same.
    They‟re potentially
  confusing for those not
      as smart as I.
                         No homophones here


Extra activity: homophones
 Locate words in
  the original list
  that have
  homophones


      Knowledge of
    homophones is a
    very useful aid to
    accurate spelling.
Extra activity: homophones
 Locate words in
  the original list
  that have
  homophones
 wot (archaic):
  what, watt
 two: too, to
 roes: rose
 sore: saw, soar
Extra activity: homophones
 Locate words in the
  original list that
  have homophones
 wot (archaic): what,
  watt
 two: too, to
 roes: rose
 sore: saw, soar
 urn: earn
 hied (archaic): hide
 vein: vane, vain
 veil: vale
Extra activity: homophones
 Locate words in the       weak: week
  original list that        dew: due
  have homophones           ewe: you, yew
 wot (archaic): what,      weir: we‟re
  watt
                            dam: damn
 two: too, to
 roes: rose
 sore: saw, soar
 urn: earn
 hied (archaic): hide
 vein: vane, vain
 veil: vale
Extra activity: homophones
 Locate words in the       weak: week
  original list that        dew: due
  have homophones           ewe: you, yew
 wot (archaic): what,      weir: we‟re
  watt
                            dam: damn
 two: too, to
                            wrap: rap
 roes: rose
                            bore: boar
 sore: saw, soar
                            tale: tail
 urn: earn
                            way: weigh, whey
 hied (archaic): hide
                            aye: I, eye
 vein: vane, vain
                            mane: main
 veil: vale
What now?
            OK, that‟s how the anagram
             – synonym game works.
                  Any questions?




                 Let‟s now look at a
                      variation.
Variation: the transfer game
      Original
#                 Synonyms
     word pairs
                             Task:
       cable                 Transfer one
1.                           letter from one
       lever                 word to the
                             other to
        boil                 produce a pair
2.
       strew                 of synonyms.

        bald
3.
         vie
The transfer game
   Original
#              Synonyms
  word pairs
     cable       able
1.                         The transferred
     lever      clever      letter can go
                          from 1st word to
      boil                 2nd or from the
2.                         2nd back to the
     strew
                                 1st.
     bald
3.
      vie
The transfer game
   Original
#              Synonyms
  word pairs
     cable       able
1.                         The transferred
     lever      clever      letter can go
                          from 1st word to
      boil       broil     2nd or from the
2.                         2nd back to the
     strew       stew
                                 1st.
     bald
3.
      vie
The transfer game
   Original
#              Synonyms
  word pairs
     cable       able
1.                         The additional
     lever      clever    clue here is that
                              the first
      boil       broil    synonym begins
2.                        with a or b or c.
     strew       stew
     bald        bad
3.
      vie        vile
                      If they have no work
                           I can use the
 The solution          anagram/synony
                             m game.


   Fred has just
phoned in sick so I
 need you to take
 his 9F English in
     Period 1.
He said they could
 go on with what
 they were doing              Sure, no problem.
    yesterday.
Learning outcomes
 develop spelling and
  vocabulary knowledge

 learn/revise understandings
  of vowels, consonants,
  syllables, word classes,
  synonyms and anagrams

 practise dictionary use

 engage in a bit of problem
  solving
 A challenge I would often issue.
                                        I‟ve got $5 for any

A handy resource?                       student/s who can
                                         get the full game
                                       correct in the period.
 An activity that:
   will engage kids & prevent
    a riot
   requires no preparation,
    copying or AV equipment
   is not just mindless “busy
    work”
   generates worthwhile
    learning about language


                 And I‟m not a betting man.
That‟s all, folks.
                      If you‟d like the
                       Word files, send
                       me an email.

                      I do provide
                       suggested answers
                       – but in separate
                       files so you can
                       challenge yourself.

				
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